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Sample records for plasma gallus gallus

  1. Epididymal lithiasis in Gallus gallus domesticus

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    JM Rocha Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF, one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb, and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.

  2. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus, domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus

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    Nedup Dorji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowllike, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively, two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus, two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111 to 23 (MCW0183. Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  4. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  5. Congenital cerebellar dysplasia in White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Nakamura, Sayuri; Ochiai, Kenji; Yabushita, Hiroki; Abe, Asumi

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cerebellar anomalies have been rarely reported in birds. We examined cerebellums with disorganized folia from seven specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Islands of heterotopic cortex were distributed from the deeper cortices to the medulla in the cerebellum. The characteristic lesions were composed of randomly admixed components of the cerebellar cortex, including Purkinje cells, a molecular layer and granular cells. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed Purkinje cells with haphazardly extended dendrites and a lack of Bergmann's glial fibres in the foci. Chicken parvovirus, Aino virus and avian retrovirus were not detected in the affected birds by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of cerebellar dysplasia in chickens possibly caused by a genetic abnormality.

  6. Relationship between plasma and tissue corticosterone in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus): implications for stress physiology and animal welfare.

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    Ralph, C R; Hemsworth, P H; Leury, B J; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    This study directly compared the dynamics of change in plasma corticosterone concentration with the dynamics of change in tissue corticosterone concentration in laying hens. In concert, we measured the rate of gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart. We evaluated these changes acutely, over 3 h in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection, and chronically, over 24 h in response to food and water deprivation. In response to ACTH injection, there was a significant (P physiology under acute and chronic conditions. Our data suggest that extending our evaluation of stress to the site of corticosterone action, that is, the target tissue, may enhance our ability to evaluate stress and the welfare of laying hens.

  7. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in. Four Areas of ... were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken ..... Canis lupus familiaris in Mueang district ...

  8. Maintenance of syntenic groups between Cathartidae and Gallus gallus indicates symplesiomorphic karyotypes in new world vultures

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    Tagliarini, Marcella M.; O'Brien, Patricia C.M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes). However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids) in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis) onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C. aura, but probably also the general gene order, suggesting that New World vultures share chromosomal symplesiomorphies with most bird lineages. PMID:21637548

  9. Altered development and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) by corticosterone.

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    Dong, H; Lin, H; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Zhao, J P; Jiang, K J

    2007-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on protein metabolism and the amino acid composition in muscle tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In Trial 1, two groups of 30 broiler chickens were subjected to control or CORT treatment (30 mg/kg diet) from 28 to 39 days of age. In Trial 2, three groups of chickens of 28 days of age were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments for 7 days: CORT (30 mg/kg diet), pair-fed (maintaining the same feed intake as CORT treatment) and control treatments. The body mass gain and feed efficiency was significantly decreased by CORT treatment, while the food intake was decreased. The breast and thigh masses (% body mass) were significantly suppressed by CORT treatment, while the abdominal fat and liver masses (%) were obviously increased. The plasma levels of glucose, urate and total amino acid were significantly elevated by CORT treatment. The capacity for protein synthesis, estimated by RNA:protein ratio, were significantly suppressed by CORT in M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris. The 3-methylhistidine concentrations were significantly increased in both M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris of CORT chickens, compared to control but not the pair-fed chickens. The amino acid composition of M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris was not significantly affected by CORT treatment. In conclusion, the arrested growth in skeletal muscles induced by CORT administration has tissue specificity. The CORT treatment retards the growth of skeletal muscle by suppressed protein synthesis and augmented protein catabolism.

  10. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

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    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E P Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; Dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  11. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

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    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  12. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

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    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  13. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

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    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  14. Proteomic analysis of the Gallus gallus embryo at stage-29 of development.

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    Agudo, David; Agudo Garcillán, David; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Martínez-Arribas, Fernando; Delcán, José; Schneider, José; Palomar, María Angustias; Linares, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the primary models for embryological and developmental studies. In order to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the normal and abnormal development of the chicken, we used 2-DE to construct a whole-embryo proteome map. Proteins were separated by IEF on IPG strips, and by 11% SDS-PAGE) gels. Protein identification was performed by means of PMF with MALDI-TOF-MS. In all, 105 protein spots were identified, 35 of them implicated in embryo development, 10 related with some diseases, and 16, finally, being proteins that have never been identified, purified or characterized in the chicken before. This map will be updated continuously and will serve as a reference database for investigators, studying changes at the protein level under different physiological conditions.

  15. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of Hybro PG lineage hens (Gallus gallus

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    Frederico Ozanam Carneiro e Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial vessels and their branches which irrigated the cloacal bursas of 30 hens (Gallus gallus of the Hybro PG lineage. First of all, the left isquiadic artery from the samples was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”; then, we continued the experiment with dissection whose results confi rmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the left and right internal pudendal arteries and bursocloacal arteries in 100% of the cases, varying only in terms of the numbers and disposition of their branches. There were also some branches from the median caudal artery (23% and left external pudendal (3.33%. The total number of branches varied from 1 to 4 and their distribution was unique in each sample.

  16. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

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    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls.

  17. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand

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    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2015-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results reve...

  18. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

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    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  19. Genome-wide expression analysis of roxarsone-stimulated growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

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    Li, Changlu; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Gengyu; Wu, Changxin; Li, Ning

    2011-09-01

    Roxarsone is a commonly used additive in chicken (Gallus gallus) industry. However, little is known on the intrinsic molecular mechanism via which the growth performance of birds improves. This study was therefore performed to investigate the expression profiles of genes induced by roxarsone. Fifty-six broiler chickens were divided into two groups, namely treated and untreated with roxarsone. The treated group was provided a diet of 45.4mg/kg roxarsone medication and the other group acted as control. Data analysis showed that roxarsone consistently and significantly (Pchicken growth performance. In addition to this a significant (PRACE). Gene GU724343 was predicted to encode an unidentified protein and the second gene GU724344 was presumed to encode a new member of immunoglobulin-like receptor (CHIR) family. Our results suggested for the first time that the role of roxarsone could be mainly to modify the expression levels of cell growth, immunity/defense and energy metabolism associated genes, as a result promoting animal growth. Further research on these genes should help to increase the knowledge of improving animal productivity safely and effectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosecurity State in Gamecock (Gallus gallus Breeding Farms in Yacuanquer, Nariño, Colombia

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    Juan Manuel Astaíza Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Colombia is sanitarily controlled and regulated; therefore, gamecock breeding farms should be regulated, but to this moment there are no studies about the biosecurity measurements implemented, which is a growing concern due to the sanitary impact this might have on the poultry industry. The goal of this work was to assess the knowledge and application of biosecurity norms in gamecock (Gallus gallus breeding farms from the Yacuanquer municipality, in Nariño, Colombia, as regulated by Resolution 3642 of August 21st of 2013, issued by the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario. 157 breeders were surveyed, from which 88.54% does not recognize the biosecurity concept and does not control the entrance of people not related to the farm; 61.15% does not disinfect locations; 100% does not keep a pediluvium at the entrance of the farm nor do they carry out disinfection procedures for their vehicles; only 23.57% does a sanitary break inside their breeding farms and 63.7% does not put a quarantine period in place for the new specimens they acquire; 64.33% does not vaccinate and 98.09% does not have any veterinary advice. In conclusion, it was established that gamecock breeders in Yacuanquer do not know and have not implemented biosecurity measurements, which represents a risk factor for the poultry industry of the region.

  1. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

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    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-07-28

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.

  2. Neurotoxicity induced by arsenic in Gallus Gallus: Regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock protein response.

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    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Houjuan; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic, a naturally occurring heavy metal pollutant, is one of the functioning risk factors for neurological toxicity in humans. However, little is known about the effects of arsenic on the nervous system of Gallus Gallus. To investigate whether arsenic induce neurotoxicity and influence the oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) response in chickens, seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The histological changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expressions of Hsps were detected. Results showed slightly histology changes were obvious in the brain tissues exposure to arsenic. The activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were decreased compared to the control, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased gradually along with increase in diet-arsenic. The mRNA levels of Hsps and protein expressions of Hsp60 and Hsp70 were up-regulated. These results suggested that sub-chronic exposure to arsenic induced neurotoxicity in chickens. Arsenic exposure disturbed the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Increased heat shock response tried to protect chicken brain tissues from tissues damage caused by oxidative stress. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by arsenic include oxidative stress and heat shock protein response in chicken brain tissues.

  3. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

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    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  4. Selection for the compactness of highly expressed genes in Gallus gallus

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    Zhou Ming

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding sequence (CDS length, gene size, and intron length vary within a genome and among genomes. Previous studies in diverse organisms, including human, D. Melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana, indicated that there are negative relationships between expression level and gene size, CDS length as well as intron length. Different models such as selection for economy model, genomic design model, and mutational bias hypotheses have been proposed to explain such observation. The debate of which model is a superior one to explain the observation has not been settled down. The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates. As D. Melanogaster, chicken has a larger effective population size, selection for chicken genome is expected to be more effective in increasing protein synthesis efficiency. Therefore, in this study the chicken was used as a model organism to elucidate the interaction between gene features and expression pattern upon selection pressure. Results Based on different technologies, we gathered expression data for nuclear protein coding, single-splicing genes from Gallus gallus genome and compared them with gene parameters. We found that gene size, CDS length, first intron length, average intron length, and total intron length are negatively correlated with expression level and expression breadth significantly. The tissue specificity is positively correlated with the first intron length but negatively correlated with the average intron length, and not correlated with the CDS length and protein domain numbers. Comparison analyses showed that ubiquitously expressed genes and narrowly expressed genes with the similar expression levels do not differ in compactness. Our data provided evidence that the genomic design model can not, at least in part, explain our observations. We grouped all somatic-tissue-specific genes

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of 100 Salmonella strains isolated from Gallus gallus in 4 wilayas of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounar-Kechih, S; Hamdi, T M; Mezali, L; Assaous, F; Rahal, K

    2012-05-01

    This study aims at identifying serotypes and surveying the antimicrobial resistance and plasmid support of resistance of 100 Salmonella strains, which were isolated from 96 out of 506 (18.97%) samples taken from different production farms in the wilayas (i.e., Algerian states) of Tizi-Ouzou, Bouira, Bejaïa, and Boumerdes in 2007. The highest percentage of Salmonella (48%) was recorded in Bouira. Thirteen serotypes were identified among the 100 Salmonella strains used in this study. The most prevalent ones were Salmonella Heidelberg (24%), Salmonella Enteritidis (20%), Salmonella Albany (16%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (9%). The strains showed resistance to 8 of the 34 antibiotics tested. Fifty-three percent of strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, among which 15.09% were multiresistant. The most frequently observed resistance was to quinolones (58.49%), with a contribution of 94.74% of Salmonella Heidelberg resistant strains. The plasmid transfer performed on 53 strains showed that only 11 exhibited one or more markers of resistance, the most frequent being ampicillin, followed by tetracycline, then cotrimoxazole, sulphonamides, and kanamycin, in that order. The tetracycline characteristics were present in 72.72% of transconjugants, those of the β-lactams and sulphonamides in 27.27% each and those of the aminosides in 9.09%. The incompatibility groups of plasmids belong to the F1me and Com1 classes, and the molecular weight of the plasmid DNA was greater than 100 kb. The phenotypic and genotypic results indicate a clonal dissemination in the Gallus gallus species in this particular study; this phenomenon could generate resistant bacteria and transferable genes of resistance to humans.

  6. Evolution and function of leukocyte RNase A ribonucleases of the avian species, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitto, Takeaki; Dyer, Kimberly D; Czapiga, Meggan; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we explore the evolution and function of two closely related RNase A ribonucleases from the chicken, Gallus gallus. Separated by approximately 10 kb on chromosome 6, the coding sequences of RNases A-1 and A-2 are diverging under positive selection pressure (dN > dS) but remain similar to one another (81% amino acid identity) and to the mammalian angiogenins. Immunoreactive RNases A-1 and A-2 (both approximately 16 kDa) were detected in peripheral blood granulocytes and bone marrow. Recombinant proteins are ribonucleolytically active (kcat = 2.6 and 0.056 s(-1), respectively), and surprisingly, both interact with human placental ribonuclease inhibitor. RNase A-2, the more cationic (pI 11.0), is both angiogenic and bactericidal; RNase A-1 (pI 10.2) has neither activity. We demonstrated via point mutation of the catalytic His110 that ablation of ribonuclease activity has no impact on the bactericidal activity of RNase A-2. We determined that the divergent domains II (amino acids 71-76) and III (amino acids 89-104) of RNase A-2 are both important for bactericidal activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cationic domains can function as independent bactericidal peptides without the tertiary structure imposed by the RNase A backbone. These results suggest that ribonucleolytic activity may not be a crucial constraint limiting the ongoing evolution of this gene family and that the ribonuclease backbone may be merely serving as a scaffold to support the evolution of novel, nonribonucleolytic proteins.

  7. Observaçoes sobre o parasitismo de Gallilichus hiregoudari D'souza & Jagannath (Acari: Syringobiidae em Gallus gallus (L. em infestações naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Horacio Faccini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of Gallilichus hiregoudari D'Souza e Jagannath in Gallus gallus (L. is widespread in Brazil. All life stages of the mite can be found within the quills of primaries and secondaries of the flight feathers. Nymphal heteromorphism, imbalanced sex ratio toward females and thanatochresis are common features. Damage of the pulp caps and raquis are common pathological findings.

  8. Desempeño Cardiovascular de Dos Estirpes de Gallus gallus domesticus Sometidas a Estrés Calórico Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacon, Tony; De Basilio, Vasco; Zerpa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection in poultry has been based on fast growth characters and not on stress adaptability. This investigation assessed cardiovascular variables in two lineages of Gallus gallus domesticus of different domestication levels, subjected to acute heat stress. To carry out the assay, broiler...

  9. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelos Aleverson da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, através da macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia, fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate. Cem fígados de frango foram coletados na linha de inspeção. Noventa deles tinham sido condenados por apresentarem alterações macroscópicas. Dez fígados não apresentavam alterações macroscópicas. As coletas foram feitas em dois abatedouros localizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. No laboratório, fez-se detalhada descrição das alterações macroscópicas dos fígados condenados e exames histopatológicos e bacteriológicos complementares. Para a descrição macroscópica, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: forma, coloração, tamanho, consistência, odor e presença de lesões visíveis. Foram observados fígados com alterações na cor, forma, tamanho e/ou consistência em 47/90 amostras; fígados marrom-pálidos e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas perfizeram 19/90 amostras; 5/90 fígados estavam amarelos ou amarelados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas; 19/90 fígados estavam verdes ou esverdeados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas. Os principais diagnósticos histopatológicos foram de colângio-hepatite heterofílica multifocal, degeneração e/ou necrose hepatocelular centrolobular e em ponte, hepatite necrosante aleatória, pericolangite heterofílica multifocal e peri-hepatite fibrinosa subaguda difusa acentuada. A bacteriologia foi direcionada para pesquisa de Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. e Staphylococcus sp. Utilizando-se cultivo direto das amostras de fígado em meios de cultura seletivos, isolou-se E. coli em 26/100 amostras e Staphylococcus sp. em 24/100 amostras. Para pesquisa de salmonelas, utilizou-se a metodologia convencional preconizada para esta bactéria, entretanto não houve isolamento de nenhuma espécie deste gênero. Através das avaliações realizadas pode-se confirmar o predomínio de lesões sugestivas de

  10. Gallus gallus domesticus are resistant to infection with Neospora caninum tachyzoites of the NC-1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Alexandre Dias; do Amaral, Tatiane Fernanda; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; de Moraes, Vera Maria Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate infection in Gallus gallus domesticus with Neospora caninum tachyzoites of the NC-1 strain. Experimental infection was conducted in 90-day-old chickens, embryonated eggs and bioassays in dogs. In the first experiment, poults were randomly divided into four groups. Groups I and II were provided feed with coccidiostat, whereas groups III and IV received feed without coccidiostat. When the poults from groups I and III reached 90 days of age, they received a subcutaneous inoculation of N. caninum. Once the hens entered their egg-laying period, during the following 30 days, the eggs were collected, identified, weighed and placed in an incubator. On the 70th day after inoculation, all animals, including the chicks, were euthanized. Tissue samples from the adult poultry and chicks were collected for histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR. Brain tissue and pectoral muscle samples from infected birds were fed to two dogs. Notably, the average weight of the group III eggs was lower than that of the group IV eggs (p poultry or chicks were detected by histopathology or IHC; moreover, no amplified parasite DNA was detected in the birds' tissues or dogs' feces. No dog eliminated oocysts. In the second experiment, the embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 1 × 10(2)N. caninum tachyzoites, on the 10th day of incubation, and chicks born from these eggs were housed in boxes suitable for the species and received commercial feed and distilled water ad libitum. On the 30th day after infection (DAI), the poultry were euthanized, and their organs were processed as described in experiment I. The amplification of parasite DNA was observed in the spleen and pectoral muscles of one of the birds. The ingestion of bird tissues by dogs did not result in oocyst elimination. These results indicate that the parasite may have been eliminated by the host and that the use of tachyzoites to induce chronic disease might be a poor

  11. Suprimento vascular arterial do timo em aves (Gallus gallus domesticus) da linhagem Master Gris Cou Plumé

    OpenAIRE

    Martha de Oliveira Bravo; André Rodrigues da Cunha Barreto Vianna; Silva, Frederico Ozanam Carneiro e; Renato Souto Severino; Sérgio Salazar Drummond; Marcelo Ismar Silva Santana

    2009-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p171 Para ampliar as informações sobre a morfologia comparativa, foram estudados, em aves (Gallus gallus domesticus) da linhagem Master Gris Cou Plumé, dados sobre o número de lobos tímicos, as origens, o número e a forma de distribuição das artérias que promoveram o suprimento sanguíneo deste órgão. Foram utilizadas 30 aves, 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, de aproximadamente seis semanas de idade, doadas, após morte natural, por criatórios do Distrito ...

  12. Vascularização arterial da bolsa cloacal em Gallus gallus domesticus (Matrizes de corte Avian Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ismar Silva Santana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em trinta exemplares de Gallus gallus domesticus da linhagem Avian Farms, fêmeas, com idades entre 10 e 12 semanas, a origem, o número e a ordenação dos vasos arteriais da bolsa cloacal, mediante injeção dos sistemas vasculares arteriais das aves com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex 450 a 50% e posterior dissecação. Os resultados mostraram a participação das artérias bursocloacais direita e esquerda em todos os casos, às quais se associavam as artérias mesentérica caudal e caudal mediana em 13,33% e 3,33% dos casos, respectivamente. O número total de vasos, independentemente da origem, variou de 2 a 5 com maior freqüência de 2 a 3 vasos.

  13. Muscles of the pelvic outlet in the fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) with special reference to their nerve supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, K; Sakamoto, H; Sato, T

    1992-11-01

    The manner of innervation of the pelvic outlet muscles in fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was examined in detail in four male pelvic halves. The segmental arrangement of the nerve supply in the sacral and pudendal plexuses was compared to that of Lacertilia and Urodela as a basis for a morphological analysis of the pelvic outlet muscles. From the viewpoint of innervation, the pelvic outlet muscles of fowl are classified into two groups: a sphincter muscle group and a levator muscle group. These two groups are closely related to the ventral muscles of the pelvic limb. In contrast to the morphology of pelvic outlet muscles in lacertilians, in fowl the caudal muscle element does not contribute to the formation of these muscles.

  14. Analisis Kandungan Kolestrol Pada Telur Ayam Petelur Gallus sp. Dengan Pemberian Probiotik Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Daming, Basrawati

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan judul Analisis Kandungan Kolestrol Telur Ayam Petelur Gallus sp. dengan Pemberian probiotik Cair. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian probotik cair pada ayam petelur Gallus sp. terhadap pertambahan bobot telur, indeks telur, dan penurunan kadar kolestrol telur. Proses pembuatan media probiotik kultur campuran, dilakukan dengan mencampurkan molase, Bactopepton, Amoniumsulfat dan Magnesiumsulfat. Hasil pembuatan probiot...

  15. Age-specific oxidative status and the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Jose C; Dean, Rebecca; Isaksson, Caroline; Velando, Alberto; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is emerging as a key factor underpinning life history and the expression of sexually selected traits. Resolving the role of oxidative stress in life history and sexual selection requires a pluralistic approach, which investigates how age affects the relationship between oxidative status (i.e., antioxidants and oxidative damage) and the multiple traits contributing to variation in reproductive success. Here, we investigate the relationship between oxidative status and the expression of multiple sexually selected traits in two-age classes of male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, a species which displays marked male reproductive senescence. We found that, irrespective of male age, both male social status and comb size were strongly associated with plasma oxidative status, and there was a nonsignificant tendency for sperm motility to be associated with seminal oxidative status. Importantly, however, patterns of plasma and seminal antioxidant levels differed markedly in young and old males. While seminal antioxidants increased with plasma antioxidants in young males, the level of seminal antioxidants remained low and was independent of plasma levels in old males. In addition, old males also accumulated more oxidative damage in their sperm DNA. These results suggest that antioxidant allocation across different reproductive traits and somatic maintenance might change drastically as males age, leading to age-specific patterns of antioxidant investment.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli Strain Isolated from a Gallus gallus Broiler Producing the Novel CTX-M-166 Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Lurdes; Duarte, Sílvia; Vieira, Luís

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the CTX-M-166-harboring O6:H16 sequence type 48 (ST48)-fimH34 Escherichia coli strain recovered from a Gallus gallus broiler. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an IncI1/ST103-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-166-orf477 plasmid region and of diverse antibiotic resistance and virulence-acquired genes.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli Strain Isolated from a Gallus gallus Broiler Producing the Novel CTX-M-166 Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manageiro, Vera; Clemente, Lurdes; Duarte, Sílvia; Vieira, Luís; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-10-06

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the CTX-M-166-harboring O6:H16 sequence type 48 (ST48)-fimH34 Escherichia coli strain recovered from a Gallus gallus broiler. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an IncI1/ST103-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-166-orf477 plasmid region and of diverse antibiotic resistance and virulence-acquired genes. Copyright © 2016 Manageiro et al.

  18. 砂烫鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺研究%The best Cooked hot Sand Gallus Gallus Domesticus Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伶佳; 贾天柱

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Gallus gallus domesticus processing methods on the hot sand to study to measure and filter out the sand hot processing methods the best processing technolog. Methods: Evaluation of protein content, choose the amount of sand,dry time,dry temperature factors for the study,using orthogonal design L9 (34) ,The best processing technology preferred Gallus gallus domesticus. Results:According to orthogonal experiment results, Health products Gallus gallus domesticus as the best processing technology ,The amount of sand per 30kg Gallus gallus domesticus 1200kg,In the bottom of the pot temperature of 200 -210 ℃ ,Frying 60s when the protein content of the highest,2. 0875%. Conclusion:Health products Gallus gallus domesticus 30kg of sand per volume of 1200kg, at the bottom of the pot temperature of 200 -210 ℃, Chaozhi 60s as the best cooked condition.%目的:对鸡内金炮制方法进行研究,测定并筛选出鸡内金砂烫炮制方法的最佳炮制工艺.方法:以可溶性蛋白质含量为评价指标,选择砂量,炒制时间,炒制温度为考察因素,采用正交设计L9(34),优选鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺.结果:根据正交试验的结果,生品鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺为,每30kg鸡内金用砂量1200kg,在锅底温度为200~210℃,炒制60s时的可溶性蛋白质含量最高,为0.706%.结论:生品鸡内金每30kg用砂量1200kg,在锅底温度为200~210℃,炒制60s为最佳炮制条件.

  19. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

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    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  20. Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques Reveal that Genomic Imprinting Is Absent in Day-Old Gallus gallus domesticus Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Kaiyang; Zhang, Daixi; Li, Junying; Xu, Guiyun; Zheng, Jiangxia; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon characterized by parent-of-origin-specific gene expression. While widely documented in viviparous mammals and plants, imprinting in oviparous birds remains controversial. Because genomic imprinting is temporal- and tissue-specific, we investigated this phenomenon only in the brain tissues of 1-day-old chickens (Gallus gallus). We used next-generation sequencing technology to compare four transcriptomes pooled from 11 chickens, generated from reciprocally crossed families, to the DNA sequences of their parents. Candidate imprinted genes were then selected from these sequence alignments and subjected to verification experiments that excluded all but one SNP. Subsequent experiments performed with two new sets of reciprocally crossed families resulted in the exclusion of that candidate SNP as well. Attempts to find evidence of genomic imprinting from long non-coding RNAs yielded negative results. We therefore conclude that genomic imprinting is absent in the brains of 1-day-old chickens. However, due to the temporal and tissue specificity of imprinting, our results cannot be extended to all growth stages and tissue types.

  1. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%), Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%), Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%), Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%), Raillietina tetragona (57.5%), Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%), Raillietina sp. (35.8%), Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2%) and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%). The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  2. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in Phayao province, northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%, Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%, Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%, Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%, Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%, Raillietina tetragona (57.5%, Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%, Raillietina sp. (35.8%, Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2% and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%. The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  3. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of the Lhoman White LSL lineage fowl (Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Primo Bombonato

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial branches supplying the cloacal bursas of 30 female fowl (Gallus gallus of the Lhoman White LSL lineage, aged between eight and ten weeks. The right isquiadic artery was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”. Next, the samples were fixed with a 10% formalin solution through deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracavitary injections for a period of at least 48 hours. Dissections confirmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the right bursocloacal arteries in 29 cases (96.67%, the left bursocloacal arteries in 28 cases (93.33%, the right cloacal arteries in 13 cases (43.33%, and the left cloacal arteries in 15 cases (50%. The number of branches from the arteries, independent of their origin, varied from two to six. There were two branches in 5 cases (16.67%, three branches in 14 cases (46.67%, four branches in 3 cases (10%, five branches in 6 cases (20%, and six branches in 1 case (3.33%. The distribution of the vessels was unique in each sample.

  4. Proteome changes underpin improved meat quality and yield of chickens (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ke; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Bryden, Wayne L; Yao, Bin

    2014-12-23

    Supplementation of broiler chicken diets with probiotics may improve carcass characteristics and meat quality. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, 2D-DIGE-based proteomics was employed to investigate the proteome changes associated with improved carcass traits and meat quality of Arbor Acres broilers (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium. The probiotic significantly increased meat colour, water holding capacity and pH of pectoral muscle but decreased abdominal fat content. These meat quality changes were related to the altered abundance of 22 proteins in the pectoral muscle following E. faecium feeding. Of these, 17 proteins have central roles in regulating meat quality due to their biological interaction network. Altered cytoskeletal and chaperon protein expression also contribute to improved water holding capacity and colour of meat, which suggests that upregulation of chaperon proteins maintains cell integrity and prevents moisture loss by enhancing folding and recovery of the membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. The down-regulation of β-enolase and pyruvate kinase muscle isozymes suggests roles in increasing the pH of meat by decreasing the production of lactic acid. The validity of the proteomics results was further confirmed by qPCR. This study reveals that improved meat quality of broilers fed probiotics is triggered by proteome alterations (especially the glycolytic proteins), and provides a new insight into the mechanism by which probiotics improve poultry production.

  5. Arsenic species in broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter, soils, maize (Zea mays L.), and groundwater from litter-amended fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Elisa; Zeigler, Georgia; Beck, E Glenn; Grove, John; Sikora, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Manure and bedding material (litter) generated by the broiler industry (Gallus gallus domesticus) often contain high levels of arsenic (As) when organoarsenical roxarsone and p-arsanilic acid are included in feed to combat disease and improve weight gain of the birds. This study was conducted to determine As levels and species in litter from three major broiler producing companies, and As levels in soils, corn tissue (Zea mays L.), and groundwater in fields where litter was applied. Total As in litter from the three different integrators ranged between bioavailable As (extractable with Mehlich 3 solution and taken up by corn leaves). Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue and groundwater, however, were below the World Health Organization thresholds, which was attributed to strong sorption/precipitation of arsenate in Fe- and Al-rich soils. Ecological impacts of amending soils with As-laden litter depend on the As species in the litter, and chemical and physical properties of soil that strongly affect As mobility and bioavailability in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos de Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Alterations in hematological parameters of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Borrelia anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel S. Lisbôa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Borreliose aviária é uma doença septicêmica aguda, cosmopolita, que acomete diferentes espécies aviárias, sendo causada por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações hematológicas em Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por B. anserina via vetor Argas (Persicargas miniatus. Um total de 27 aves da espécie G. g. domesticus com 67 dias de vida, foram divididas em três grupos inteiramente casualizados contendo nove animais cada. Um grupo foi exposto a carrapatos infectados por B. anserina (Grupo 1; outro a carrapatos livres deste agente (Grupo 2; além de um grupo não exposto aos carrapatos (Grupo 3. Realizaram-se esfregaços sangüíneos diariamente, a partir do primeiro dia de exposição ao vetor, até o 25º dia pós-exposição (DPE. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas 3 dias antes da exposição aos carrapatos, e 3, 8 e 18 dias pós-exposição (DPE, para a realização dos hemogramas. O exame dos esfregaços das aves do Grupo 1 revelou grande número de espiroquetas. Os esfregaços sangüíneos dos Grupos 2 e 3 mantiveram-se negativos durante todo o período experimental. De acordo com os resultados das avaliações hematológicas, as aves do Grupo 1 apresentaram um quadro de anemia normocítica normocrômica em oito DPE, além de leucocitose com heterofilia e monocitose que cursaram paralelamente ao período de espiroquetemia. Concluiu-se que a infecção por B. anserina determinou nas aves do Grupo 1 alterações hematológicas compatíveis com uma infecção bacteriana de moderada gravidade, evoluindo para auto-cura, nas condições experimentais estabelecidas neste trabalho.Avian spirochaetosis is a cosmopolite acute septicemic disease of many avian species, caused by Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. The present study assesses the estimate of the hematological alterations of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with B. anserina by vector Argas

  7. Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta in Gallus gallus from isolated and mixed backyard rearing systems Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta em Gallus gallus de criações de fundo de quintal isoladas e mistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Gomes dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus, in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31% and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%, in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de malófagos em diferentes regiões do corpo de Gallus gallus, sob os sistemas de criação isolado e misto e determinar a dinâmica e estrutura da população. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 100 e 35% para as aves no sistema de criação isolado e misto, respectivamente. As espécies identificadas foram: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae e Lipeurus caponis. As aves mantidas isoladas apresentaram maior parasitismo do que

  8. Evaluación Clínica de Crema Facial a Base de Enjundia de Gallina (Gallus Gallus) para el Tratamiento de las Arrugas

    OpenAIRE

    Bell Cortez, Carlos Alejandro; Universidad Alas Peruanas

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antiarrugas de la enjundia de gallina doméstica o gallina roja (Gallus gallus), procedente de un criadero de aves de una chacra particular, ubicada en el distrito de Chaclacayo, departamento de Lima (Perú). La grasa administrada bajo la forma de crema facial demostró propiedades para el relleno de arrugas y atenuación de líneas de expresión en el rostro. El ensayo se llevó a cabo, previo consentimiento informado, en 237 voluntarios sanos de ambos sexos, con edades mayores ...

  9. Uso de Infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng y del vinagre en la crianza de pollos Acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriboga, Chuchuca; Sánchez Quinche, Angel; Vargas González, Oliverio; Hurtado, Flores; Quevedo Guerrero, José

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en la Granja Santa Inés, perteneciente a la Universidad Técnica de Machala, utilizando para ello 160 pollos acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados, los mismos que se alojaron tratando de cumplir las mejores condiciones de manejo y sanidad, sin embargo para provocar desafíos no se administró vacunas, ni antibiótico en la granja. El objetivo fue determinar la eficacia del vinagre e infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus en la crianza de pollo...

  10. Uso de Infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng y del vinagre en la crianza de pollos Acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriboga, Chuchuca; Sánchez Quinche, Angel; Vargas González, Oliverio; Hurtado, Flores; Quevedo Guerrero, José

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en la Granja Santa Inés, perteneciente a la Universidad Técnica de Machala, utilizando para ello 160 pollos acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados, los mismos que se alojaron tratando de cumplir las mejores condiciones de manejo y sanidad, sin embargo para provocar desafíos no se administró vacunas, ni antibiótico en la granja. El objetivo fue determinar la eficacia del vinagre e infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus en la crianza de pollo...

  11. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  12. Differential sex-specific walking kinematics in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for different body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kayleigh A; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-08-15

    The differing limb dynamics and postures of small and large terrestrial animals may be mechanisms for minimising metabolic costs under scale-dependent muscle force, work and power demands; however, empirical evidence for this is lacking. Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly dimorphic: males have greater body mass and relative muscle mass than females, which are permanently gravid and have greater relative intestinal mass. Furthermore, leghorns are selected for standard (large) and bantam (small) varieties and the former are sexually dimorphic in posture, with females having a more upright limb. Here, high-speed videography and morphological measurements were used to examine the walking gaits of leghorn chickens of the two varieties and sexes. Hindlimb skeletal elements were geometrically similar among the bird groups, yet the bird groups did not move with dynamic similarity. In agreement with the interspecific scaling of relative duty factor (DF, the proportion of a stride period with ground contact for any given foot) with body mass, bantams walked with greater DF than standards, and females walked with greater DF than males. Greater DF in females than in males was achieved via variety-specific kinematic mechanisms, associated with the presence/absence of postural dimorphism. Females may require greater DF in order to reduce peak muscle forces and minimise power demands associated with lower muscle to reproductive tissue mass ratios and smaller body size. Furthermore, a more upright posture observed in the standard, but not bantam, females, may relate to minimising the work demands of being larger and having proportionally larger reproductive tissue volume. Lower DF in males relative to females may also be a work-minimising strategy and/or due to greater limb inertia (as a result of greater pelvic limb muscle mass) prolonging the swing phase.

  13. Association of estradiol on expression of melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins in the liver of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junxiao; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Naiyi; Li, Hong; Li, Cuicui; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Zhuanjian; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP and MRAP2) are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that regulate the biological functions of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family. MCRs comprise five receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles in mammals. Five MCR members and two MRAPs were also predicted in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. However, little is known about their expression, regulation and biological functions. In this study, we cloned the MRAP and MRAP2 genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the functional domains of MRAP and MRAP2 were conserved among species, suggesting that the physiological roles of chicken MRAP and MRAP2 could be similar to their mammalian counterparts. Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that MRAP was expressed in the adrenal gland, liver, spleen, glandular stomach and lungs, while MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland. All five MCRs were present in the adrenal gland, but showed different expression patterns in other tissues. The MC5R was the only MCR member that was expressed in the chicken liver. The expression levels of MRAP in chicken liver were significantly increased at sexual maturity stage, and were significantly up-regulated (Pchickens and chicken primary hepatocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol in vivo and in vitro, respectively; however, expression levels of PPARγ were down-regulated, and no effect on MC5R was observed. Our results suggested that estrogen could stimulate the expression of MRAP in the liver of chicken through inhibiting the expression of transcription regulation factor PPARγ, and MRAP might play its biological role in a different way rather than forming an MRAP/MC2R complex in chicken liver during the egg-laying period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis.

  15. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis

  16. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

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    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  17. What are the similarities between stress, sudden cardiac death in Gallus gallus and sudden unexpected death in people with epilepsy Similaridades entre stress, morte súbita cardíaca na espécie Gallus gallus e morte súbita em epilepsia

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    Fulvio A Scorza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with epilepsy are at higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, responsible for 7.5% to 17% of all deaths in epilepsy. Many factors are current associated with SUDEP and possible effect of stress and cardiac arrhythmia are still not clear. Sudden death syndrome (SDS in chickens is a disease characterized by an acute death of well-nourished and seeming healthy Gallus gallus after abrupt and brief flapping of their wings, similar to an epileptic seizure, with an incidence estimated as 0.5 to 5% in broiler chickens. A variety of nutritional and environmental factors have been included: but the exactly etiology of SDS is unknown. Studies had suggested that the hearts of broiler chickens are considerably more susceptible to arrhythmias and stress may induce ventricular arrhythmia and thus, sudden cardiac death. In this way, SDS in Gallus gallus could be an interesting model to study SUDEP.Indivíduos com epilepsia têm maior risco de sofrer morte súbita e inexplicada em epilepsia (SUDEP, responsável por 7,5% a 17% de todas as mortes em epilepsia. Diversos fatores têm sido associados com SUDEP e um possível efeito do stress e das arritmias cardíacas ainda não é claro. A síndrome da morte súbita (SDS em galinhas é uma situação caracterizada por uma morte aguda em Gallus gallus bem nutridos e aparentemente saudáveis após um evento curto e abrupto de bater de asas, semelhante a uma crise epiléptica, com incidência de 0,5 a 5% em granjas. Uma ampla variedade de fatores nutricionais e ambientais tem sido considerada, mas a causa exata da SDS é desconhecida. Estudos têm sugerido que o coração das galinhas criadas em granjas é mais sensível a arritmias cardíacas e que o stress poderia levar a arritmias cardíacas e, portanto, a morte súbita cardíaca. Assim, SDS em Gallus gallus pode ser considerado um interessante modelo de SUDEP.

  18. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Hypothalamic MicroRNAs as Novel Partners Involved in Timing the Rapid Development of Chicken (Gallus gallus) Gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Zou, Jianmin; Wang, Kehua; Su, Yijun; Zhu, Yunfen; Song, Chi; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Liu, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Onset of the rapid gonad growth is a milestone in sexual development that comprises many genes and regulatory factors. The observations in model organisms and mammals including humans have shown a potential link between miRNAs and development timing. To determine whether miRNAs play roles in this process in the chicken (Gallus gallus), the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the profiles of miRNA expression in the hypothalamus of hens from two different pubertal stages, before onset of the rapid gonad development (BO) and after onset of the rapid gonad development (AO). 374 conserved and 46 novel miRNAs were identified as hypothalamus-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. 144 conserved miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P 4.0, P rapid development of chicken gonads. Considering the characteristics of miRNA functional conservation, the results will contribute to the research on puberty onset in humans.

  19. Desempeño Cardiovascular de Dos Estirpes de Gallus gallus domesticus Sometidas a Estrés Calórico Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacon, Tony; De Basilio, Vasco; Zerpa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    (0.81±0.03 mL/min/g) in comparison to broilers (0.40 ± 0.07 mL/min/g). These results suggest that chickens from a commercial lineage (broilers) were less effective in terms of cardiac performance, under environmental heat stress, when compared to creole chickens, suggesting that creole chickens......Genetic selection in poultry has been based on fast growth characters and not on stress adaptability. This investigation assessed cardiovascular variables in two lineages of Gallus gallus domesticus of different domestication levels, subjected to acute heat stress. To carry out the assay, broiler...... humidity, body temperature, heart rate, systolic volumen, and cardiac output. On day 37, both flocks were exposed to an acute environmental heat stress simulation (34 ºC). Data were analyzed with repetitive measures test (PROC MIXED, SAS, 2005), with a two-way arrangement. During the heat stress simulation...

  20. Características do desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, em temperaturas e períodos diferentes de incubação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Dias

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, foram incubados ovos nas temperaturas de 34,0ºC, 37,5ºC e 40,0ºC, nos períodos de 48, 72 e 96 horas. Avaliaram-se em 81 embriões o comprimento cefalocaudal, o peso total e 6 características morfológicas, utilizando-se um protocolo referindo o desenvolvimento como padrão, acelerado ou defasado. Os dados relativos ao nível de diferenciação das estruturas embrionárias demonstram que os fatores temperatura e tempo de incubação interagem nos processos de morfogênese.

  1. 原鸡与不同品种家鸡杂交F1代生长发育研究%Study on the Growth and Development of F1 Generation between Gallus gallus and Different Varieties of Gallus domesticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先才; 彭章华; 雷胜辉; 周杰珑

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to discuss the growth and development laws of hybnd offspring from Gallus gallus and different local chicken varieties. [Method] Gallus gallus spadiceus (male) and different Gallus domesticus varieties (female) (Chuxiong Ma Chicken, Chahua Chicken, Green-ear Black-bone Chicken,Gallus gallus) were used as study objects to determine the growth and development indices of 0-22 week-old chicken. Using three typical nonlinear growth curve models (Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy), the growth models of hybrid F1 generation were fit. Meanwhile, the optimal regression equation was established by using stepwise regression method. [Result] The effect degree or indices of the body traits of hybrid F1 generation between Gallus gallus and different local chicken varieties on the body weight had some differences. The fitting degree of the regression equation of Logistic and Gompertz models were both more than 0. 99, which better fit the growth and development laws of F1 hybrid generation of Gallus gallus. [Conclusion] This research provided scientific basis and reference for the preservation, utilization of genetic resources of Gallus gallus, and the breeding and improvement of local domestic chicken varieties.%[目的]探讨原鸡与不同地方品种家鸡杂交后代的生长发育规律.[方法]以原鸡(♂)与不同地方鸡种(♀)(楚雄麻鸡、茶花鸡、绿耳乌骨鸡、原鸡)杂交组合F1代(♂)为研究对象,测定其0~22周龄的生长发育指标.运用Logistic、Gompertz和Bertalanffy3种典型的非线性生长曲线模型分别对其进行拟合分析,同时利用逐步回归法建立最优回归方程.[结果]原鸡与不同家鸡杂交F1代(♂)体尺性状对体重影响程度或指标存在一定差异.Logistic和Gompertz模型回归方程的拟合度都达到0.99以上,很好地模拟了原鸡杂交代F1的生长发育规律.[结论]该研究为原鸡遗传资源的保存、利用和地方家

  2. Seroprevalence of the Newcastle disease In fighting cocks (Gallus gallus from the Municipality of Saboyá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Javier Briceño Cruspoca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Along the time, the poultry industry has become one of the pillars of the Colombian economy, as a result of its extensive influence in the national gross domestic product and in the livestock field. In fact, the poultry industry significantly contributes to the food security, due to the affordability of poultry and eggs in relation to other protein sources. Due to the current reality of greater economic integration and globalization, it is required to pursue the removal or reduction of barriers such as the health related ones, that could be an obstacle for free trade. The industrial-type poultry industry (broilers, layers, breeders, grandmothers, turkey is one of the leading sectors of the country’s livestock production. Other types of exploitation such as the breeding of fighting cocks, backyard poultry, farm ostrich and quail, among others, represent another important part of this sector. However, a big concern related to these types of practices is the movement of birds and the potential risk of these as distributors of diseases that could potentially affect the national poultry industry.The Newcastle (ENC is among the most important diseases. This is one of the easily transmitted pathologies that causes great economic impact to the poultry industry due to its costs associated to high morbidity and mortality, low in production, high costs of treatment of secondary infections and significant investments in programs targeting its control and eradication. Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies of the disease in fighting cocks (Gallus gallus in Saboyá, Boyacá. The technique of hemagglutination inhibition was used for this matter. Prior to the study, a census was conducted to determine the population of (N = 1.500 animals. The health, manipulation and biosecurity standards of the subject population were assessed through the use of an epidemiological survey. The size of the study sample which was n

  3. Learning of Monotonic and Nonmonotonic Sequences in Domesticated Horses ("Equus Callabus") and Chickens ("Gallus Domesticus")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundey, Shannon M. A.; Strandell, Brittany; Mathis, Heather; Rowan, James D.

    2010-01-01

    (Hulse and Dorsky, 1977) and (Hulse and Dorsky, 1979) found that rats, like humans, learn sequences following a simple rule-based structure more quickly than those lacking a rule-based structure. Through two experiments, we explored whether two additional species--domesticated horses ("Equus callabus") and chickens ("Gallus domesticus")--would…

  4. Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Yoo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number. Moreover, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, Wnt3a, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and collagenase-1, while it decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as thrombospondin-related anonymous protein, cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were associated with significant increases in trabecular bone volume, which plays an important role in the overall skeletal strength. Our results demonstrated that 1% Ca supplement inhibited osteoclastogenesis, stimulated osteoblastogenesis and restored bone loss in OVX rats.

  5. Microarray analysis revealed that immunity-associated genes are primarily regulated by roxarsone in promoting broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C L; Wang, X L; Li, N; Wu, C X

    2012-12-01

    Addition of roxarsone can significantly improve the growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Nevertheless, this application will lead to the contamination of the environment as well as animal products. Understanding the response of genes to roxarsone may bring about the discovery of new, safer substitutes. In this study, we monitored the expression of 8,935 genes in chicken breast muscle using microarrays. Analysis showed that 30 genes, such as the interleukin 3 regulated nuclear factor (NFIL3), the regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein (RFXANK), the cleavage and polyadenylation-specific factor 3 (CPSF3), and the FK506 binding protein 9 (FKBP9), have consistently up or downregulated (fold change ≥1.5 or ≤0.6, P roxarsone can improve the immunity of chickens through regulating the expression of associated genes, and as a result contribute to the growth promotion. Further research on the encoded proteins of the differentially expressed genes should provide more evidence for the potential mechanism.

  6. Alterations in eicosanoid composition during embryonic development in the chorioallantoic membrane of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Theresa M; Bowden, John A; Scott, Jacob; Pérez-Viscasillas, Jimena B; Huncik, Kevin; Guillette, Matthew P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-11-01

    Eicosanoids are signaling lipids known to regulate several physiological processes in the mammalian placenta, including the initiation of parturition. Though all amniotes construct similar extraembryonic membranes during development, the composition and function of eicosanoids in extraembryonic membranes of oviparous reptiles is largely unknown. The majority of effort placed in eicosanoid investigations is typically targeted toward defining the role of specific compounds in disease etiology; however, comprehensive characterization of several pathways in eicosanoid synthesis during development is also needed to better understand the complex role of these lipids in comparative species. To this end, we have examined the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) during development. Previously, our lab has demonstrated that the CAM of several oviparous species shared conserved steroidogenic activity, a feature originally attributed to mammalian amniotes. To further explore this, we have developed a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method that is used here to quantify multiple eicosanoids in the CAM of two oviparous species at different stages of development. We identified 18 eicosanoids in the alligator CAM; the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway showed the largest increase from early development to later development in the alligator CAM. Similarly, the chicken CAM had an increase in COX products and COX activity, which supports the LC-MS/MS analyses. Jointly, our findings indicate that the CAM tissue of an oviparous species is capable of eicosanoid synthesis, which expands our knowledge of placental evolution and introduces the possibility of future comparative models of placental function.

  7. Eficácia de Chenopodium ambrosioides (erva-de-santa-maria no controle de endoparasitos de Gallus gallus (galinha caipira

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    Gilmar F. Vita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Laboratório de Zoologia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro e Setor de Parasitologia Animal da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 2011 a 2012. O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioides Linnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 (galinha caipira, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução do índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos (97,18%, e o ensaio in vivo, elevada taxa na redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (91,67%. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridia (35,00%, Capillaria (30,00%, Heterakis (25,00% e Strongyloides (10,00%. C. ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.

  8. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus selected for different body size

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    Kayleigh A. Rose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus of standard breed (large and bantam (small varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number, CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics. Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat.

  9. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  10. Low number of mitochondrial pseudogenes in the chicken (Gallus gallus nuclear genome: implications for molecular inference of population history and phylogenetics

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    Baker Allan J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA has been detected in the nuclear genome of eukaryotes as pseudogenes, or Numts. Human and plant genomes harbor a large number of Numts, some of which have high similarity to mitochondrial fragments and thus may have been inadvertently included in population genetic and phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial DNA. Birds have smaller genomes relative to mammals, and the genome-wide frequency and distribution of Numts is still unknown. The release of a preliminary version of the chicken (Gallus gallus genome by the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University, St. Louis provided an opportunity to search this first avian genome for the frequency and characteristics of Numts relative to those in human and plants. Results We detected at least 13 Numts in the chicken nuclear genome. Identities between Numts and mitochondrial sequences varied from 58.6 to 88.8%. Fragments ranged from 131 to 1,733 nucleotides, collectively representing only 0.00078% of the nuclear genome. Because fewer Numts were detected in the chicken nuclear genome, they do not represent all regions of the mitochondrial genome and are not widespread in all chromosomes. Nuclear integrations in chicken seem to occur by a DNA intermediate and in regions of low gene density, especially in macrochromosomes. Conclusion The number of Numts in chicken is low compared to those in human and plant genomes, and is within the range found for most sequenced eukaryotic genomes. For chicken, PCR amplifications of fragments of about 1.5 kilobases are highly likely to represent true mitochondrial amplification. Sequencing of these fragments should expose the presence of unusual features typical of pseudogenes, unless the nuclear integration is very recent and has not yet been mutated. Metabolic selection for compact genomes with reduced repetitive DNA and gene-poor regions where Numts occur may explain their low incidence in birds.

  11. High bioavailablilty iron maize (Zea mays L. developed through molecular breeding provides more absorbable iron in vitro (Caco-2 model and in vivo (Gallus gallus

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    Tako Elad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron (Fe deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L. lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High. Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate. Chicks (Gallus gallus were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P  Conclusions We conclude that the High Fe-bioavailability maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable Fe maize to reduce Fe deficiency.

  12. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

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    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  13. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus: A Report from India.

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    Julie Baby

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus, which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  14. Development of a new duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of dicer in G. gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaolin; Wang, Qi; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Yongqiang; Qin, Liting; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence showing that cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virus-host interactions. Numerous studies have focused on analyses of the expression profiles of cellular miRNAs, but the expression patterns of Dicer, which is responsible for the generation of miRNAs, have only rarely been explored in Gallus gallus. We developed a duplex realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) assay for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of Dicer and beta-actin in G. gallus. To apply this method, the expression of Dicer in avian cells after infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was detected using our established duplex real-time RT-PCR. The duplex realtime RT-PCR assay is sufficiently sensitive, specific, accurate, reproducible, and cost-effective for the detection of Dicer in G. gallus. Furthermore, this study, for the first time, demonstrated that ALV-J can induce differential expression of Dicer mRNA in the ALV-J-infected cells.

  15. Nest-site Characteristics of Red Jungle Fowl, Gallus gallus jabouillei%原鸡海南亚种的巢址特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玲; 张春兰; 张海; 符海豪; 林贤梅; 符运南; 符明利; 胡慧建

    2009-01-01

    选择适宜的巢址对降低巢捕食风险,提高繁殖成效有重要意义.2008年3-7月,在海南省大田国家级自然保护区,采用随机样线法结合访问法在各种生境类型中系统地寻找原鸡海南亚种(Gallus gallus jabouillei)的巢,并在野外追踪观察基础上用样方法对原鸡的巢址选择进行研究.共记录到原鸡的巢16个,以巢为中心选取样方并测量反映巢址的13个特征生境参数,同时分析16个对照样方以进行比较,并通过主成分分析探讨影响巢址选择的主导因子.结果表明:(1)原鸡的巢位于密集的丛生草本下或低矮的灌木丛基部.营巢背景多样,其中位于草本植物下10个(62.5%);灌草丛5个(31.3%):灌木下1个(6.25%).(2)Mann-Whitney U检验的结果显示,原鸡偏好于比较开阔、地面落叶稀少而靠近的小道和林缘的位置营巢.(3)主成分分析表明,植被盖度因子和空间位置因子贡献率最大,在降低巢捕食风险中有重要价值,是影响原鸡巢址选择的主要因素.

  16. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

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    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  17. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  18. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting

  19. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Katajamaa, Rebecca; Altimiras, Jordi; Jensen, Per

    2015-09-01

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

  20. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

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    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  1. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2014-04-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova.

  2. Selenoprotein Transcript Level and Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers for Selenium Status and Selenium Requirements of Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Long; Sunde, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The NRC selenium (Se) requirement for broiler chicks is 0.15 μg Se/g diet, based primarily on weight gain and feed intake studies reported in 1986. To determine Se requirements in today’s rapidly growing broiler chick, day-old male chicks were fed Se-deficient basal diets supplemented with graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 μg Se/g) as Na2SeO3 (5/treatment). Diets contained 15X the vitamin E requirement, and there were no gross signs of Se-deficiency. At 29 d, Se-deficient chicks weighed 62% of Se-supplemented chicks; 0.025 μg Se/g reversed this effect, indicating a minimum Se requirement of 0.025 μg Se/g diet for growth for male broiler chicks. Enzyme activities in Se-deficient chicks for plasma GPX3, liver and gizzard GPX1, and liver and gizzard GPX4 decreased dramatically to 3, 2, 5, 10 and 5%, respectively, of Se-adequate levels, with minimum Se requirements of 0.10–0.13 μg Se/g, and with defined plateaus above these levels. Pancreas GPX1 and GPX4 activities, however, lacked defined plateaus, with breakpoints at 0.3 μg Se/g. qPCR measurement of all 24 chicken selenoprotein transcripts, plus SEPHS1, found that SEPP1 in liver, GPX3 in gizzard, and SEPP1, GPX3 and SELK in pancreas were expressed at levels comparable to housekeeping transcripts. Only 33%, 25% and 50% of selenoprotein transcripts were down-regulated significantly by Se deficiency in liver, gizzard and pancreas, respectively. No transcripts could be used as biomarkers for supernutritional Se status. For export selenoproteins SEPP1 and GPX3, tissue distribution, high expression and Se-regulation clearly indicate unique Se metabolism, which may underlie tissues targeted by Se deficiency. Based on enzyme activities in liver, gizzard, and plasma, the minimum Se requirement in today’s broiler chick is 0.15 μg Se/g diet; pancreas data indicate that the Se requirement should be raised to 0.2 μg Se/g diet to provide a margin of safety. PMID:27045754

  3. The genetic link between the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and the chicken and junglefowls of the genus Gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumihito, A; Miyake, T; Takada, M; Ohno, S; Kondo, N

    1995-11-21

    Further comparison of mitochondrial control-region DNA base sequences of 16 avian species belonging to the subfamily Phasianinae revealed the following: (i) Generalized perdicine birds (quails and partridges) are of ancient lineages. Even the closest pair, the common quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), maintained only 85.71% identity. (ii) The 12 species of phasianine birds previously and presently studied belonged to three distinct branches. The first branch was made exclusively of members of the genus Gallus, while the second branch was made of pheasants of the genera Phasianus, Chrysolophus, and Syrmaticus. Gallopheasants of the genus Lophura were distant cousins to these pheasants. The great argus (Argusianus argus) and peafowls of the genus Pavo constituted the third branch. The position of peacock-pheasants of the genus Polyplectron in the third branch was similar to that of the genus Lophura in the second branch. Members of the fourth phasianine branch, such as tragopans and monals, were not included in the present study. (iii) The one perdicine species, Bambusicola thoracica, was more closely related to phasianine genera Gallus and Pavo than to members of other perdicine genera. The above might indicate that Bambusicola belong to one-stem perdicine lineage that later splits into two sublineages that yielded phasianine birds, one evolving to Gallus, and the other differentiating toward Pavo and its allies.

  4. Tuberculosis en Rhea Americana y Gallus Sp. en cautiverio Tuberculosis in ratites and ornamental birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis aviar tiene, distribución mundial y afecta a las aves domésticas y silvestres. El agente etiológico es Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. El potencial zoonótico de esta enfermedad ha adquirido relevancia con la pandemia de HIV por ello todas las maniobras que involucren la manipulación de microorganismos viables, deben ser llevadas a cabo con adecuadas medidas de bioseguridad. La fuente primaria de infección es el ambiente contaminado con este agente. La presentación clínica es variable y el método definitivo para confirmar la infección es el aislamiento. El objetivo fue identificar mediante histopatología, bacteriología y biología molecular la etiología de lesiones compatibles con tuberculosis en una raza ornamental de Gallus sp. (sedosa del Japón y Rhea americana (ñandú. En la necropsia se observaron granulomas que presentaron centro caseonecrótico no mineralizado con bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en la histopatología. Se confirmó la presencia de M. avium subsp. avium por bacteriología y por PCR en las cepas aisladas. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico combinando técnicas y describir por primera vez en la Argentina un caso de tuberculosis en ñandú.Avian tuberculosis is worldwide distributed and affects domestic and wild birds. Aetiological agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Its zoonotic potential has acquired importance since HIV pandemia, that is why the manipulation of viable microorganism should be done with careful biosecurity measures. Primary source of infection is the environment contaminated with these microbes. Clinical signs are not uniform and the confirmation of the disease is by bacteriologycal isolation. The purpose was to identify by histopathologycal, bacteriologycal and molecular biology methods the aetiology from tuberculosis like lesions found in an ornamental race of Gallus sp. (Japanese Silkie and Rhea americana. At post-mortem examination granulomas were

  5. Gallus Heat shock cognate protein 70, a novel binding partner of Apoptin

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    Chen Kun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV infection of newly hatched chickens induces generalized lymphoid atrophy and causes immunosuppressive. VP3, also known as Apoptin, is non-structural protein of CAV. Apoptin specifically induces apoptosis in transformed or tumor cells but not in normal cells. In particular, there are no known cellular homologues of Apoptin hindering genetic approaches to elucidate its cellular function. Although a number of Apoptin-interacting molecules have been identified, the molecular mechanism underlying Apoptin's action is still poorly understood. To learn more about the molecular mechanism of Apoptin's action, we searched for Apoptin associated proteins. Results Using yeast two-hybrid and colony-life filter approaches we got five positive yeast clones. Through sequencing and BLASTed against NCBI, one of the clones was confirmed containing Gallus heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70. Hsc70 gene was clone into pRK5-Flag plasmid, coimmunoprecipitation assay show both exogenous Hsc70 and endogenous Hsc70 can interact with Apoptin. Truncated Apoptin expression plasmids were made and coimmunoprecipitation were performed, the results show the binding domain of Apoptin with Hsc70 is located between amino acids 30-60. Truncated expression plasmids of Hsc70 were also constructed and coimmunoprecipitation were performed, the results show the peptide-binding and variable domains of Hsc70 are responsible for the binding to Apoptin. Confocal assays were performed and results show that under physiological condition Hsc70 is predominantly distributed in cytoplasm, whereas Hsc70 is translocated into the nuclei and colocalized with Apoptin in the presence of Apoptin in DF-1 cell. Functional studies show that Apoptin markedly down-regulate the mRNA level of RelA/p65 in DF-1 cell. To explore the effect of Hsc70 on Apoptin-mediated RelA/p65 gene expression, we have searched two Hsc70 RNAi sequences, and found that all of them

  6. Isolated adrenocortical cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): steroidogenic and ultrastructural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-02-01

    Isolated adrenocortical cells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were compared to those from rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cells were prepared from collagenase-dispersed adrenal glands of sexually mature male animals. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation for 2 h with steroidogenic agents. Of the four ACTH analogues used, three were 6-17 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells (potencies were indicated by half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations). However, 9-tryptophan (O-nitrophenylsulfenyl) ACTH was 8 times more potent with fowl cells than with rat cells, thus suggesting that ACTH receptor differences exist between the two cell types. In addition, cAMP analogues were 10 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells suggesting that fowl corticosteroidogenesis is less dependent on cAMP than is rat corticosteroidogenesis. At equal cell concentrations, rat cells secreted 20-40 times more corticosterone than did chicken cells when they were maximally stimulated. Although rat cells converted 8 times more pregnenolone to corticosterone than did fowl cells, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration for pregnenolone-supported corticosterone synthesis was the same for both cell types (about 5 microM). This suggests that fowl cells have lower steroidogenic enzyme content rather than lower steroidogenic enzyme activity. An unusual feature seen in the isolated fowl adrenocortical cells was an abundance of intracellular filaments.

  7. Physiological alteration, quality of anesthesia and economy of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Parag; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Nath, Parsha Jyoti; Singh, Chandan Kumar; Nath, Rita

    2017-05-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on physiological parameters, assessment of anesthetic qualities, and economy of use of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus). In this study, 18 apparently healthy adult domestic chickens were selected randomly and divided into three groups. The birds were anesthetized by masked induction with isoflurane at a dose rate of 3.5%, 4%, and 5% and were maintained with 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% isoflurane with oxygen by endotracheal intubation in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Physiological parameters, viz., cloacal temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate were recorded at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. The quality of anesthesia was assessed on the basis of induction time, induction behavior, quality of sedation, production of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation, palpebral reflex, recovery time, and recovery behavior. The economy of anesthesia was calculated in terms of quantity of isoflurane utilized during 60 min of study. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple range tests. There was significant decrease (peconomy without causing any deleterious effect on the birds. The physiological parameters observed in this study can serve as reference values for the wild and endangered birds.

  8. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  9. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes.

  10. Macroscopic morphology and arterial vascular supply of thymus in fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of Red Bro Cou Nu lineag - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8529

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mauricio Mendes de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Red Bro Cou Nu lineage were studied. They were about 35 days old and had their arteries filled with Neoprene Latex 450", aqueous solution at 50%, stained with specific pigment (Globo S/A, Tintas e Pigmentos, and then fixed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. The present study aimed to quantify the thymic lobes and identify the main arteries responsible for the blood supply of these lobes and their frequencies. The number of thymic lobes on the right antimere varied from two to 11, with a greater frequency of 8 lobes; and the left antimere showed a variation from one to eight, with a greater frequency of five lobes. The arteries destined to the thymus were composed by direct and indirect branches of the following arteries: left and right common vagus nerve, left and right cranial thyroid, left and right caudal thyroid, left and right ascending esophageal, right ingluvial, left and right cutaneous, and right common carotid. The right thymic lobes, regardless their origin, received from eight to 27 vascular branches, and the left thymic lobes, from eight to 24 branches.  

  11. Alterações bioquímicas, anatômicas e histopatológicas em fígado de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891

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    Marcio B. Cepeda

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espiroquetose aviária é uma enfermidade septicêmica de curso agudo, cosmopolita, que acomete diversas espécies aviárias, causada por Borrelia anserina e transmitida pelo carrapato Argas miniatus. O experimento teve como objetivos avaliar as alterações bioquímicas e anátomo-histopatológicas no fígado de Gallus gallus, causadas pela infecção experimental por B. anserina. Quarenta aves da espécie G. gallus foram divididas em quatro grupos inteiramente casualizados com 10 animais cada: G1 - inoculado com soro infectado com B. anserina; G2 - inoculado com soro fisiológico a 0,9%; G3 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus infectados por B. anserina; G4 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus livres de B. anserina. As aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 manifestaram no 3º e 6º dias pós-inoculação (DPI respectivamente, sintomatologia característica da doença como inapetência, perda de peso, sonolência, diarreia esverdeada, mucosas hipocoradas, penas arrepiadas e hipertermia. Os níveis de ALT do Grupo 1 mostraram-se significativamente mais elevados apenas no 12ºDPI e 24ºDPI em relação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 2 e no Grupo 3 esses níveis se mantiveram elevados até o 20º DPI em comparação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 4. Os níveis da enzima AST pouco oscilaram nos grupos experimentais, embora tenham sido encontradas elevações no 12ºDPI nos Grupos 1 e 3. Os fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 apresentaram à necropsia, moderada hepatomegalia, congestão, superfície irregular e coloração vermelha a cianótica; constataram-se ainda pequenos pontos esbranquiçados na superfície. A histopatologia do fígado revelou congestão, infiltrados inflamatórios mononucleares, focos de necrose fibrinoide, dilatação dos sinusoides e vacuolização de hepatócitos. A coloração de Warthin-Starry revelou, nos fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3, a presença de espiroquetas compatíveis com B. anserina

  12. 鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎性别的DNA分子鉴定%DNA Molecular Sex Identification for Chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail (Coturnix coturnix) Hybrids Early Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炜; 范丽娜; 翟曼君; 赵宗胜; 李青峰; 梁耀伟; 米拉

    2013-01-01

    According to our previous research, there was an obvious relationship between the early death of chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail(Cotumix cotunux) hybrids and sex differentiation. Meanwhile, current widespread adapted methods to indentify sex differentiation stayed at RNA level, experimental steps complicated and easy to make mistakes, and RNA samples, which are needed to be measured, was quite difficult to preserved longer, but could not be simply employed. So it is necessary to find a more simple and accurate way to identify the early embryo's sexing. In this study, there were two sections for CHD (chromobox-helicase-DNA binding) gene DNA level sex determination, at first,a total of 116 chicken-quail hybrid embryos at different incubate stages (2.5~5 d) was treated as experiment group and 10 mg embryonic organs were used to DNA extraction; then the DNA extraction from blood of 60 sex-known quails (male and female were half-and-half) was regarded as control. Wpkci (W-linked protein kinase C inhibitor) for mRNA level was known as a mature method to identify sexing, and then it is used to check the result of embryos' sex determination in our research. The result showed that CHD 2550F/2718R could identify the sex of chicken-quail hybrid embryos accurately. The amplication size of male embryo tissues was 613 bp and two bands in female were 613 and 446 bp, respectively. The experimental results provide basic data for the chicken-quail hybrids sex determination mechanism.%鸡(Gallus gallus)与鹌鹑(Coturnix coturnix)属间杂交胚胎早期死亡与性别分化存在着一定的关系,寻找简单、准确的早期胚胎性别鉴定方法是深入研究其死亡分子机制的前提.本实验室前期使用Wpkci引物从mRNA水平对早期胚胎进行准确的性别鉴定,而RNA提取对样品质量要求较高,鉴定程序较复杂.因此需要建立更加简单快捷的方法,对鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎进行准确性别鉴定.本

  13. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

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    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  14. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  15. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saborni Roy; Tapas C Nag; Ashish Datt Upadhyay; Rashmi Mathur; Suman Jain

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and visual perceptual learning and synaptic plasticity, as evident by synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, were done at posthatch days (PH) 1, 2 and 3. The number of responders was significantly higher in the music stimulated group as compared to controls at PH1 in both auditory and visual preference tests. The stimulated chicks took significantly lesser time to enter and spent more time in the maternal area in both preference tests. A significantly higher expression of synaptophysin and PSD-95 was observed in the stimulated group in comparison to control at PH1-3 both in the auditory cortex and visual Wulst. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results suggest facilitation of postnatal perceptual behaviour and synaptic plasticity in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal stimulation with complex rhythmic music.

  16. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  17. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saborni; Nag, Tapas C; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Mathur, Rashmi; Jain, Suman

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and visual perceptual learning and synaptic plasticity, as evident by synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, were done at posthatch days (PH) 1, 2 and 3. The number of responders was significantly higher in the music stimulated group as compared to controls at PH1 in both auditory and visual preference tests. The stimulated chicks took significantly lesser time to enter and spent more time in the maternal area in both preference tests. A significantly higher expression of synaptophysin and PSD-95 was observed in the stimulated group in comparison to control at PH1-3 both in the auditory cortex and visual Wulst. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results suggest facilitation of postnatal perceptual behaviour and synaptic plasticity in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal stimulation with complex rhythmic music.

  18. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  19. Eta vs. sigma: review of past results, Gallus-Klemp test, and large-scale wind skill in ensemble experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of switching between the eta and the sigma coordinate in numerical weather prediction involving topography, five sets of tests were performed. The eta version did better in all of them particularly with precipitation scores and more accurate placement of storms. However, a problem of flow separation in the lee of the bell-shaped topography discovered by Gallus and Klemp seemed to many to suggest the eta coordinate to be ill suited for high-resolution models. Flow separation is shown not to occur following a refinement of the eta discretization. Trying to identify a primary cause of the improvement in 250 hPa winds previously demonstrated in Eta ensemble members over their ECMWF driver members, ten of the Eta members were run switched to sigma. At a critical time, the Eta members in eta mode showed a tendency for more accurate tilt of a 250 hPa trough than the members run in sigma mode. The experiment was rerun for a more recent and higher resolution ECMWF ensemble, and for an increased number of members. The advantage of the Eta over ECMWF is seen again, even though this time, the Eta resolution during the first 10 days of the experiment was about the same as that of driver members. Rerunning the Eta ensemble switched to sigma showed an advantage in the Eta/eta 250 hPa wind scores used, again associated with an upper-air trough's movement across the Rockies. Better positioning of lee lows ahead of these troughs using Eta/eta is suggested to be making significant contributions to its better precipitation scores. Implications of experiments done for regional climate modeling are discussed as well.

  20. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  1. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  2. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  3. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  4. Diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in white leghorn birds (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Teenu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Objective: To evaluate diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in White Leghorn birds. Materials and Methods : Six-week-old birds were equally divided into three groups of six birds each. Group I served as control and received vehicle orally. The birds of Group II and III were orally administered with a single low (2 mg/kg and high dose (20 mg/kg of diclofenac sodium, respectively, and were observed for 7 days. The acute toxicity was assessed by observing the clinical signs and symptoms, mortality, alterations in blood biochemistry, and necropsy findings. Results : The birds of Group II showed only mild symptoms of diarrhea. In Group III, 50% of birds died in between 24 and 36 h post-treatment showing the symptoms of segregatory behavior, lethargy, terminal anorexia, and severe bloody diarrhea. The birds of Group II and the surviving birds of Group III showed a significantly (P< 0.05 increased plasma uric acid, creatinine and plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (PGPT, and decreased total protein and albumin at 12 and 24 h post-treatment which returned to the normal levels at 36 h post-treatment. The dead birds of the high-dose group also showed similar pattern of biochemical changes at 12 and 24 h post-treatment and revealed extensive visceral gout with characteristic histopathological lesions in liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine on post-mortem. Conclusion : The results indicate that diclofenac sodium has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and visceral gout inducing potentials in White Leghorn birds, especially at higher dose.

  5. Developmental changes of melatonin receptor expression in the spleen of the chicken, Gallus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingyun; Dong, Yulan; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Zhang, Ziqiang; Chen, Yaoxing

    2015-07-01

    Melatonin plays an essential role in development and immunoregulation of the avian spleen through its receptors; however, the variations in the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes in the developing avian spleen are still unclear. The objective of the present study was not only to investigate the distribution patterns and development changes of the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes (Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c) in the chicken spleen but also to identify the correlation between the plasma melatonin concentration and the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes. The immunohistochemical results indicated that Mel1a was mainly distributed in the red pulp and capillaries, Mel1b was predominantly distributed in the periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) and splenic nodule, and Mel1c was widely located in the red pulp, PALS and splenic nodule. From P0 to P21, the mRNA and protein expressions of Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c in the spleen were increased (P0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Mel1b and Mel1c between P0 and P14 raised more quickly than Mel1a. The plasma melatonin concentration increased in an age-dependent manner in the chicken from P0 to P42 (Pspleen. These results suggest the existence of age-related and region-specific changes in the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes within the spleen of the chicken, and this characteristic pattern may be involved in the development and functional maturation of the avian spleen.

  6. Eimeria tenella (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A. E.

    1962-01-01

    Complete immunity to a challenge dose of 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella was developed in fowls 14 days after they had received the last of three graded doses of oocysts of this species, whereas uninfected fowls of comparable age were fully susceptible. In fowls similarly immunized, no detectable first-generation schizogony developed from challenge doses of 10 million oocysts administered to each fowl 21 days after the last of the three graded doses had been administered. Precipitating antibodies were demonstrated in some but not all of these immune fowls by the agar-gel diffusion technique. Precipitin bands, developed as the result of infection, showed a reaction of identity with those induced by parenteral injection of schizont antigen and most of the bands appeared to be directed against protein antigens. Cross reactions were observed between E. tenella antiserum and antigens prepared from the species of coccidia, E. tenella from the fowl and the species E. stiedae from the rabbit. Electrophoretic analysis of serum from immune birds showed an albumin component and four globulin fractions (I-IV); antibody activity was confined to the fraction with the slowest mobility (IV). No significant differences were shown between the electrophoretic analyses at comparable ages of serum from the infected and control groups of fowls between 7 and 63 days of age. The components in both groups altered significantly with time, showing a general rise in protein concentrations. Infected fowls repeatedly showed numerous pyroninophilic cells in the gut mucosa and cells closely resembling globular leucocytes in the deep glands of the caeca. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14486445

  7. Research and Development of Digestion-promoting Bread containing Gallus and Tangerine peel%鸡内金、陈皮促消化面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅航

    2014-01-01

    在制作面包基本配方的基础上加入了两种具有促消化功能的天然物质---鸡内金和陈皮,并在制作的过程中设计单因素试验确定鸡内金、陈皮的最佳添加量,在此基础上设计正交试验优化配方,最后比照感官评定标准制作出了一种色、香、味、形、组织状态良好且具有促消化功能的面包。%Based on the basic formula for making bread,adding two kinds of natural substances with digestion-pro-moting function-Gallus and Tangerine peel,through the single factor experiment in the production process to de-termine the optimal amount to add. Taking this as the base,we can design the orthogonal test to optimize the for-mula. Finally,according to sensory evaluation,digestion-promoting bread with good color,smell,taste,shape, organization can be produced.

  8. 羟基肉桂酸锗氮桥环化合物在乌鸡饲料中的应用%The Application of Germatranes of Hydroxyl Substituted Cinnamic Acid Compounds in the Diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟; 陈晓东

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] By using germatranes of hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid compounds as additives, the effects of adding it in the diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson on biochemical indexes were studied. [ Method] Adding germatranes of p - ,o - ,m - hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid to the diet with 40 mg/kg for each,their weight,melanin content, fat content were measured when chickens are at 30,60,75,90,120 day old age. [ Result ] Adding cinnamic acid germanium in the diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson could improve weight, increase melanin content, decrease fat content,while germatranes of p - ,o - ,m - hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid have no significant differences. [ Conclusion] .The study will provide theoretical basis for the application of germanium addictives in Gallus domesticus Brisson production.%[目的]以羟基肉桂酸锗氮桥环化合物为添加剂,研究将其添加于乌鸡日粮中对乌鸡生化指标的影响.[方法]以邻、对、间羟基肉桂酸锗各40 mg/kg添加到日粮中,分别在30、60、75、90、120日龄时,测定乌鸡的体重、黑色素含量、脂肪含量.[结果]在乌鸡饲料中添加肉桂酸锗均能提高乌鸡体重,增加黑色素含量,降低脂肪含量,而邻、对、间羟基肉桂酸锗之间无显著差异.[结论]该研究为锗添加剂在乌骨鸡生产中的应用提供了理论依据.

  9. Involvement of AMPA receptors in maintenance of memory for a passive avoidance task in day-old domestic chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, R J; Stewart, M G

    1995-06-01

    Day-old chicks (Gallus domesticus) were trained on a one-trial passive avoidance task where the aversive stimulus was an unpleasant tasting substance, methyl anthranilate. Chicks were killed 6.5 h after training. The kinetic parameters of [3H] alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ([3H]AMPA) binding were determined using quantitative receptor autoradiography and Scatchard analyses in 15 discrete forebrain regions of trained and control (water-trained) chicks, revealing two components of binding in each. KD values showed some regional variation, but were 22.2 +/- 1.1 nmol l-1 for the high-affinity component and 685 +/- 25 nmol l-1 for the low-affinity component of binding to whole forebrain sections from control chicks. Analyses also revealed that Hill coefficients were significantly less than 1 in all regions measured. A significant decrease in KD for the low-affinity component occurred bilaterally in the intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV; left, 34.8%; right, 33.3%), a region that has previously been shown to be implicated in the processes of memory formation, following passive avoidance training. A significant decrease in KD for the high-affinity component occurred in the right palaeostriatum augmentatum (19.5%). Significant decreases in Bmax accompanied the KD alterations in both cases. Additionally, bilateral intracerebral injections (administered 4.5-5.5 h after training) into the IMHV of 500 nmol l-1 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), a selective antagonist of non-NMDA glutamate receptors (particularly AMPA receptors), resulted in amnesia for one-trial passive avoidance training in day-old chicks tested 6.5 h after training.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Accumulation of α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in tissues of fast- and slow-growing broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jondreville, Catherine; Cariou, Ronan; Méda, Bertrand; Dominguez-Romero, Elena; Omer, Elsa; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Travel, Angélique; Baéza, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe the fate of ingested α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) broilers, through an exposure to a dietary concentration of 50 ng α-HBCDD g(-1) feed during 42 and 84 days, respectively. Depuration parameters were assessed in SG broilers successively exposed during 42 days and depurated during 42 days. At market age, SG broilers had ingested 42% more feed than FG broilers, while their body weight gain per g of feed ingested was 34% lower. No isomerization of α- to β- or γ-HBCDD forms occurred, while OH-HBCDD was identified as a product of α-HBCDD metabolism. Irrespective of the strain, abdominal fat displayed the highest α-HBCDD concentration on a lipid weight basis, followed leg muscles and then breast muscle, liver and plasma. The accumulation ratios of α-HBCDD were slightly higher in SG (6.7, 2.1, 2.6 and 9.9 in leg muscles, breast muscle, liver and abdominal fat, respectively) than in FG broilers (5.2, 2.2, 1.1 and 8.4, respectively). The elimination half-lives in SG broilers were 20, 12 and 19 d in leg muscles, breast muscle and abdominal fat, respectively, to which dilution through growth contributed for around 50%. The overall assimilation efficiency of α-HBCDD was estimated at 58 and 50% in FG and SG broilers, respectively, while 22 and 17% of α-HBCDD ingested were estimated to be eliminated in excreta as metabolites.

  11. Cloning and characterising an unusual perforin from chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Michael E; Arjomand, Arash; Trapani, Joseph A; Bird, Phillip I

    2013-10-01

    In mammals the 67 kDa pore-forming protein perforin is essential to the granule exocytosis pathway used by cytotoxic lymphocytes to eliminate virally infected and malignant cells. There is indirect evidence that this pathway exists in lower vertebrates such as teleost fish and birds, although in genome databases for the chicken and other bird species the perforin gene is incomplete and no full length expressed sequence tag has been reported. We present here the full gene and transcript sequence of chicken perforin. The inferred protein product contains an extended C-terminus that is at least 90 amino acids longer than any mammalian perforin, which is also evident in partial genomic sequences from other birds. To determine whether this extension is present in the translated protein, we raised two polyclonal antisera. The antisera identified a protein of just less than 80 kDa in both transfected COS-1 cells and concanavalin A stimulated chicken splenocytes, indicating that the extended C-terminus is present in the mature protein. Our findings confirm that perforin exists in birds, and show that it is considerably longer than perforin of non-avian vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus middle ear columella formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Kathryn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella and ossified columella. Middle and external ear defects are responsible for approximately 10% of congenital hearing defects. Thus, understanding the morphogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of the formation of the middle ear is important to understanding normal and abnormal development of this essential component of the hearing apparatus. Results The columella, which arises from proximal ectomesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, is induced and patterned in a dynamic multi-step process. From the footplate, which inserts into the inner ear oval window, the shaft spans the pneumatic middle ear cavity, and the extracolumella inserts into the tympanic membrane. Through marker gene and immunolabeling analysis, we have determined the onset of each stage in the columella's development, from condensation to ossification. Significantly, a single condensation with the putative shaft and extracolumella arms already distinguishable is observed shortly before initiation of five separate chondrogenic centers within these structures. Ossification begins later, with periosteum formation in the shaft and, unexpectedly, a separate periosteum in the footplate. Conclusions The data presented in this study document the spatiotemporal events leading to morphogenesis of the columella and middle ear structures and provide the first gene expression data for this region. These data identify candidate genes and facilitate future functional studies and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of columella formation.

  13. Acoustic Signals in Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus): A Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but parents serve an important protective function while also teaching the chicks about edible and ... wings, legs, horny toes for scratching the earth, full-spectrum color vision, and other evolved ... Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach.

  14. Genetic Effect of Tyrosinase (TYR), Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) and Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) Genes on Melanin Deposition of White Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)%酪氨酸酶(TYR)、小眼畸形相关转录因子(MITF)和刺鼠信号蛋白(ASIP)基因对白绒乌骨鸡黑色素沉积的遗传效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑嫩珠; 李丽; 辛清武; 缪中纬; 朱志明; 陈黎; 刘凤辉; 吴剑飞; 黄勤楼

    2015-01-01

    为研究白绒乌骨鸡(Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)黑色素沉积分子机制,本研究采用实时荧光定量PCR(quantitative Real-time PCR,qRT-PCR)的2-△△Ct检测酪氨酸酶(tyrosinase,TYR)、刺鼠信号蛋白(agouti signaling protein,ASIP)和小眼畸形相关转录因子(microphthalmia-associated transcription factor,MITF)基因在乌骨鸡皮肤、肌肉、肝脏、肾脏和肌胃的表达情况,采用紫外分光光度法测定不同组织黑色素含量,探索3个基因在不同组织中mRNA表达量与黑色素沉积之间的关系.结果表明,TYR、MITF和ASIP在所有组织中均有表达,且各基因mRNA相对表达量在各组织间差异极显著(P<0.01),其中MITF和TYR mRNA表达量依次为皮肤>肾脏>肌胃>肝脏>肌肉,与乌骨鸡各组织黑色素沉积规律基本一致;ASIP基因表达量则与其相反,表现为肌肉>肝脏>肌胃>肾脏>皮肤.相关性分析表明,TYR和MITF基因在各个组织中的表达量与其黑色素含量呈显著正相关(P<0.05),ASIP基因表达量与其呈显著负相关(P<0.05).由此提示,TYR、MITF和ASIP与白绒乌骨鸡黑色素沉积均具有一定的相关性,其中TYR和MITF基因的高表达可能促进乌骨鸡黑色素沉积,ASIP则相反.本研究为进一步阐明黑色素沉积的遗传调控机制提供了理论基础.

  15. Investigation of Serotype, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistant Mechanisms of Salmonella Isolated from Chickens(Gallus domesticus)%鸡源沙门氏菌的血清型、耐药性和耐药机制调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹明; 魏蕊蕊; 张纯萍; 徐士新; 张启迪; 唐潘

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the serotype distribution,antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant mechanisms of Salmonella isolated from chickens(Gallus domesticus),110 Salmonella from Beijing and Shanxi were studied.The results of serotyping indicated that S.enteritidis(76.58%) was the predominant serotypes.The susceptibility of 110 Salmonella isolates to 13 kinds antimicrobials was determined by microbroth dilution method.The highest resistant rate was observed by polymyxin E(41.82%),followed by sulfisoxazole (31.82%),ampicillin(29.09%) and doxycycline(20.91%).Resistant rates to other antimicrobials were under 20%.Resistant mechnisms of isolates were detected,and the results showed that integron Ⅰ mainly harbored the resistance genes to aminoglycosides,sulfonamides,lincosamides,which might play a critical role in spresding drug resistance.This study provides basic data for prevalence investigation of Salmonella from chickens and the rational use of antimicrobials for Salmonella infection control in veterinary practice.%沙门氏菌(Salmonella)是一种重要的食源性致病菌,为了解不同地区鸡源沙门氏菌的血清型、耐药性和耐药机制,本研究对从北京和陕西地区分离的110株鸡(Gallus domesticus)源沙门氏菌进行了分析.血清型结果表明,沙门氏菌流行株为肠炎沙门氏菌(S.enteritidis),占76.58%.微量肉汤稀释法检测110株沙门氏菌对13种抗菌药物的耐药性,结果显示对多粘菌素E的耐药性最强,耐药率为41.82%,其次依次为磺胺异噁唑(31.82%)、氨苄西林(29.09%)和多西环素(20.91%),对其余9种药物的耐药率均低于20%.耐药机制研究结果表明,相关耐药基因在耐药菌株中的携带率较高,Ⅰ类整合子主要携带氨基糖苷类、磺胺类、林可胺类等药物的耐药基因,该整合子在沙门氏菌耐药性的传播方面具有重要作用,本研究为鸡源沙门氏菌的流行性分析以及兽医临床沙

  16. Effects of dietary nucleic acid on the level of serum uric acid in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken%饮食核酸对SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车会莲; 管春梅; 陈文华; 王宗涛; 李蓉

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨饮食核酸对 SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响. 方法:选 30日龄 SPF级家鸡按血尿酸水平随机分成急性、亚急性和亚慢性研究 3组,各组再按血尿酸水平随机分成 5个亚组,在常规饲料基础上,分别饲以添加不同剂量酵母 RNA的饮食.动态监测血尿酸水平;分期脱颈椎处死实验动物,测定胸腺、法氏囊和肝脏、脾脏的脏器指数,并进行病理学观察. 结果:各添加酵母 RNA实验组动物的体质量、脏器指数和病理组织学观察与 0剂量添加组相比均无统计学差异( P >0.05);饮食中添加酵母 RNA引起 SPF家鸡血尿酸水平升高至 0.41 mmol/L的急性作用阈剂量和亚急性作用阈剂量为 6.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 180倍;其亚慢性作用阈剂量为 8.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 240倍. 结论:饮食核酸可影响血尿酸水平;成人日补充量 2 g/d是安全的,不会引起血尿酸水平的异常持续性升高而产生高尿酸血症和痛风.%AIM:To explore the effect of dietary nucleic acid on the serum uric acid level in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken. METHODS:The SPF class gallus domesticated chickens aged 30 d were randomly divided into three groups according to the level of serum uric acid: acute,subacute and subchronic groups.Then each group was randomly divided again into five subgroups,which were fed feedstuff and applied different doses of yeast RNA.We monitored the changes in serum uric acid level and body mass periodically,and then the histopathological changes of their spleen,liver,thymus and bursa of Fabricius. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in body mass,visceral indexes and pathological observation between different dose groups(P >0.05). The threshold dose that dietary yeast RNA caused hyperuricemia in SPF chickens in acute and subacute tests was 6.0 g/(kg· d) and 8.0 g/(kg· d) in subchronic test,which were equal to 180 and 240 times in

  17. Is there life in the horny layer? Dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors in the skin of female and male chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Liisa M; Mänttäri, Satu

    2008-05-01

    Previous findings in pigeons and chickens show that Ca(2+) may be accumulated inside the cornified skin cells and that Ca(2+) microenvironments with a lower- or higher-than-blood concentration may exist in the skin. It has been suggested that the skin may function as a secretory pathway or a reservoir for Ca(2+) recycling. To test this hypothesis, we studied the dermis and epidermis of female and male chickens in vivo to find out whether cellular mechanisms exist for the accumulation, recycling or secretion of Ca(2+). For calcium influx and intracellular Ca(2+) release, respectively, the density of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) was examined, using high-affinity (-)-enantiomers of dihydropyridine and ryanodine labelled with fluorophores. To investigate Ca(2+) utilization in the skin, the systemic and local activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the concentration of ionic Ca(2+) were measured in plasma and in cutaneous extracellular fluid, collected by suction blister technique. We found that both DHPRs and RyRs were present in all skin layers from dermis to horny layer. However, receptor densities were highest in the surface layers. With a basic calcium-rich diet, receptor densities were higher in males, particularly in the dermis and mid-epidermis. After a reduction in the nutritional Ca(2+) input, receptor densities in males decreased to the same level as in females, in which the receptor densities were not affected by the amount of Ca(2+) in the diet or that resulting from coming out of lay. The extracellular concentration of ionic Ca(2+) per se was not found to affect the density of DHPRs and RyRs in the skin. Spatially, RyRs seem to be located in the periphery of the sebokeratinocyte. ALP activity was shown to be lower in the extracellular fluid than in the plasma in both sexes. However, activity in both extracellular domains increased significantly in females that had come out of lay. This was probably

  18. Quantifying the effects of genetic selection and genetic variation for body size, carcass composition, and meat quality in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, D A; Nute, G R; Hocking, P M

    2009-05-01

    A multistrain experiment was conducted to quantify the extent of genetic differences in carcass and muscle yields, muscle quality, support organs, and taste panel assessments of cooked breast muscle of 296 birds from 37 lines of commercial broiler, layer, and traditional chickens. The birds were reared as broilers and 4 males from each line were slaughtered at 6 and 10 wk of age. The extent of genetic variation was measured as the intraclass correlation. The intraclass correlation for live weight; carcass yields; breast, drum, and wing portions; and associated muscle yields were high, whereas those for the thigh portion and yield were low. Broilers had more breast and thigh muscle but similar drum muscle as a proportion of carcass weight compared with layer and traditional lines. Genetic variation for muscle quality (plasma creatine kinase activity) was high; that for muscle color (L, a, and b) and hemorrhage score were moderate in size and were greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler lines had greater creatine kinase activity indicative of greater muscle pathology; breast muscle was lighter, less red and yellow in color, and had a greater hemorrhage score than muscle from layer and traditional lines, which were similar. Intraclass correlations for taste panel scores were low and generally not significant except for texture, chicken flavor intensity, flavor liking, and overall liking at 6 wk of age. Significantly greater scores from broiler compared with layer and traditional lines for texture, chicken flavor intensity, and overall liking were observed. At 10 wk of age, chicken flavor intensity did not differ between broiler or layer birds but was significantly greater in both groups than traditional birds. Genetic variation for relative weight of abdominal fat, spleen, and heart was moderately high and greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler carcasses had a relatively high proportion of abdominal fat and smaller spleen and heart weights.

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Gallus IL-2 Gene and Prediction of Protein Structure%鸡IL-2基因的克隆、序列分析及蛋白结构预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昆; 蒋成砚; 胡俊杰; 全舒舟; 宋银银

    2011-01-01

    According to GenBank in the IL-2 cDNA sequences, using Premier 5.0 software design a pairs of specific primer, the local Dorking inject 100 μg/ml Con A, total RNA was extracted from feeding 24 hours lymphocyte from spleen, by RT-PCR cloning colony IL-2 cDNA fragment. The DNA fragments were analyzed use DNAStar software between different species identity for comparison. Sequence analysis showed that IL-2 gene has an open reading frames for 432 nucleotide acids, encoding 143 amino acids and most of signal peptide, compared with published on Genbank, the nucleotide identity was 98.8%、 31.2%、 28.2%、 27.3%、30.6%、 26.2%、 31.7%、 30.1%、 30.8%、 26.6%、 30.6%. compared with published on Genbank, the Amino acids was 95.8%, 7.6%、 7.6%、 9.7%、 7.6%、 6.9%、 10.4% 11.8%, 7.6%, 9.0%, 7.6%, 10.4% with cattle, horse, cat,sheep, bovine, canis, people, capra, mice, cow of IL-2 sequence comparison The gallus IL-2 gene was successfully cloned, there is a species-specific. And construct a based on further study the biological effects of IL-2 gene in particular the use of IL-2 enhance the immune effect of DNA vaccine.%根据GenBank中已发表的鸡白细胞介素2(IL-2)mRNA基因序列,利用Premier 5.0软件设计一对特异性引物,采用RT-PCR技术,以ConA刺激的鸡外周血淋巴细胞为材料,从总RNA中扩增出鸡IL-2基因.经琼脂糖凝胶电泳显示扩增片段约为432 bp,分离纯化片段,克隆入pMD-18T载体,转化DH5α感受态细胞,获得阳性重组质粒,经酶切鉴定,测序结果显示,该基因全长432 bp,含有一个432bp的开放阅读框,编码143个氨基酸.生物软件分析结果表明该序列与GenBank中发表的鸡的IL-2的核苷酸序列同源性为98.8%,与黄牛、马、鸡、绵羊、牛、犬、人、山羊、鼠、水牛的核苷酸同源性分别为31.2%、28.2%、273%、30.6%、26.2%、31.7%、30.1%、30.8%、26.6%、30.6%.与GenBank中发表的鸡IL-2编码

  20. Estudios sobre terapia fágica contra S. enterica en Gallus gallus

    OpenAIRE

    Bardina Fons, Carlota

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica es una enterobacteria zoonótica que reside en el intestino de los animales. Normalmente genera infecciones asintomáticas en animales de granja. Las serovariedades no tifoideas causan brotes asociados a alimentos siendo S. Enteritidis y S. Typhimurium las que presentan una mayor prevalencia a nivel mundial. La principal vía de transmisión de este patógeno a humanos se produce a través del consumo de alimentos contaminados de origen animal. Es por ello que, actualmente, se e...

  1. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guoqing; Mo, Chunheng; Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes.

  2. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel ...

  3. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  4. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2 in Chickens (Gallus gallus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Cai

    Full Text Available Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2 in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89 and cCART1(49-89, which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98% with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91 with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s, were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes.

  5. Gene expression profile in cerebrum in the filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Katagiri, Sachiko; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Takano, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2008-06-15

    In newly hatched chicks, gene expression in the brain has previously been shown to be up-regulated following filial imprinting. By applying cDNA microarrays containing 13,007 expressed sequence tags, we examined the comprehensive gene expression profiling of the intermediate medial mesopallium in the chick cerebrum, which has been shown to play a key role in filial imprinting. We found 52 up-regulated genes and 6 down-regulated genes of at least 2.0-fold changes 3h after the training of filial imprinting, compared to the gene expression of the dark-reared chick brain. The up-regulated genes are known to be involved in a variety of pathways, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, nuclear function, cell metabolism, RNA binding, endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi function, synaptic function, ion channel, and transporter. In contrast, fewer genes were down-regulated in the imprinting, coinciding with the previous data that the total RNA synthesis increased associated with filial imprinting. Our data suggests that the filial imprinting involves the modulation of multiple signaling pathways.

  6. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on...

  7. Early life in a barren environment adversely affects spatial cognition in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Tahamtani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task, however the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  8. Expression of Thyroid Hormone Responsive SPOT 14 Gene Is Regulated by Estrogen in Chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junxiao; Xu, Naiyi; Zheng, Hang; Tian, Weihua; Li, Hong; Li, Zhuanjian; Wang, Yanbin; Tian, Yadong; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-08-31

    Thyroid hormone responsive spot 14 (THRSP) is a small nuclear protein that responds rapidly to thyroid hormone. It has been shown that THRSP is abundant in lipogenic tissues such as liver, fat and the mammary gland in mammals. The THRSP gene acts as a key lipogenic activator and can be activated by thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), glucose, carbohydrate and insulin. Here we report that chicken THRSP is also abundant in lipogenic tissues including the liver and the abdominal fat, and its expression levels increased with sex maturation and reached the highest level at the peak of egg production. Structure analysis of the THRSP gene indicates that there is a conscious estrogen response element (ERE) located in the -2390 - -2402 range of the gene promoter region. Further studies by ChIP-qPCR proved that the ERα interacts with the putative ERE site. In addition, THRSP was significantly upregulated (P estrogen and is involved in the estrogen regulation network in chicken.

  9. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Orsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3% were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks.

  10. Identification of a chicken (Gallus gallus) endogenous reference gene (Actb) and its application in meat adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenjin; Shang, Ying; Wang, Qin; Xu, Yuancong; Zhu, Pengyu; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-11-01

    The genes commonly used to determine meat species are mainly mitochondrial, but the copy numbers of such genes are high, meaning they cannot be accurately quantified. In this paper, for the first time, the chromosomal gene Actb was selected as an endogenous reference gene for chicken species. It was assayed in four different chicken varieties and 16 other species using both qualitative and quantitative PCR. No amplification of the Actb gene was found in species other than chicken and no allelic variations were detected in chicken. Southern blot and digital-PCR confirmed the Actb gene was present as a single copy in the chicken genome. The quantitative detection limit was 10pg of DNA, which is equivalent to eight copies. All experiments indicated that the Actb gene is a useful endogenous reference gene for chicken, and provides a convenient and accurate approach for detection of chicken in feed and food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fusions within the mandible of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D A

    1983-05-01

    The articulations formed within the mandible of the domestic fowl by its constituent elements have been described and illustrated. The sutures identified were suturae angulosplenialis, angulosupra-angularis, articulare/pre-articulo-angularis, articulare/pre-articulosupra-angularis, dento-angularis, dentosplenialis, dentosupra-angularis and supra-angulosplenialis. Some degree of fusion was found to occur in all sutures except sutura supra-angulosplenialis. The range of fusion time and mean fusion time for each site was studied in a flock of Golden Comet pullets. Mean fusion times varied from 45-119 days post-hatching.

  12. Occurrence and seasonality of Somotricus unifasciatus (Dejean, 1831 associated with raising Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moscarelli Pinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence and population fluctuation of Somotricus unifasciatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae, an exotic predatory species. The insects were collected once per week for 12 months, using traps, at the aviary of the Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça (CAVG, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. During the study, 1158 specimens of S. unifasciatus were captured. The highest occurrence period was in February (472, when the monthly average temperature was 24.7ºC, while the lowest occurrence periods were in July (01, April (0 and June (0. The population density of the coleopteron varied throughout the year, with the largest capture averages obtained during months with higher average temperatures (December, January, February and March.

  13. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available The Silky Fowl (SF is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs. The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.

  14. Maternal diet influences gene expression in intestine of offspring in chicken (Gallus gallus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Francis, R.M.; Balk, F.R.M.; Smits, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The diet of the mother during pregnancy influences the onset of different diseases and health-related traits in the offspring. We investigated the influence of the mother hen diet on the intestinal gene expression pattern in the offspring. Hens received for 11 weeks either a commercial feed or a

  15. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior.

  16. Irrigação da bolsa cloacal em Gallus gallus domesticus (Matrizes de corte Hubbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ismar Silva Santana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cloacal Bursa's arteries of 30 females Hubbard were injected with 50% Neoprene Latex 450 solution, and submited to dissection. The ages of the birds was to 10 to 12 weeks. The vessel's origin, number and sequence were studied The results showed the participation of the left and right internal pudendal artery in all cases, witch the association of the cranial mesenteric artery (333,33%, to median caudal artery (3,33%, and to left internal iliac artery (3,33%. The total branches number, without considering its origin, varied in 2 to 9, being 4 branches the major frequency. The vessels distribuition was the same in each bird.

  17. Evaluation of the antimicrobian resistance of Escherichia coli isolated of healthy hens (Gallus gallus).

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Adriano Sakai [UNESP; Andreatti Filho,Raphael Lucio; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio [UNESP; Rocha, Ticiana Silva

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota of the chickens is composed by many species of bacteria that benefit the host in many ways during its life. When the host is submitted to inadequate treatments with antibiotics, this microbiota suffers a selection trial, becoming resistant to these drugs. It was evaluated the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from intestine of healthy posture hens to the antibiotics. From 100 samples analyzed, 83 showed resistance to more than three antibiotics, and two wer...

  18. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections.

  19. Production potentials of native chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) of Western Visayas, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarles, Jaime Canaya

    2013-02-01

    Poultry genetic resources diversity serves as a reservoir of genes adaptable to local conditions, production, resource utilization, and production that are compatible with consumer preferences for meat and egg products. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the production potentials of native chickens in Western Visayas, Philippines. A total of 270 raisers were interviewed and 810 chickens were characterized. These numbers were divided equally among the provinces of Aklan, Antique, Capiz, Guimaras, Iloilo, and Negros Occidental. The data collected were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and significant differences were determined using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results show that native chickens from Aklan had the highest (P < 0.01) hatching percentage (93.10 ± 1.67 %) and oldest (P < 0.01) slaughter/marketing age (23.56 ± 1.03 weeks). Those from Guimaras had the biggest (P < 0.01) egg (42.69 ± 0.87 g) and heaviest slaughter/marketing weight (920.00 ± 22.72 to 924.44 ± 23.01 g); the shortest (P < 0.01) clutch interval (77.87 ± 4.14 days) was observed from those in Iloilo. Those from Antique had the highest (P < 0.01) survival rate from 1 day old to a slaughter/marketing age of 52.48 ± 1.83 %. The adult live weight ranged from 1.27 ± 0.04 to 1.62 ± 0.04 kg with those from Aklan as the lowest (P < 0.01) while those from Guimaras were the highest. Thus, the observed variations in reproductive and growth performances of native chickens from this region expressed their potentials for genetic improvement toward production.

  20. Imunidade de aves (Gallus gallus) para Salmonella enterica subesp. enterica Sorovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum

    OpenAIRE

    Acelas Díaz, Silvia Juliana [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The fowl typhoid is a systemic disease of chickens caused by Salmonella enteric subsp. enteric serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum. This bacterium is highly pathogenic for chickens at any age, causing mortality even in adult birds. The progress of clinical signs differs among different lines of chickens. White lines of chickens are considered resistant and hardly mortality is observed. Chickens of brown lines are more susceptible and develop severe clinical signs with high mortality rates. T...

  1. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days. The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR, and serum reduced glutathione (GSH in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress.

  2. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management...... and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16...... access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when...

  3. Polymorphism analysis of the hsp70 stress gene in Broiler chickens (Gallus gallus of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maria Mazzi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region and the beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 stress gene were analysed in broiler chickens of a commercial breed (Hubbard-Pettersen, a breed selected for weight gain (PP1 and a non-selected breed (naked-neck Label Rouge. The naked neck gene (Naked neck, Na, which reduces feathering in birds and is thus related to heat resistance, was present in both PP1 and Label Rouge breeds. Genomic DNA was restricted with PstI and Southern blotting analysis of the samples revealed the absence of polymorphic sites for that enzyme in the promoter region and beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 gene of studied birds. PCR-SSCP analysis of these regions, however, indicated the presence of polymorphisms in the beginning of the coding region and the sequencing of the PCR products confirmed and identified two polymorphic sites in this region: a transition A ® G in position +258 and a transversion C ® G in position +276. Both mutations were considered to be silent, since they did not modify the aminoacid sequence of the protein Hsp70. The promoter region of the hsp70 gene was identical in all studied birds, indicating that the regulation pattern of this gene must be the same in all birds at the promoter region. Three different alleles (hsp70-1, hsp70-2 and hsp70-3 were identified for the hsp70 gene from the observed mutations. The allele hsp70-3 was detected in only two breeds, Hubbard-Pettersen and PP1, but at a low frequency (0,016 and 0,006, respectively.

  4. Tick fauna of Malaysian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus in Bangi, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to manmade encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tickborne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. Results: 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63% for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. Conclusion: This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick.

  5. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone leve

  6. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  7. Modulatory antibacterial activity of body fat from Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Coutinho; Pedro Aquino; Jéssica Leite; Livia Leandro; Fernando Figueredo; Edinardo Matias; Tássia Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Based on the popular belief ,which uses fat from G. g. domesticus. (domestic chicken), to combat infectious and inflammatory processes, this work aims to evaluate the antibacterial action of lipids in adipose tissue of these animals besides verifying association with antibiotics observing the modulating effect of natural products against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and multiresistant of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates. We evaluated the antibacte...

  8. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-01-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717417

  9. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Farga, J; A. Pérez Torres; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-01-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chicke...

  10. Evaluation of the i-STAT portable clinical analyzer in chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, H W; Vogt, R.; Kästner, S; Riond, B.; Hatt, J M

    2007-01-01

    The i-STAT portable clinical analyzer (PCA) was evaluated for performance in avian species. With the EG7+ cartridge, which provided results for hydrogen ion concentration, oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, hematocrit, and various calculated parameters, analytical accuracy and precision were tested by comparing obtained values to those of established traditional blood gas and chemistry analyzers. Deming's regression and bias plots were used to compare ...

  11. Isolation of dermatophytes and related species from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Sano, Ayako; Hiruma, Midori; Murata, Michiko; Kaneshima, Takashi; Murata, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Touyama, Hidemi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nakazato, Yasutomo; Uehara, You; Hirakawa, Morihiko; Imura, Yoshimi; Terashima, Yoshie; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keji; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Hiruma, Masataro; Murakami, Masaru; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 793 bird combs [645 chickens and 148 fighting cocks (Shamo)] to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The targeted fungal species were recovered from 195 of the 793 examined birds (24.6 %). Prevalence ratios were compared in temperate (the mainland) and subtropical (Nansei Islands) areas, genders, strains, breeding scale (individual and farm), and housing system (in cage and free ranging). The frequency of the fungal species in the mainland, males, fighting cocks, breeding scale by individual nursing, and free-range housing system exhibited significantly higher positive ratios than that in the other groups. A total of 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated, including 101 Arthroderma (Ar.) multifidum, 83 Aphanoascus (Ap.) terreus, five Uncinocarpus queenslandicus, two U. reesii, two Ap. pinarensis, one Amauroascus kuehnii, one Ar. simii, one Gymnoascus petalosporus, one Microsporum gallinae, and 28 Chrysosporium-like (Chrysosporium spp.) isolates, which were identified using internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The predominant fungal species in the mainland was Ap. terreus and that in the Nansei Islands was Ar. multifidum. Pathogenic fungal species to humans and animals were limited to M. gallinae and Ar. simii, which corresponded to 0.025 % of the isolates in this study.

  12. Isolation of Microsporum gallinae from a fighting cock (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Kaneshima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyasato, Hitona; Murakami, Masaru; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sano, Ayako

    2013-02-01

    A case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae was found in 2011 in Okinawa, located in the southern part of Japan. The patient was a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy, Japanese man, who had been working as a breeder of fighting cocks for more than 70 years. He was bitten on his right forearm by one of the cocks and a few weeks later, two erythematous macules appeared on the right forearm, accompanied by a slight itchy sensation. While the first isolate of this dermatophyte was recovered from the region by Miyasato et al. in 2011, it was not obtained from the same fighting cock owned by the patient. However, frequent exchanges of fighting cocks and special domestic breeds of chickens related to fighting, mating, and/or bird fairs are common among the fans and breeders. We investigated 238 chickens and 71 fighting cocks in Okinawa and in the suburbs of Tokyo (Chiba, Tokyo, Ibaraki, and Sizuoka). One isolate of M. gallinae from a fighting cock in Chiba Prefecture in the Tokyo metropolitan area exhibited a different genotype, with a single base difference from the patient isolate based on the internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8s-ITS2 regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The isolation of M. gallinae from a fighting cock on the mainland of Japan is the first such finding in animals in our country.

  13. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  14. A Dual-marker Vector for Constant RNAi and Rapid Selection of Stable RNAi Clones in Gallus Cells%鸡源细胞基因沉默及快速筛选的实用型双标记RNAi载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培培; 游雷鸣; 罗俊; 鄂魏; 蒋志政; 郅玉宝; 张改平; 王爱萍

    2011-01-01

    利用人H1 RNA启动子、EGFP基因及Neomycin抗性基因,构建用于禽类细胞基因持续沉默和快速筛选的实用型RNAi载体.在将pCDNA3.1(+)载体上的SV40启动子替换为鸡源的β-actin 启动子后,装入EGFP基因表达框以及用于驱动外源shRNA转录的人H1 RNA启动子,构建成同时具有EGFP和Neomycin抗性双标记的RNAi载体,并为载体引入独特设计的含媒介序列的多克隆位点以方便外源shRNA编码小片断插入后的快速筛选,载体设计非常实用.插入靶向EGFP和sIgMλ基因的shRNA编码序列后分别瞬时转染DF-1和DT40细胞,结果显示靶基因表达得到了明显抑制.联用EGFP和Neomycin双标记快速筛选sIgMλ轻链基因稳定沉默的DT40细胞克隆的结果也证实,H1启动子转录shRNA的干扰效果是高效的,双标记筛选策略不仅有效而且方便、快捷.%A practical vector, termed as pAnGH1, designed for constant RNAi and rapid selection of stable RNAi clones in gallus cells was constructed. It replied on the well-know interference of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to target gene expression, and choosed the EGFP gene as a visual marker, and neomycin resistance gene controlled by the endogenous chicken β-actin promter as a selection marker to faciliate the visual and rapid selection of stable RNAi clones. Also, the specially designed cassete under human HI RNA promoter contained BglII and /firedIII sites that were spaced by an additional 50bp intermediary sequence, which enabled the rapid PCR-scanning of recombinant clones containing the shRNA-coding insert in that the insertion of foreign shRNA-coding fragment resulted in the loss of the priming sites in intermediary sequence. The shRNA-mediated transient interference of EGFP and slgM \\ were performed in the chicken embryo fibroblast cells DF-I and the chicken B-lymphocyte cells DT40 respectively, which exhibited the remarkable inhibition of target expression. In addtiton, the selection of stable s

  15. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  16. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E.; Girón, María E.; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F. Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

  17. Irrigação do timo em aves da linhagem Paraíso Pedrês (Gallus gallus domesticus Irrigation of thymus in Paraiso Pedres lineage (Gallus gallus domesticus birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Santana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A vascularização arterial do timo (número, origem e ordenação bem como a distribuição parenquimal dos ramos penetrantes foram estudadas em 40 aves da linhagem Paraíso Pedrês. Trinta aves foram injetadas com látex e dissecadas, enquanto 10 aves tiveram seus sistemas arteriais injetados com resina (metil metacrilato e mercox para a preparação de moldes vasculares. A principal fonte de irrigação encontrada foi a associação dos ramos oriundos das artérias comuns do nervo vago, tireóideas e ingluviais, sendo que seus ramos penetravam o parênquima dos lobos, principalmente pelas suas extremidades cranial e caudal. A partir da penetração, os ramos tímicos apresentavam distribuição predominante para a periferia do lobo, formando uma trama capilar poligonal, com espaços irregulares, característica de um órgão linforreticular.The thymus arterial vascularization (number, origin and organization as well as the parenchymal distribution of the penetrative branches were studied in 40 birds of Paraiso Pedres lineage birds. From this total, 30 were injected with latex and dissected, while 10 had their arterial vessels injected with resin (methylmethacrylate and mercox for the vascular matrix preparation. The main source of irrigation found was the association of branches originated from the common arteries of the vago nerve, thyroid and ingluvial, and their branches penetrated in the parenchyma of the lobes especially through the caudal and cranial endings. From this penetration, the thymic branches showed most of their distribution to the lobe periphery, creating a polygonal capilar web with irregular, spaces which is a characteristic of a linforeticular organ.

  18. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50 (ED50= 477 mg/kg. Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NS ...

  20. Up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 2 accompanying the filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Murakami, Akio; Hirose, Naoki; Aoki, Naoya; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Takano, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2008-06-15

    Using cDNA microarrays, we have identified elsewhere the genes of microtubule-associated proteins as a group up-regulated in newly hatched chick brains after filial imprinting training. Here we show by in situ hybridization that the mRNA for the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) gene was enriched in the mesopallium and the hippocampus in the trained chick brain. The regionally specific enrichments of MAP2 mRNA were not observed in the brain of dark-reared or light-exposed chick as controls, implying an association between the degree of expression and the strength of the learned preference. In agreement with the gene expression, MAP2 protein was accumulated in the mesopallium of the trained chick brain, but not in the brains of the controls. The accumulation of MAP2 was found in the cytosol of neurons and co-localized with beta-tubulin, suggesting a change in microtubule assembly. Our results suggest a postnatal reorganization of cytoskeleton following filial imprinting.

  1. Molecular function of microtubule-associated protein 2 for filial imprinting in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Katagiri, Sachiko; Aoki, Naoya; Iikubo, Eiji; Kitajima, Takaaki; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene-silencing can be a tool for elucidating the role of genes in the neural basis of behavioral plasticity. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into newly-hatched chick brains via electroporation. Here, we used this in vivo gene-transfer technique and showed that transfected microRNA vectors preferentially silence exogenous DNA expression in neuronal cells. Using this system, the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) accompanying filial imprinting was suppressed in vivo, which impaired the filial imprinting in chicks. In addition, the phosphorylation of MAP2 was found to increase in parallel with filial imprinting, and lithium chloride, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), was found to impair filial imprinting. Our results suggest that the regulation of MAP2 expression and its phosphorylation are required for filial imprinting and may modify microtubule stability, thereby leading to cytoskeletal reorganization during imprinting. This in vivo RNAi-mediated gene-silencing system will facilitate the analysis of gene function in the living chick brain and provides further clues regarding the molecular mechanisms underpinning avian learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative physical map reveals the pattern of chromosomal evolution between the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and chicken (Gallus gallus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delany Mary E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map is essential for many aspects of genomics research, including an understanding of chromosome evolution, high-resolution genome mapping, marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning of genes, and quantitative trait analysis. To facilitate turkey genetics research and better understand avian genome evolution, a BAC-based integrated physical, genetic, and comparative map was developed for this important agricultural species. Results The turkey genome physical map was constructed based on 74,013 BAC fingerprints (11.9 × coverage from two independent libraries, and it was integrated with the turkey genetic map and chicken genome sequence using over 41,400 BAC assignments identified by 3,499 overgo hybridization probes along with > 43,000 BAC end sequences. The physical-comparative map consists of 74 BAC contigs, with an average contig size of 13.6 Mb. All but four of the turkey chromosomes were spanned on this map by three or fewer contigs, with 14 chromosomes spanned by a single contig and nine chromosomes spanned by two contigs. This map predicts 20 to 27 major rearrangements distinguishing turkey and chicken chromosomes, despite up to 40 million years of separate evolution between the two species. These data elucidate the chromosomal evolutionary pattern within the Phasianidae that led to the modern turkey and chicken karyotypes. The predominant rearrangement mode involves intra-chromosomal inversions, and there is a clear bias for these to result in centromere locations at or near telomeres in turkey chromosomes, in comparison to interstitial centromeres in the orthologous chicken chromosomes. Conclusion The BAC-based turkey-chicken comparative map provides novel insights into the evolution of avian genomes, a framework for assembly of turkey whole genome shotgun sequencing data, and tools for enhanced genetic improvement of these important agricultural and model species.

  3. Breed-specific companions--inter-individual distances reflect isolating mechanisms within domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus f.d.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2008-06-15

    White Crested Polish (WCP) chickens are an interesting breed because of skull anatomy (crest), brain size and composition. This makes them attractive to investigate processes of selection that could parallel a step towards speciation in terms of ethological isolation. Lohmann Brown Classic (BL) and Red Leghorn (RL) were selected as comparative breeds to detect whether WCPs flock together as shown by shorter inter-individual distances within WCP than across breeds. WCP and BL were observed in the first year whereas RL served as comparative breed to WCP in the second year. Eggs of both breeds of each year were incubated at the same time, and chicks hatched and were raised together. Three young hens of each breed were randomly chosen and observed weekly in an open field situation for 20 min between the first and 31st week of life. Intra-breed distances differed significantly from those distances measured across breeds. Results demonstrate breed-specific flocking within observed breeds. This flocking behaviour may reflect breed-specific social and sexual preferences. Our observations indicate that domestic breeds may represent an ethological entity. Selective processes controlled by human intervention as given in domestication may therefore to be set in parallel to evolutionary processes.

  4. Caracterização molecular de células-tronco isoladas de fetos de Gallus gallus

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Calloni

    2013-01-01

    Células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) estão entre os tipos de células-tronco encontradas a partir da fase fetal até a vida adulta de um indivíduo. As CTMs caracterizam-se pela morfologia similar à de fibroblastos associada à presença das proteínas de superfície celular CD73, CD90 e CD105, não apresentando expressão de marcadores hematopoiéticos, tais como CD34 e CD45. As CTMs são consideradas multipotentes e capazes de diferenciarem-se em osteoblastos, adipócitos e condroblastos. Além de humanos...

  5. The functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the mechanical loading of the pubis in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Regina; Stratmann, Matthias; Gößling, Rainer; Sverdlova, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues other than muscles are supposed to be of mechanical importance, yet they are rarely integrated into finite element models. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the loading of the pubis of the domestic fowl using 2D finite element analysis. For this purpose, a specimen of the domestic fowl was dissected and soft tissues attaching to the pubis were studied in great detail. Muscles were removed and measurements taken. For the 2D finite element model, the outline was taken from the dissected specimen. Two 2D finite element models were generated: one without and one with ischiopubic membrane. The same muscular loading based on own measurements and electromyographic data was applied to both models. The model without ischiopubic membrane shows anteroventral bending deformation of the scapus pubis, resulting in high compressive and tensile principal stresses at the level of ultimate bone stress values. The model with ischiopubic membrane shows low compressive principal stresses in the pubis consistent with the levels of steady state remodelling of bone. Based on these results, the ischiopubic membrane of the domestic fowl potentially establishes a physiological loading of the pubis and therefore might be of great mechanical significance for the loading of the bone. PMID:23171269

  6. Epitope mapping of Campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Telli, Arife Ezgi; Jagne, Jarra F; Benson, Christopher L; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibodies against the homologous serotype. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the flagellar capping protein (FliD) is an immunodominant protein that reacted strongly to sera from field chickens. In this communication, we mapped linear immunoreactive epitopes on FliD using a set of 158 synthetic peptides of 15-mer overlapping with 11 amino acid residues on peptide microarrays with sera from field chickens. The results from peptide microarrays showed (1) no cross-reactivity of the immobilized peptides with the secondary anti-chicken antibody in the control incubation, and (2) heterogeneous patterns of sera reacting to the immobilized peptides. The peptides that reacted to more than three chicken sera and had higher averages of fluorescence units were selected for further validation by the peptide ELISA. The results showed peptides 24, 91 and 92 had relatively high reactivity and less variation among 64 individual serum samples, indicating these peptides represented the shared immunodominant epitopes on the C. jejuni FliD protein. These peptides were also recognized by sera from chickens immunized with the purified recombinant FliD protein. The findings of the specific shared linear immunodominant epitopes on FliD in this study provide a rationale for further evaluation to determine their utility as epitope vaccines covering multiple serotypes for chicken immunization, and subsequently, for providing safer poultry products for human consumption.

  7. The effect of frustrative non-reward on vocalisations and behaviour in the laying hen, Gallus gallus domesticus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, P.H.; Koene, P.

    1998-01-01

    Laying hens are thought to express an expectation of a rewarding event through a specific vocalisation, the gakel-call. It has been suggested that the gakel-call is related to frustration, i.e. the thwarting of behaviour. We investigated if frustrative nonreward (nonreinforcement in a situation that

  8. Influence of Dermanyssus gallinae and Ascaridia galli infections on behaviour and health of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, O.; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Permin, A.

    2005-01-01

    1. The effect of infections with Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite or chicken mite) and Ascaridia galli (roundworm) on the behaviour and health of laying hens was investigated. 2. Six groups of 15 pullets (Isa Brown) were kept in indoor pens from 18 weeks of age. Two groups were artificially...... infected with D. gallinae, two groups with A. galli and two groups were kept as uninfected controls. The hens were observed for behavioural reactions and physiological changes (weight gain and various blood variables) to the parasitic infections. 3. Infections with D. gallinae resulted in reduced weight...... gain, anaemia and even death of some of the hens. Behavioural changes were also observed, as the mite-infected hens showed higher self-grooming and head scratching both during the day and night. 4. A. galli resulted in a lower weight gain but no significant changes were seen in blood variables...

  9. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and chickens (Gallus gallus – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Duggan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry.

  10. Epitope mapping of campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (gallus gallus domesticus) sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibod...

  11. Maternal corticosterone elevation during egg formation in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) influences offspring traits, partly via prenatal undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy in humans and the subsequent physical and mental health disorders in their children has inspired a wide array of studies on animal models. Almost all of these studies have used mammalian species, but more recently oviparous species in which

  12. Nematicide activity of microfungi (Orbiliales, Orbiliaceae) after transit through gastrointenstinal tract of “Gallus gallus domesticus”

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Manoel Eduardo da; Silveira,Wendeo Ferreira da; BRAGA,Fábio Ribeiro; Araújo,Jackson Victor de

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Parasites are common in intensive or organics systems destined for chickens, which is more conducive to the emergence of gastrointestinal parasites, favored by direct contact with soil and other organisms. The growing demand for animal protein stimulates an expansion of production systems, increasing the stocking density. Outdoor poultry breeding systems (organic or not) that enable lower population density and higher animal welfare does not exclude these animals the presence of envir...

  13. Screening for genes involved in antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Guan, Xiaojing; Smith, Edward J

    2015-09-01

    Antibody response, an important trait in both agriculture and biomedicine, plays a part in protecting animals from infection. Dissecting molecular basis of antibody response may improve artificial selection for natural disease resistance in livestock and poultry. A number of genetic markers associated with antibody response have been identified in the chicken and mouse by linkage-based association studies, which only define genomic regions by genetic markers but do not pinpoint genes for antibody response. In contrast, global expression profiling has been applied to define the molecular bases of a variety of biological traits through identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Here, we employed Affimetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays to identify differentially expressed genes for antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) using chickens challenged with and without SRBC or chickens with high and low anti-SRBC titers. The DEGs include those with known (i.e., MHC class I and IgH genes) or unknown function in antibody response. Classification test of these genes suggested that the response of the chicken to intravenous injection of SRBC involved multiple biological processes, including response to stress or other different stimuli, sugar, carbohydrate or protein binding, and cell or soluble fraction, in addition to antibody response. This preliminary study thus provides an insight into molecular basis of antibody response to SRBC in the chicken.

  14. Vascularização das glândulas adrenais em galinhas da linhagem NPK (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Coutinho do Amaral

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares viscerais, que freqüentemente mostram suficientes variações para diferenciação entre famílias e ordens, utilizamos 34 galinhas da linhagem NPK, com idade aproximada de 10 semanas, eutanasiadas com dose de gás anestésico, tendo marcado seus contingentes arteriais com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex ¨450¨ a 50 %, corada com corante específico e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10 %, para estudar a vascularização das glândulas adrenais. Assim, os resultados indicam que as glândulas adrenais são órgãos pares, dispostos um em cada antímero, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e médio-cranialmente aos rins. Nos dois antímeros, as glândulas adrenais receberam vasos oriundos das artérias adrenais homólogas provenientes da artéria renal cranial e da aorta descendente (ramos diretos. Independentemente da origem, o número de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variou de acordo com o antímero, sendo de 1 a 4 para o antímero esquerdo, e de 1 e 3 para o direito. Quanto maior o número de artérias totais e ramos emitidos pelas artérias adrenais contralaterais destinados a um antímero, maior será o número de ramos destinados pelas mesmas ao antímero oposto.

  15. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Maria; Henriksen, Rie; Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here.

  16. Utilization of pyrosequencing to monitor the microbiome dynamics of probiotic treated poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) during downstream poultry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic growth promoters that have been historically employed to control pathogens and increase the rate of animal development for human consumption are currently banned in many countries. Probiotics have been proposed as an alternative to control pathogenic bacteria. Traditional culture method...

  17. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  18. Estudo comparativo entre sevofluorano, halotano e isofluorano em Gallus domesticus Comparite evaluation with sevoflurane, halothane and isoflurane in Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dambrosio Guimarães

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 30 frangos com 20 semanas de idade, pesando em média 2,90 ± 0,65kg divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. A indução da anestesia foi realizada com máscara facial artesanal conectada ao sistema de Maggil Modificado, utilizando entre 3,0 e 3,5 vezes a dose anestésica mínima (DAM de cada agente e fluxo diluente de O2 de 2l/min, sendo que posteriormente os animais foram intubados e mantidos com valores de aproximadamente 1,7DAM durante 65 minutos. O isofluorano causou maior depressão respiratória e hipotensão; o halotano proporcionou maiores valores de pressão arterial e temperatura corporal e o sevofluorano, menor depressão respiratória e hipotensão em relação ao grupo do isofluorano, sendo considerado o agente mais indicado para a utilização em aves. A indução e recuperação foram mais rápidas com o sevofluorano, embora sem diferença significativa estatisticamente.For the comparison 30 twenty-week-old chicken were used. They weigh na averdage of 2.90 ± 0.65kg aleatorily divided into 3 groups. The anesthetic induction was accomplished with a home-made facial mask connected with the modified circuit of Maggil using values between 3.0 e 3.5 a minimal anesthetic dose (MAD for each agent. Posteriorly, the animals were intubated and anesthesia was maintained with values approximately 1.7DAM during 65 minutes. Isoflurane caused further respiratory depression and hypotension when it is compared to the other two anesthetic agents. The group of halothane presented higher values of blood pressure and body temperature and the group of sevoflurane, lower respiratory depression and hypotension in relation to the group of isoflurane. The induction and recuperation were faster with the sevoflurane, although without expressive diference statistically. The sevoflurane is the most indicated anesthetic agent.

  19. Seroprevalence of the Newcastle disease In fighting cocks (Gallus gallus) from the Municipality of Saboyá, Boyacá

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Javier Briceño Cruspoca; Juliette Natalia Rodríguez Ruiz; Sandra Paola Rodríguez González

    2012-01-01

    Along the time, the poultry industry has become one of the pillars of the Colombian economy, as a result of its extensive influence in the national gross domestic product and in the livestock field. In fact, the poultry industry significantly contributes to the food security, due to the affordability of poultry and eggs in relation to other protein sources. Due to the current reality of greater economic integration and globalization, it is required to pursue the removal or reduction of barrie...

  20. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken oxyntomodulin suppresses food intake and increases plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-03

    Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino acid sequence and peptide length of chicken OXM differ from those of bovine OXM. In the present study, we examined the effect of chicken OXM on food intake and plasma components in chicks to investigate the mechanisms underlying the OXM effect. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone were significantly increased by chicken OXM. These phenomena were also observed after bovine OXM injection in chicks. In contrast, central administration of chicken GLP-1 significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration and did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. We previously showed that central administration of chicken glucagon significantly increased plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone in chicks. All our findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the anorexigenic action of OXM is similar to that of glucagon in chicks.

  1. Involvement of nucleotide diphosphate kinase 2 in the reopening of the sensitive period of filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Aoki, Naoya; Takehara, Akihiko; Mori, Masaru; Kanai, Akio; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2016-01-26

    Filial imprinting is a behavior characterized by the sensitive or critical period restricted to the first few days after hatching. Once the sensitive period is closed, it is widely believed that chicks can never be imprinted under natural conditions. Previously, we showed that the exogenous injection of T3 reopened the sensitive period which was already closed. That study suggested that T3 functioned by way of a rapid non-genomic action; however, the molecular mechanism of how T3 reopens the sensitive period remains unknown. Here, we show that the phosphorylation level of nucleotide diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) was upregulated following T3 injection. Pharmacological deprivation of the kinase activity of NDPK hampered the molecular process prerequisite for the reopening of the sensitive period of filial imprinting. Moreover, it is shown that the kinase activity of NDPK2 participates in the priming process by T3 signaling which endows the potential for learning. Our data indicate that NDPK2 plays a crucial role downstream of T3 action and that its phosphorylation is involved in the non-genomic signaling during imprinting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical role of the neural pathway from the intermediate medial mesopallium to the intermediate hyperpallium apicale in filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, N; Yamaguchi, S; Kitajima, T; Takehara, A; Katagiri-Nakagawa, S; Matsui, R; Watanabe, D; Matsushima, T; Homma, K J

    2015-11-12

    Filial imprinting in precocial birds is a useful model for studying early learning and cognitive development, as it is characterized by a well-defined sensitive or critical period. We recently showed that the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) determines the onset of the sensitive period. Moreover, exogenous injection of T3 into the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) region (analogous to the associative cortex in mammals) enables imprinting even on post-hatch day 4 or 6 when the sensitive period has been terminated. However, the neural mechanisms downstream from T3 action in the IMM region remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the functional involvement of the intermediate hyperpallium apicale (IMHA) in T3 action. Bilateral excitotoxic ablation of the IMHA prevented imprinting in newly hatched chicks, and also suppressed the recovery of the sensitive period by systemic intra-venous or localized intra-IMM injection of T3 in day-4 chicks. In contrast to the effect in the IMM, direct injection of T3 into the IMHA did not enable imprinting in day-4 chicks. Moreover, bilateral ablation of IMHA after imprinting training impaired recall. These results suggest that the IMHA is critical for memory acquisition downstream following T3 action in the IMM and further, that it receives and retains information stored in the IMM for recall. Furthermore, both an avian adeno-associated viral construct containing an anterograde tracer (wheat-germ agglutinin) and a retrograde tracer (cholera toxin subunit B) revealed neural connections from the IMM to the IMHA. Taken together, our findings suggest that hierarchical processes from the primary area (IMM) to the secondary area (IMHA) are required for imprinting. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling accompanying filial imprinting in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Aoki, Naoya; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kitajima, Takaaki; Iikubo, Eiji; Katagiri, Sachiko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2011-12-07

    Newly hatched domestic chicks serve as an important model for experimental studies of neural and behavioral plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation, which underlies learning and memory in rodents. Here we show that BDNF mRNA levels increased in the intermediate medial hyperpallium apicale (IMHA), which is the caudal area of the visual Wulst, of imprinted chick brains, and the upregulation of gene expression correlated with the strength of the learned preference to the training object. In addition, activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling was associated with filial imprinting. However, pharmacological deprivation of TrkB phosphorylation in IMHA did not impair memory formation, suggesting that activation of BDNF/TrkB signaling in IMHA is not involved in memory acquisition in filial imprinting.

  4. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  5. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recomm...

  6. Bone protein “extractomics”: comparing the efficiency of bone protein extractions of Gallus gallus in tandem mass spectrometry, with an eye towards paleoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R. Schroeter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of bone require specialized extraction protocols to demineralize and solubilize proteins from within the bone matrix. Although various protocols exist for bone protein recovery, little is known about how discrete steps in each protocol affect the subset of the bone proteome recovered by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Characterizing these different “extractomes” will provide critical data for development of novel and more efficient protein extraction methodologies for fossils. Here, we analyze 22 unique sub-extractions of chicken bone and directly compare individual extraction components for their total protein yield and diversity and coverage of bone proteins identified by MS. We extracted proteins using different combinations and ratios of demineralizing reagents, protein-solubilizing reagents, and post-extraction buffer removal methods, then evaluated tryptic digests from 20 µg aliquots of each fraction by tandem MS/MS on a 12T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. We compared total numbers of peptide spectral matches, peptides, and proteins identified from each fraction, the redundancy of protein identifications between discrete steps of extraction methods, and the sequence coverage obtained for select, abundant proteins. Although both alpha chains of collagen I (the most abundant protein in bone were found in all fractions, other collagenous and non-collagenous proteins (e.g., apolipoprotein, osteonectin, hemoglobin were differentially identified. We found that when a standardized amount of extracted proteins was analyzed, extraction steps that yielded the most protein (by weight from bone were often not the ones that produced the greatest diversity of bone proteins, or the highest degree of protein coverage. Generally, the highest degrees of diversity and coverage were obtained from demineralization fractions, and the proteins found in the subsequent solubilization fractions were highly redundant with those in the previous fraction. Based on these data, we identify future directions and parameters to consider (e.g., proteins targeted, amount of sample required when applying discrete parts of these protocols to fossils.

  7. Effects of Methadone on the Minimum Anesthetic Concentration of Isoflurane, and Its Effects on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Ventilation during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, André; da Rocha, Rozana Wendler; Pypendop, Bruno Henri; Zangirolami Filho, Darcio; Sousa, Samuel Santos; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg(-1), i.m.) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg(-1) i.m. was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg(-1) of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg(-1) of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15, 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg(-1)) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg(-1) i.m. significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure.

  8. Association of egg mass and egg sex: gene expression analysis from maternal RNA in the germinal disc region of layer hens (Gallus gallus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Schokker, D.; Groothuis, A.A.G.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Smits, M.A.; Woelders, H.

    2015-01-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying

  9. Association of egg mass and egg sex : Gene expression analysis from maternal RNA in the germinal disc region of layer hens (Gallus gallus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; de Wit, Agnes A. C.; Smits, Mari A.; Woelders, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying

  10. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Xi, Lin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours) or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks) high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (Pheat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P = 0.05) and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (Pheat treatment, the HSP 70 mRNA level was increased (Pheat challenge (Pheat stress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052) and 90 (P = 0.054) gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics Enhances Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) Raised Under High Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alam Zeb; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Liu, Yunhuan; Hamid, Mohammad; Pan, Cuiling; Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Parveen, Fahmida; Huang, Kehe

    2017-07-12

    We investigated the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on broiler meat quality under high ambient temperature and explore their underlying mechanisms. A total of 200 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, each with five replicates, in groups of ten birds. These birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet (C), a basal diet plus probiotics supplementation (P), a basal diet plus Se supplementation in the form of sodium selenite (SS, 0.30 mg Se/kg), and a basal diet with the addition of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP, 0.30 mg Se/kg). The experiment lasted for 42 days. The birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the breast muscles were removed for further process. Our results showed that SP diet significantly increased (p < 0.05) the physical (pH, colors, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force) and sensory characteristics of breast meat. All P, SS, and SP supplementation enhanced the antioxidant system by increasing (p < 0.05) the Se concentrations, glutathione (GSH) levels, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) whereas decreasing (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, with SP being higher than P and SS. Moreover, SP diet significantly upregulated (p < 0.05) the mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase genes (GPx1, GPx4) while it downregulated heat stress biomarkers such as heat shock protein (HSP) 70 as compared to C, P, and SS diets. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SP may function as beneficial nutritive supplement that is capable of improving meat quality during the summer season.

  12. Genomic organization and molecular phylogenies of the beta (β keratin multigene family in the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata: implications for feather evolution

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    Sawyer Roger H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds are constructed of beta (β keratins. The molecular phylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, especially feathers. Knowing that the crocodilian β-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes of the chicken and zebra finch provide an opportunity not only to compare the genomic organization of their β-keratins, but to study their molecular evolution in archosaurians. Results The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale of β-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5' to 3' order on microchromosome 25 in chicken and zebra finch, although the number of claw and feather genes differs between the species. Molecular phylogenies show that the monophyletic scale genes are the basal group within birds and that the monophyletic avian claw genes form the basal group to all feather and feather-like genes. Both species have a number of feather clades on microchromosome 27 that form monophyletic groups. An additional monophyletic cluster of feather genes exist on macrochromosome 2 for each species. Expression sequence tag analysis for the chicken demonstrates that all feather β-keratin clades are expressed. Conclusions Similarity in the overall genomic organization of β-keratins in Galliformes and Passeriformes suggests similar organization in all Neognathae birds, and perhaps in the ancestral lineages leading to modern birds, such as the paravian Anchiornis huxleyi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that evolution of archosaurian epidermal appendages in the lineage leading to birds was accompanied by duplication and divergence of an ancestral β-keratin gene cluster. As morphological diversification of epidermal appendages occurred and the β-keratin multigene family expanded, novel β-keratin genes were selected for novel functions within appendages such as feathers.

  13. Effect of gama irradiation (Co60 in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken (Gallus gallus heart

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    Marta Maria Braga Batista Soares Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the irradiation process in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken heart samples acquired in an industry located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using irradiation doses of 1.5 kGy, 3, 0 kGy and 4.5 kGy. These microorganisms are related to fecal contamination, and are indicators of the sanitary processing conditions of the foodstuffs. The bacteriological analyses were conducted applying the methodologies and standards recommended by Brazilian norms resolution no. 12 (BRASIL, 2001 and instruction no. 62 (BRASIL, 2003 Regarding Escherichia coli, no statistically significant difference among the four groups (control, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy was observed (p> 0.05. The Most Probable Number (MPN for Enterococci spp. was not proven in the investigated samples. Thus, the Co60 gamma irradiation process was effective in eliminating Escherichia coli, and the lowest dose, of 1.5 kGy, was enough to abolish this enteropathogen from the evaluated samples.

  14. Characterizing the gut (Gallus gallus) microbiota following the consumption of an iron biofortified Rwandan cream seeded carioca (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) bean-based diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient iron (Fe) intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe defi...

  15. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp. were isolated from eggs of free markets. Accordingly to the methodology used, we may suggest that backyard chickens from Fortaleza present a satisfactory sanitary status. However, free market eggs did not present adequate sanitary conditions.

  16. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ammon W; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Knoppel, Edward L; Hall, Jeffery O

    2016-05-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S. officinale. Male, California White chicks were orally exposed to daily doses of 0.04, 0.13, 0.26, 0.52 and 1.04 mmol lycopsamine, intermedine or reduced comfrey extract per kg bodyweight (BW) for 10 days. After another 7 days chicks were euthanized. Based on clinical signs of poisoning, serum biochemistry, and histopathological analysis the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than lycopsamine and intermedine. This work suggests a greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract. It also suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey.

  17. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Marjolein S; de Haas, Elske N; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ellen, Esther D; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Olivier, Berend; Güntürkün, O; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Korte, S Mechiel

    2013-08-15

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28-60 days). Here, brain monoamine levels were measured in adult laying hens; focusing on four brain areas that are involved in emotional behavior or are part of the basal ganglia-thalamopallial circuit, which is involved in obsessive compulsive disorders. Three behavioral phenotypes were studied: Severe Feather Peckers (SFPs), Victims of SFP, and Non-Peckers (NPs). Hens (33 weeks old) were sacrificed after a 5-min manual restraint test. SFPs had higher 5-HIAA levels and a higher serotonin turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the dorsal thalamus than NPs, with intermediate levels in victims. NPs had higher 5-HT levels in the medial striatum than victims, with levels of SFPs in between. 5-HT turnover levels did not differ between phenotypes in medial striatum, arcopallium and hippocampus. DA turnover levels were not affected by feather pecking phenotype. These findings indicate that serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal thalamus and striatum of adult laying hens depends on differences in behavioral feather pecking phenotype, with, compared to non-pecking hens, changes in both SFP and their victims. Further identification of different SFP phenotypes is needed to elucidate the role of brain monoamines in SFP.

  18. Analysis of chromatin compaction and determination of the storage time and distribution of a rooster’s (Gallus gallus spermatozoa in the sperm storage tubules of hens

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    Ana Carolina Nunes Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to elucidate alterations in the compaction of sperm chromatin during storage in the sperm storage tubules of fowl hens, to observe the storage time, and to estimate the variation in the amount of stored spermatozoa in the cranial, medium and caudal sections of the uterovaginal junction over a period of 23 days. For the analysis of the spermatozoa during storage in the sperm storage tubules of hens, 48 thirty-six-week-old meat chickens of the Cobb Avian 48 strain were used. Samples from the uterovaginal junction of the hens were collected for 23 days after the mating with the roosters, and six hens were euthanized every four days for the production of histological microscope slides. Spermatozoa were found throughout the area of the sperm storage tubules. Most of them were gathered in the medium section of the uterovaginal junction. There was no meaningful statistical difference in the amount of sperm in the sperm storage tubules over the days of the experiment. A greater amount of sperm cells were observed up to the 23rd day of assessment. Therefore, the storage of spermatozoa in hens lasts at least 23 days.

  19. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.; Haas, de E.N.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ellen, E.D.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H.; Olivier, B.; Güntürkün, O.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Korte, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28–

  20. Morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of Cajal's "centrifugal neurons": the cells of origin of the tectoventrogeniculate pathway in pigeon (Columba livia) and chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J; Marín, Gonzalo; Hain, Sarah; Luksch, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv) is a prominent retinal target in all amniotes. In birds, it is in receipt of a dense and topographically organized retinal projection. The GLv is also the target of substantial and topographically organized projections from the optic tectum and the visual wulst (hyperpallium). Tectal and retinal afferents terminate homotopically within the external GLv-neuropil. Efferents from the GLv follow a descending course through the tegmentum and can be traced into the medial pontine nucleus. At present, the cells of origin of the Tecto-GLv projection are only partially described. Here we characterized the laminar location, morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of these cells by means of neural tracer injections and intracellular fillings in slice preparations and extracellular tracer injections in vivo. The Tecto-GLv projection arises from a distinct subset of layer 10 bipolar neurons, whose apical dendrites show a complex transverse arborization at the level of layer 7. Axons of these bipolar cells arise from the apical dendrites and follow a course through the optic tract to finally form very fine and restricted terminal endings inside the GLv-neuropil. Double-label experiments showed that these bipolar cells were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive. Our results strongly suggest that Tecto-GLv neurons form a pathway by which integrated tectal activity rapidly feeds back to the GLv and exerts a focal cholinergic modulation of incoming retinal inputs.

  1. The combined application of the Caco-2 cell bioassay coupled with in vivo (Gallus gallus) feeding trial represents an effective approach to predicting Fe bioavailability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research methods that predict Fe bioavailability for humans can be extremely useful in evaluating food fortification strategies, developing Fe-biofortified enhanced staple food crops and assessing the Fe bioavailability of meal plans that include such crops. In this review, research from four recent...

  2. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xie

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (P<0.05. However, oxidation status of lipid and protein and expression of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P = 0.05 and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (P<0.05. During chronic heat treatment, the HSP 70 mRNA level was increased (P<0.05 and HSP 90 mRNA (P<0.05 was decreased. In the liver, oxidation of protein was alleviated during acute heat challenge (P<0.05, however, gene expression HSF2, 3 and 4 and HSP 70 were highly induced (P<0.05. HSP90 expression was increased by chronic thermal treatment (P<0.05. In the muscle, both types of heat stress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052 and 90 (P = 0.054 gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  3. Intra-amniotic administration (Gallus gallus) of cicer arietinum and lens culinaris prebiotics extracts and duck egg white peptides affects calcium status and intestinal functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant inorganic elements in the human body and has many important physiological roles. Prebiotics and bioactive peptides are two important substances used to promote calcium uptake. However, the difference in mechanisms of the calcium uptake from these two suppleme...

  4. High resolution 1H NMR-based metabonomic study of the auditory cortex analogue of developing chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) following prenatal chronic loud music and noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Sharma, Uma; Mewar, Sujeet; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2014-10-01

    Proper functional development of the auditory cortex (ACx) critically depends on early relevant sensory experiences. Exposure to high intensity noise (industrial/traffic) and music, a current public health concern, may disrupt the proper development of the ACx and associated behavior. The biochemical mechanisms associated with such activity dependent changes during development are poorly understood. Here we report the effects of prenatal chronic (last 10 days of incubation), 110dB sound pressure level (SPL) music and noise exposure on metabolic profile of the auditory cortex analogue/field L (AuL) in domestic chicks. Perchloric acid extracts of AuL of post hatch day 1 chicks from control, music and noise groups were subjected to high resolution (700MHz) (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate regression analysis of the concentration data of 18 metabolites revealed a significant class separation between control and loud sound exposed groups, indicating a metabolic perturbation. Comparison of absolute concentration of metabolites showed that overstimulation with loud sound, independent of spectral characteristics (music or noise) led to extensive usage of major energy metabolites, e.g., glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and ATP. On the other hand, high glutamine levels and sustained levels of neuromodulators and alternate energy sources, e.g., creatine, ascorbate and lactate indicated a systems restorative measure in a condition of neuronal hyperactivity. At the same time, decreased aspartate and taurine levels in the noise group suggested a differential impact of prenatal chronic loud noise over music exposure. Thus prenatal exposure to loud sound especially noise alters the metabolic activity in the AuL which in turn can affect the functional development and later auditory associated behaviour.

  5. Environ: E00525 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00525 Chicken stomach lining Galli stomachichum corium Crude drug Gallus gallus [T...AX:9031] Phasianidae Gallus gallus stomach lining (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Birds E00525 Chicken stomach lining ...

  6. Comparative morphometric study of shank bone in the tom (Meleagris gallopavo and local cock (Gallus banikaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Sadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 20 legs of ten adult clinically and healthy local and Tom were obtained from Mosul local market, were divided into three groups; the first and second groups were subjected to gross feature regarding to shape, position, relationship of tibiotarsal and fibula in both birds also the length and diameters of shank bone while third group study morphological of muscles, blood and nerve supply of leg. The purpose of this study, this part of the limb is popularly known as the (drum stick, the bird in lowering its body flexes knee and hock joints and this passively tenses these tendons of leg which clamp the digits about the perch, and that is the much longer than the femur and, in spite of importance study to parameters of leg are more economic to choose breed of fertilization depend on the measurement, the outcome of this investigation may served as a guide for successful study of domestic birds in Iraq. The results include in both birds, the leg is consist of tibia fuses with tarsal element, forming tibiotarsus and fiblula articulates with the femur that in contrast to mammals. In Tom the tibia has two cnemial crest in proximal extremity and the distal extremity has tendinal groove, but in local cock it has one cnemial crest of proximal extremity, and it has two tendinal groove in the distal extremity, while hock joint in the Tom and local cock is an intertarsal joint that unites the tibiotarsus with the tarsometatarsus but the stiff joint is similar to that seen in mammals. The mean length of tibiotarsal in Tom 17.99±0.44 cm and the mean length of tibiotarsal in local coke 11.74±0.31 cm, the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in Tom 3.02±0.0021 cm proximal part, 2.21±0.005 cm middle part, 1.94±0.0021 cm distal part, but the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in local coke 2.86±0.048 cm proximal part, 2.02±0.067 cm middle part, 1.51±0.0022 cm distal part. While the mean length of fibula in Tom 11.62±0.21 cm and the mean length of fibula in local coke 7.27±0.32 cm, the mean diameter of fibula in Tom 1.51±0.0021 cm proximal part, 0.81±0.0033 cm middle part, and 0.33±0.0043 cm the distal part,also the mean diameter of fibula in local coke 1.12±0.0025 cm proximal part, 0.51±0.007 cm middle part, and 0.23±0.0054 cm distal part. Tendon of muscles of shank bone in Tom generally ossification but remain that tendon in local cock. Also cranialis tibialis muscle has two head, femoral head is usually smaller than the tibial head and gastrocnimeus muscles is composed of three part into two birds which passes through the planter aspect of the tarsometatarsal joint, as soon as flexor digitorium muscle of both species can be grouped into three morphological level (superficial intermediate and deep, the muscles in turkey are very clearly distinguished are read deep color than it is rose color in local cock, blood, nerve supply and venous drainages of the shank bone in both birds by cranial tibial artery is passage with cranial tibial vein and common fibular nerve.

  7. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N.caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the presen...

  8. Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Senthil; Rao, Suguna; Satyanarayana, M L; Kumar, P G Pradeep; Anitha, N

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5 g kg(-1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1 ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet + CFO (group B), basal diet + AF (group C) and CFO + basal diet + AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1 ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds.

  9. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively.

  10. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  11. Type-dependent differential expression of neuropeptide Y in chicken hypothalamus (Gallus domesticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most important orexigenic agents in central regulation of feeding behavior, body weight and energy homeostasis in domestic chickens. To examine differences in the hypothalamic NPY between layer-type and meat-type of chickens, which are two divergent kinds of the domestic chickens in feeding behavior and body weight, we detected mRNA levels of NPY in hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (IN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area(LHA) of these two types of chickens using one-step real time RT-PCR. The meat-type chicken had more food daily (about 1.7 folds) and greater body weights (about 1.5 folds) and brain weights than the layer-type chicken at the age of 14 d. In the meat-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels of the IN and PVN were significantly greater than those of the LHA, and were not significantly different between the IN and PVN. However, in the layer-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels were significantly greater in the IN than those in the LHA and PVN, and were not significantly different between the PVN and LHA. In all these hypothalamic regions,the layer-type of chicken had significantly higher NPY mRNA levels than the meat-type chicken did. These results suggest the expression of NPY in the hypothalamus has a type-dependent pattern in domestic chickens.

  12. Soroprevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em galinhas (Gallus gallus domesticus de criações domésticas, oriundas de propriedades rurais do Norte do Paraná, Brasil Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in back yard chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus from rural properties in North region of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Garcia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário que pode infectar todos os animais homeotérmicos. No presente trabalho, verificou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em galinhas de criações domésticas (fundo de quintal, oriundas de propriedades rurais localizadas no município de Jaguapitã, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Estudos prévios demostraram que o parasita está amplamente disseminado nas diferentes espécies de animais domésticos, de companhia e no homem nessas mesmas propriedades. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta, sendo a positividade considerada para àqueles títulos maiores ou iguais a 16. Foram estudados 155 soros , sendo que 16 (10,3% foram reagentes à toxoplasmose, e 139 (89,7% não reagentes. Os títulos mais freqüentes foram de 64 (5/31,2%, 16 e 1024 (ambos com 4/25% e o maior t��tulo encontrado foi de 1024 (4/25%. A soroprevalência do T. gondii não foi influenciada pelo sexo da ave (Exato de Fisher p = 0,12, pela finalidade da criação (corte ou postura, Exato de Fisher p = 0,39, pela percentagem de felinos sororeagentes na propriedade (r = -0,19 p = 0,27, nem pelo número de felinos sororeagentes (r = -0,09 p = 0,60. Através do presente trabalho, demostrou-se uma ocorrência elevada da resposta sorológica ao T. gondii em aves domésticas oriundas de propriedades rurais neste município, conseqüentemente esses animais podem representar risco de infecção para o homem e para outros animais quando consumidos crus ou mal cozidos.Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that can infect all homeothermic animals. The occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii in back yard chicken, from rural properties of Jaguapitã county, Paraná State, Brazil was studied, serun samples were analysed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA. Titers higher or equal to 16 were considered positives. A total of 155 sera were studied, 16 (10.3% of which were positive to T. gondii, whereas 139 (89.7% were non-reactive. The most frequent titers were 64 (5/31.2%; 16 (4/25% and 1024 (4/25%; whereas the highest titer was 1024 (4/25%. The seropreavlence of T. gondii was not influenced by avian sex (Fisher exact p = 0.12, by the avian purpose (fisher exact p = 0.39, by the percentage of positive cats in the same property (r = -0.19 p = 0.27, nor by the number of positive cats (r = -0.09 p = 0.60. The present work showed a high occurrence of antibody against T. gondii in domestic chicken from rural properties in Jaguapitã county. These animals may be source of infection to human beings and to other animals when consumed raw or semiraw.

  13. Structural and histological characterization of oviductal magnum and lectin-binding patterns in Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gwonhwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chicken oviduct is a useful model and target tissue for reproductive biology and transgenesis, little is known because of the highly specific hormonal regulation and the lack of fundamental researches, including lectin-binding activities and glycobiology. Because lectin is attached to secreted glycoproteins, we hypothesized that lectin could be bound to secretory egg-white proteins, and played a crucial role in the generation of egg-white protein in the oviduct. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the structural, histological and lectin-binding characteristics of the chicken oviductal magnum from juvenile and adult hens. Methods The oviductal magnums from juvenile and adult hens were prepared for ultrastructural analysis, qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry of anti-ovalbumin, anti-ESR1 and anti-PGR, and mRNA expression of egg-white genes and steroid hormone receptor genes were evaluated. Lectin histochemical staining was also conducted in juvenile and adult oviductal magnum tissues. Results The ultrastructural analysis showed that ciliated cells were rarely developed on luminal surface in juvenile magnum, but not tubular gland cells. In adult magnum, two types of epithelium and three types of tubular gland cells were observed. qRT-PCR analysis showed that egg-white genes were highly expressed in adult oviduct compared with the juvenile. However, mRNA expressions of ESR1 and PGR were considerably higher in juvenile oviduct than adult (P Conclusions The observation of ultrastructural analysis, mRNA expression, immunohistochemistry and lectin staining showed structural and physiological characterization of juvenile and adult oviductal magnum. Consequently, oviduct study could be helped to in vitro culture of chicken oviductal cells, to develop epithelial or tubular gland cell-specific markers, and to understand female reproductive biology and endocrinology.

  14. Structural and histological characterization of oviductal magnum and lectin-binding patterns in Gallus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Gyoung; Lim, Whasun; Park, Tae Sub; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Beom Ku; Song, Gwonhwa; Han, Jae Yong

    2011-05-08

    Although chicken oviduct is a useful model and target tissue for reproductive biology and transgenesis, little is known because of the highly specific hormonal regulation and the lack of fundamental researches, including lectin-binding activities and glycobiology. Because lectin is attached to secreted glycoproteins, we hypothesized that lectin could be bound to secretory egg-white proteins, and played a crucial role in the generation of egg-white protein in the oviduct. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the structural, histological and lectin-binding characteristics of the chicken oviductal magnum from juvenile and adult hens. The oviductal magnums from juvenile and adult hens were prepared for ultrastructural analysis, qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry of anti-ovalbumin, anti-ESR1 and anti-PGR, and mRNA expression of egg-white genes and steroid hormone receptor genes were evaluated. Lectin histochemical staining was also conducted in juvenile and adult oviductal magnum tissues. The ultrastructural analysis showed that ciliated cells were rarely developed on luminal surface in juvenile magnum, but not tubular gland cells. In adult magnum, two types of epithelium and three types of tubular gland cells were observed. qRT-PCR analysis showed that egg-white genes were highly expressed in adult oviduct compared with the juvenile. However, mRNA expressions of ESR1 and PGR were considerably higher in juvenile oviduct than adult (P magnum. In contrast, PAS was positive only in adult oviductal tubular gland. Lectins were selectively bound to oviductal epithelium, stroma, and tubular gland cells. Particularly, lectin-ConA and WGA were bound to electron-dense secretory granules in tubular gland. The observation of ultrastructural analysis, mRNA expression, immunohistochemistry and lectin staining showed structural and physiological characterization of juvenile and adult oviductal magnum. Consequently, oviduct study could be helped to in vitro culture of chicken oviductal cells, to develop epithelial or tubular gland cell-specific markers, and to understand female reproductive biology and endocrinology.

  15. The expression of p63 and Ck HMW in magnum and infundibulum of Gallus domesticus oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Marszałek, Andrzej; Kozłowska, Izabela; Walasik, Konrad; Bodnar, Magdalena; Bajek, Anna; Porowińska, Dorota; Drewa, Tomasz; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The potential for proliferation and differentiation has a critical meaning in terms of the long-term in vitro culture of oviductal target cells. Therefore, it is important to characterize the oviduct epithelial cells, using approved markers. There is scarce data describing the epithelial cells lining the avian oviduct, most of it referring only to the magnum section of the oviduct. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of both magnum and infundibulum tissues, as the most preferred sources of epithelial cells for research on production of recombinant proteins in oviducts of birds. The main objective was to evaluate the expression of p63 and high molecular weight cytokeratins (anti- p63 antibody and anti- High Molecular Weight Cytokeratins) in epithelial cells (EC) of 2 oviduct sections: magnum (proximal and middle) and infundibulum (distal). IHC analysis and western blotting were performed using the mouse monoclonal anti- p63 antibody and anti-Ck HMW. Immunoreactivity was quantified based on the Remmele - Stegner scoring system (0-12). The expression of p63 in nuclei of luminal cells was significantly higher in the infundibulum (P magnum section. Cytokeratins were also highly expressed in the infundibulum, but the difference was non-significant. These findings reveal new characteristics of the oviduct EC and designate the location of the source of cells in the oviduct tissue for in vitro culture.

  16. Characterization and application of oviductal epithelial cells in vitro in Gallus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Gyoung; Park, Tae Sub; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Beom Ku; Lee, Seon Duk; Song, Gwonhwa; Han, Jae Yong

    2011-10-01

    Chicken oviductal epithelium produces large quantities of egg white protein in daily cycles. In this study, we cultured and characterized oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) from juvenile (10-wk-old) chickens and from actively laying (30-wk-old) hens. The juvenile OECs were maintained over passage 25 and were positive for toluidine blue, lectin-ConA, HPA, UEA-1, WFA, WGA, anti-OVA, anti-ESR1, and anti-PGR, whereas the adult OECs were cultured over passage 6 and were positive for toluidine blue, periodic acid-Schiff, lectin-ConA, WFA, WGA, anti-OVA, anti-ESR1, and anti-PGR. To investigate the optimal concentration of steroid hormones for inducing egg white protein genes in vitro, we examined the effects of estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, progesterone, and corticosterone on OECs. Results showed that oviduct-specific levels of avidin, ovalbumin, ovomucin, lysozyme, ESR1, and PGR gene expression were significantly elevated in steroid hormone-treated OECs compared with those of untreated cells (P < 0.05). Ovalbumin protein was also secreted into culture medium from hormone-treated OECs. In addition, to examine the application of OECs for avian transgenesis, we introduced human thrombopoietin (THPO)-expressing lentiviral vector controlled by a 3.5-kb ovalbumin promoter into cultured OECs, and THPO expression was significantly induced with diethylstilbestrol or progesterone in juvenile OECs (P < 0.05) and in adult OECs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data demonstrate the potential of cultured OECs as a model system for providing a better understanding of the regulation of gene expression and for the production of an avian transgenic bioreactor.

  17. Spatiotemporal mapping of the muscular activity of the gizzard of the chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, R G; Reynolds, G; de Loubens, C; Hulls, C; Janssen, P W M; Ravindran, V

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of spatiotemporal mapping of the spontaneous actions of component muscles of the gizzard and associated structures in ex vivo preparations with combined superfusion and vascular perfusion. Ongoing spontaneous contraction of cranial and caudal thin muscles occurred at a frequency of 2.2 ± 0.1 cycles per minute. Contractions of M. tenuis craniodorsalis with mean duration of 2.8 ± 0.2 s commenced ventrally adjacent to the distal limit of the proventriculus and progressed dorsally at 2.02 ± 0.03 mm•s(-1) in a concerted front. Near simultaneous contraction of M. tenuis caudoventralis of mean duration of contraction of 4.7 ± 0.7 s commenced dorsally and progressed ventrally at a similar rate (2.1 ± 0.1 mm•s(-1)) and in a similar manner. Contraction of the caudoventralis preceded that of craniodorsalis (mean 1.1 ± 0.15 s). Contraction of the 2 tenuis muscles was synchronous with the first component peak of the cyclic increase in lumen pressure and with distension of the crassus musculature. Contraction of the M. crassus caudodorsalis muscle coincided with the second component peak and was followed by distension of the tenuis musculature. The latter commenced before the relaxation of the tenuis muscles. Contractions of the crassus muscle propagated rapidly at right angles to the orientation of the muscle fibers at a faster velocity than that of the tenuis musculature. The durations of the component peaks in lumen pressure indicated that the duration of crassus contraction was similar to that of the tenuis musculature.

  18. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Luiz da C. Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6 oocistos esporulados; grupo B inoculado com 1x10(5 oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave.In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6 sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated with 1x10(5 sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  20. Validation of lactate measurement in American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) plasma and correlation with duration and difficulty of capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Wack, Raymund; Ziccardi, Michael; Larsen, R Scott; Hopper, Kate

    2012-09-01

    Capture myopathy and associated death have been reported with capture and restraint of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). In chickens (Gallus gallus), blood lactate concentration levels have been used as indicators of muscle damage. Lactate has also been used to predict survival in humans and dogs. The goals of this study were to validate two common methods for measuring lactate (i-STAT and VetTest analyzers) in flamingo plasma by comparing measurements to a reference analyzer; and to correlate blood lactate concentration levels in captured flamingos with the duration and difficulty of capture as a possible indicator of capture myopathy. Twenty-seven banked flamingo plasma samples were run in triplicate on each of the three blood analyzers. Values from the i-STAT analyzer were consistently lower than those from the ABL analyzer, while values from the VetTest were consistently higher than those from the ABL analyzer. However, there was a good level of correlation between all three analyzers. Two of the three analyzers were determined to have acceptable total allowable error levels, calculated at 3.6% for the ABL and 10.7% for the VetTest. For clinical purposes, both the i-STAT and the VetTest analyzers provide adequate evaluation of lactate levels when serial samples are measured on the same analyzer. After validating the assay, 34 captive flamingos were captured for routine examinations. Blood lactate concentration levels were positively correlated with the length of time of the individual capture, but lactate did not increase significantly as capture difficulty increased. Only one animal was considered to have a difficult capture. No flamingos demonstrated clinical signs of capture myopathy during this study. Further research is required to determine if blood lactate concentration is a useful indicator of capture myopathy.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09512-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Gallus varius isolate 167 TLR2A ge... 37 0.70 FJ915389_1( FJ915389 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii is...15431_1( FJ915431 |pid:none) Gallus gallus isolate 110 TLR2A ge... 37 0.70 FJ915387_1( FJ915387 |pid:none) Gallus lafaye

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04328-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone RP11-101H7, WORKI... 36 0.68 11 ( EF575697 ) Gallus gallus clone 1_inclTding_gaps....seq_Y Mx gen... 48 0.76 1 ( EF575696 ) Gallus gallus clone 1_inclTding_gaps.seq_X Mx gen... 48 0.76 ...1 ( EF575695 ) Gallus gallus clone 2_inclTding_gaps.seq_Y Mx gen... 48 0.76 1 ( EF575694 ) Gallus gallus clone 2_inclTding_gaps....seq_X Mx gen... 48 0.76 1 ( EF575693 ) Gallus gallus clone 3_inclTding_gaps....seq_Y Mx gen... 48 0.76 1 ( EF575692 ) Gallus gallus clone 3_inclTding_gaps.seq_X Mx gen... 4

  3. Patrones de expresión de Notch1, Serrate2 y genes diana de la vía Notch en prominencias faciales de embriones de pollo (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Belfran Alcides CARBONELL MEDINA

    2012-01-01

    La vía de señalización Notch desempeña un papel fundamental en diferentes etapas del desarrollo embrionario y está involucrada en diversos procesos celulares como apoptosis, proliferación, diferenciación, decisión de destino celular y mantenimiento de células indiferenciadas. Mutaciones en varios genes componentes de la vía Notch, como Notch1, Jagged2 (Serrate2) y Hes1 producen alteraciones en el desarrollo de estructuras craneofaciales como paladar, bóveda craneal y maxilares. El objetiv...

  4. Differential effects of prenatal chronic high-decibel noise and music exposure on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of the auditory cortex analog in developing chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Nag, T C; Sharma, U; Jagannathan, N R; Wadhwa, S

    2014-06-06

    Proper development of the auditory cortex depends on early acoustic experience that modulates the balance between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) circuits. In the present social and occupational environment exposure to chronic loud sound in the form of occupational or recreational noise, is becoming inevitable. This could especially disrupt the functional auditory cortex development leading to altered processing of complex sound and hearing impairment. Here we report the effects of prenatal chronic loud sound (110-dB sound pressure level (SPL)) exposure (rhythmic [music] and arrhythmic [noise] forms) on the molecular components involved in regulation of the E/I balance in the developing auditory cortex analog/Field L (AuL) in domestic chicks. Noise exposure at 110-dB SPL significantly enhanced the E/I ratio (increased expression of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit and glutamate with decreased expression of GABA(A) receptor gamma 2 subunit and GABA), whereas loud music exposure maintained the E/I ratio. Expressions of markers of synaptogenesis, synaptic stability and plasticity i.e., synaptophysin, PSD-95 and gephyrin were reduced with noise but increased with music exposure. Thus our results showed differential effects of prenatal chronic loud noise and music exposures on the E/I balance and synaptic function and stability in the developing auditory cortex. Loud music exposure showed an overall enrichment effect whereas loud noise-induced significant alterations in E/I balance could later impact the auditory function and associated cognitive behavior. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of fluoroquinolone resistance by mutation in gyrA gene of Campylobacter spp. isolates from broiler and laying (Gallus gallus domesticus hens,from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz da Silva Frasao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poultry are considered to be the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. bacteria, an important pathogen for humans. Many studies have reported a rapid selection of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains following the widespread use of these antimicrobials in poultry production and human medicine. The main mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter is a mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determinant Region (QRDR in the gyrA gene, which codes for the subunit of the enzyme DNA gyrase, the target for fluoroquinolone. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation in QRDR in the gyrA gene of Campylobacter strains previously isolated from broiler carcasses and feces of laying hens. Thirty-eight strains of C. jejuni and 19 C. coli strains (n=57, previously characterized as resistant to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin by the disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, were selected. For detection of the mutation, a fragment of 454pb QRDR in the gyrA gene was used for direct sequencing. All strains presented the QRDR mutation in the gyrA gene at codon 86 (Thr-86-Ile, which confers resistance to fluoroquinolones. Other known silent mutations were observed. This genotypic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter strains has confirmed the prior phenotypic detection of the resistance. The Thr-86-Ile mutation was observed in all samples confirming that this is the predominant mutation in enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistant strains of C. jejuni and C. coli.

  6. Effects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S; Everaert, N; Métayer-Coustard, S; Rideau, N; Berri, C; Joubert, R; Temim, S; Collin, A; Tesseraud, S

    2010-11-01

    In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized.

  7. Ammonia Production In Poultry Houses And Its Effect On The Growth Of Gallus Gallus Domestica Broiler Chickens A Case Study Of A Small Scale Poultry House In Riverside Kitwe Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sipalo Maliselo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chickens deaminate excess amino acids and excrete the derived nitrogen in the urine mainly as uric acid which is readily converted to ammonia. This gas has adverse effects on the health of chickens and air quality. Production of ammonia and its effect on the growth of chickens was monitored at a poultry house of House Number 5743 Mukuba Road in Riverside Kitwe from 21st August 2013 to 6th June 2014. Two batches of fifty day old hybrid broiler chicks were bred in house A and B 5 m x 7 m under the same management system in three phases. House A chicks were fed on Novatek feed only while those in house B were fed on Novatek feed blended with 0.5 0.7 and 0.9 ww bamboo charcoal of amp8804600m particle size. Weekly mass recording by the use of a weighing scale provided a measure of growth rate while analysis of the excreta using Kjeldahl method at the Copperbelt University and Nkana Water and Sewerage Company laboratories in Kitwe provided a means of monitoring the amount of ammonia generated. Chickens in house B showed a slightly faster growth rate from 28 to 42 days than those in house A. The f-test results from the study showed that there was a significant effect of ammonia concentration on chicken growth rate P0.05. The results obtained from excreta-litter mixture analysis showed a significant adsorption of ammonia by bamboo charcoal P0.05. The study further indicated a direct dependency of ammonia concentration in excreta on chicken age moisture content and pH.

  8. 免疫应激对肉鸡肠道微生物区系的影响%Effects of Different Immune Status on the Variation of Intestinal Microflora Community in Broiler Chickens(Gallus gallus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯焱; 杨小军; 胡雄兵; 刘烨; 尹瑞卿; 覃定奎; 姚军虎

    2012-01-01

    微生物区系的平衡是确保肠道健康的重点,本研究对不同免疫状态下肉仔鸡消化道内微生物变化规律进行了研究.选用180只AA肉公鸡随机分4个处理,每个处理5个重复,每个重复9只肉公鸡.实验分为无免疫组、常规免疫组、免疫亢进和免疫抑制4个处理组.于21、28、35和42日龄肠段的内容物,提取总DNA,并以此为模板获得反映肠道微生物群落结构特征的肠杆菌基因间重复序列-PCR(ERIC-PCR)指纹图谱,比较各DNA样品指纹图谱的相似性指数.ERIC-PCR扩增产物大部分为200~2 000 bp的基因片段,聚类分析显示,各日龄阶段,处理组间十二指肠细菌种群结构的相似性最高(75%),其次是盲肠(40%),回肠(39%)和空肠(38%)的相似性较低.图谱的条带数目为十二指肠>回肠>盲肠>空肠.28和35日龄,十二指肠和空肠脂多糖(LPS)组条带都低于21日龄,而回肠和盲肠的未见显著变化.21日龄,回肠环磷酰胺(CYP)组的条带低于其他处理组.不同免疫状态影响回肠、空肠和盲肠道微生物区系,42日龄,不同免疫状态对微生物数量和种群的影响不明显.%It focuses on the intestinal health that balances in microbial flora. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of gastrointestinal tract microflora in broilers raised under different immune status. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) was conducted to evaluate this effect in broilers. Treatments consisted of a negative control, general vaccination, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) + general vaccination and cyclophosphamide (CYP )+ general vaccination. On the age of 21, 28, 35 and 42 d, digesta of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected to assay for gut microflora. The results showed that the DNA fingerprinting of ERIC-PCR had high stability and repetition. The molecular weights of gene fragment were almost from 200 to 2 000 bp after ERIC-PCR amplification. Different immune stress affected gut microflora to different degrees, and as age varied, the dominant microflora correspondingly changed. The diversity of cecal microflora was mostly obvious in LPS+ general vaccination treatment and CYP+ general vaccination treatment. In the present study, based on cluster analysis, the similarity of gut microflora in negative control was relatively stable, and among all treatments, the similarity of duodenal microflora was up to 75%, followed by cecum (40%), jejunum (38%) and ileum (39%). Under different immune status, between LPS group and no vaccination group, the microbial number and distribution in jejunum were different, but there were no significant difference in ileum and cecum between LPS group and CYP group.

  9. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-03-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-03-0034 3 A Cannabinoids receptors CNR1_POEGU 0.0 98% ref|NP_001033741.1| canna...binoid receptor 1 (brain) [Gallus gallus] ref|XP_001233604.1| PREDICTED: cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain...) [Gallus gallus] 0.0 100% gnl|UG|Gga#S35716560 PREDICTED: Gallus gallus cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) (CNR...YALRSKDLRHAFRSMFPTCEGTAQPLDNSMESDCQHKHANNAGNVHRAAESCIKSTVKIAKVTMSVSTDTTAEAL ...

  10. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides), en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus).

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Rodríguez; Elias Carvajal; Catalina Álavarez

    2011-01-01

    El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) ha sido empleado en i...

  11. Bursa of Fabricius--mitotic index in the follicles of immunized and non-immunized chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, F; Borella, M I

    1979-01-01

    The mitotic index in the cortical compartment of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius from chicks immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) is always higher when compaired with non-immunized ones. This mitotic index reachs its maximum 6 days after the SRBC injection, coincident with the highest serum antibody titer. The mitotic activity in the cortex of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius is always higher than that of the medulla during the postembryonic development of chickens (PROCHAZKA, RODAK, KREJCI 1967). Otherwise it is almost established that the cortex is a zone of continuous lymphocyte proliferation, not occuring the same with the medulla. In addition these bursal histological structures are considered as 2 distinct compartments (GROSSI et al. 1974). The purpose of this paper is to study the response in the mitotic index of the cortical and medullary compartments of the follicles of the bursa of immunized and non-immunized chicks. To correlate possible changes in the mitotic index with circulating antibody levels, the serum antibody titer from the same birds was also recorded.

  12. A STUDY ON THE SEASONAL PREVALENCE OF RAILLIETINA TETRAGONA IN DOMESTIC CHICK (GALLUS DOMESTICUS) FROM WARANGAL REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH.

    OpenAIRE

    Achaiah.N; N.Vijaya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Raillietina tetragona, a helminth parasite was examined in domestic chick for a period of two annual cycles to determine the effects of seasonal variation on intensity and incidence of infection. The results show that the infection was more during summer followed by rainy and winter seasons. The infection was single or in association with other helminth parasites like Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina cesticillus and Ascardia galli. The results are discussed in relatio...

  13. Cyclooxygenases expression and distribution in the normal ovary and their role in ovarian cancer in the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Dale Buchanan; Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann Jaen; Ansenberger, Kristine; Mahon, Cassandra; Barua, Animesh; Luborsky, Judith L; Bahr, Janice M

    2008-06-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) (PTGS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1 and COX-2, which show distinct cell-specific expression and regulation. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and the disease is poorly understood due to the lack of suitable animal models. The laying hen spontaneously develops epithelial ovarian cancer with few or no symptoms until the cancer has progresses to a late stage, similar to the human disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative expression and distribution of COX-1 and COX-2 in the ovaries of normal hens and in hens with ovarian cancer. The results demonstrate that COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer and cortical interstitium, ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and postovulatory follicle (POF) of the normal ovary. In ovarian cancer, COX-1 mRNA was significantly increased and COX-1 protein was broadly distributed throughout the tumor stroma. COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle and the ovarian stroma. COX-2 mRNA expression did not change as a function of age or in ovarian cancer. There was significantly higher expression of COX-1 mRNA in the first POF (POF-1) compared to POF-2 and POF-3. COX-2 mRNA expression was not significantly different among POFs. There was no difference in COX-1 or COX-2 mRNA in the OSE isolated from individual follicles in the follicular hierarchy. The results confirm previous findings of the high expression of COX-1 in ovarian tumors further supporting the laying hen as a model for ovarian cancer, and demonstrate for the first time the high expression of COX-1 in POF-1 which is the source of prostaglandins needed for oviposition.

  14. Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, increases the bioavailability of micronutrients of Gallus domesticus (chicken eggshell: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Siddique

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of citrus flavonoid, hesperidin may inhibit the bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on the bioavailability of Ca, a probable reason to prevent bone loss. Citrus flavonoid (hesperidin in combination with citric acid and ascorbic acid was scrutinized to estimate the bioavailability of micronutrients from chicken egg shells using in vitro method. Effect of citric acid, ascorbic acid and hesperidin on the bioavailability of minerals (Zn, Fe and macro elements (Ca, Mg, P was evaluated and the amounts required to get maximum bioavailability were concluded. The highest bioavailability of Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn was 89.25 ± 2.13, 92.28 ± 1.87, 40.32 ± 3.09, 32.81 ± 1.24 and 46.19 ± 0.83%, respectively after the addition of 3 g of citric acid, 100 mg of ascorbic acid and 4 mg of hesperidin per gram of chicken eggshell powder. Citric acid greatly affects the bioavailability of Ca, Mg, P, and Zn, whereas addition of ascorbic acid enhances the bioavailability of Fe, and hesperidin boosts the bioavailability (p < 0.05 of all micronutrients of the chicken eggshells.

  15. Metabolic and organ mass responses to selection for high growth rates in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarzewski, M; Gavin, A; McDevitt, R; Wallis, I R

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should either lower the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a trade-off between the costs of growth and maintenance or increase RMR because of a buildup of metabolic machinery. Furthermore, some suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should reduce peak metabolic rate (PMR) through delayed tissue maturation and/or an increased energy allocation to organ growth. We studied this by comparing metabolic rates and organ sizes of fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) with those of birds from a laying strain, which grow much slower. During the first week of life, despite growing six times faster, the RMR of the broiler chickens was lower than that of birds of the laying strain. The difference between strains in RMR disappeared thereafter, even though broilers continued to grow twice as fast as layers. The differences between strains in growth rate during the first week after hatching were not reflected in similar differences in the relative masses of the heart, liver, and small intestine. However, broilers had heavier intestines once they reached a body mass of 80 g. In contrast, broilers had relatively smaller brains than did layers. There was a positive correlation, over both strains, between RMR and the masses of leg muscles, intestine, and liver. Furthermore, despite delayed maturation of muscle tissue, broilers exhibited significantly higher PMR. We hypothesize that a balance between the larger relative muscle mass but lower muscle maturation level explains this high PMR. Another correlation, between leg muscle mass and PMR, partly explained the positive correlation between RMR and PMR.

  16. Orexin and orexin receptor like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of Gallus domesticus: An immunohistochemical survey on presence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcamone, N; D'Angelo, L; de Girolamo, P; Lucini, C; Pelagalli, A; Castaldo, L

    2014-04-01

    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization and distribution of orexin A and B-like and their receptors-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of chicken. The immunoreactivity is distributed in endocrine cells, nerve fibers and neurons, both in the stomach and intestine, and shows a discrete conformity with the data till now reported for Mammals. Our study suggests a possible participation of orexin-like peptides in the modulation of chicken gastroenteric activities and the preservation of their main distribution compared to Mammals. Western blot analysis has confirmed the presence of prepro-orexin and both receptors in the examined tissues. This survey represents the first evidence of the presence of orexin-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of non mammalian species, and the results could help to better understand the alimentary control and body weight in domestic birds, which are of relevance to determine the productive factors in breeding animals. This study might also serve as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non mammalian Vertebrates.

  17. 原鸡与家鸡不同组合F1代屠宰性能及性状间相关性分析%Correlation Analysis between Carcass Characteristics and Body Size of the F1 Generation from Different Combinations for Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) and Gallus domesticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰珑; 郭子发; 万海龙; 陈粉粉; 李奇生

    2010-01-01

    [目的]为野生原鸡适时开发、家鸡遗传改良等提供实际指导意义.[方法]以原鸡滇南亚种 (♂)分别与原鸡(♀)、茶花鸡 (♀)、绿耳乌骨鸡(♀)、楚雄麻鸡(♀)不同组合的F1代(♂)为研究对象,测定其体型体尺性状、屠宰性能及进行相关性分析.[结果]体型体尺、屠宰性能在不同组合F1代间存在显著差异(P0.05),其余指标存在组间显著差异(P<0.05).就体型性状与产肉性状间的表型相关性而言,不同组合F1代间虽有不一致的表型相关系数,但总体表现为体斜长、胸骨长及胸围与产肉性状相关系数较大.[结论]体斜长、胸骨长及胸围为原鸡不同组合F1代产肉性能的主要决定因素.

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 ref|NP_001001876.1| basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate pr...oteoglycan core protein [Gallus gallus] emb|CAE51322.1| basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001001876.1 3e-34 65% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase [Gallus gallus] sp|P21872|PUR2...(GARS) (Glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase) (Phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetas...e); Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase (AIRS) (Phosphoribosyl-aminoimidazole synthetase) (AIR ...mide transformylase)] emb|CAA38120.1| glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase-amino...imidazole ribonucleotide synthetase-glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase [Gallus gallus] emb|CAA39779.1

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-05-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-05-0001 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 3e-64 52% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-19-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-19-0009 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 4e-69 53% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-09-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-09-0005 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-165 92% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0467 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0467 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 3e-88 61% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0312 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0312 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-123 66% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-17-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-17-0008 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-123 66% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0013 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 7e-66 51% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1006 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-137 75% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-06-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-06-0016 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-120 65% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-13-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-13-0034 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-124 68% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0788 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0788 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-120 52% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0270 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0270 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-07 34% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0056 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-117 54% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-04-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-04-0017 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-122 54% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2986 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2986 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-139 70% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0296 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-119 54% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-17-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-17-0030 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-113 52% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-10-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-10-0005 ref|NP_989870.1| hole [Gallus gallus] sp|Q8QFN3|TM121_CHICK Trans...membrane protein 121 (Protein hole) gb|AAM08318.1|AF488728_1 hole [Gallus gallus] NP_989870.1 5e-63 44% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-17-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-17-0001 ref|NP_989870.1| hole [Gallus gallus] sp|Q8QFN3|TM121_CHICK Trans...membrane protein 121 (Protein hole) gb|AAM08318.1|AF488728_1 hole [Gallus gallus] NP_989870.1 1e-122 67% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1095 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1095 ref|XP_001231930.1| PREDICTED: similar to claudin 14b [Gallus gal...lus] ref|XP_001231960.1| PREDICTED: similar to claudin 14b [Gallus gallus] XP_001231930.1 6e-34 37% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2792 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2792 ref|NP_001076830.1| tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, m...ember 11 [Gallus gallus] gb|ABN69113.1| tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 [Gallus gallus] NP_001076830.1 5.0 32% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0391 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-154 76% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-16-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-16-0002 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-100 54% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-17-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0052 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-117 60% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-13-0068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-13-0068 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-100 54% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-05-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-05-0010 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 0.0 97% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0684 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0684 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 3e-44 55% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-08-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-08-0014 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-178 87% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0092 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0092 ref|NP_001120643.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like pro...tein [Gallus gallus] gb|ABW96907.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like protein precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001120643.1 1e-129 67% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-01-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-01-0027 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-104 58% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-22-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-22-0015 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-103 56% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0068 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-101 55% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1879 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1879 ref|NP_001120643.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like pro...tein [Gallus gallus] gb|ABW96907.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like protein precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001120643.1 1e-129 68% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-15-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-15-0002 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-100 56% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-1665 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-1665 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-138 69% ...

  15. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-32 45% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  16. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0424 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-34 50% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  17. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-18 37% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  18. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0200 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 6e-14 47% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-03-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-03-0025 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-113 51% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-27-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-27-0002 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 0.0 99% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-12-0013 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-114 50% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0819 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0819 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-109 51% ...

  3. A new chicken genome assembly provides insight into avian genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing t...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-17-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-17-0019 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-151 61% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-24-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-24-0030 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-140 72% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-02-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-02-0002 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-107 51% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0609 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0609 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-155 61% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-24-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-24-0031 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-165 65% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-01-0089 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-01-0089 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-100 46% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0592 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0592 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-159 63% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-20-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-20-0009 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-156 63% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-06-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-06-0003 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-159 63% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-02-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-02-0003 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 0.0 98% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0975 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0975 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-149 66% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-02-0024 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-02-0024 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 7e-45 52% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-03-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-03-0001 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-149 61% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-02-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-02-0007 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-101 43% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0121 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0121 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 0.0 74% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2986 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2986 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-107 55% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0260 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0260 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-100 44% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-03-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-03-0016 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 8e-85 40% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-1768 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-1768 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 0.0 78% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-21-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-21-0004 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-160 64% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-04-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-04-0017 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-117 50% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0865 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0865 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-172 79% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-04-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-04-0015 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 0.0 89% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-15-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-15-0003 ref|NP_001090992.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 [Gal...lus gallus] gb|ABP58689.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide type I receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001090992.1 1e-149 61% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2480 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 85% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0266 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0266 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 82% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0187 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0187 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 83% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1246 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1246 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 1e-129 91% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0010 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 79% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0101 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0101 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 4e-57 36% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0549 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0549 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 84% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-17-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-17-0028 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 85% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-02-0028 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 1e-166 84% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-02-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-02-0007 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 99% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-03-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-03-0027 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 86% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-04-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-04-0019 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 1e-173 94% ...

  20. In vitro studies of theophylline-induced changes in Na, K and Cl transport in hen (Gallus domesticus) colon suggesting bidirectional, basolateral NaK2Cl cotransport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G; Munck, L K;

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated mucosa from a NaCl-loaded hen theophylline stimulates both unidirectional chloride fluxes (JmsCl and JsmCl). Conductive and electroneutral exchange processes, besides a bumetanide-sensitive, rheogenic process contribute. 2. The bumetanide-sensitive fraction of the theophylline......-induced delta JcmCl is sodium-dependent. 3. Incubation in nominally K(+)-free solutions reduces the bumetanide-sensitive fraction delta JsmCl more than treatment with ouabain. 4. With respect to chloride the bumetanide-sensitive fraction of delta JsmCl has a Hill coefficient of 1.93 +/- 0.03, a Jmax of 12...

  1. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  2. Efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Balthazar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas. Foram utilizadas 18 galinhas, com aproximadamente 70 semanas de idade e peso corpóreo médio de 2,5kg. Criou-se uma falha óssea na porção diafisária média da ulna em ambas as asas, sendo a direita utilizada como grupo-controle (grupo I e a esquerda como grupo-tratado (grupo II. As aves foram subdivididas aleatoriamente em quatro subgrupos de acordo com o período de observação (14, 35, 60 e 90 dias. No grupo II, dois fragmentos ósseos da carena do esterno foram retirados, seccionados e implantados na falha óssea. Ao término do período de observação de cada subgrupo, as aves foram abatidas com tiopental sódico para realização dos exames histopatológico e radiográfico post-mortem, com classificação dos resultados em escala semiquantitativa (escore. O grupo II demonstrou osteogênese mais evidente aos 35 e 90 dias de pós-cirúrgico (P<0,05. Ao comparar os grupos I e II, sem levar-se em consideração o tempo de observação, foi possível observar que houve diferença estatística significativa (P<0,05. Conclui-se que o enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso demonstra potencial osteogênico satisfatório na espécie estudada, entretanto retarda o tempo de remodelação óssea quando aplicado sobre falhas estáveis pequenas.

  3. Prevalence of the gastro-intestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 in Tunisia according to the agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2016-09-01

    Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Recovered nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %).

  4. Acción de los Carbamatos en Sangre Periférica y Órganos Hematopoyéticos del Gallus Domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Greiff Sonia

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de analizar los efectos que pudieran tener los pesticidas metilados sobre los órganos hematopoyéticos y la sangre circulante de las aves, se llevó a cabo un estudio en treinta gallinas "Cobb Hardy Concord" provenientes del cruce Rhode Island roja x Rhode Island blanca.

  5. Algumas características morfológicas segmentares da parede da aorta de galo doméstico (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Medeiros de Mello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura segmentar da parede aórtica foi estudada em galo doméstico, em níveis torácico e abdominal, nas dimensões de microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Secções histológicas selecionadas foram submetidas a estudos histomorfométricos usando métodos de análises de imagens. As variáveis analisadas foram as espessuras das túnicas da parede aórtica em três segmentos investigados, compreendendo as porções ascendente torácica; descendente torácica e abdominal, bem como os diâmetros tubulares, em cada porção, e o número médio de lamelas elásticas na túnica média de cada segmento analisado. A parede aórtica do galo doméstico apresenta estrutura predominantemente elástica nas porções torácicas, cujo número relativo de lamelas elásticas decresce gradualmente para a parte abdominal da aorta, onde células musculares lisas predominam. Os diâmetros aórticos decrescem também gradualmente, e progressivamente, da porção torácica ascendente para a porção torácica descendente, e desta para a porção abdominal da aorta.

  6. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus: morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohfuji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.

  7. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  8. Caracterización parcial de inmunoglobulinas G (IGy específicas contra la lectina de Salvia bogotensis a partir de huevos de gallina (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Gerardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de yemas de huevos de gallinas inoculadas con la lectina presente en Salvia bogotensis, se ensayaron seis métodos de delipidación y extracción de anticuerpos de gallina (IgY. Se escogió la metodología por dilución con agua para continuar con la purificación de anticuerpos,
    debido a la remoción total de los lípidos de la yema y la alta actividad de las IgY contra la lectina de S. bogotensis. Para la purificación de anticuerpos se utilizaron diferentes métodos cromatográficos: cromatografía de intercambio iónico (DEAE Sephacel, hidrofóbica (Fenil Sepharosa 4B, exclusión molecular (Sephacryl S-200 y S-500, tiofílica (T-gel. Se escogió la cromatografía tiofílica ya que permitió la purificación de anticuerpos, para luego continuar con la caracterización de estos (peso molecular de las IgY y sus subunidades, cantidad de carbohidratos totales, punto isoeléctrico, interacción de las IgY con diferentes lectinas de leguminosas. Los valores de peso molecular del anticuerpo y sus subunidades concordaron con los reportes de la literatura. También se determinó el título de la población de IgY con un valor bastante alto en comparación al título de anticuerpos específicos dirigidos contra otro tipo de antígeno. Debido al bajo rendimiento de la cromatografía tiofílica se realizó una cromatografía de afinidad indirecta sobre aMSB Sepharosa 4B con el fin de purificar IgY específicos y continuar con los ensayos de caracterización. Aunque se obtuvieron fracciones eluídas de esta columna no se detectó proteína. Como alternativa para la purificación de anticuerpos se utilizó un soporte de Sephacryl S-200 a alta fuerza iónica. De esta cromatografía se obtuvieron anticuerpos parcialmente puros. Con
    esta fracción de anticuerpo se determinó la cantidad de carbohidratos totales, valor que se encontróalgo alejado al reportado en literatura, mientras el punto isoeléctrico de las IgY se encontró en los rangos de pH reportados. Por ensayo de ELISA no se encontraron interacciones
    inespecíficas entre las IgY y diferentes lectinas de leguminosas. Además, se purificó lectina de S. bogotensis para los diferentes inmunoensayos realizados.

  9. Analisis D-loop DNA Mitokondria untuk Memposisikan Ayam Hutan Merah dalam Domestikasi Ayam di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulandari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The current poultry is a domesticated chickens used for both meat and egg production. Pedigree investigation is an important part to understand the process of chicken domestication in Indonesia. Molecular DNA approach using D-loop Mitochondrial DNA marker (hypervariable 1 segment was used in this analysis. The objective of the study was to construct the pedigree analysis of Indonesian chicken. Four hundreds and eighty four (434 samples belonging to 15 breeds of Indonesian local chicken (Cemani, Kedu, Kedu Putih, Pelung, Sentul, Wareng, Merawang, Kapas, Kate, Arab Silver, Arab Gold, Gaok, Nunukan, Kalosi and Tolaki and 9 samples of Red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus gallus were extracted, PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. Four sequence references from GeneBank, Gallus gallus (NCBI, accession number AB0986688. G. gallus (GenBank accession number AB098668, G. gallus spadiceus (GenBank accession number AB007721, and G. gallus bankiva (GenBank accession number AB007718 were included in this analysis. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. The results show that 72 haplotypes were identified from 56 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Indonesian chicken have a close relationship with 2 subspecies of Gallus gallus (G. gallus gallus and G. gallus spadiceus. Our results suggest that D-loop region is highly variable in Indonesian chicken with large number of haplotypes.

  10. presence of cryptococcus species in domestic chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-25

    May 25, 2009 ... Conclusion: Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) harbor Pathogenic ... diseases from domestic Chickens for example avian ... emerged as the major cause of death in HIV/AIDS .... The mechanism by which the birds' excreta get.

  11. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 242 ... ID Jatau, A Abdulganiyu, AI Lawal, OO Okubanjo, KH Yusuf ... (Gallus gallus domesticus) experimentally infected with velogenic ... Vol 12, No 3 (2014), Infection of dogs with Babesia canis in Gwagwalada metropolis of ...

  13. Genome-wide gene expression surveys and a transcriptome map in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, H.

    2010-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology, evolutionary research, and agricultural science. The completeness of the draft chicken genome sequence provided new possibilities to study genomic changes during evolution by comparing the chic

  14. AcEST: BP919492 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tase OS=Chlamydia pneum... 33 0.48 sp|Q5QJC2|DCR1C_CHICK Protein artemis OS=Gallus gallus GN=DCLRE1... 33 0....DREGLGYQEYV 72 >sp|Q5QJC2|DCR1C_CHICK Protein artemis OS=Gallus gallus GN=DCLRE1C PE=2 SV=1 Length = 714 Sco

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11444-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available affinis Toll-7 (Toll-7)... 40 0.53 FJ915436_1( FJ915436 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii isolate 605 TLR3 ... 40...915435 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii isolate 149 TLR3 ... 39 0.69 FJ915460_1( FJ915460 |pid:none) Gallus sonne...one) Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-... 39 0.69 FJ915433_1( FJ915433 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii isolate 54

  16. AcEST: DK955951 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GN... 35 0.28 sp|A3R064|DOK3_CHICK Docking protein 3 OS=Gallus gallus GN=DOK3 ... 35 0.28 sp|Q6J4I0|PPR1B_R...FILQIAEKEQEL 193 >sp|A3R064|DOK3_CHICK Docking protein 3 OS=Gallus gallus GN=DOK3 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 426 Sco

  17. Efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas (Gallus domesticus Effect of cortico-cancellous bone grafting in osteogenisis of cortical ulnar failure of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Balthazar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas. Foram utilizadas 18 galinhas, com aproximadamente 70 semanas de idade e peso corpóreo médio de 2,5kg. Criou-se uma falha óssea na porção diafisária média da ulna em ambas as asas, sendo a direita utilizada como grupo-controle (grupo I e a esquerda como grupo-tratado (grupo II. As aves foram subdivididas aleatoriamente em quatro subgrupos de acordo com o período de observação (14, 35, 60 e 90 dias. No grupo II, dois fragmentos ósseos da carena do esterno foram retirados, seccionados e implantados na falha óssea. Ao término do período de observação de cada subgrupo, as aves foram abatidas com tiopental sódico para realização dos exames histopatológico e radiográfico post-mortem, com classificação dos resultados em escala semiquantitativa (escore. O grupo II demonstrou osteogênese mais evidente aos 35 e 90 dias de pós-cirúrgico (PThe aim of this survey was to evaluate the effect of cortico-cancellous bone grafting in osteogenesis in cortical ulnar failure in domestic chickens. Eighteen chickens weighing 2.5kg with approximately 70 weeks of age were used. A bone defect in the middle portion of the ulna shaft was created in both wings; the right wing in the control group (Group I and the left in the treated group (Group II. The birds were randomly divided into four subgroups according to the observation period (14, 35, 60 and 90 days. In group II, two bone fragments of the keel of the sternum were removed, sectioned and implanted in the bone defects. At the end of the observation period for each subgroup, the birds were euthanaized with sodium thiopental to perform the histopathological and radiographic postmortem, with ranking of results in a semi-quantitative scale (score. Group II showed a more evident osteogenisis at 35 and 90 days after surgery (P<0.05. In comparing both groups, without time observation, there was statistical difference (P<0.05. In conclusion, the cortico-cancellous bone graft demonstrated satisfactory osteogenic potential in the specie studied, however, it delays the bone remodeling time when applied in stable small failures.

  18. Prevalencija i patološke promjene uzrokovane trakavicom Raillietina cesticillus u domaće kokoši (Gallus gallus domesticus) u himalajskom području Kašmira s umjerenim podnebljem – kratko priopćenje

    OpenAIRE

    T. Salam, Sheikh; S. Mir, Masood; R. Khan, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    U radu je prikazana prevalencija trakavice Raillietina cesticillus u domaće kokoši na području Kašmirske doline u razdoblju od siječnja 2005. do prosinca 2006. Ukupno je pretraženo 478 kokoši različite dobi i spola. Kokoši su nasumično sakupljene na području 10 sela. Za svaku je kokoš zabilježen klinički, parazitološki i patoanatomski nalaz. Istraživanjem je dokazano da je 23,22% (111/478) kokoši bilo invadirano istom trakavicom. U nekih životinja osim ove trakavice dokazane su i druge trakav...

  19. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  20. The mutual relations of structures in the growing bill of chick (Gallus domesticus L.) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.) Embryos. IV. The size, shape, and position of the upper and lower bills in unilaterally microphthalmic duck embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouterlood, F G

    1977-10-01

    Unilaterally microphthalmic duck (DUM) embryos studied in stage 39 were obtained by damaging the right eye in stage 17. The development between stages 19 and 39 was observed in samples. After prolonged incubation, one duck hatched and reached adulthood. In DUM embryos partial crossbeak develops. Both the upper and lower bills deviate lateralwards, the upper bill more than the lower. In stage 39 a small orbit is present on the treated side. In stained and cleared heads most of the elements of the skull (the bones surrounding the orbit, the brain-case, and the upper and lower bill elements) are translated in the direction of the rudimentary orbit on the treated side. The bills are twisted around each other at the tip. Measurements of external dimensions as well as those made in stained and cleared stage-39 DUM heads show elongation of the left part of the lower bill. Except for the crossed bills, the changes found in the embryos persisted in the adult. The findings support a hypothesis concerning the mutual influence of bills during morphogenesis. The coherence of the functional cranial components in the embryo is discussed.

  1. Microspectrophotometrical Studies of the Hypophysis in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus) : III. Variation of PAS Positive Materials Contained in the Adenohypophysis of White Leghorn Cocks Following the Hypothalamic Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Takahara, Hitoshi

    1980-01-01

    It is well recognized that gonadotropic function of the adenohypophysis is regulated by the hypothalamus in the domestic fowl. The present study deals with cytological changes of the adenohypophysis and the quantitative variation of PAS positive contents in the gland following the hypothalamic lesion in the White Leghorn cocks. Adenohypophysis, testes and the accessory organ weights were markedly decreased after the electrolytic lesion involving the basal tuberal or posterior median eminence ...

  2. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte.

  3. Caracterización morfométrica de la gallina de cuello desnudo (Gallus domesticus nudecollis en la región ch'ortí de Chiquimula, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jáuregui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfométrica, faneróptica y morfológicamente a gallinas y gallos de cuello desnudo (324 hembras y 60 machos en los cuatro municipios de la región ch’ortí de Chiquimula. Las variables evaluadas fueron 18 cuantitativas para la hembra y 16 para el macho, nueve cualitativas y ocho índices zoométricos. El análisis delas variables zoométricas se realizó a través del procedimiento análisis univariado, con medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión, y para analizar la proporcionalidad y armonía entre las diversas regiones corporales mediante la correlación de Pearson. Los resultados principales son: peso de 1.84 kg/hembra y 2.29 kg/macho; alzada 27.84 cm/hembra y 32.51 cm/macho; metatarso 10.25 cm/hembra y 11.76 cm/macho; ambos tienen más alzada que longitud, inclinados hacia adelante; en cuanto a sus perímetros, el abdominal es el mayor y curvado característica de las gallinas ponedoras y una grupa alargada con dorso plano. Sus índices corporales son aves alargadas, con capacidad reproductiva (índice pélvico 71.82% y poca formación de músculo para la producción de carne (índice compacidad 6.80%/hembra y 7.03%/macho, cabeza alargada, tórax elíptico y miembros fuertes y altos. Las características morfológicas y fanerópticas describen un ave de piel blanca, metatarso amarillo, plumas en garganta, cresta simple con barbilla y orejuelas, los colores de pluma son la combinación de marrón, negro, gris y blanco, el color de la cáscara varia del blanco al marrón claro y con una armonización corporal hasta del 61% lo que le da una homogeneidad medianamente aceptable a la morfoestructura de la gallina.

  4. Investigasi Asal Usul Ayam Indonesia Menggunakan Sekuens Hypervariable-1 D-loop DNA Mitokondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Syamsul Arifin Zein

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chicken taxonomy and pedigree investigation are important parts to understand the domesticationprocess occurred on chicken in Indonesia. The Indonesian native chickens have very different clade with thechickens from other Asian countries and others. This study was conducted to construct phylogeny junglefowls (red and green jungle fowls and Indonesian native chickens, in order to know their relationship.Among the available DNA marker, the region D-loop on DNA mitochondria is the most effective markerused in the investigation. Mitochondrial DNA D-loop (hypervariable-1 segment was PCR amplified andsubsequently sequenced for a total 33 individuals of green jungle fowls (Gallus varius, 9 individuals of redjungle fowls (Gallus g. gallus from Indonesia, and 30 individuals of Indonesian native chickens (Lombok,Cemani, Kedu, Kedu Putih, Nunukan, Kate, Pelung, Gaok, Merawang, dan Sentul. Seventy two (72sequences were used for analysis. Seven (7 published reference D-loop sequences of genus Gallus fromGenBank were also included in the analysis: Gallus varius (GenBank accession number D64163 danD82912, Gallus gallus (GenBank accession number AB098668, G. gallus spadiceus (GenBank accessionnumber AB007721, Gallus gallus bankiva (GenBank accession number AB007718, Gallus lafayetti(GenBank accession number D66893, and Gallus sonneratii (GenBank accession number D66892. Phylogenyanalysis indicates that Indonesia jungle fowls can be grouped into two clades (clades of red jungle fowls/Indonesia native chicken and green jungle fowls. Monophyletic phylogeny trees of jungle fowls from Indonesiawere shown in this study for pedigree investigation of domesticated chickens.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09224-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( AF128118 |pid:none) Mus musculus autoimmune regulator ... 46 0.002 AE013599_49(... AE013599 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromosom... 46 0.002 AF128120_1( AF128120 |pid:none) Mus musculus autoimmune...nome sequenc... 42 0.033 AF128116_1( AF128116 |pid:none) Mus musculus autoimmune ...4_1( EU030004 |pid:none) Gallus gallus autoimmune regulator... 40 0.21 EU030005_1...( EU030005 |pid:none) Gallus gallus autoimmune regulator... 40 0.21 ( Q12873 ) RecName: Full=Chromodomain-he

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO WenBin; CHEN GuoHong; LI BiChun; WU XinSheng; SHU JingTing; WU ShengLong; XU Qi; Steffen WEIGEND

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 568 individuals of two red jungle fowl subspe-cies (Gallus gallus spadiceus in China and Gallus gallus gallus in Thailand) and 14 Chinese domestic chicken breeds were evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within population and genetic differentiation among population were estimated, and then genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls. A total of 286 alleles were detected in 16 population with 29 microsatellite markers and the average number of the alleles observed in 29 microsatellite loci was 9.86±6.36. The overall expected heterozygosity of all population was 0.6708±0.0251, and the number of population deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium per locus ranged from 0 to 7. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population, measured as FST value, was 16.7% (P<0.001), and all loci contributed significantly (P<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.015) (P<0.01). Reynolds' distance values varied between 0.036 (Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair) and 0.330 (G gallus gallus-Gushi chicken pair). The Nm value ranged from 0.533 (between G gallus gallus and Gushi chicken) to 5.833 (between Xiaoshan chicken and Luyuan chicken). An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and the Reynolds' genetic distance. The heavy-body sized chicken breeds, Luyuan chicken, Xiaoshan chicken, Beijing Fatty chicken, Henan Game chicken, Huainan Partridge and Langshan chicken formed one branch, and it had a close genetic relationship between Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair and Chahua chicken-Tibetan chicken pair. Chahua chicken and Tibetan chicken had closer genetic relationship with these two subspecies of red jungle fowl than other domestic chicken breeds. G gallus spadiceus showed closer phylogenetic

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steffen; WEIGEND

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 568 individuals of two red jungle fowl subspe- cies (Gallus gallus spadiceus in China and Gallus gallus gallus in Thailand) and 14 Chinese domestic chicken breeds were evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within population and genetic differentiation among population were estimated, and then genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls. A total of 286 alleles were detected in 16 population with 29 microsatellite markers and the average number of the alleles observed in 29 microsatellite loci was 9.86±6.36. The overall expected heterozygosity of all population was 0.6708±0.0251, and the number of population deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium per locus ranged from 0 to 7. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population, measured as FST value, was 16.7% (P<0.001), and all loci contributed significantly (P<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.015) (P<0.01). Reynolds’ distance values varied between 0.036 (Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair) and 0.330 (G. gallus gallus-Gushi chicken pair). The Nm value ranged from 0.533 (between G. gallus gallus and Gushi chicken) to 5.833 (between Xiaoshan chicken and Luyuan chicken). An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and the Reynolds’ genetic distance. The heavy-body sized chicken breeds, Luyuan chicken, Xiaoshan chicken, Beijing Fatty chicken, Henan Game chicken, Huainan Partridge and Langshan chicken formed one branch, and it had a close genetic relationship between Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair and Chahua chicken-Tibetan chicken pair. Chahua chicken and Tibetan chicken had closer genetic relationship with these two subspecies of red jungle fowl than other domestic chicken breeds. G. gallus spadiceus showed closer phylogenetic

  8. Data for chicken semen proteome and label free quantitative analyses displaying sperm quality biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, Valérie; Grasseau, Isabelle; Cahier, Karine; Gargaros, Audrey; Harichaux, Grégoire; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Alves, Sabine; Bourin, Marie; Gérard, Nadine; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of biology of the avian male gamete is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performances in farming. In this study, the semen proteome of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus) and evaluation of the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated using GeLC-MS/MS approach and label-free quantitative proteomic based on Spectral Counting (SC) and extracted ion chromatograms (XIC) methods. Here we describe in details the peptide/protein inventory of chicken ejaculated spermatozoa (SPZ) and seminal plasma (SP). We also show differential analyses of chicken semen (SPZ and corresponding SP) from 11 males demonstrating different levels of fertilizing capacity and sperm motility. The interpretation and description of these data can be found in a research article published by Labas and colleagues in the Journal of Proteomics in 2014 [1]. This is a new resource for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilizing capacity and to reveal new sets of fertility biomarkers.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00933-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF012348 |pid:none) Gallus gallus smooth muscle gamma ... 51 1e-05 AF434716_1( AF434716 |pid:none) Frankl...iniella occidentalis actin g... 51 1e-05 ( Q93129 ) RecName: Full=Actin, cytoplasmi

  10. Familiarity interferes with filial imprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanKampen, HS; deVos, GJ

    1996-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate whether and how pre-exposure to an object affects subsequent filial imprinting to that object. In Experiment 1 junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were first exposed to either a red object alone (control group), or a red and a yellow object

  11. A framework for the study of filial imprinting and the development of attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanKampen, HS

    Filial imprinting is the process through which early attachment behavior becomes restricted to the mother and siblings. In the present paper it will be shown that the processes underlying imprinting in chicks (Gallus gallus) can be fruitfully analyzed by referring to the same mechanisms as are

  12. Gene : CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 Novel UN D UNKNOWN PGBM_HUMAN 3e-25 49% ref|NP_001001876.1| basemen...t membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein [Gallus gallus] emb|CAE51322.1| basement mem

  13. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, M.; Robertson, L.B.; Tempest, H.G.; Langley, E.J.; Ioannou, D.; Fowler, K.E.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus) genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, w

  14. Polymorphic microsatellites developed by cross-species amplifications in common pheasant breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baratti, M.; Alberti, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Veenendaal, T.; Fulgheri, F.D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability was analysed in two common breeds of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) by means of cross-species amplifications of microsatellite loci: 154 chicken, Gallus gallus and 32 turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, primers were tested for amplification of pheasant DNA. Thirty-six primers (2

  15. Dicty_cDB: CFH577 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Intestinal Lymphocyte Gallus gallus cDNA clone 1GAL_17H10 5', mRNA sequence. 42 3e-05 3 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor... 191 4e-47 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor ... 190 7e-47 AY847462_1( AY847

  16. Dicty_cDB: SFI140 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EQCHN59 Gallus gallus cDNA clone ChEST370a22 5', mRNA sequence. 42 0.28 2 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor...genase family 7 member A1... 110 3e-23 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor

  17. Dicty_cDB: CFF324 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hocyte Gallus gallus cDNA clone 1GAL_17H10 5', mRNA sequence. 42 3e-05 3 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor...883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor ... 222 2e-56 AK297365_1( AK297365 |pid:none) Homo sapie

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02735-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5_Sp6.1 CH261 Gallus gallus genomic clo... 46 1.5 1 ( DY772584 ) 5TH_new05_I09 Bicyclus anynana wings - 5TH ...instar... 46 1.5 1 ( DY771907 ) 5TH_new03_L08 Bicyclus anynana wings - 5TH instar... 46 1.5 1 ( AZ684495 ) E

  19. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 Q92178|CAN2_CHICK Calpain-2 catalytic subunit precursor (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) - Gallus gallus (Chicken) 0 ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-06-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-06-0002 sp|Q4JIM4|PSN1_CHICK Presenilin-1 (PS-2) [Contains: Presenilin-1 NTF subunit; Prese...nilin-1 CTF subunit] gb|AAY85979.1| presenilin 1 [Gallus gallus] Q4JIM4 2e-55 60% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-06-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-06-0037 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 70% ...

  2. Detailed histopathologic characterization of the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) chick phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Fischer, A.; Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Kiupel, M.; Grip, W.J. de; Sherry, D.; Cho, S.S.; Shaw, G.C.; Evans, M.G.; Hocking, P.; Petersen-Jones, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphological abnormalities in the retinas of chicks (Gallus gallus) suffering from the autosomal recessive disease, retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge/rge). METHODS: rge/rge affected and age matched control retinas were examined from hatch up

  3. A STUDY OF BLOCKING AND OVERSHADOWING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; DEVOS, GJ

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of blocking and overshadowing in filial imprinting was investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). When subjects were exposed to a novel object in the presence of a familiar one, imprinting on the novel object was impaired in one of two experimental groups (Experiment

  4. Estimating the Public Health Impact of Setting Targets at the European Level for the Reduction of Zoonotic Salmonella in Certain Poultry Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Hugas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union (EU, targets are being set for the reduction of certain zoonotic Salmonella serovars in different animal populations, including poultry populations, within the framework of Regulation (EC No. 2160/2003 on the control of zoonoses. For a three-year transitional period, the EU targets were to cover only Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (and in addition S. Hadar, S. Infantis and S. Virchow for breeding flocks of Gallus gallus. Before the end of that transitional period, the revision of the EU targets was to be considered, including the potentially addition of other serovars with public health significance to the permanent EU targets. This review article aims at providing an overview of the assessments carried out by the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards of the European Food Safety Authority in the field of setting targets for Salmonella in poultry populations (breeding flocks of Gallus gallus, laying flocks of Gallus gallus, broiler flocks of Gallus gallus and flocks of breeding and fattening turkeys and their impact in subsequent changes in EU legislation.

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK062179 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062179 001-046-D07 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 1e-114 +3 ...

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK060428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060428 001-011-A02 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 1e-113 +3 ...

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK108888 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108888 002-152-E02 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 1e-113 +3 ...

  8. GenBank blastx search result: AK105049 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105049 001-041-F06 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 7e-11 +2 ...

  9. GenBank blastn search result: AK062179 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062179 001-046-D07 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 8e-11 Plus Minus ...

  10. GenBank blastn search result: AK121567 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121567 J033034P13 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 8e-11 Plus Minus ...

  11. AcEST: BP918949 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P+ T Sbjct: 16 PIDFSRSLIAPTAIKQESHLIPSTPGT--PTAFQPPQHANT 54 >sp|Q5F3R2|JAD1B_CHICK Histone demethylase JARI...D1B OS=Gallus gallus GN=jarid1b PE=2 SV=1 Length = 1522 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect = 7.8 Identities = 16

  12. A STUDY OF BLOCKING AND OVERSHADOWING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; DEVOS, GJ

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of blocking and overshadowing in filial imprinting was investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). When subjects were exposed to a novel object in the presence of a familiar one, imprinting on the novel object was impaired in one of two experimental groups (Experiment

  13. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-09-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-09-0012 gnl|UG|Gga#S6698203 pnl1s.pk003.f8 chicken liver cDNA library Gallus gallus cDNA clone pnl...1s.pk003.f8 5' similar to histidine-rich glycoprotein - bovine (fragments), mRNA sequence /clone=pnl

  14. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0364 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0364 gnl|UG|Gga#S21400299 PREDICTED: Gallus gallus similar to Pro-Pol-dUTPas...e polyprotein; RNaseH; dUTPase; integrase; protease; reverse transcriptase (LOC420305), mRNA /cds=p(113,1546) /gb=XM_429751 /gi=118087429 /ug=Gga.45410 /len=2120 5e-29 96% ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14079-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 05592 |pid:none) Lilium martagon PISTILLATA-like pr... 34 3.2 BC163769_1( BC163769 |pid:none) Danio rerio zg... AJ720338 |pid:none) Gallus gallus mRNA for hypothetica... 34 3.2 DQ005592_1( DQ0

  16. AcEST: DK962074 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C93|SSPO_CHICK SCO-spondin OS=Gallus gallus GN=SSPO PE=2 SV=1 31 6.4 sp|O88778|BSN_RAT Protein bassoon...QPCSGSF 4630 >sp|O88778|BSN_RAT Protein bassoon OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Bsn PE=1

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15480-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 2 ( BU144629 ) 603162365F1 CSEQCHL26 Gallus gallus cDNA clone Ch... 52 5e-05 2 ( CD668990 ) eef1c.pk002.n10 eef1c Eucalyptus tereti...cornis cDN... 54 5e-05 2 ( BU332160 ) 603868889F1 CSEQCH

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-01-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-01-0044 ref|NP_990807.1| Na,K-ATPase alpha-2-subunit [Gallus gallus] sp|P...K(+) ATPase alpha-2 subunit) gb|AAA48981.1| Na,K-ATPase alpha-2-subunit NP_990807.1 0.0 49% ...

  19. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-04-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-04-0023 gnl|UG|Gga#S21397971 PREDICTED: Gallus gallus similar to chloride channel 5 (nephrolithias...is 2, X-linked, Dent disease) (LOC422285), mRNA /cds=p(1,2829) /gb=XM_420265 /gi=118089512 /ug=Gga.39350 /len=3963 4e-83 71% ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01-1... 38 2.8 3 ( AC151438 ) Carollia perspicillata clone 438K12, WORKING DRAF... 38 2.9 2 ( AL356122 ) Hum...603805715F1 CSEQCHN57 Gallus gallus cDNA clone Ch... 42 5.6 2 ( AC151628 ) Carollia perspicillata clone 544P

  1. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillier, L.W.; Miller, W.; Birney, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Aerts, J.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome—composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence

  2. Courtship food-calling in Burmese red junglefowl .2. Sexual conditioning and the role of the female

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanKampen, HS

    1997-01-01

    Male Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) generally perform food-calling during courtship, both with edible and inedible objects. It is proposed that males perform food-calling when they want to attract, or want contact with, a female. This predicts that males are likely to perform food-

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFH472 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 164 4e-39 AB178529_1( AB178529 |pid:none) Gallus gallus mRNA for DNA polymer... 163 9e-39 AB178526_1( AB178526 |pid:none) Trachem...ys scripta mRNA for DNA pol... 163 1e-38 ( P09884 ) RecName: Full=DNA polymerase al

  4. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  5. AcEST: BP920682 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ICK Membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing protein 2 OS=Gallus gallus GN=mboat2 PE=2 SV=1 Length...182 >sp|Q3T1J2|MBOA2_RAT Membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing protein 2 OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Mboat

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHM664 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R354088 |CR354088.1 Gallus gallus finished cDNA, clone ChEST371o8. 68 5e-07 1 CV511301 |CV511301.1 kc39e08.y1 Xiphinema... index CSEQDA01 Xiphinema index cDNA 5' similar to SW:KAPC_CAEEL P21137 CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KI

  7. Early host gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the intestine of chickens with different genetic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smith, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    So far the responses of chickens to Salmonella have not been studied in vivo on a whole genome-wide scale. Furthermore, the influence of the host genetic background on gene expression responses is unknown. In this study gene expression profiles in the chicken (Gallus gallus) intestine of two genetic

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12787-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH261-106A12_Sp6.1 CH261 Gallus gallus genomic cl... 44 6.0 1 ( EC758141 ) PPE00003738 Agencourt Bioscien...ces Agen-0020 Non-n... 44 6.0 1 ( DW346154 ) PP_LEc0006P07f Peach shoot Prunus pers

  9. MEMORY FOR THE SPATIAL POSITION OF AN IMPRINTING OBJECT IN JUNGLEFOWL CHICKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; DEVOS, GJ

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of memory for the position of an imprinting object were investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). Subjects were exposed individually and continuously to an imprinting object located in one of the two back quadrants of their home cage ('training quadrant'). Posi

  10. AcEST: DK952021 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P09648|CATL1_CHICK Cathepsin L1 (Fragments) OS=Gallus gallus ... 176 1e-43 sp|P60994|ERVB_TABDI Ervatamin-B OS=Taberna...r GN=C... 169 2e-41 sp|P83654|ERVC_TABDI Ervatamin-C OS=Tabernaemontana divaricata P... 168 2e-41 >sp|P43297

  11. Clone XL095a10 [sequences] [XDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] gb|ADB11122.1115564e-06352-504245-299-1324DNA lyase [Mycosphaerella music...ola] gb|ADB11116.1116564e-06352-504228-282-1307DNA lyase [Mycosphaerella musicola] ref|XP_964325.211

  12. A simple two step procedure for purification of the catalytic domain of chicken tryptophan hydroxylase 1 in a form suitable for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Petersen, Charlotte R.; Munch, Astrid;

    2008-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) [EC 1.14.16.4] catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is the first and rate-determining step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. We have expressed the catalytic domain of chicken (Gallus gallus) TPH isoform 1 in Escheri...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05711-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus mitochondrial ... 66 2e-09 EF623984_1( EF623984 |pid:none) Crocodylus porosus mitochondrial u... 66 2e-0...) Gallus gallus mRNA for hypothetica... 61 7e-08 EF623985_1( EF623985 |pid:none) Crocody

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1895 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1895 ref|NP_990848.1| blue sensitive cone opsin [Gallus gallus] sp|P28...682|OPSB_CHICK Blue-sensitive opsin (Blue cone photoreceptor pigment) gb|AAA48633.1| blue sensitive cone opsin NP_990848.1 1e-170 78% ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFO816 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available V0AA from strain CBS 379 of Saccharomyces exiguus. 58 1e-13 3 AC135224 |AC135224.2 Gallus gallus clone TAM33...lone AV0AA001G08 of library AV0AA from strain CBS 379 of Saccharomyces exiguus. 54 3e-10 3 AL430734 |AL43073

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-01-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-01-0003 ref|NP_990692.1| Mel-1c melatonin receptor [Gallus gallus] sp|P49288|MTR1C_CHICK Melaton...in receptor type 1C (MEL-1C-R) (CKB) gb|AAA92499.1| Mel-1c melatonin receptor NP_990692.1 1e-147 72% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0468 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0468 ref|NP_990693.1| melatonin receptor 1A [Gallus gallus] sp|P49285|MTR1A_CHICK Melaton...in receptor type 1A (MEL-1A-R) (CKA) gb|AAA92498.1| Mel-1a melatonin receptor NP_990693.1 1e-137 67% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0582 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0582 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 5e-83 51% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2261 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2261 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-95 54% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0073 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0073 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-133 69% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0507 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0507 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 9e-78 49% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-21-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-21-0008 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-104 60% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0735 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0735 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-133 69% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-23-0128 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-23-0128 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 8e-76 50% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-03-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-03-0051 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-106 55% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2926 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2926 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-165 80% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0668 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0668 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-169 80% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3050 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-78 49% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-21-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-21-0009 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 0.0 95% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0072 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-105 62% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0034 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-96 56% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0237 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0237 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-97 65% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0029 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-88 61% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1035 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 3e-82 54% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0275 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 7e-32 40% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0885 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0885 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-105 61% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-18-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-18-0002 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-104 60% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-05-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-05-0011 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-137 72% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-20-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-20-0026 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-65 45% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0092 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0092 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-74 47% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-05-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-05-0010 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-108 59% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0546 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0546 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-102 62% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0730 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0730 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 5e-17 29% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-01-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-01-0021 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-79 51% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2892 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2892 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-106 56% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-14-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-14-0004 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-91 54% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0030 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-138 70% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-12-0034 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-111 60% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-12-0041 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-145 73% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0258 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0258 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 4e-96 53% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2949 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2949 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-108 59% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-18-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-18-0003 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 0.0 100% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0115 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 93% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0102 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0102 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 4e-64 51% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0281 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0281 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 1e-119 45% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0838 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0838 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 86% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-06-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-06-0012 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 1e-141 55% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0384 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0384 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 59% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-17-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0027 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 62% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0042 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0042 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 55% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-06-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-06-0014 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 2e-88 42% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0061 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 5e-50 44% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0124 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0124 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 70% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-02-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-02-0018 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 93% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-03-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-03-0017 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 99% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-23-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-23-0011 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 71% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-25-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-25-0019 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 1e-114 48% ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VFL348 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 129 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster ecdysone d... 66 5e-10 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa...0 AK223290_1( AK223290 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin (... 61 2e-08

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFG662 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ing fra... 64 2e-09 AK223290_1( AK223290 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosapo...92719 |pid:none) Synthetic construct Homo sapiens c... 64 2e-09 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa

  10. Dicty_cDB: VFO870 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 367 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum SapA (sapA) m... 93 5e-18 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa...-17 BC056717_1( BC056717 |pid:none) Danio rerio prosaposin, mRNA (cDNA... 89 7e-17 AF276996_1( AF276996 |pid

  11. Dicty_cDB: VFH580 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66 8e-10 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, com... 63 7e-09 AF162129_1( AF162129...23290_1( AK223290 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin (... 57 3e-07 prote

  12. Dicty_cDB: VFI236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8420_1( CR388420 |pid:none) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone ... 93 6e-18 BC056717_1( BC056717 |pid:none) Danio rerio prosa...io rerio lysosomal cofactor/neu... 93 6e-18 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, c

  13. Dicty_cDB: VFE666 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17 |pid:none) Danio rerio prosaposin, mRNA (cDNA... 70 2e-11 AF276996_1( AF276996 |pid:none) Danio rerio lys... AC115608_3( AC115608 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosom... 68 9e-11 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa

  14. Dicty_cDB: VFJ635 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin (... 71 3e-11 BC080997_1( BC080997 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis MGC80725 pr...s full open reading fra... 70 7e-11 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa

  15. Dicty_cDB: VFN623 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sophila melanogaster ecdysone d... 67 3e-10 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, c...90 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin (... 61 1e-08 (Q6IBQ6) RecName: Full=Proactivator polypeptide

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFN547 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, com... 86 5e-16 BC056717_1( BC05671...7 |pid:none) Danio rerio prosaposin, mRNA (cDNA... 86 5e-16 ( O13035 ) RecName: Full=Proactivator polypeptid

  17. Dicty_cDB: VFO888 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 080997 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis MGC80725 protein, m... 64 9e-15 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa...13 AK223290_1( AK223290 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin (... 64 5e-13 (Q6IBQ6) RecName: Full=Pro

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSG512 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bits) Value AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, com......09_1( BC105409 |pid:none) Bos taurus prosaposin, mRNA (cDNA ... 45 0.001 BC056717_1( BC056717 |pid:none) Danio rerio prosa

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSH302 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1890_1( DQ071890 |pid:none) Trichomonas vaginalis saposin-like... 58 9e-08 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa...1759_1( BC061759 |pid:none) Rattus norvegicus prosaposin, mRNA... 52 5e-06 protei

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSM477 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chomonas vaginalis saposin-like... 58 9e-08 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, c...88_1( BC054988 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis hypothetical protei... 52 5e-06 BC061759_1( BC061759 |pid:none) Rattus norvegicus prosa

  1. Dicty_cDB: VFM374 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone ... 70 2e-11 BC056717_1( BC056717 |pid:none) Danio rerio prosaposin, mR...telium discoideum chromosom... 69 7e-11 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, com..

  2. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillier, L.W.; Miller, W.; Birney, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Aerts, J.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome—composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence a

  3. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  4. Familiarity interferes with filial imprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanKampen, HS; deVos, GJ

    1996-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate whether and how pre-exposure to an object affects subsequent filial imprinting to that object. In Experiment 1 junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were first exposed to either a red object alone (control group), or a red and a yellow object simu

  5. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos was ca...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05833-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AE016823_748( AE016823 |pid:none) Leptospira interrogans serovar C... 34 6.1 FJ196874_2( FJ196874 |pid:none) Gallus gallus microphth...almia-assoc... 34 6.1 AE010300_3398( AE010300 |pid:none) Leptospira interrogans ser

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-26-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-26-0008 ref|NP_990821.1| rhodopsin [Gallus gallus] sp|P28683|OPSG_CHICK Green-sensitive opsin (Gre...en cone photoreceptor pigment) gb|AAA48786.1| green sensitive cone opsin gb|AAA49036.1| PRA1 NP_990821.1 0.0 100% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-29-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-29-0011 ref|NP_990821.1| rhodopsin [Gallus gallus] sp|P28683|OPSG_CHICK Green-sensitive opsin (Gre...en cone photoreceptor pigment) gb|AAA48786.1| green sensitive cone opsin gb|AAA49036.1| PRA1 NP_990821.1 0.0 95% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0922 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0922 ref|NP_990821.1| rhodopsin [Gallus gallus] sp|P28683|OPSG_CHICK Green-sensitive opsin (Gre...en cone photoreceptor pigment) gb|AAA48786.1| green sensitive cone opsin gb|AAA49036.1| PRA1 NP_990821.1 0.0 92% ...

  10. Centromere positions in chicken and Japanese quail chromosomes: de novo centromere formation versus pericentric inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.; Gaginskaya, E.; Deryusheva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two spec

  11. Image collection: 468 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 468 201702_chicken_white_leghorn.png ニワトリ (白色レグホーン) Chicken (white leghorn) Gallus gallus domesticus 9031 モデル生物,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,鳥綱

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSE427 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Gallus gallus CLE7 mRNA, complete cds. 60 6e-08 BT077052_1( BT077052 |pid:none) Caligus rogercres...seyi clone crog-e... 59 9e-08 BT076044_1( BT076044 |pid:none) Caligus rogercresse

  13. A New Chicken Genome Assembly Provides Insight into Avian Genome Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Warren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3, built from combined long single molecule sequencing technology, finished BACs, and improved physical maps. In overall assembled bases, we see a gain of 183 Mb, including 16.4 Mb in placed chromosomes with a corresponding gain in the percentage of intact repeat elements characterized. Of the 1.21 Gb genome, we include three previously missing autosomes, GGA30, 31, and 33, and improve sequence contig length 10-fold over the previous Gallus_gallus-4.0. Despite the significant base representation improvements made, 138 Mb of sequence is not yet located to chromosomes. When annotated for gene content, Gallus_gallus-5.0 shows an increase of 4679 annotated genes (2768 noncoding and 1911 protein-coding over those in Gallus_gallus-4.0. We also revisited the question of what genes are missing in the avian lineage, as assessed by the highest quality avian genome assembly to date, and found that a large fraction of the original set of missing genes are still absent in sequenced bird species. Finally, our new data support a detailed map of MHC-B, encompassing two segments: one with a highly stable gene copy number and another in which the gene copy number is highly variable. The chicken model has been a critical resource for many other fields of study, and this new reference assembly will substantially further these efforts.

  14. Molecular characterization of Saudi local chicken strains using mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, H A; Ramadan, H A I; Baeshen, Nabih A; Sadek, Mahmoud Abdel; Abou Alsoud, M E

    2015-08-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate and estimate the genetic diversity of native breeds based on cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of mitochondrial DNA information. The obtained sequences of cyt-b gene segment have TAA as a stop codon at 488 position with no insertions or deletion in all individuals of both native chicken strains. The blast results showed that no variation was found among individuals within both native chicken strains, but when a comparison was established among them and other species of genus Gallus the variation is exploring, additionally many mutant sites were detected as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different sites. The phylogenetic trees exhibited three different groups. The results revealed that the native chicken strains were closely related to the cluster of Gallus gallus and subspecies of Gallus, suggesting that they may be separated from the same origin. According to this result and previously studies, the native chicken strains are genetically closer to Gallus gallus and it could be successfully distinguished from the other wild types of Gallus chicken based on cyt-b gene information. We recommended that the governmental concerns for native chicken strain should be enhanced to screen its genetic structure for large scale in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  15. AcEST: DK948988 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LSDIKKQQKSRAAERDSSNGASPAPGPSAS 637 >sp|Q5F464|LPP_CHICK Lipoma-preferred partner homolog OS=Gallus gallus GN...urus GN=FAM149B1... 31 6.8 sp|A7E8B6|SLA1_SCLS1 Actin cytoskeleton-regulatory complex prote... 30 8.8 sp|Q5F464|LPP_CHICK Lipoma-pref...erred partner homolog OS=Gallus g... 30 8.8 sp|Q55CY9|GDT8_DICDI Probable serine/th

  16. Genome-wide analysis reveals the extent of EAV-HP integration in domestic chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Wragg, David; Mason, Andrew S.; Yu, Le; Kuo, Richard; Lawal, Raman A.; Desta, Takele Taye; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kemp, Stephen; Burt, David W; Hanotte, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data.RESULTS: An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integr...

  17. Gene duplications and losses among vertebrate deoxyribonucleoside kinases of the non-TK1 Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutahir, Zeeshan; Christiansen, Louise Slot; Clausen, Anders R.;

    2016-01-01

    , among vertebrates only four mammalian dNKs have been studied for their substrate specificity and kinetic properties. However, some vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, and birds, apparently possess a duplicated homolog of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). In this study, we characterized a family of d......CK/deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK)-like enzymes from a frog Xenopus laevis and a bird Gallus gallus. We showed that X. laevis has a duplicated dCK gene and a dGK gene, whereas G. gallus has a duplicated dCK gene but has lost the dGK gene. We cloned, expressed, purified, and subsequently determined the kinetic parameters...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01996-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) RecName: Full=Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 57... 42 0.022 FJ915483_1( FJ915483 |pid:none) Gallus lafaye...Name: CD_antigen... 42 0.022 FJ915482_1( FJ915482 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii isolate 93 TLR4 g... 42 0.022 ...8SPE8) RecName: Full=Toll-like receptor 4; AltName: CD_antigen... 42 0.022 FJ915484_1( FJ915484 |pid:none) Gallus lafaye

  19. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastyanova Antonina A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world.

  20. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11689-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uded Contig length 1583 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 6 Chromosome length 3595308 S...CR382136 ) Debaryomyces hansenii chromosome D of strain CBS7... 52 0.066 1 ( ET802461 ) CHO_OF686xn05f1.ab1 ...0.26 1 ( AC104799 ) Homo sapiens BAC clone RP11-345F13 from 2, comple... 50 0.26 1 ( AC034300 ) Homo sapiens chromo...52 ) Gallus gallus BAC clone CH261-57A7 from chromosom... 48 1.0 1 ( AC157664 ) Gallus gallus BAC clone CH261-174B17 from chromo... ( AC133650 ) Mus musculus BAC clone RP23-453B15 from 9, comple... 48 1.0 1 ( AC098594 ) Homo sapiens chromo

  2. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13167-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sphofructokinase; Short=Pho... 414 e-114 CP001337_2617( CP001337 |pid:none) Chloroflexus aggregans DSM 9485....|pid:none) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid Y71H... 151 1e-35 AB083368_1( AB083368 |pid:none) Gallus gallus pfk mRNA for phospho......-phosphofructokinase; Short=Pho... 149 9e-35 AE017350_104( AE017350 |pid:none) Cr...yptococcus neoformans var. neo... 148 1e-34 AB061205_1( AB061205 |pid:none) Gallus gallus pfk mRNA for 6-pho...e: Full=6-phosphofructokinase; Short=Pho... 134 2e-30 A55034( A55034 ) 6-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) -

  4. AcEST: BP917148 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|Q7ZZL8|TMHS_CHICK Tetraspan membrane protein of hair cell stereocilia homolog OS=Gallus gallus Align len...embrane protein of hair cell stereocilia homolog OS=Gallus gallus GN=LHFPL5 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 221 Score = 3...RAT Tetraspan membrane protein of hair cell stereocilia OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=L...4KL25|TMHS_MOUSE Tetraspan membrane protein of hair cell stereocilia OS=Mus musculus GN=Lhfpl5 PE=1 SV=1 Len...traspan membrane protein of hair cell stereocilia OS=Homo sapiens GN=LHFPL5 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 219 Score = 2

  5. Poultry cryptosporidiosis

    OpenAIRE

    KURAL, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    A total of 270 samples of domestic hen (Gallus gallus f. domestica) from 20 farms were collected during two consecutive years (from 2011 to 2012). Microscopical examination of aniline-carbol-methyl violet stained fecal smears revealed 5 positive samples originating from one farm. DNA was extracted from Cryptosporidium positive samples and all microscopically negative samples. Nested PCR was performed to amplify the partial SSU rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium. The sequence analyses of PCR-positiv...

  6. AcEST: DK961770 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gamma-enolase OS=Gallus gallus GN=ENO2 PE=2... 55 2e-09 sp|Q9W7L0|ENOA_PYTRG Alpha-enolase OS=Python regius...FEFFMD 79 E+ID A Y + +I +DVAA EF+ D Sbjct: 229 EAIDKAGYTDKIVIGMDVAASEFYRD 254 >sp|Q9W7L0|ENOA_PYTRG Alpha-enolase OS=Python

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01226-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ocean-Sampling_GS-29-01-01-1... 40 0.074 2 ( ES525922 ) BIG_AF_33742 Brine Shrimp... CSEQCHN65 Gallus gallus cDNA clone Ch... 42 6.6 1 ( ES523275 ) BIG_AF_31095 Brine Shrimp embryos, 15 hours ...after... 42 6.6 1 ( ES510763 ) BIG_AF_18580 Brine Shrimp embryos, 10 hours after... 42 6.6 1 ( ES509147 ) BIG_AF_16964 Brine

  8. AcEST: DK950227 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 47 8e-05 sp|P12957|CALD1_CHICK Caldesmon OS=Gallus gallus GN=CALD1 PE=1 SV=2 44 6e-04 sp|Q9VGX3|FAU_DROME Protein anoxia... 446 >sp|Q9VGX3|FAU_DROME Protein anoxia up-regulated OS=Drosophila melanogaster GN=fau PE=1 SV=3 Length = 6

  9. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Raillietina spp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) from Domestic Chickens in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (I...

  10. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males

    OpenAIRE

    Lovlie, H.; Gillingham, M. A. F.; WORLEY K; Pizzari, T.; Richardson, David

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired i...

  11. Gene duplications and losses among vertebrate deoxyribonucleoside kinases of the non-TK1 Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutahir, Zeeshan; Christiansen, Louise Slot; Clausen, Anders R.;

    2016-01-01

    of the dCK/dGK enzymes encoded by these genes. The two dCK enzymes in G. gallus have broader substrate specificity than their human or X. laevis counterparts. Additionally, the duplicated dCK enzyme in G. gallus might have become mitochondria. Based on our study we postulate that changing and adapting...... substrate specificities and subcellular localization are likely the drivers behind the evolution of vertebrate dNKs...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-03-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-03-0035 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 0.0 88% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-30-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-30-0010 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 0.0 97% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-02-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-02-0001 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 0.0 83% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0746 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0746 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 0.0 90% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-27-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-27-0004 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 0.0 99% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0916 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0916 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 0.0 84% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-05-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-05-0008 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 0.0 79% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0265 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0265 ref|NP_989652.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 [Gall...us gallus] sp|Q90812|CRFR1_CHICK Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 precursor (CRF-R) (CRF1) (Corticotropin-releasing... hormone receptor 1) (CRH-R 1) gb|AAA96656.1| corticotropin releasing factor receptor NP_989652.1 1e-152 84% ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSE130 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosa...:none) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone ... 45 0.001 BC105409_1( BC105409 |pid:none) Bos taurus prosaposin,... mRNA (cDNA ... 45 0.001 BC056717_1( BC056717 |pid:none) Danio rerio prosaposin, mRNA (cDNA... 45 0.001 AF27