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Sample records for plasma fatty acids

  1. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  2. Contribution of fatty acids released from lipolysis of plasma triglycerides to total plasma fatty acid flux and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, Bas; Voshol, Peter J.; Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    There is controversy over the extent to which fatty acids (FAs) derived from plasma free FAs (FFAs) or from hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides (TGFAs) form communal or separate pools and what the contribution of each FA source is to cellular FA metabolism. Chylomicrons and lipid emulsions were

  3. Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected coronary disease risk factors in Tanzania. ... Conclusion: Our results indicate that, there are significant differences in dietary patterns among the three study areas, and that the intake of fish is inversely associated with selected risk factors for coronary heart ...

  4. Identification and quantification of intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in plasma of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onkenhout, W.; Venizelos, V.; van der Poel, P. F.; van den Heuvel, M. P.; Poorthuis, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The free fatty acid and total fatty acid profiles in plasma of nine patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, two with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and two with mild-type multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MAD-m) deficiency, were analyzed by gas

  5. Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G.S.; Mensink, R.P.; Al, M.D.M.; Houwelingen, A.C. van; Hornstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    During pregnancy, maternal plasma concentrations of the peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyenes) increase. In addition, the proportion of polyenes is higher in neonatal plasma than in maternal plasma. To study whether these increased amounts of polyenes affect antioxidant

  6. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  7. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F; Macintosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Mann, J Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2014-05-01

    Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of plasma free fatty acids and their 3-hydroxy analogs in fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. G.; Dorland, L.; Holwerda, U.; de Almeida, I. T.; Poll-The, B. T.; Jakobs, C.; Duran, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new derivatization procedure for the simultaneous gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of free fatty acids and 3-hydroxyfatty acids in plasma. Derivatization of target compounds involved trifluoroacetylation of hydroxyl groups and tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the carboxyl

  10. Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, D.L.; Emergy, R.S.; Palmquist, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-[ 14 C]palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO 2 were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min -1 ; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnover incorporated into triglyceride and CO 2 were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased 14 C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO 2 , and percent of CO 2 from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected

  11. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  12. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  13. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... omega 3 (n-3), omega 6 (n-6) and omega 9 (n-9) fatty acids and are essential in the ... the maintenance of different physiological functions. (Aaes-Jorgensen .... was easier to recognize each one of these cellular types. Mating.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, D; Väisänen, S B; Bouchard, C; Halle, M; Lakka, T A; Baumstark, M W; Alen, M; Berg, A; Rauramaa, R

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relation between (1) cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and (2) the interactions between cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acid composition. Cross-sectional analysis. The subjects were randomly selected, 127 middle-aged Finnish men participating in the DNASCO exercise intervention study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined spiroergometrically, dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients by 4-day food records and plasma fatty acids by gas chromatography. The subjects were divided into tertiles of aerobic fitness. Differences between fitness tertiles were not observed for dietary intake of total fat, and saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (percent of total energy). In contrast, plasma saturated fatty acids were significantly lower (P cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with different levels in plasma saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to modifications in the association between dietary and plasma fatty acids. These findings can perhaps be explained by a reduced hepatic fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis as well as by an enhanced muscular lipid utilization, which are commonly seen in those who are physically active and who exhibit a higher level of fitness.

  15. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette

    2001-01-01

    , plasma fatty acids, and preheparin lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. Design: Six test fats high (approximate to 43% by wt) in stearic acid, palmitic acid, palmitic + myristic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid (trans 18:1), and linoleic acid were produced...... to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted......Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations...

  16. Effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma free fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Arabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global disease which its prevalence is about 10-35%. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fasting during Ramadan on plasma free fatty acids in patients with NAFLD.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during the month of Ramadan in June-July, 2014 (Islamic year: 1435 with 50 patients who were living in Mashhad, Iran. The participants were recruited from 18-65 years old patients. The inclusion criteria were 1 patients with NAFLD that diagnosed fatty liver by ultrasonography and 2 being at least 10 hours fasting. Levels of plasma free fatty acids (Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acid were analyzed in blood sample of all patients by gas chromatography apparatus equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID.Result: results indicated that there was no significant changes were observed in plasma levels of Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acids in overweight patients (BMI 25-30 , but plasma levels of Elaidic acid significantly increased in obese patients (P

  17. Dietary (n-6 : n-3 Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Abdulbari Kassem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO: 50% cod liver oil (CLO (1 : 1, 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1, 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1. Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  18. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  19. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  20. n-3 fatty acids reduce plasma 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emilie; Beilin, Lawrence J; Puddey, Ian B; Watts, Gerald F; Irish, Ashley B; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-09-01

    Metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase leads to the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) that regulates vascular function, sodium homeostasis and blood pressure (BP). Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids is known to alter arachidonic acid metabolism and reduce the formation of the lipid peroxidation products F2-isoprostanes, but the effect of n-3 fatty acids on 20-HETE has not been studied. We previously reported a significant effect of n-3 fatty acids but not coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) to reduce BP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, wherein patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomized to n-3 fatty acids (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. This study examined the effect of n-3 fatty acids on plasma and urinary 20-HETE in the same study, as well as plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes, and relate these to changes in BP. Seventy-four patients completed the 8-week intervention. n-3 fatty acids but not CoQ significantly reduced plasma 20-HETE (P = 0.001) and F2-isoprostanes (P fatty acids. This is the first report that n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces plasma 20-HETE in humans and that this associates with reduced BP. These results provide a plausible mechanism for the reduction in BP observed in patients with CKD following n-3 fatty acid supplementation.

  1. Early Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia Using Urinary and Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; van Wijck, Kim; Grootjans, Joep; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    Objective: This study aims at improving diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, by measuring plasma and urinary fatty acid binding protein (FABP) levels. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients suspected of intestinal ischemia were included and blood and urine were sampled at time of suspicion. Plasma and

  2. Use of milk fatty acids to estimate plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations as an indicator of animal energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, J R R; French, E A; Armentano, L E

    2017-08-01

    Negative energy balance is an important part of the lactation cycle, and measuring the current energy balance of a cow is useful in both applied and research settings. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if milk fatty acid (FA) proportions were consistently related to plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA); (2) to determine if an individual cow with a measured milk FA profile is above or below a NEFA concentration, (3) to test the universality of the models developed within the University of Wisconsin and US Dairy Forage Research Center cows. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 105 Holstein cows from 3 studies. Plasma NEFA was quantified and a threshold of 600 µEq/L was applied to classify animals above this concentration as having high NEFA (NEFA high ). Thirty milk FA proportions and 4 milk FA ratios were screened to evaluate their capacity to classify cows with NEFA high according to determined milk FA threshold. In addition, 6 linear regression models were created using individual milk FA proportions and ratios. To evaluate the universality of the linear relationship between milk FA and plasma NEFA found in the internal data set, 90 treatment means from 21 papers published in the literature were compiled to test the model predictions. From the 30 screened milk FA, the odd short-chain fatty acids (C7:0, C9:0, C11:0, and C13:0) had sensitivity slightly greater than the other short-chain fatty acids (83.3, 94.8, 80.0, and 85.9%, respectively). The sensitivities for milk FA C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0 were 78.8, 85.3, 80.1, and 83.9%, respectively. The threshold values to detect NEFA high cows for the last group of milk FA were ≤2.0, ≤0.94, ≤1.4, and ≤1.8 g/100 g of FA, respectively. The milk FA C14:0 and C15:0 had sensitivities of 88.7 and 85.0% and a threshold of ≤6.8 and ≤0.53 g/100 g of FA, respectively. The linear regressions using the milk FA ratios C18:1 to C15:0 and C17:0 to C15:0 presented lower

  3. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  4. Selective enrichment of n-3 fatty acids in human plasma lipid motifs following intake of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic, age-related diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids in human plasma are incorporated...

  5. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were...

  7. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  9. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in Korean adults with and without acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease presenting as unstable angina and/or myocardial infarction, is the third-leading cause of death in South Korea. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid profiles are considered objective biomarke...

  10. The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on the hepatic fatty acid content and plasma lipid profile in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Komprda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate in a model organism the effect of different dietary lipids on plasma concentration of total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triacylglycerols (TAG. One hundred adult male rats (Wistar Albino were divided into 10 groups with 10 animals each and fed for 7 weeks either basic feed mixture (control diet, C or basic feed mixture with 5% of palm oil (P, safflower oil (SF, salmon oil (S, fish oil (F, Schizochytrium microalga oil (A, and 20% of beef tallow (T; four groups, respectively. The T-groups were fed for another 7 weeks T-, SF-, F- and A-diet, respectively. At the end of both the first and the second 7-week fattening period, plasma lipid concentration and hepatic fatty acid content was determined. Both A and F diets fed for 7 weeks decreased (P -1 compared to control (1.19 mmol∙l-1. The highest (P -1. A-diet had the most positive (decreasing effect on TAG concentrations (0.68–0.86 mmol∙l-1 compared to 1.22 and 2.88 mmol∙l-1 found in the C and T diets, respectively; P P Schizochytrium microalga oil (with high DHA content may have the potential for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Minor amounts of plasma medium-chain fatty acids and no improved time trial performance after consuming lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Nybo, L.; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    after consumption of specific structured triacylglycerol, consisting of a mixture of medium-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, to prevent the adverse effects observed by MCT (pure medium-chain fatty acids) regarding gastrointestinal distress. Seven well-trained subjects cycled 3 h at 55......% of maximum 02 uptake during which they ingested CHO or CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerols. Immediately after the constant-load cycling, the subjects performed a time trial of similar to50-min duration. Breath and blood samples were obtained regularly during the experiment. Fatty acid composition...... of plasma triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and phospholipids was determined. Performance was similar after administration of CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerol [medium-, long-, and medium-chain fatty acid (MLM)] compared with CHO (50.0 +/- 1.8 and 50.8 +/- 3.6 min, respectively). No plasma 8...

  12. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. Effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on plasma oxysterols and fatty acids in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Zerbinati, Chiara; Pacelli, Antonio; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Lubrano, Carla; Ducheix, Simon; Guillou, Hervé; Iuliano, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and the related entity metabolic syndrome are characterized by altered lipid metabolism and associated with increased morbidity risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Oxysterols belong to a large family of cholesterol-derived molecules known to play crucial role in many signaling pathways underlying several diseases. Little is known on the potential effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on oxysterols in human. In this work, we questioned whether circulating oxysterols might be significantly altered in obese patients and in patients with metabolic syndrome. We also tested the potential correlation between circulating oxysterols and fatty acids. 60 obese patients and 75 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in the study along with 210 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects, used as control group. Plasma oxysterols were analyzed by isotope dilution GC/MS, and plasma fatty acids profiling was assessed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection. We found considerable differences in oxysterols profiling in the two disease groups that were gender-related. Compared to controls, males showed significant differences only in 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol levels in obese and metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, females showed consistent differences in 7-oxocholesterol, 4α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and triol. Concerning fatty acids, we found minor differences in the levels of these variables in males of the three groups. Significant changes were observed in plasma fatty acid profile of female patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome. We found significant correlations between various oxysterols and fatty acids. In particular, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, which is reduced in obesity and metabolic syndrome, correlated with a number of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are end-products of de novo lipogenesis. Our data provide the first evidence that obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with

  14. In Vitro Effect of Fatty Acids Identified in the Plasma of Obese Adolescents on the Function of Pancreatic ?-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, Claudia; Vasquez, Juan Sebastian; Balcazar, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels is a major factor that induces malfunction in pancreatic ?-cells. We evaluated the effect of FFAs reconstituted according to the profile of circulating fatty acids found in obese adolescents on the viability and function of the murine insulinoma cell line (mouse insulinoma [MIN6]). Methods From fatty acids obtained commercially, plasma-FFA profiles of three different youth populations were reconstituted: obese with metabolic ...

  15. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and

  16. A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, V; Assi, N; Biessy, C; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Lenoir, G M; Baglietto, L; His, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Katsoulis, M; Kaaks, R; Kühn, T; Panico, S; Pala, V; Masala, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; van Gils, C; Hjartåker, A; Standahl Olsen, K; Borgund Barnung, R; Barricarte, A; Redondo-Sanchez, D; Menéndez, V; Amiano, P; Wennberg, M; Key, T; Khaw, K T; Merritt, M A; Riboli, E; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I

    2017-11-01

    Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.64; P for trend = 0.0001, q value = 0.004] as well as a high desaturation index (DI16) (16:1n-7/16:0) [OR (Q4-Q1), 1.28; 95% C, 1.07-1.54; P for trend = 0.002, q value = 0.037], as biomarkers of de novo lipogenesis, were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Levels of industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with ER-negative tumours [OR for the highest tertile compared with the lowest (T3-T1)=2.01; 95% CI, 1.03-3.90; P for trend = 0.047], whereas no association was found for ER-positive tumours (P-heterogeneity =0.01). No significant association was found between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk, overall or by hormonal receptor. These findings suggest that increased de novo lipogenesis, acting through increased synthesis of palmitoleic acid, could be a relevant metabolic pathway for breast tumourigenesis. Dietary trans-fatty acids derived from industrial processes may specifically increase ER-negative breast cancer

  17. Global metabolomic profiling reveals an association of metal fume exposure and plasma unsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyue Wei

    Full Text Available Welding-associated air pollutants negatively affect the health of exposed workers; however, their molecular mechanisms in causing disease remain largely unclear. Few studies have systematically investigated the systemic toxic effects of welding fumes on humans.To explore the effects of welding fumes on the plasma metabolome, and to identify biomarkers for risk assessment of welding fume exposure.The two-stage, self-controlled exploratory study included 11 boilermakers from a 2011 discovery panel and 8 boilermakers from a 2012 validation panel. Plasma samples were collected pre- and post-welding fume exposure and analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry.Eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid metabolic changes post-welding were significantly associated with particulate (PM2.5 exposure (p<0.05. The combined analysis by linear mixed-effects model showed that exposure was associated with a statistically significant decline in metabolite change of eicosapentaenoic acid [β(95% CI = -0.013(-0.022 ≈ -0.004; p = 0.005], docosapentaenoic acid n3 [β(95% CI = -0.010(-0.018 ≈ -0.002; p = 0.017], and docosapentaenoic acid n6 [β(95% CI = -0.007(-0.013 ≈ -0.001; p = 0.021]. Pathway analysis identified an association of the unsaturated fatty acid pathway with exposure (p Study-2011 = 0.025; p Study-2012 = 0.021; p Combined = 0.009. The functional network built by these fatty acids and their interactive genes contained significant enrichment of genes associated with various diseases, including neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism disorders.High-dose exposure of metal welding fumes decreases unsaturated fatty acids with an exposure-response relationship. This alteration in fatty acids is a potential biological mediator and biomarker for exposure-related health disorders.

  18. Changes in relative and absolute concentrations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids observed in a randomized trial of Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Diep, Pho; Schenk, Jeannette M; Casper, Corey; Orem, Jackson; Makhoul, Zeina; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-11-01

    Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and end of trial. Relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations of 41 plasma PLFAs were measured using gas chromatography. Total cholesterol was also measured. Intervention-effect changes in concentrations were calculated as differences between end of 12-week trial and baseline. Pearson correlations of relative and absolute concentration changes in individual PLFAs were high (>0.6) for 37 of the 41 PLFAs analyzed. In the intervention arm, 17 PLFAs changed significantly in relative concentration and 16 in absolute concentration, 15 of which were identical. Absolute concentration of total PLFAs decreased 95.1mg/L (95% CI: 26.0, 164.2; P=0.0085), but total cholesterol did not change significantly in the intervention arm. No significant change was observed in any of the measurements in the placebo arm. Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma PLFA concentrations. EPA and DHA supplementation changes the concentrations of multiple plasma PLFAs besides EPA and DHA.Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired plasma phospholipids and relative amounts of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ansary Afaf K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.

  20. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated i...

  1. Alternation of plasma fatty acids composition and desaturase activities in children with liver steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Chin Hua

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in plasma fatty acids proportions and estimated desaturase activities for variable grading of liver steatosis in children.In total, 111 schoolchildren (aged 8-18 years were included in the analysis from March 2015 to August 2016. Anthropometric evaluation, liver ultrasound examination and scoring for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD score = 0-6, and biochemical and plasma fatty acids analysis were performed. We compared the composition ratio of fatty acids between children with high-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 4-6, low-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 1-3, and healthy controls (NAFLD score = 0. In addition, correlation coefficients (r between NAFLD score, metabolic variables, and estimated activity of desaturase indices (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1, delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase were calculated.Compared with healthy controls, children with liver steatosis showed a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (21.16 ± 2.81% vs. 19.68 ± 2.71%, p = 0.024. In addition, children with high- grade liver steatosis exhibited higher proportions of palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6; and lower proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3 (P< 0.05. In all subjects, the NAFLD score was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI (kg/m2 (r = 0.696, homeostasis model of assessment ratio-index (HOMA-IR (r = 0.510, SCD1(16 (r = 0.273, and the delta-6 index (r = 0.494; and inversely associated with the delta-5 index (r = -0.443.Our current data suggested that children with liver steatosis was highly associated with obesity, and insulin resistance. In addition, increased endogenous lipogenesis through altered desaturase activity may contribute to the progression of liver steatosis in children.

  2. Identification of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors in bovine plasma as fatty acids and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, D M; Yanuck, M D; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1989-01-01

    A preparative purification of endogenous inhibitors of the Na+/K+-ATPase has been carried out from bovine blood. Dried plasma was deproteinized, hexane-extracted and desalted, followed by further purification through a series of reverse-phase HPLC fractionations. Fractions active in inhibiting Na...... ouabain, and in addition it enhanced ouabain binding at high dilutions. These properties are indicative of nonspecific interactions with the Na+/K+-ATPase. The active fraction was identified by TLC, HPLC, NMR, GLC and GC-MS, to be a mixture of three unesterified fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (72...

  3. Rapid measurement of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment using LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka Urszula; Jensen, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and isotopic enrichment are commonly used to evaluate FFA metabolism. Until now, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) was the best method to measure isotopic enrichment in the methyl derivatives of 13C-labeled fatty acids. Although IRMS is excellent for analyzing enrichment, it requires time-consuming derivatization steps and is not optimal for measuring FFA concentrations. We developed a new, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of 13C-labeled fatty acids in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). This method involves a very quick Dole extraction procedure and direct injection of the samples on the HPLC system. After chromatographic separation, the samples are directed to the mass spectrometer for electrospray ionization (ESI) and analysis in the negative mode using single ion monitoring. By employing equipment with two columns connected parallel to a mass spectrometer, we can double the throughput to the mass spectrometer, reducing the analysis time per sample to 5 min. Palmitate flux measured using this approach agreed well with the GC/C/IRMS method. This HPLC/MS method provides accurate and precise measures of FFA concentration and enrichment. PMID:20526002

  4. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, Mariarita; Noce, Annalisa; Bertucci, Pierfrancesco; Noce, Gianluca; Rizza, Stefano; De Stefano, Alessandro; Manca di Villahermosa, Simone; Bernardini, Sergio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2014-03-21

    Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from "Tor Vergata" University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector.The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p HD patients (p HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient.

  5. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

    2012-03-01

    Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Magdalena S; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Appleby, Paul N; Sanders, Thomas A B; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from 20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

  7. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yumi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Dong; Naito, Hisao; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  8. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, U.; Witte, L.D.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) bound to the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Studies were performed to investigate whether human plasma lipoproteins and/or free fatty acids would release LPL which was bound to endothelial cells. Purified bovine milk LPL was incubated with cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells resulting in the association of enzyme activity with the cells. When the cells were then incubated with media containing chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), a concentration-dependent decrease in the cell-associated LPL enzymatic activity was observed. In contrast, incubation with media containing low density lipoproteins or high density lipoproteins produced a much smaller decrease in the cell-associated enzymatic activity. The addition of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid:bovine serum albumin to the media also reduced enzyme activity associated with the endothelial cells. To determine whether the decrease in LPL activity was due to release of the enzyme from the cells or inactivation of the enzyme, studies were performed utilizing radioiodinated bovine LPL. Radiolabeled LPL protein was released from endothelial cells by chylomicrons, VLDL, and by free fatty acids (i.e. oleic acid bound to bovine serum albumin). The release of radiolabeled LPL by VLDL correlated with the generation of free fatty acids from the hydrolysis of VLDL triglyceride by LPL bound to the cells. Inhibition of LPL enzymatic activity by use of a specific monoclonal antibody, reduced the extent of release of 125 I-LPL from the endothelial cells by the added VLDL. These results demonstrated that LPL enzymatic activity and protein were removed from endothelial cells by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and oleic acid

  9. Inflammatory markers in dependence on the plasma concentration of 37 fatty acids after the coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Jiří; Meloun, Milan; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2018-02-05

    Using the regression model building the relationships between the concentration of 37 fatty acids of blood plasma phospholipids of 41 patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stent implantation, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers were estimated. The dynamics of the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress was indicated by measuring plasma concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A and malondialdehyde before, 24h after stent implantation. The multiple linear regression analysis was preceded by an exploratory data analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, which proved a hidden internal relation of 37 fatty acids. The concentration of cerotic acid (C26:0) has been positively associated with an increase of malondialdehyde concentration after stent implantation, while the concentrations of tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4 N6) and nonadecanoic (C19:0) acids were associated with decrease of lipoperoxidation. The increase of interleukin-6 during the 24h after implantation was associated with higher levels of pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and lower levels of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 N3). Regression models found several significant fatty acids at which the strength of the parameter β for each fatty acid on selected markers of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A was estimated. Parameter β testifies to the power of the positive or negative relationship of the fatty acid concentration on the concentration of selected markers. The influencing effect of the cerotic acid (C26:0) concentration in plasma phospholipids exhibiting parameter β=140.4 is, for example, 3.5 times higher than this effect of n-3 tetracosapentaenoic acid (C24:5 N3) with β=40.0. Composition of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids shows spectrum of fatty acids available for intercellular communication in systemic inflammatory response of organism and should affect

  10. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  12. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 /sup 123/I hexadecene 9 oique acid: influence of plasma concentrations of fatty acids and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M.; Pilichowski, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F. (C.H.R.U. de Grenoble (France)); Vidal, M. (U.S.M.G., 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1983-01-01

    After I.V. injection of /sup 123/I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Then the procedure is repeated after I.V. injection of heparin alone (6 dogs), of heparin during an intralipid perfusion (6 dogs) and lastly during a perfusion of a solution of glucose, insulin and potassium (7 dogs). In the two last protocols only, the period of the curve is significantly increased. The increase of the period means perhaps an increase of the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids. Patients must be in the same nutritional state to allow comparison between periods and a measure of the plasma level of NEFA is necessary before each injection of the labelled fatty acid.

  13. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 123I hexadecene 9 oique acid: influence of plasma concentrations of fatty acids and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comet, M.; Pilichowski, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F.; Vidal, M.

    1983-01-01

    After I.V. injection of 123 I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Then the procedure is repeated after I.V. injection of heparin alone (6 dogs), of heparin during an intralipid perfusion (6 dogs) and lastly during a perfusion of a solution of glucose, insulin and potassium (7 dogs). In the two last protocols only, the period of the curve is significantly increased. The increase of the period means perhaps an increase of the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids. Patients must be in the same nutritional state to allow comparison between periods and a measure of the plasma level of NEFA is necessary before each injection of the labelled fatty acid [fr

  14. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  15. Plasma fatty acid profile in depressive disorder resembles insulin resistance state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareka, Tomas; Vecka, Marek; Jirak, Roman; Tvrzicka, Eva; Macasek, Jaroslav; Zak, Ales; Zeman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorder is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance (IR), connected with altered fatty acid (FA) composition, namely with decreased proportion of polyunsaturated FA could participate in these associations. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of FA in plasma cholesterol esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as indices of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in the patients with depressive disorder. Parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis, concentrations of FA in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and conjugated dienes in LDL were investigated in a group of 47 patients (9M/38F) with depression and compared with 47 control persons (16M/31F). Delta-9 desaturase (D9D) and D6D desaturase were estimated as product to precursor fatty acid ratios. In depressive patients increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid and total monounsaturated FA with decreased proportion of total polyunsaturated FA n-6 (PUFA n-6) (all pinsulin resistance. Dysregulation of FA could participate in the pathogenesis of depression and be associated with an increased risk of CVD and DM2.

  16. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  17. Análise de ácidos graxos em plasma humano Analysis of fatty acids in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse fascículo da revista, o estudo de Morais et al. (2010 avaliou quatro metodologias clássicas de extração de lipídeos (métodos de Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb e Gerber e uma técnica alternativa, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da extração e a composição em ácidos graxos de plasma humano. O método alternativo proposto pelos autores usou o forno de micro-ondas como ferramenta e foi considerado muito rápido na extração lipídica e adequado na identificação de ácidos graxos, mas não em sua quantificação. O método de extração mais indicado para quantificação de ácidos graxos em plasma humano foi o método de Folch.In this issue of the journal, the study by Morais et al. (2010 evaluated four classical methodologies of lipid extraction (methods of Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb and Gerber, and an alternative technique, in order to evaluate the efficiency of extraction and fatty acid composition of human plasma. The alternative method proposed by the authors used the microwave oven as a tool, and was considered very fast in lipid extraction and identification of fatty acids, but not in their quantification. The most suitable extraction method for quantification of fatty acids in human plasma was the method of Folch.

  18. The Modification of Cellulosic Surface with Fatty Acids via Plasma Mediated Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    Much attention has been paid recently to understand the healing process made by the human body, in order to develop new approaches for promoting healing. The wound healing process includes four main phases, namely, hemostatic, inflammatory, proliferation, and remodeling, which take place successively. The human body can provide all the requirements of the healing process in normal wounds, unless there is a kind of deficiency of the skin function or massive fluid losses of vast wounds. Therefore, wound care of non-healing wounds has recently been the growing concern of many applications. The goal of this work is to explore the development of a new cellulose-based wound dressing composite that contain or release wound healing agents attained via dry textile chemical finishing techniques (thermal curing-plasma treatment). The synthesis of different wound healing agents derived from fatty acids and attached chemically to cellulose or even delivered through cyclodextrine modified cellulose are reported in this work. First, free fatty acids, which are obtained from commercial vegetable oils, were identified as wound healing agents. Many of these free acids are known to bind with and deactivate the proteases associated with inflammation at a wound site. Linoleic acid is extracted from commercial products of safflower seed oil while ricinoleic acid is obtained from castor oil. Conjugated linoleic acid was synthesized. Un-conjugated linoleic acid was used to prepare two derivatives namely linoleic azide and allylic ketone of linoleic acid. Different cellulose derivatives such as cellulose peroxide, iododeoxycellulose and cellulose diazonium salt in different degree of substitutions were synthesized in order to facilitate the free radical reaction with the fatty acid derivatives. New modified cellulosic products were synthesized by reacting the cellulosic and the linoleic acid derivatives via thermal or plasma technique and characterized by FT-IR ATR, the wettability test

  19. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ol?via RC; Santana, Michelle G; Santos, Fl?via S; Concei??o, Felipe D; Sardinha, F?tima LC; Veiga, Gl?ria V; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the...

  20. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery and w...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P ...Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... >> arabinoxylan >> β-glucan, whereas in the WWG, WAF, and RAF, diets it was arabinoxylan >> cellulose > β-glucan. The diets were fed to the pigs during 3 wk in a crossover design. Within an experimental week, WFL was supplied on Days 1 through 3 and WWG, WAF, or RAF was supplied during Days 4 through 7. Fasting...

  1. Contaminants, diet, plasma fatty acids and smoking in Greenland 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Asmund, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Arctic countries, the predominant source of these contaminants is the local diet. However, other factors such as smoking may influence the metabolism and thereby the accumulation of toxic substances. STUDY DESIGN: This project is part of the human health program of the ongoing circumpolar "Artic......, in particular all the plasma n-3 fatty acids, were significantly correlated with organic contaminant concentrations, (betaHCH, chlordanes, DDTs, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, PCBs, and toxaphenes) psmoking was significantly...... correlated with high levels of all the above mentioned POPs. CONCLUSION: The main predictors of high contaminant levels in Greenland were age, district, male gender, smoking and high plasma n-3/n-6 ratio as a marker of high dietary intake of local marine mammals. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan-1...

  2. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  3. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  4. Whey protein delays gastric emptying and suppresses plasma fatty acids and their metabolites compared to casein, gluten, and fish protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ), and cod (COD). Obese, nondiabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, crossover meal study. Subjects ingested a high fat meal containing one of the four protein sources. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. In contrast to previous...... studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......, while the GLU meal caused elevated levels of a number of unidentified hydroxy fatty acids and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Also reported are a number of markers of fish intake unique to the COD meal....

  5. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  6. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in professional basketball and football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-10-01

    The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.

  7. Can polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster alter the effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profiles? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Guicheng; Heaton, Alexandra E M; D'Vaz, Nina; Manz, Judith; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold V; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen

    2017-09-19

    The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes determine the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). We investigated if haplotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS gene cluster can influence LCPUFA status in infants who received either fish oil or placebo supplementation. Children enrolled in the Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS) were randomly allocated to receive either fish oil or placebo from birth to 6 months of age. Blood was collected at 6 months of age for the measurement of fatty acids and for DNA extraction. A total of 276 participant DNA samples underwent genotyping, and 126 erythrocyte and 133 plasma fatty acid measurements were available for analysis. Twenty-two FADS SNPs were selected on the basis of literature and linkage disequilibrium patterns identified from the HapMap data. Haplotype construction was completed using PHASE. For participants allocated to the fish oil group who had two copies of the FADS1 haplotype consisting of SNP minor alleles, DHA levels were significantly higher compared to other haplotypes. This finding was not observed for the placebo group. Furthermore, for members of the fish oil group only, the minor homozygous carriers of all the FADS1 SNPs investigated had significantly higher DHA than other genotypes (rs174545, rs174546, rs174548, rs174553, rs174556, rs174537, rs174448, and rs174455). Overall results of this preliminary study suggest that supplementation with fish oil may only significantly increase DHA in minor allele carriers of FADS1 SNPs. Further research is required to confirm this novel finding.

  8. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  11. MAT1A variants modulate the effect of dietary fatty acids on plasma homocysteine concentrations and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with decreased plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A) is an enzyme involved in formation of form S-adenosylmethionine during methionine metabolism. The objectiv...

  12. Short-term increase of plasma free fatty acids does not interfere with intrinsic mitochondrial function in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in

  13. Effects of malnutrition on the erythrocyte fatty acid composition and plasma vitamin E levels of Pakistani children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Dijkstra, JM; Schnater, TA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma vitamin E concentrations were determined in 47 grade 2, and 21 grade 3 malnourished Pakistani children (ages 4-56 months). Data were compared with those of 26 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy controls. Evaluation with three statistical approaches revealed

  14. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  15. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  16. Determining the fatty acid composition in plasma and tissues as fatty acid methyl esters using gas chromatography – a comparison of different derivatization and extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Annika I; Müller, Maike; Willenberg, Ina; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the fatty acid (FA) composition in biological samples is commonly carried out using gas liquid chromatography (GC) after transesterification to volatile FA methyl esters (FAME). We compared the efficacy of six frequently used protocols for derivatization of different lipid classes as well as for plasma and tissue samples. Transesterification with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) led to insufficient derivatization efficacies for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, ester (CE) as well as triacylglycerols (TGs). In contrast, methanolic hydrochloric acid (HCl) as well as a combination of BF3 with methanolic sodium hydroxide (NaOH+BF3) were suitable for the derivatization of FFAs, polar lipids, TGs, and CEs (derivatization rate >80% for all tested lipids). Regarding plasma samples, all methods led to an overall similar relative FA pattern. However, significant differences were observed, for example, for the relative amount of EPA+DHA (n3-index). Absolute FA plasma concentrations differed considerably among the methods, with low yields for KOH and BF3. We also demonstrate that lipid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether/methanol (MTBE/MeOH) is as efficient as the classical method according to Bligh and Dyer, making it possible to replace (environmentally) toxic chloroform.We conclude that HCl-catalyzed derivatization in combination with MeOH/MTBE extraction is the most appropriate among the methods tested for the analysis of FA concentrations and FA pattern in small biological samples. A detailed protocol for the analysis of plasma and tissues is included in this article.

  17. Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch-Ferreira, Ângela Cristine; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Gehringer, Marcella Omena; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Ross-Fernandes, Maria Beatriz; da Silva, Jacqueline Tereza; Torreglosa, Camila Ragne; Kovacs, Cristiane; Alves, Renata; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Weber, Bernardete; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2018-02-21

    Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them. In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers. Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p fatty acids and adiponectin (p fatty acids. Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  20. Seasonal variation in plasma nonesterified fatty acids of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the vicinity of hydroelectric facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.; Power, G.; Singer, T.D.; Ballantyne, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the effects of hydroelectric generation on the health of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), seasonal variations in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) upstream and downstream from hydroelectric stations were measured over a 2-y period. Plasma NEFA profiles were also compared up- and downstream of the stations for differences in utilization of individual NEFA species as substrates for lipid oxidation. Significantly higher levels of total plasma NEFA were found in lake sturgeon upstream (2355 ± 395.9 nmole/ml) compared with those downstream (798 ± 133.5 nmole/ml) of the generating stations during the spring. The NEFA profiles for several key fatty acid species differed significantly among seasons up- and downstream of the facilities. In particular, during spring and summer, the levels of oleic acid (18:1n9) were highest upstream of the stations and levels of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), were higher below rather than above the stations. The differences in plasma NEFA concentration may be attributed to altered nutritional status due to the varying flow regime located downstream of the hydroelectric stations. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  2. Early Effect of High Dose of Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Plasma Lipids Profile and Liver Fatty Acids Composition in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the effect of acute gamma-irradiation on rats at supralethal doses of 20 Gy to determine the synthesis and amounts of free fatty acids, neutral lipids and phospholipids of plasma and liver after 24 and 48 h of gamma-irradiation. Male Wistar rats weighing 120+- 20 g were exposed to 20 Gy of gamma radiation (dose rate of 0.59 Gy/min). Exposure of rats to ionizing radiation resulted in significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating lipid metabolism disturbance. Plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels increased up to 71.3 and 71.5 %, respectively, after 24 h from radiation exposure and then returned to 28 and 27 % change in-compare with control values after 48 h post-irradiation. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations increased concomitantly with irradiation, but their values are less high than cholesterol and phospholipid levels recording significant changes at 19 and 9 % comparing with control rats. Lipid peroxidation measured as MDA recorded significant elevation after 24 and 48 h post irradiation. It was shown that the synthesis of free fatty acids, cholesterol, cholesterol ethers and phospholipids was activated 48 h after irradiation at 20 Gy. The amount of free fatty acids of the rat liver decreased at 20 Gy exposures. This is assumed to be a result of the radioresistance to some degree in the system of free fatty acid synthesis of the rat to the gamma-irradiation in the lethal doses

  3. Elevated prostaglandin E metabolites and abnormal plasma fatty acids at baseline in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael Glenn; Thomsen, Kelly; Brown, Rebekah F; Laposata, Michael; Seegmiller, Adam

    2016-10-01

    Airway inflammation is a significant contributor to the morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. One feature of this inflammation is the production of oxygenated metabolites, such as prostaglandins. Individuals with CF are known to have abnormal metabolism of fatty acids, typically resulting in reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial of DHA supplementation with endpoints of plasma fatty acid levels and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) levels. Patients with CF age 6-18 years with pancreatic insufficiency were recruited. Each participant completed 3 four-week study periods: DHA at two different doses (high dose and low dose) and placebo with a minimum 4 week wash-out between each period. Blood, urine, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were collected at baseline and after each study period for measurement of plasma fatty acids as well as prostaglandin E metabolites. Seventeen participants were enrolled, and 12 participants completed all 3 study periods. Overall, DHA supplementation was well tolerated without significant adverse events. There was a significant increase in plasma DHA levels with supplementation, but no significant change in arachidonic acid (AA) or LA levels. However, at baseline, AA levels were lower and LA levels were higher than previously reported for individuals with CF. Urine PGE-M levels were elevated in the majority of participants at baseline, and while levels decreased with DHA supplementation, they also decreased with placebo. Urine PGE-M levels are elevated at baseline in this cohort of pediatric CF patients, but there was no significant change in these levels with DHA supplementation compared to placebo. In addition, baseline plasma fatty acid levels for this cohort showed some difference to prior reports, including higher levels of LA and lower levels of AA, which may reflect changes in clinical care, and consequently warrants further

  4. Effect of DHA on plasma fatty acid availability and oxidative stress during training season and football exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Joan M; Llompart, Isabel; Argelich, Emma; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with 1.14 g per day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for eight weeks on the plasma oxidative balance and anti-inflammatory markers after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male football players were randomly assigned to placebo or experimental and supplemented groups. Blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and after eight weeks of training under resting and post-exercise conditions. The experimental beverage increased the plasma DHA availability in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and triglyceride fatty acids (TGFAs) and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fraction of NEFAs but had no effects on the biomarkers for oxidative balance in plasma. During training, plasma protein markers of oxidative damage, the haemolysis degree and the antioxidant enzyme activities increased, but did not affect lipid oxidative damage. Training season and DHA influenced the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Acute exercise did not alter the basal levels of plasma markers for oxidative and nitrosative damage of proteins and lipids, and the antioxidant enzyme activities, although DHA-diet supplementation significantly increased the PGE2 in plasma after acute exercise. In conclusion, the training season and acute exercise, but not the DHA diet supplementation, altered the pattern of plasma oxidative damage, as the antioxidant system proved sufficient to prevent the oxidative damage induced by the acute exercise in well-trained footballers. The DHA-diet supplementation increased the prostaglandin PGE2 plasma evidencing anti-inflammatory effects of DHA to control inflammation after acute exercise.

  5. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  6. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  7. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  9. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  10. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  11. Influence of dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids from menhaden fish oil on plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in geriatric beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Tooley, Katie A; Gradin, Joseph L; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2002-01-01

    To determine effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids from Menhaden fish oil on plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations in Beagles. 32 female Beagles. For 82 days, dogs were fed diets that contained 1 of 2 ratios of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (40:1 [low n-3] and 1.4:1 [high n-3]) and 1 of 3 concentrations of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of diet; medium, 101 mg/kg; and high, 447 mg/kg) in a 2 X 3 factorial study. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids significantly increased total content of n-3 fatty acids in plasma (17.0 g/100 g of fatty acids), compared with low n-3 diets (2.02 g/100 g of fatty acids). Mean +/- SEM plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly lower in dogs consuming high n-3 diets (4.59 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), compared with dogs consuming low n-3 diets (5.71 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). A significant interaction existed between the ratio for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and amount of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the diet (plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed on a molar basis), because the plasma concentration of alpha-toco-pherol was higher in dogs consuming low n-3 diets, compared with those consuming high n-3 diets, at the 2 higher amounts of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed relative to total lipid content did not reveal effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration is not dependent on dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids when alpha-tocopherol concentration is expressed relative to the total lipid content of plasma.

  12. L-CARNITINE-INDUCED MODULATION OF PLASMA FATTY ACIDS METABOLISM IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hernández Rosales PhD

    2006-02-01

    mejoramiento del metabolismo de las lipoproteínas. ABSTRACTThe present study was designed to examine whether the hipocholesterolemic effect of L-carnitine supplementation is related with lipoprotein fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acid compositional and cholesterol content changes were measured in lipoproteins of six different groups of rabbits. Group 1, rabbits fed a standard diet; group 2, rabbits fed standard diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg bw; group 3, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet; group 4, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg b.w. These four groups were fed their diets during 126 days. Group 5 and 6 were fed the same diet as group 4 in a previous period of 126 days, and after this time, group 5 was fed the same diet as group 1, and group 6 fed the same diet as group 2, during a second period of 65 days.However, the progression of hypercholesterolemia was reduced 50 % by L-carnitine administration in those animals fed cholesterol diet. Fatty acid compositional changes in lipoprotein-cholesteryl esters were found in all groups of animals supplemented with L-carnitine. During the standard-fed period the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid ratio was increased in VLDL and HDL particles whereas was decreased in LDL. In the hyperlipidemia progression period the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio in HDL fraction was slightly enhanced and in the VLDL+LDL modified particle was diminished. In the hyperlipidemia regression period, plasma cholesterol level was additionally reduced in a 33 % in the group 6; and the saturated to unsaturated fatty ratio had the same behaviour from that observed in the progression period for HDL and VLDL+LDL particles. A remarkable reduction (75% of aorta atherosclerotic plaques in the group 6 was found. From these results we concluded that L-carnitine, in this experimental model, induces an improved lipoprotein metabolism.

  13. [The profile of plasma non-esterified fatty acids in children with different terms of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmurzina, V A; Petryairina, E E; Saveliev, S V; Selishcheva, A A

    2016-01-01

    Composition and quantitative content of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were investigated in plasma samples of healthy children (12) and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (31) by gas chromatography (GC) after preliminary NEFA solid-phase extraction from plasma lipids. There was a significant (p<0.001) 1.6-fold increase in the total level of NEFA regardless of the disease duration. In the group of DM1 children with the disease period less than 1 year there was an increase in the arachidonic acid (20:4) content (30%) and the oleic acid trans-isomer (18:1) content (82%), and also a decrease in the docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3) content (26% ) and the docosapentaenoic acids (22:5 n-6) content (60%). In the group of DM1 children with prolonged course of this disease the altered NEFA levels returned to the normal level.

  14. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  15. Associations between plasma fatty acids, desaturase and elongase, and insulin resistance in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives - Fatty acid profiles, desaturase (SCD-16, SCD018, D5D, D6D) and elongase (ELOVL6) enzyme activity have been associated with adiposity and metabolic disease. While this has been studied in adults, few studies have evaluated children. The objective of this study was to evalu...

  16. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid patterns in patients with recurrent depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assies, Johanna; Pouwer, François; Lok, Anja

    2010-01-01

    status of patients with MDD-R not only differs with regard to omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, but also concerns other fatty acids. These alterations may be due to: differences in diet, changes in synthesizing enzyme activities, higher levels of chronic (oxidative) stress but may also result from adaptive...... strategies by providing protection against enhanced oxidative stress and production of free radicals....

  17. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rago, Daniela; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact...

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption, plasma cholesterol concentration and neuroendocrine response to mental and physical task load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odink, J.; Kramer, F.M.; Beek, E.J. van der; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Kempen, H.J.M.; Berg, H. van den; Egger, R.J.; Wientjes, C.J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relation between fatty acid consumption, total plama cholesterol and neuroendocrine response to exposure to stress, factors thought to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease. For this purpose 32 apparently healthy male volunteers were

  19. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations increase following intestinal ischemia in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Meinen, M.; Meulen, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is an intracellular epithelial protein in the intestinal mucosa of many animals. IFABP appears in the circulation following epithelial damage, and in humans, is proven to be a parameter for damage to the mucosa. In this paper, an ELISA test designed for

  20. Hypercholesterolemia increases plasma saturated and n-6 fatty acids altering prostaglandin homeostasis and promotes endothelial dysfunction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M; Alberto, M R; Sierra, L; Van Nieuwenhove, C; Saad, S; Isla, M I; Jerez, S

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. The rabbits fed with HD had higher levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and lower levels of oleic acid. The linoleic acid level was unchanged. PGI(2) and NO were diminished and PGF(2α) levels, the PGI(2)/TXA(2) ratio and the intima/media ratio were increased in rabbits fed with HD. In conclusion, feeding HD for a short period increased ARA plasma levels and unbalanced release of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor PG redirected the pathway to vasoconstrictor metabolite release. These lipid metabolism alterations in addition to the reduced NO levels and the moderate changes in the vascular morphology contributed to the endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. Therefore, the present findings support the importance of early correction or prevention of high cholesterol levels to disrupt the endothelial dysfunction process that leads to cardiovascular disease.

  1. [Peculiarities of the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte plasma membranes of the Black Sea fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkin, Iu A; Silkina, E N; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2012-01-01

    The phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the main phospholipids families of erythrocyte plasma membranes was studied in two species of cartilaginous fish: the common thrasher (Raja clavata L.) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) and three bony fish species: the scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus L.), the smarida (Spicara flexuosa Raf.), and the horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev). It was shown that in the studied fish, 70.0-80.0 % of all membrane phospholipids were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylserine, monophosphoinositide, and sphingomyelin were minor components whose content in the erythrocyte membrane fluctuated from 3.0 % to 13.0 %. The fatty acid phospholipids composition was represented by a large specter of acids. From saturated acids, basic for plasma membranes are palmitic (C16: 0) and stearic (C18: 0) acids. From unsaturated acids, the larger part belong to mono-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaenoic acids in fish phospholipids. The calculation of the double bond index and of the unsaturation coefficient showed difference in the deformation ability of erythrocyte membranes of the studied fish.

  2. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  4. Effects of Souvenaid on plasma micronutrient levels and fatty acid profiles in mild and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpma, Anne; Meulenbroek, Olga; van Hees, Anneke M J; Sijben, John W C; Vellas, Bruno; Shah, Raj C; Bennett, David A; Scheltens, Philip; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of uridine, selenium, vitamins B12, E and C, folate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than in healthy individuals. These low levels may affect disease pathways involved in synapse formation and neural functioning. Here, we investigated whether, and to what extent, circulating levels of micronutrients and fatty acids can be affected by oral supplementation with Souvenaid (containing a specific nutrient combination), using data derived from three randomized clinical trials (RCT) and an open-label extension (OLE) study with follow-up data from 12 to 48 weeks. Subjects with mild (RCT1, RCT2) or mild-to-moderate AD (RCT3) received active or control product once daily for 12-24 weeks or active product during the 24-week OLE following RCT2 (n = 212-527). Measurements included plasma levels of B vitamins, choline, vitamin E, selenium, uridine and homocysteine and proportions of DHA, EPA and total n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes. Between-group comparisons were made using t tests or non-parametric alternatives. We found that 12-24-week active product intake increased plasma and/or erythrocyte micronutrients: uridine; choline; selenium; folate; vitamins B6, B12 and E; and fatty acid levels of DHA and EPA (all p Souvenaid. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of sustained dietary intake of uridine monophosphate on plasma uridine levels in humans. Uptake of nutrients is observed within 6 weeks, and a plateau phase is reached for most nutrients during prolonged intake, thus increasing the availability of precursors and cofactors in the circulation that may be used for the formation and function of neuronal membranes and synapses in the brain.

  5. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...

  6. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Christ; Ramsvik, Marie Sannes; Svardal, Asbjørn; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-10-07

    There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.

  7. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes of children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, H.; Hornstra, G.; Koning, T.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Bakker, H.D.; Klerk, H. de; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFAs), and their longer-chain more-unsaturated derivatives (LCPUFAs) in particular, are essential for normal growth and cognitive development during childhood. Children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism represent a risk population for a reduced LCPUFA status because

  8. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid.

  9. Majority of cellular fatty acid acylated proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.A.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    The BC 2 Hl muscle cell line was previously reported to contain a broad array of fatty acid acylated proteins. Palmitate was shown to be attached to membrane proteins posttranslationally through thiol ester linkages, whereas myristate was attached cotranslationally, or within seconds thereafter, to soluble and membrane-bound proteins through amide linkages. The temporal and subcellular differences between palmitate and myristate acylation suggested that these two classes of acyl proteins might follow different intracellular pathways to distinct subcellular membrane systems or organelles. In this study, the authors examined the subcellular localization of the major fatty acylated proteins in BC 4 Hl cells. Palmitate-containing proteins were localized to the plasma membrane, but only a subset of myristate-containing proteins was localized to this membrane fraction. The majority of acyl proteins were nonglycosylated and resistant to digestion with extracellular proteases, suggesting that they were not exposed to the external surface of the plasma membrane. Many proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins face the cytoplasm. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 3 H]myristate revealed that individual proteins were modified by only one of the two fatty acids and did not undergo both N-linked myristylation and ester-linked palmitylation. Together, these results suggest that the majority of cellular acyl proteins are routed to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, and they raise the possibility that fatty acid acylation may play a role in intracellular sorting of nontransmembranous, nonglycosylated membrane proteins

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Modulate TRPV4 Function through Plasma Membrane Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, Rebeca; Sierra-Valdez, Francisco J; Millet, Jonathan R M; Herwig, Joshua D; Roan, Esra; Vásquez, Valeria; Cordero-Morales, Julio F

    2017-10-03

    Dietary consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), present in fish oils, is known to improve the vascular response, but their molecular targets remain largely unknown. Activation of the TRPV4 channel has been implicated in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Here, we studied the contribution of ω-3 PUFAs to TRPV4 function by precisely manipulating the fatty acid content in Caenorhabditis elegans. By genetically depriving the worms of PUFAs, we determined that the metabolism of ω-3 fatty acids is required for TRPV4 activity. Functional, lipid metabolome, and biophysical analyses demonstrated that ω-3 PUFAs enhance TRPV4 function in human endothelial cells and support the hypothesis that lipid metabolism and membrane remodeling regulate cell reactivity. We propose a model whereby the eicosanoid's epoxide group location increases membrane fluidity and influences the endothelial cell response by increasing TRPV4 channel activity. ω-3 PUFA-like molecules might be viable antihypertensive agents for targeting TRPV4 to reduce systemic blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma elaidic acid level as biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and risk of weight change: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Scalbert, Augustin; Bueno de Mesquita, Bas; Romaguera, Dora; Gunter, Marc J; Vineis, Paolo; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verana; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Huerta, Jose Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, Jose Ramon; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Sonested, Emily; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicolas J; Peeters, Petra H M; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow-up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region. In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97-1.56, p = 0.082) (p-trendacid level and risk of weight loss (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88-1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids.

  12. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  13. Plasma trans-fatty acid concentrations continue to be associated with metabolic syndrome among US adults after reductions in trans-fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Gillespie, Cathleen; Yang, Quanhe

    2017-07-01

    No study examined and compared the association between intake of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and risk of metabolic syndrome before and after significant reduction of TFA intakes in the US population. We hypothesized that the relationship might remain significant after substantial reduction of TFA intakes in the population. We used data on 1442 and 2233 adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between plasma TFA concentrations and metabolic syndrome, including each of its 5 components. The median plasma TFA concentrations were reduced from 79.8 μmol/L in 1999-2000 to 36.9 μmol/L in 2009-2010. The fully adjusted prevalence ratios comparing the highest vs the lowest quintile of plasma TFA concentrations in 1999-2000 were 3.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.39-4.92) for metabolic syndrome, 1.72 (1.38-2.14) for large waistline, 8.25 (6.34-10.74) for high triglycerides, 1.96 (1.46-2.62) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 1.14 (0.85-1.55) for high blood pressure, and 1.48 (1.19-1.85) for high fasting glucose, respectively. The corresponding prevalence ratios in 2009-2010 were 2.93 (2.41-3.54), 1.62 (1.39-1.89), 14.93 (9.28-24.02), 3.09 (2.18-4.37), 1.27 (1.11-1.46), and 1.24 (1.06-1.46), respectively. The pattern of association between TFAs and metabolic syndrome and its components did not differ by cycles. The observed associations were consistent across the subgroups examined. Despite a 54% decline in plasma TFA concentrations from 1999-2000 to 2009-2010, it was positively associated with risk of metabolic syndrome and its individual components except for blood pressure in 1999-2000. Our findings support Food and Drug Administration initiatives to remove TFAs from the industrially-produced foods. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Olívia RC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P  Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways.

  15. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, P.D.; Potter, B.J.; Sorrentino, D.; Zhou, S.L.; Isola, L.M.; Stump, D.; Kiang, C.L.; Thung, S.; Wada, H.; Horio, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP PM ) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABP PM have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABP PM reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of [ 3 H]oleate but not that of [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein or [ 14 C]taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABP PM can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABP PM and mGOT are closely related

  16. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, P.D.; Potter, B.J.; Sorrentino, D.; Zhou, S.L.; Isola, L.M.; Stump, D.; Kiang, C.L.; Thung, S. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA)); Wada, H.; Horio, Y. (Univ. of Osaka (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP{sub PM}) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABP{sub PM} have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABP{sub PM} reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of ({sup 3}H)oleate but not that of ({sup 35}S)sulfobromophthalein or ({sup 14}C)taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABP{sub PM} can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABP{sub PM} and mGOT are closely related.

  17. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  18. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  19. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  20. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, S.J.; Koulman, A.; Schulze, M.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.

    Methods and Findings
    Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography

  1. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes : The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J.; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Sluijs, Ivonne; Guevara, Marcela; Huerta, José María; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J M; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings: Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132

  2. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Tee Khaw

    Full Text Available The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD.We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk of 25,639 individuals aged 40-79 years examined in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0 plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p<0.0001, in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q, and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60-0.99, p<0.05 after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59-0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1. Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids.In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.

  3. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  4. Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid N-3 fatty acids: A Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide association studies from the charge consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Manichaikul (Ani); M. Foy (Millennia); E.K. Kabagambe (Edmond); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer ); I.B. King (Irena); L.-C. Weng; S. Bhattacharya (Sayanti); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.S. Rich (Stephen); D.R. Jacobs (David); A. Cherubini (Antonio); B. McKnight (Barbara); S. Liang (Shuang); X. Gu (Xiangjun); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); C.C. Laurie (Cathy); T. Lumley (Thomas); B.L. Browning (Brian); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); Y. Friedlander (Yechiel); L. Djousse (Luc); J.H.Y. Wu (Jason); D.S. Siscovick (David); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); L.M. Steffen (Lyn); D.K. Arnett (Donna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLong-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can derive from diet or from α-linolenic acid (ALA) by elongation and desaturation. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid levels of the four major n-3 PUFAs by performing genome-wide

  5. Fatty Acid Content of Plasma Triglycerides May Contribute to the Heterogeneity in the Relationship Between Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Juan C; Barona, Jacqueline; Gonzalez-Zapata, Laura I; Deossa, Gloria C; Estrada, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    About one-third of the people with abdominal obesity do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fatty acids in plasma triglycerides (TGs) may help to explain part of this heterogeneity. This study compared TG fatty acid profile of adults with and without abdominal obesity and examined the associations of these fatty acids with MetS components. Fifty-four abdominally obese subjects were matched by age and sex with 54 adults without abdominal obesity. People were classified with MetS according to the harmonizing criteria for MetS. Fatty acids in plasma TGs were analyzed by gas chromatography. There were no differences in fatty acids of plasma TGs between people with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were differences between abdominally obese people with and without MetS. The abdominally obese group with MetS had higher palmitic (+2.9%; P = 0.012) and oleic (+4.0%; P = 0.001) acids and lower linoleic (-6.4%; P = 0.018) and arachidonic (-1.2%; P = 0.004) acids. After adjustment for abdominal obesity, age, and sex, a stepwise regression analysis showed that palmitic acid positively contributed to the variance in insulin (β = +1.08 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β = +1.09 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and myristic acid positively contributed to the variance in systolic blood pressure (β = +1.09 ± 1.03; P = 0.006). In contrast, linoleic acid negatively contributed to the variance in glucose (β = -0.321 ± 0.09; P = 0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; β = -1.05 ± 1.01; P = 0.000). There were no differences in the plasma TG fatty acid profile between people with and without abdominal obesity. Likewise, fatty acids in plasma TGs associated with many of the MetS variables independently of abdominal obesity. These results suggest that the plasma TG fatty acid profile may help to explain part of the heterogeneity

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  7. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify...

  8. Hydrogenation impairs the hypolipidemic effect of corn oil in humans. Hydrogenation, trans fatty acids, and plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, A H; Ausman, L M; Carrasco, W; Jenner, J L; Ordovas, J M; Schaefer, E J

    1993-02-01

    The effects of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of replacing corn oil with corn-oil margarine in stick form as two thirds of the fat in the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 2 diet were assessed in 14 middle-aged and elderly women and men (age range, 44-78 years) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] range, 133-219 mg/dl [3.45-5.67 mmol/l] at screening). During each 32-day study phase, subjects received all their food and drink from a metabolic kitchen. Subjects were first studied while being fed a diet approximating the composition of the current US diet (baseline), which contained 35% of calories as fat (13% saturated fatty acids [SFAs], 12% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFAs; 0.8% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]) and 128 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. This baseline phase was followed by a corn oil-enriched diet containing 30% fat (6% SFA, 11% MUFA [0.4% 18:1n-9 trans], and 10% PUFA) and 83 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal, and then a corn-oil margarine-enriched diet containing 30% fat (8% SFA, 12% MUFA [4.2% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% PUFA) and 77 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. All diets were isocaloric. Mean fasting LDL-C and apolipoprotein (apo) B levels were 153 mg/dl (3.96 mmol/l) and 101 mg/dl on the baseline diet, 17% and 20% lower (both p oil-enriched diet, and 10% and 10% lower (both p < 0.01) on the margarine-enriched diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Military training elicits marked increases in plasma metabolomic signatures of energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Carrigan, Christopher T; Castellani, John W; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Teien, Hilde-Kristin; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25.4 MJ/day [SD 2.3]) and severe energy deficits (13.6 MJ/day [SD 2.5]). Of 737 identified metabolites, 478 changed during the training. Increases in 88% of the free fatty acids and 91% of the acylcarnitines, and decreases in 88% of the mono- and diacylglycerols detected within lipid metabolism pathways were observed. Smaller increases in 75% of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and 50% of the branched-chain amino acid metabolites detected were also observed. Changes in multiple metabolites related to lipid metabolism were correlated with body mass loss and energy balance, but not with energy and macronutrient intakes or energy expenditure. These findings are consistent with an increase in energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and branched-chain amino acid catabolism during strenuous military training. The magnitude of the energy deficit induced by undereating relative to high energy expenditure, rather than macronutrient intake, appeared to drive these changes, particularly within lipid metabolism pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  11. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  13. Lack of plasma albumin impairs intravascular lipolysis and explains the associated free fatty acids deficiency and hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in lipid metabolism and transport are hallmarks in analbuminemic Nagase rats (NAR and humans. Triglyceridemia is nearly 3- to 5-fold higher in female NAR than in control Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR. Also, NAR present with a severe plasma free fatty acid (FFA deficit. There are conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying NAR hypertriglyceridemia. Objective We aimed at investigating whether liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates into the plasma contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia in NAR. We also studied whether heparin or albumin administration would release the hypothesized lipolysis inhibition in NAR. Methods The incorporation of tritiated water into lipids and the linear accumulation rate of plasma triglycerides after Triton WR1339 injection were the measures of liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates. Results Lipogenesis (596 ± 40 vs. 929 ± 124 μmol 3H2O/g/h and triglyceride (4.25 ± 1.00 vs. 7.04 ± 1.68 mg/dL/min secretion rates were slower (P ≤ 0.05 in fasted NAR than in control SDR. The injection of either heparin or albumin elicited an increase in NAR plasma FFA levels over time. FFA levels reached control levels 90 min after the albumin administration, increasing from 0.36 ± 0.05 to 1.34 ± 0.16 mEq/L (P ≤ 0.05. These results indicate that the lack of plasma albumin inhibits intravascular lipolysis and causes the FFA deficit observed in NAR. Conclusion NAR hepatic triglyceride synthesis and output do not contribute to NAR hypertriglyceridemia. We propose that the lack of albumin diminishes intravascular lipolysis which reduces the plasma triglyceride removal rate and explain both NAR hypertriglyceridemia and FFA deficiency.

  14. Plasma anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines are correlated with their corresponding free fatty acid levels under both fasting and non-fasting conditions in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Balvers, M.G.J.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), such as anandamide (AEA), are a group of endogenous lipids derived from a fatty acid linked to ethanolamine and have a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of metabolism and food intake. We hypothesized that i) NAE plasma levels are associated with

  15. Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profile is Altered in Both Septic and Non-Septic Critically Ill: A Correlation with Inflammatory Markers and Albumin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, F.; Borovská, J.; Vecka, M.; Rychlíková, J.; Vávrová, L.; Petrásková, H.; Žák, A.; Nováková, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2017), s. 245-254 ISSN 0024-4201 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sepsis * inflammation * oxidative stress * plasma lipids * fatty acid profile * PUFA * lipoproteins Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Critical care medicine and Emergency medicine Impact factor: 1.934, year: 2016

  16. Beta-adrenergic control of plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels in the air-breathing African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, JCF; Vianen, GJ; van den Thillart, GEEJM; Zaagsma, J

    In several water-breathing fish species, P-adrenergic receptor stimulation by noradrenaline leads to a decrease in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, as opposed to an increase in air-breathing mammals. We hypothesised that this change in adrenergic control is related to the mode of breathing.

  17. Different in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Koulman, A.; Sharp, S.J.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2

  18. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  19. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  20. Effects of Chain Length and Saturability of Fatty Acids on Phospholipids and Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Bovine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiongxian; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Bamikole, Musibau Adungbe; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-12-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma are essential substrates for de novo synthesis of milk fat, or directly import into mammary cells. The physico-chemical properties of mammary cells membrane composition affected by FFAs with different chain lengths and saturability are unclear yet. Employing GC, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, the adsorption capacity, phospholipids content, membrane proteins conformation, lipid peroxidation product, and free sulfhydryl of plasma membranes (PMs) interacted with different FFAs were determined. The mammary cells PMs at 38 and 39.5 °C showed different adsorption capacities: acetic acid (Ac) > stearic acid (SA) > β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) > trans10, cis12 CLA. In the FTIR spectrum, the major adsorption peaks appeared at 2920 and 2850 cm -1 for phospholipids, and at 1628 and 1560 cm -1 for membrane proteins. The intensities of PMs-FFAs complexes were varied with the FFAs species and their initial concentrations. The β-sheet and turn structures of membrane proteins were transferred into random coil and α-helix after BHBA, SA and trans10, cis12 CLA treatments compared with Ac treatment. The quenching effects on the fluorescence of endogenous membrane protein, 1, 8-ANS, NBD-PE, and DHPE entrapped in PMs by LCFA were different from those of short chain FFAs. These results indicate that the adsorption of FFAs could change membrane protein conformation and polarity of head group in phospholipids. This variation of the mammary cells PMs was regulated by carbon chain length and saturability of FFAs.

  1. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangani, Cyrous O; Kelley, David E; Delany, James P

    2008-09-15

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatization method is very mild and efficient, and is selective only towards FFAs so that no separation from a total lipid extract is required. The direct method gave lower concentrations for palmitic acid and stearic acid and increased concentrations for oleic acid and linoleic acid in plasma as compared to methyl ester derivative after thin-layer chromatography. The [(13)C]palmitate isotope enrichment measured using direct method was significantly higher than that observed with the BF(3)/MeOH-TLC method. The present method provided accurate and precise measures of concentration as well as enrichment when analyzed with gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry.

  2. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    investigated. Although decreasing during the early absorptive phase a continuous contribution of endogenous trans-C18:I and arachidonic acid was observed in plasma. Small differences were observed between the 4 dietary fats. In lymph, the transport of trans-C18:1 rose markedly after butter administration...... partly caused by the content of this fatty acid in butter, while the transport of trans-C18:1 after R/C10 was unchanged although still transported at a reasonable high rate. The transport of arachidonic acid increased after administration of both butter and R/C10. Minor changes were observed in plasma...

  3. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  4. [The non-etherifying and free fatty acids of blood plasma. Pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and symptoms of syndrome of overeating-metabolic syndrome: a lecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2013-12-01

    From point of view of physiology, the metabolic syndrome is a syndrome of overeating when an optimal by the content of fatty acids in food is too much a physologically. This condition forms an omental variant of increase of body mass. The oleic triglycerides cumulate in fatty cells of omentum and after activation of lypolisis at the level of paracrinically regulating associations of cells and organs release into blood many non-etherifying fatty acids. The albumin has no possibilities to bind them all. The polar fatty acids-free fatty acids which are not bind by albumin form in blood direct heterogeneous micelles which spontaneously incorporate into plasmatic membrane of monolayer of endothelium. At that, the hydrophilic lipid pores are formed through which Ca2+, Na+ and water get into cytosol and K+ gets out. The hydration of cytosol and hypercalcinemia increase dimensions, thickness of monolayer of epithelium, narrow lumen of arterioles of muscular type and increase resistance to blood flow in distal section of arterial channel. The hydrodynamic pressure increases compensatory in proximal section of arterial channel along with the development of arterial hypertension. The late in phylogenesis insulin has no possibilities to block lipolysis in fatty cells of omentum hence these cells have no receptors to this insulin. While in blood plasma the concentration of non-etherifying acids is increased the cell will not absorb and oxidize glucose. The non-etherifying form the resistance too late in phylogenesis insulin, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The concentration of oleic triglycerides increases in blood. The increase in omentum of number of fatty cells of loose connective tissue forms biological reaction of inflammation right up to destruction of overloaded oleic triglycerides cells on the type of apoptosis. This occurrence increases the concentration of C-reactive protein in blood plasma. All symptoms of syndrome of overeating (metabolic syndrome) are formed in

  5. Caloric Restriction and Exercise Increase Plasma ANGPTL4 Levels in Humans via Elevated Free Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.; Lichtenstein, L.L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  6. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  7. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  8. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  9. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  10. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  11. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2018-01-01

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. PMID:23016130

  13. Effect of cottonseed and canola seed on unsaturated fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    biohydrogenation in the rumen and showed that the type of dietary fat has a marked impact on lipid ... Keywords: Extruded oil seed, fatty acid, lamb plasma, liver, Mehraban lambs ..... Effects of diets low in fat or essential fatty acids on the fatty ... Review: Erythrocyte membrane: structure, function, and pathophysiology. Vet.

  14. Plasma trans-fatty acid concentrations in fasting adults declined from NHANES 1999-2000 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Caudill, Samuel P; Kuiper, Heather C; Yang, Quanhe; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Lacher, David A; Pirkle, James L

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and reducing their consumption is a major public health objective. Food intake studies have provided estimates for TFA concentrations in the US population; however, there is a need for data on TFA blood concentrations in the population. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine plasma TFA concentrations in a nationally representative group of fasted adults in the US population in NHANES samples from 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Design: Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n-7t), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n-9t), and linoelaidic acid (C18:2n-6t,9t)] were measured in plasma in 1613 subjects from NHANES 1999-2000 and 2462 subjects from NHANES 2009-2010 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Geometric means and distribution percentiles were calculated for each TFA and their sum by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American), and covariate-adjusted geometric means were computed by using a model that included these demographic and other dietary factors, as well as survey year and any significant interaction terms. Results: These nationally representative data for the adult US population show that TFA concentrations were 54% lower in NHANES 2009-2010 than in NHANES 1999-2000. Covariate-adjusted geometric means for the sum of the 4 TFAs were 81.4 μmol/L (95% CI: 77.3, 85.6 μmol/L) and 37.8 μmol/L (95% CI: 36.4, 39.4 μmol/L) in NHANES 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, respectively. Even with the large decline in TFA concentrations, differences between demographic subgroups were comparable in the 2 surveys. Conclusion: The results indicate an overall reduction in TFA concentrations in the US population and provide a valuable baseline to evaluate the impact of the recent regulation categorizing TFAs as food additives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  16. A comparative evaluation of plasma glycerol and free fatty acids in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh V

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma glycerol concentration was determined in 158 patients admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain. The patients were retrospectively divided into five groups according to their diagnosis, taking into account the presence or absence of myocardial infarc-tion and complicating arrythmias, The plasma glycerol concentra-tion was significantly higher in the group with complicating arrhythmias, irrespective of whether infarction was present or not. Therefore it is proposed that elevation of plasma glycerol may provide an important clue to determine those myocardial ischaemia cases who may develop cardiac arrythmias at a later stage.

  17. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  18. Plasma and erythrocyte uptake of omega-3 fatty acids from an intravenous fish oil based lipid emulsion in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltweri, A M; Thomas, A L; Fisk, H L; Arshad, A; Calder, P C; Dennison, A R; Bowrey, D J

    2017-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that short term intravenous (IV) administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is more effective than oral supplementation at promoting incorporation of the bioactive omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into plasma, blood cells and tissues. The effect of repeated short term IV infusion of omega-3 PUFAs was investigated in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer during palliative chemotherapy. Patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer (n = 21) were recruited into a phase II pilot clinical trial. All patients were scheduled for an intravenous infusion of Omegaven ® (fish oil supplement containing EPA and DHA) at a rate of 2 ml/kg body weight for 4 h once a week for up to six months. Blood samples were collected to assess omega-3 PUFA uptake into plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and into red blood cell (RBC) membranes. Fatty acid profiles were analysed by gas chromatography. Twenty patients received at least one Omegaven ® treatment and were included in the analysis. Each infusion of omega-3 PUFAs resulted in increased EPA and DHA in plasma NEFAs, but there was little effect on PUFAs within plasma PC during the infusions. However, with repeated weekly infusion of omega-3 PUFAs, the EPA content of plasma PC and of RBC membranes increased. Repeated weekly omega-3 PUFA infusion is effective in enriching plasma PC and RBC membranes in EPA in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy. Clinical Trials.Gov NCT01870791. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  20. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David A; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Fleming, Jennifer A; Liu, Xiaoran; McCrea, Cindy E; Jones, Peter J

    2014-04-23

    The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. COMIT was conducted at three clinical sites, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Québec City, Québec, Canada and University Park, Pennsylvania, United States. Inclusion criteria were at least one of the followings: waist circumference (≥90 cm for males and ≥84 cm for females), and at least one other criterion: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein cholesterol safflower oil blend, and corn oil and safflower oil blend. A per protocol approach with a mixed model analysis was decided to be appropriate for data analysis. One hundred and seventy volunteers were randomized and 130 completed the study with a dropout rate of 23.5%. The mean plasma total DHA concentrations, which were analyzed among all participants as a measure of adherence, increased by more than 100% in the DHA-enriched phase, compared to other phases, demonstrating excellent dietary adherence. Recruitment and retention strategies were effective in achieving a sufficient number of participants who completed the study protocol to enable sufficient statistical power to resolve small differences in outcome measures. It is expected that the study will generate important data thereby enhancing our understanding of the effects of n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acid-containing oils on CVD risks. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01351012.

  1. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (PDHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (PDHA (R 2 =0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FACTS ABOUT TRANS FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary

    2010-12-01

    dairy products, lean meats, poultry and fish twice a week. Following this dietary pattern will limit TFA and SFA intake and is consistent with current dietary recommendations made by many organizations worldwide.8      Elimination of hydrogenation of vegetable oils represents a cost-effective means of improving heath. It also avoids destruction of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids.7      Review articles have special structure that is not considered in this article. A review article begin with introduction that explain the aim of this review clearly, then it continues with the description of the subject using other articles, it is necessary to explain how did you extract other articles, which data banks you used for search and what   Figure 2. Potential Physiological Effects of Trans Fatty Acids.   was the inclusion and exclusion criteria of articles you used for your review. Finally you should have a clear conclusion that persuades the readers of your review. Usually review article is written by an expert person that is about that subject. Changes in hepatocyte production, secretion, and catabolism of lipoproteins, together with effects on plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, probably account for adverse effects of trans fatty acids on serum lipid levels (Panel A. The effect on CETP is probably not direct but mediated through effects on membrane or nuclear receptors (dashed line. Trans fatty acids also alter fatty acid metabolism and, possibly, inflammatory responses of adipocytes. In addition, nitric oxide–dependent endothelial dysfunction and increased levels of circulating adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [sICAM-1] and soluble vascular-cell adhesion molecule 1 [sVCAM-1] are seen with trans fat intake. Trans fatty acids also modulate monocyte and macrophage activity (Panel D, as manifested by increased production of inflammatory mediators. Each of these effects has been seen in controlled studies in humans and

  3. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine whether red blood cell (RBC membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG.METHODS:This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.RESULTS:When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively, while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001. When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001, and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001.CONCLUSION:The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG.

  4. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  5. The Implication of PGC-1α on Fatty Acid Transport across Plasma and Mitochondrial Membranes in the Insulin Sensitive Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Supruniuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PGC-1α coactivator plays a decisive role in the maintenance of lipid balance via engagement in numerous metabolic processes (i.e., Krebs cycle, β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain. It constitutes a link between fatty acids import and their complete oxidation or conversion into bioactive fractions through the coordination of both the expression and subcellular relocation of the proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane movement. Studies on cell lines and/or animal models highlighted the existence of an upregulation of the total and mitochondrial FAT/CD36, FABPpm and FATPs content in skeletal muscle in response to PGC-1α stimulation. On the other hand, the association between PGC-1α level or activity and the fatty acids transport in the heart and adipocytes is still elusive. So far, the effects of PGC-1α on the total and sarcolemmal expression of FAT/CD36, FATP1, and FABPpm in cardiomyocytes have been shown to vary in relation to the type of PPAR that was coactivated. In brown adipose tissue (BAT PGC-1α knockdown was linked with a decreased level of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid transporters (FAT/CD36, FABP3, whereas the results obtained for white adipose tissue (WAT remain contradictory. Furthermore, dysregulation in lipid turnover is often associated with insulin intolerance, which suggests the coactivator's potential role as a therapeutic target.

  6. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  7. Dietary levels of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids and plasma vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, L A; Lee, L

    1975-06-01

    Seventeen daily diets (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) were analyzed from a 35-day menu cycle fed to students, under contract in the University dining halls. This 35-day menu cycle was repeated 6.6 times over the course of two 15-week semesters and registration and final examination periods. The average 2, 500 kcal diet collected during the sixth and seventh menu cycles contained 96 plus or minus 26 g fat of which 19.5 plus or minus 1.8% was linoleate and 28.7 plus or minus 14.2 mg total tocopherol of which 7.5 plus or minus 3.5 mg was RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Blood samples obtained from 26 female undergraduate student volunteers contained adequate levels of plasma total vitamin E, 1.09 plus or minus 0.25 mg/100 ml, despite the observation that 71% and 65% of the diets analyzed did not meet the value tabluated in the eighth edition of "Recommended Dietary Allowances" for adult females in terms of RRR-alpha-tocopherol or total vitamin E activity, respectively. These data emphasize the importance of the average long-term consumption of this fat-soluble vitamin rather than daily intake.

  8. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia G. Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC, cholesteryl ester (CE and triglyceride (TAG and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC, red blood cells (RBC and platelets (PLAT. Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group. We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  9. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Celia G; West, Annette L; Browning, Lucy M; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-08-03

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  10. In Vitro Effect of Fatty Acids Identified in the Plasma of Obese Adolescents on the Function of Pancreatic β-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Velasquez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe increase in circulating free fatty acid (FFA levels is a major factor that induces malfunction in pancreatic β-cells. We evaluated the effect of FFAs reconstituted according to the profile of circulating fatty acids found in obese adolescents on the viability and function of the murine insulinoma cell line (mouse insulinoma [MIN6].MethodsFrom fatty acids obtained commercially, plasma-FFA profiles of three different youth populations were reconstituted: obese with metabolic syndrome; obese without metabolic syndrome; and normal weight without metabolic syndrome. MIN6 cells were treated for 24 or 48 hours with the three FFA profiles, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, cell viability, mitochondrial function and antioxidant activity were evaluated.ResultsThe high FFA content and high polyunsaturated ω6/ω3 ratio, present in plasma of obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome had a toxic effect on MIN6 cell viability and function, increasing oxidative stress and decreasing glucose-dependent insulin secretion.ConclusionThese results could help to guide nutritional management of obese young individuals, encouraging the increase of ω-3-rich food consumption in order to reduce the likelihood of deterioration of β-cells and the possible development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Verstegen, M W A; Huyghebaert, G; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2011-04-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil) as main fat source. In the vegetal fat diets, production value was significantly linearly improved by supplementation with DMG up to 11%. Irrespective of dietary fat source, abdominal fat percentage was significantly linearly reduced up to 24% and meat yield tended to increase linearly with DMG level up to 4%. In the vegetal fat groups, DMG significantly lowered abdominal fat pad by up to 38% and tended to increase meat yield up to 6% at the highest dose. Fasted non-esterified fatty acid level significantly decreased with increasing DMG level up to 36% and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) decreased with a statistical trend up to 46% at the highest dose. In vegetal fat diets, addition of DMG resulted in significant lower TBARS level by 56% at the highest dose. Finally, a significant quadratic effect on ascites heart index was present in the vegetal fat diets, with a minimal value at 0.5 g Na-DMG/kg. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DMG may improve technical and slaughter performance, and may reduce oxidative stress and pulmonary hypertension, but the degree of effects is modulated by fatty acid profile of the diet. Herewith, effects are more pronounced in a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with a diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Vohl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02 with plasma triglyceride (TG levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA.

  13. Total fatty acid content of the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more responsible for ethanol tolerance than the degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Na-Rae; Choi, Wonja

    2011-03-01

    The effect of change in unsaturated fatty acid composition on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing ScOLE1 (∆9 fatty acid desaturase gene of S. cerevisiae), CaFAD2 (∆12 fatty acid desaturase gene of Candida albicans), or CaFAD3 (ω3 fatty acid desaturase gene of C. albicans) was examined. ScOLE1 over-expression increased the total unsaturated fatty acid content and enhanced ethanol tolerance, compared with a control strain. In contrast, overexpression of CaFAD2 and CaFAD3, which led to production of linoleic acid (18:2) and α-linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, neither changed total unsaturated fatty acids nor enhanced ethanol tolerance. The total unsaturated fatty acid content rather than the degree of unsaturation is thus an important factor for ethanol tolerance.

  14. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita G Forouhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83 and eicosadienoic acid (EDA (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94 were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA, with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs.These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA is inversely

  15. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  16. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the aim of this article is to equip health .... of EPA and DHA into the red blood cell membrane fatty acids (a 160% increase ... non-significant changes between plasma EPA and DHA for fish oil. (864 mg .... displayed higher CD levels than the vegetable oils.30 ... analysis, on the n-3 fatty acid content of supplements.

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  19. Effect of a Diet Enriched with Fresh Coconut Saturated Fats on Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition in Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashree, Rokkam Shankar; Manjunath, N K; Indu, M; Ramesh, M; Venugopal, V; Sreedhar, P; Pavithra, N; Nagendra, Hongasandra R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) (provided by fresh coconut) versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake (provided by a combination of groundnuts and groundnut oil) on plasma lipids and erythrocyte fatty acid (EFA) composition in healthy adults. Fifty-eight healthy volunteers, randomized into 2 groups, were provided standardized diet along with 100 g fresh coconut or groundnuts and groundnut oil combination for 90 days in a Yoga University. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention period for the measurement of plasma lipids and EFA profile. Coconut diet increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels significantly. In contrast, the groundnut diet decreased total cholesterol (TC), mainly due to a decrease in HDL levels. There were no differences in the major SFA of erythrocytes in either group. However, coconut consumption resulted in an increase in C14:0 and C24:0 along with a decrease in levels of C18:1 n9 (oleic acid). There was a significant increase in levels of C20:3 n6 (dihomo-gamma linolenic acid, DGLA). Consumption of SFA-rich coconut for 3 months had no significant deleterious effect on erythrocytes or lipid-related factors compared to groundnut consumption. On the contrary, there was an increase in the anti-atherogenic HDL levels and anti-inflammatory precursor DGLA in erythrocyte lipids. This suggests that coconut consumption may not have any deleterious effects on cardiovascular risk in normal subjects.

  20. Allergic disease in infants up to 2 yr of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation inpregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Furuhjelm, Catrin; Warstedt, Kristina; Fagerås Böttcher, Malin; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Larsson, Johanna; Fredriksson, Mats; Duchén, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported a protective effect of maternal omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (x-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnancy and lactation on IgE-associated eczema and food allergy in the infant during the first year of life. Here we investigate whether the effects of the LCPUFA supplementation on IgE-associated diseases last up to 2 yr of age and assess the relationship between plasma proportions of x-3 PUFAs and the frequency and severity of infant allergic disease. ...

  1. Uptake of oleate by isolated rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwieterman, W.; Sorrentino, D.; Potter, B.J.; Rand, J.; Kiang, C.L.; Stump, D.; Berk, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A portion of the hepatocellular uptake of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids is mediated by a specific 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, which has also been isolated from the gut. To investigate whether a similar transport process exists in other tissues with high transmembrane fatty acid fluxes, initial rates (V/sub O/) of [ 3 H]-oleate uptake into isolated rat adipocytes were studied as a function of the concentration of unbound [ 3 H]oleate in the medium. V/sub O/ reached a maximum as the concentration of unbound oleate was increased and was significantly inhibited both by phloretin and by prior incubation of the cells with Pronase. A rabbit antibody to the rat liver plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein inhibited adipocyte fatty acid uptake by up to 63% in dose-dependent fashion. Inhibition was noncompetitive; at an immunoglobulin concentration of 250 μg/ml V/sub max/ was reduced from 2480 /plus minus/ 160 to 1870 /plus minus/ 80 pmol/min per 5 /times/ 10 4 adipocytes, with no change in K/sub m/. A basic kDa adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, isolated from crude adipocyte plasma membrane fractions, reacted strongly in both agar gel diffusion and electrophoretic blots with the antibody raised against the corresponding hepatic plasma membrane protein. These data indicate that the uptake of oleate by rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

  2. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  3. Plasma long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and macular pigment in subjects with family history of age-related macular degeneration: the Limpia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Buaud, Benjamin; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Bron, Alain; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Savel, Hélène; Vaysse, Carole; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile

    2017-12-01

    In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects. Subjects with at least one parent treated for neovascular AMD, aged 40-70, with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >20/25, free of late AMD and other major eye conditions and with no use of supplement containing lutein or zeaxanthin the preceding year were recruited in Bordeaux and Dijon, France. At baseline, MPOD within 1° of eccentricity was measured by modified Heidelberg retinal analyser (Heidelberg, Germany) and plasma omega-3 PUFAs by gas chromatography. Medical history and lifestyle data were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs were assessed at the baseline examination, using mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, centre, body mass index, smoking, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lutein+zeaxanthin. After multivariate adjustment, high MPOD was significantly associated with higher level of plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (β = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; p = 0.03). Plasma alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were not significantly associated with MPOD. In the Limpia study, high MPOD within 1° was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of omega-3 DPA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations with Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; Young, Andrea S; Belury, Martha A; Cole, Rachel M; Gracious, Barbara; Seidenfeld, Adina M; Wolfson, Hannah; Fristad, Mary A

    2017-04-01

    To examine fatty acid profiles, their response to omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3) supplementation, and associations with clinical status and treatment response in youth with mood disorders. In a placebo-controlled 2X2 design, 7-14 year-olds (N = 95) in parallel pilot trials (depression N = 72; bipolar N = 23) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of Ω3 supplementation (1.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 0.2 g docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], and 0.27 g other Ω3 per day); psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP); their combination; or placebo (mainly oleic and linoleic acid) alone. Blood was drawn at baseline (N = 90) and endpoint (n = 65). Fatty acid levels were expressed as percent of total plasma fatty acids. Correlational and moderator/mediator analyses were done with SPSS Statistics 23. At baseline: (1) DHA correlated negatively with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (r = -0.23, p = 0.029); (2) Arachidonic acid (AA, Ω6) correlated negatively with global functioning (r = -0.24, p = 0.022); (3) Total Ω3 correlated negatively with age (r = -0.22, p = 0.036) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.31, p = 0.006). Moderation: Baseline ALA moderated response to Ω3 supplementation: ALA levels above the sample mean (lower DHA) predicted significantly better placebo-controlled response (p = 0.04). Supplementation effects: Compared to placebo, 2 g Ω3 per day increased EPA blood levels sevenfold and DHA levels by half (both p Mediation: EPA increase baseline-to-endpoint mediated placebo-controlled global function and depression improvement: the greater the EPA increase, the less the placebo-controlled Ω3 improvement. Ω3 supplementation at 2 g/day increases blood levels substantially, more so in smaller children. A possible U-shaped response curve should be explored.

  5. Fish oil decreases C-reactive protein/albumin ratio improving nutritional prognosis and plasma fatty acid profile in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Michel Carlos; Pastore e Silva, Juliana de Aguiar; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Fabre, Maria Emília de Souza; Gevaerd, Scheila; Naliwaiko, Katya; Moreno, Yara Maria Franco; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (n-3 PUFA) have several anticancer effects, especially attributed to their ability to modulate a variety of genomic and immune responses. In this context, this randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was conducted in order to check whether supplementation of 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks alters the production of inflammatory markers, the plasma fatty acid profile and the nutritional status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Eleven adults with CRC in chemotherapy were randomized into two groups: (a) supplemented (SG) daily with 2 g/day of encapsulated fish oil [providing 600 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] for 9 weeks (n = 6), and (b) control (CG) (n = 5). All outcomes were evaluated on the day before the first chemotherapy session and 9 weeks later. Plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17A, the pro/anti-inflammatory balance (ratio TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL10) and serum albumin, showed no significant changes between times and study groups (p > 0.05). C-reactive protein (CRP) and the CRP/albumin ratio showed opposite behavior in groups, significantly reducing their values in SG (p < 0.05). Plasma proportions of EPA and DHA increased 1.8 and 1.4 times, respectively, while the ARA reduced approximately 0.6 times with the supplementation (9 weeks vs baseline, p < 0.05). Patients from SG gained 1.2 kg (median) while the CG lost -0.5 kg (median) during the 9 weeks of chemotherapy (p = 0.72). These results demonstrate that 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks of chemotherapy improves CRP values, CRP/albumin status, plasma fatty acid profile and potentially prevents weight loss during treatment.

  6. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Coyle, E. F.; Sidossis, L. S.; Zhang, X. J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the extent to which decreased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration contributes to the relatively low rates of fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise, we studied FFA metabolism in six endurance-trained cyclists during 20-30 min of exercise [85% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max)].

  7. The effect of n-3 long chain fatty acids supplementation on plasma peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and thyroid hormones in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parizad Taraghijou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ is a transcription factor, which is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue and has a direct link to adiposity. It seems that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs can regulate PPAR γ expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3LC PUFA supplementation on plasma levels of PPAR γ and thyroid hormones in obesity. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 66 subjects with obesity were assigned to 2 groups. Participants in intervention group consumed omega3 capsules contained 1000 mg n-3 fatty acids (180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 120 mg of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and placebo group consumed placebo capsules contained paraffin twice a day for 4 wk. Fasting blood samples and weight measurements were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Plasma PPAR γ and thyroid hormones were measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed using a repeated measure model-two factor for comparing two groups in two times. Results: No significant changes were observed in PPAR γ levels between and within the groups after supplementation (P>0.05. N-3LC PUFA supplementation significantly increased T4 levels after 4 wk (P<0.05 but T3 and TSH did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our study showed that n-3LC PUFAs supplementation increased T4 levels. However, no significant changes in T3, TSH and PPAR γ plasma levels were observed in obese adults.

  8. Essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J A; Caldwell, M D; Meng, H C

    1977-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition may protect patients unable to eat from malnutrition almost indefinitely. If fat is not also given EFAD will occur. This outlines a prospective study of 28 surgical patients on total intravenous fat-free nutrition to determine the developmental course of EFAD and the response to therapy. Twenty-eight patients ranging from newborn to 66 years receiving parenteral nutrition without fat had regular determinations of the composition of total plasma fatty acids and the triene/tetraene ratio using gas liquid chromatography. Physical signs of EFAD were looked for also. Patients found to have evidence of EFAD were treated with 10% Intralipid. Topical safflower oil was used in three infants. Total plasma fatty acid composition was restudied following therapy. In general, infants on fat-free intravenous nutrition developed biochemical EFAD within two weeks, but dermatitis took longer to become evident. Older individuals took over four weeks to develop a diagnostic triene/tetraene ratio (greater than 0.4; range 0.4 to 3.75). Therapeutic correction of biochemical EFAD took 7 to 10 days but dermatitis took longer to correct. Cutaneous application of safflower oil alleviated the cutaneous manifestations but did not correct the triene/tetraene ratio of total plasma fatty acids. These studies indicate that surgical patients who are unable to eat for two to four weeks, depending upon age and expected fat stores, should receive fat as a part of their intravenous regimen. Images Fig. 7. PMID:404973

  9. Folate and vitamin B12 concentrations are associated with plasma DHA and EPA fatty acids in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesia, I; Huybrechts, I; González-Gross, M; Mouratidou, T; Santabárbara, J; Chajès, V; González-Gil, E M; Park, J Y; Bel-Serrat, S; Cuenca-García, M; Castillo, M; Kersting, M; Widhalm, K; De Henauw, S; Sjöström, M; Gottrand, F; Molnár, D; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Ferrari, M; Stehle, P; Marcos, A; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Moreno, L A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value DHA (P value acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.

  10. Modified High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Abdominally Obese and Normal-Weight Rats Developed High Plasma Free Fatty Acid and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  11. Modified high-sucrose diet-induced abdominally obese and normal-weight rats developed high plasma free fatty acid and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  12. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  13. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  14. Comparison of plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid compositions in patients with end-stage renal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoglu, Erdim; Kurt, Ismail; Tapan, Serkan; Uyanik, Metin; Serdar, Muhittin A; Kayadibi, Huseyin; El-Fawaeir, Saad

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the serum lipid profile and fatty acid (FA) compositions of erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma in three different patient groups (group 1: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)+end-stage renal disease (ESRD), group 2: ESRD, group 4: T2DM) and healthy controls (group 3) simultaneously. 40 ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) in Gulhane School of Medicine (20 with T2DM) and 32 controls (17 with T2DM, 15 healthy controls) were included in the study. Plasma and EM FA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Plasma and EM palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA) levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients compared to controls (p=0.040 and p=0.002 for plasma, p=0.001 and p=0.010 for EM, respectively). EM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were also significantly lower in patients with ESRD+T2DM and ESRD compared to controls (p=0.004 and p=0.037, respectively). Patients with insulin resistance display a pattern of high long chain saturated FAs (PA, SA and arachidic acids). However, while there are no recognized standards for normal EM DHA content, decreased levels of EM DHA in ESRD patient groups (groups 1 and 2) suggest that there may be reduced endogenous synthesis of DHA in HD subjects, due to the decreased functionality of desaturase and elongase enzymes. Because membrane PUFA content affects membrane fluidity and cell signaling, these findings are worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impairment of lysophospholipid metabolism in obesity: altered plasma profile and desensitization to the modulatory properties of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Rodriguez-Naranjo, Maria Isabel; Childs, Caroline E; Paras Chavez, Carolina; West, Annette L; Miles, Elizabeth A; Arola, Lluis; Calder, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    Plasma lysophospholipids have emerged as signaling molecules with important effects on inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease, each of which is linked closely to obesity. Dietary n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be able to improve these conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of plasma lysophospholipids to obesity, n-3 PUFA consumption, and a high-fat meal challenge to better understand the role of lysophospholipid metabolism in the progression of obesity-related disorders. We determined the concentrations of 8 lysophosphatidylcholines, 11 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and 7 lysophosphatidylinositols in the plasma of 34 normal-weight and 38 obese subjects randomly assigned to consume corn oil (control) or n-3 PUFA-rich fish oil (3 g/d; n = 15-19/group) for 90 d. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the study under fasting conditions and 6 h after a high-fat meal (1135 kcal, 86 g fat) challenge. The profile of secreted lysophospholipids was studied in HepG2 cells under palmitate-induced steatosis. Obese and normal-weight subjects had different profiles of plasma lysophospholipids. A multivariate combination of the 26 lysophospholipids could discriminate between normal-weight and obese subjects with an accuracy of 98%. The high-fat meal challenge altered the concentration of plasma lysophosphatidylcholines in an oil treatment-dependent manner in normal-weight but not obese subjects, suggesting that obesity impairs the sensitivity of lysophospholipid metabolism to n-3 PUFAs. Noncytotoxic steatosis in HepG2 cells affected the secretion pattern of lysophospholipids, partially resembling the changes observed in the plasma of obese subjects. Obesity has a substantial impact on lysophospholipid metabolism, altering the plasma lysophospholipid profile and abolishing its sensitivity to dietary n-3 PUFAs. These effects could contribute to the onset or progression of alterations associated with obesity

  16. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  18. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using 14 C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD

  19. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Alpha Omega Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. de Borst

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA on plasma FGF23 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. In the randomized double-blind Alpha Omega Trial, 4837 patients with a history of myocardial infarction aged 60–80 years (81% men were randomized to one of four trial margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400 mg/day EPA and DHA, 2 g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 41 months. In a subcohort of 336 patients with an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (creatinine-cystatin C-based CKD-EPI formula, plasma C-terminal FGF23 was measured by ELISA at baseline and end of follow-up. We used analysis of covariance to examine treatment effects on FGF23 levels adjusted for baseline FGF23. Patients consumed 19.8 g margarine/day on average, providing an additional amount of 236 mg/day EPA with 158 mg/day DHA, 1.99 g/day ALA or both, in the active intervention groups. Over 79% of patients were treated with antihypertensive and antithrombotic medication and statins. At baseline, plasma FGF23 was 150 (128 to 172 RU/mL (mean (95% CI. After 41 months, overall FGF23 levels had increased significantly (p < 0.0001 to 212 (183 to 241 RU/mL. Relative to the placebo, the treatment effect of EPA-DHA was indifferent, with a mean change in FGF23 (95% CI of −17 (−97, 62 RU/mL (p = 0.7. Results were similar for ALA (36 (−42, 115 RU/mL and combined EPA-DHA and ALA (34 (−44, 113 RU/mL. Multivariable adjustment, pooled analyses, and subgroup analyses yielded similar non-significant results. Long-term supplementation with modest quantities of EPA-DHA or ALA does not reduce plasma

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  1. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease : The Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; Baia, Leandro C.; Hoogeveen, Ellen K.; Giltay, Erik J.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Kromhout, Daan; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids

  2. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Methods: Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Results: Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD. Keywords: Obesity, N43, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Central nervous system, Western diet, ω6-fatty acids

  3. Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Toft, Egon; Aardestrup, Inge; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Schmidt, Erik B

    2011-01-01

    Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ω-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids. Forty-four HD patients were randomized to groups receiving either a single dose of a lipid emulsion containing 4.1 g of ω-3 PUFAs or placebo (saline) administered intravenously during HD. Blood was drawn immediately before (baseline) and after (4 hours) HD and before the next HD session (48 hours). Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. The increase in ω-3 FFAs was greater in the ω-3 PUFA group compared with the placebo group, whereas the increase in total FFAs was similar between the 2 groups. In the ω-3 PUFA group, ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids were higher after 48 hours than at baseline, and in platelet phospholipids, ω-3 PUFAs increased after 4 hours. In the placebo group, no changes were observed in ω-3 PUFAs in plasma and platelet phospholipids. Intravenous ω-3 PUFAs administered during HD caused a transient selective increase in ω-3 FFA concentration. Furthermore, ω-3 PUFAs were rapidly incorporated into platelets, and the content of ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids increased after 48 hours.

  4. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  6. Models of plasma membrane organization can be applied to mitochondrial membranes to target human health and disease with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Shaikh, Saame; Brown, David A

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), abundant in fish oil, have potential for treating symptoms associated with inflammatory and metabolic disorders; therefore, it is essential to determine their fundamental molecular mechanisms. Recently, several labs have demonstrated the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts anti-inflammatory effects by targeting the molecular organization of plasma membrane microdomains. Here we briefly review the evidence that DHA reorganizes the spatial distribution of microdomains in several model systems. We then emphasize how models on DHA and plasma membrane microdomains can be applied to mitochondrial membranes. We discuss the role of DHA acyl chains in regulating mitochondrial lipid-protein clustering, and how these changes alter several aspects of mitochondrial function. In particular, we summarize effects of DHA on mitochondrial respiration, electron leak, permeability transition, and mitochondrial calcium handling. Finally, we conclude by postulating future experiments that will augment our understanding of DHA-dependent membrane organization in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Free fatty acids increase hepatic glycogen content in obese males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G.; Sprangers, F.; Weverling, G. J.; Ackermans, M. T.; Meijer, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Bisschop, P. H.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased hepatic glycogen content. In vivo and in vitro data suggest that plasma free fatty acids (FFA) may cause this increase. In this study we investigated the effect of physiological plasma FFA levels on hepatic glycogen metabolism by studying intrahepatic glucose

  8. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  9. Impaired suppression of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides by acute hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia and alterations in high density lipoproteins in essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; vanTol, A; vanHaeften, TW; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Essential hypertension may be associated with abnormalities in free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride metabolism, which could lead to alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key

  10. Do fatty acids affect fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju

    2015-08-13

    In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.

  11. Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-03-01

    Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women

  12. Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on insulin signalling and inflammation in skeletal muscle from human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Tantiwong, Puntip; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Mohan, Sumathy; Espinoza, Sara; Defronzo, Ralph A; Dubé, John J; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Reducing plasma FFA concentration in obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanism by which FFA reduction improves insulin sensitivity in human subjects is not fully understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological FFA reduction enhances insulin action by reducing local (muscle) inflammation, leading to improved insulin signalling. Insulin-stimulated total glucose disposal (TGD), plasma FFA species, muscle insulin signalling, IBα protein, c-Jun phosphorylation, inflammatory gene (toll-like receptor 4 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1) expression, and ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) content were measured in muscle from a group of obese and T2DM subjects before and after administration of the antilipolytic drug acipimox for 7 days, and the results were compared to lean individuals. We found that obese and T2DM subjects had elevated saturated and unsaturated FFAs in plasma, and acipimox reduced all FFA species. Acipimox-induced reductions in plasma FFAs improved TGD and insulin signalling in obese and T2DM subjects. Acipimox increased IBα protein (an indication of decreased IB kinase-nuclear factor B signalling) in both obese and T2DM subjects, but did not affect c-Jun phosphorylation in any group. Acipimox also decreased inflammatory gene expression, although this reduction only occurred in T2DM subjects. Ceramide and DAG content did not change. To summarize, pharmacological FFA reduction improves insulin signalling in muscle from insulin-resistant subjects. This beneficial effect on insulin action could be related to a decrease in local inflammation. Notably, the improvements in insulin action were more pronounced in T2DM, indicating that these subjects are more susceptible to the toxic effect of FFAs.

  13. Low-fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Thomas, William; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K

    2013-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in healthy individuals are not well defined. Three test diets-high-fat diet (40% energy as fat), low-fat diet (LF; 20% energy as fat), and a diet with low fat and high omega-3 fatty acid (LFn3; 23% energy as fat)--were tested in a randomized crossover designed controlled feeding trial in healthy postmenopausal women. Plasma IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, glucose, and ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in response to diets. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance We hypothesized that IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations would decrease and IGFBP-3 concentration would increase in response to the low-fat diets. Eight weeks of the LFn3 diet increased circulating IGF-I (P diet increased IGFBP-3 (P = .04), resulting in trends toward an increased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LFn3 diet and a decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LF diet (P = .13 for both comparisons). No statistically significant differences were detected between treatments at baseline or 8 weeks for IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Insulin, glucose, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were not altered by the interventions. Low-fat diet with high n-3 fatty acids may increase circulating IGF-I concentrations without adversely affecting insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  15. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori

    1975-01-01

    By incorporation of 3 H 2 O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. 13 C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA→PEP→pyruvate→acetylCoA→fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3 H 2 O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

  16. Exogenous fatty acid metabolism in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Acyl-CoA can be used for phospholipid synthesis or broken down by β-oxidation, but cannot be used for lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-ACP in some Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting acyl-ACP undergoes the same fates as endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-phosphates in Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used for phospholipid synthesis or become acyl-ACP. Only the order Lactobacillales can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. FASII shuts down completely in presence of exogenous fatty acids in Lactobacillales, allowing Lactobacillales to synthesize phospholipids entirely from exogenous fatty acids. Inhibition of FASII cannot be bypassed in other bacteria because FASII is only partially down-regulated in presence of exogenous fatty acid or FASII is required to synthesize essential metabolites such as β-hydroxyacyl-ACP. Certain selective pressures such as FASII inhibition or growth in biofilms can select for naturally occurring one step mutations that attenuate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Although attempts have been made to estimate the natural prevalence of these mutants, culture-independent metagenomic methods would provide a better estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  18. Plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese: The Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Iso, Hiroyasu; Eshak, Ehab S; Ikehara, Satoyo; Ikeda, Ai; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-05-01

    Higher intake of fish or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether increased blood levels of n-3 PUFAs are associated with reduced risk of CHD in the Japanese population. The relationship between circulating levels of n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) and risk of CHD was examined in a nested case-control study among participants in the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-based Study Cohort. Plasma n-3 PUFA phospholipid levels were measured at baseline by gas chromatography in 209 cases with CHD and 418 controls matched for sex, age, date of blood draw, time elapsed since last meal before blood collection, and study location. The CHD cases (n = 209) comprised 168 cases of myocardial infarction and 41 of sudden cardiac death, otherwise classified as 157 non-fatal and 52 fatal coronary events, respectively. Mean duration of follow-up was 13.5 years. Multivariate conditional logistic analysis showed no significant association between n-3 PUFAs and risk of total CHD. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest quartiles of plasma n-3 PUFAs was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.41-1.51, p for trend = 0.51). Subtype analysis of CHD revealed that the multivariate ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles for n-3 PUFAs were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.43-1.89, p for trend = 0.90) for myocardial infarction, 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01-0.88, p for trend = 0.04) for sudden cardiac death, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.42-1.89, p for trend = 0.97) for nonfatal coronary events, and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02-0.75, p for trend = 0.03) for fatal coronary events. Plasma n-3 PUFA levels were not associated with risk of total CHD but were inversely associated with risks of sudden cardiac death and fatal coronary events among middle-aged Japanese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    observed. Conclusions: Butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated FAs resulted in significantly lower total and HDL cholesterol than did the control butter with higher amounts of saturated FAs. It may be that the differences were due to the greater content of monounsaturated FAs and the lesser...... content of saturated FAs in the butter rich in ruminant trans FAs, rather than to the content of vaccenic acid per se.......Background: Evidence suggests that ruminant trans fatty acids (FAs), such as vaccenic acid, do not increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the effects of ruminant trans FAs on risk markers of IHD have been poorly investigated. Objective: The objective was to investigate...

  20. The effect of concentrated n-3 fatty acids versus gemfibrozil on plasma lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein heterogeneity and oxidizability in patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalenhoef, A. F.; de Graaf, J.; Wittekoek, M. E.; Bredie, S. J.; Demacker, P. N.; Kastelein, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated in a double-blind randomized trial with a double-dummy design in 28 patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of gemfibrozil (1200 mg/day) versus Omacor (4 g/day), a drug containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on lipid and

  1. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  2. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of...

  3. Modulation of plasma N-acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; Lin, Lin; Gillingham, Leah G; Yang, Haifeng; Omar, Jaclyn M

    2014-12-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-signaling molecules involved in satiety and energetics; however, how diet impacts circulating NAE concentrations and their downstream metabolic actions in humans remains unknown. Objectives were to examine effects of diets enriched with high-oleic canola oil (HOCO) or HOCO blended with flaxseed oil (FXCO), compared with a Western diet (WD), on plasma NAE levels and the association with energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Using a randomized controlled crossover design, 36 hypercholesterolemic participants consumed three isoenergetic diets for 28 days, each containing 36% energy from fat, of which 70% was HOCO, FXCO, or WD. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to measure plasma NAE levels and indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. After 28 days, compared with WD, plasma oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and alpha-linolenoyl ethanolamide (ALEA) levels were significantly increased in response to HOCO and FXCO (P = 0.002, P < 0.001), respectively. Correlation analysis demonstrated an inverse association between plasma OEA levels and percent body fat (r = -0.21, P = 0.04), and a positive association was observed between the plasma arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)/OEA ratio and android:gynoid fat (r = 0.23, P = 0.02), respectively. Results suggest that plasma NAE levels are upregulated via their dietary lipid substrates and may modulate regional and total fat mass through lipid-signaling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  5. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  6. Restored Plasma Anandamide and Endometrial Expression of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome by the Combination Use of Diane-35 and Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Na; Feng, Xiaoye; Zhao, Zhiming; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yueming; Wang, Luning; Hao, Guimin

    2017-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and endocrinal disorder affecting a number of women of reproductive age. We aimed to reveal the correlation between the endocannabinoid system and PCOS, which may provide a new therapeutic target for PCOS treatment. Serum levels of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol andexpression of cannabinoid receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the endometrium were compared between women with PCOS and infertile women without PCOS, as well as women with PCOS before and after treatment with Diane-35 and metformin. Cannabinoid receptors and FAAH in the endometrium were stained using the immunohistochemical method. Results were analyzed by calculating integrated optical density. Plasma anandamide was increased significantly in women with PCOS compared with infertile women without PCOS. Treatment with Diane-35 and metformin reversed this increase in women with PCOS. No significant difference in 2-arachidonoylglycerol was observed between the infertile women with or without PCOS. The women with PCOS had lower endometrial expression of FAAH compared with infertile women without PCOS, whereas no significant difference in endometrial expression of cannabinoid receptors was observed between the women with PCOS and infertile women without PCOS. We found that after treatment with Diane-35 and metformin, FAAH expression tended toward a significant increase compared with women before the treatment. Endocannabinoid system may be involved in the progression of PCOS, and serum anandamide could serve as a potential biomarker of clinical diagnosis of PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Análise de ácidos graxos não-esterificados de plasma humano por cromatografia gasosa capilar com injeção sem divisão de fluxo Analysis of non-esterified fatty acids in human plasma by capillary gas-chromatography with splitless injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline G. Ney

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to test the combination of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA isolation using fumed silicon dioxide with capillary gas-chromatography (C-GC with splitless injection for the analysis of NEFAs in human plasma. Injection volume, solvent re-condensation and split purge flow-rate were the parameters evaluated for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by C-GC. The use of a solvent re-condensation technique, associated with 1.0 µL injection and a split purge flow rate of 80 mL/min resulted in satisfactory analysis of NEFAs. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in plasma samples, ranging from 2.03 to 184.0 µmol/L. The combination of both techniques proved useful for routine analyses of plasma NEFAs.

  8. Effects of Souvenaid on plasma micronutrient levels and fatty acid profiles in mild and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Hees, A.M. van; Sijben, J.W.; Vellas, B.; Shah, R.C.; Bennett, D.A.; Scheltens, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Circulating levels of uridine, selenium, vitamins B12, E and C, folate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than in healthy individuals. These low levels may affect disease pathways involved in

  9. Effects of Souvenaid on plasma micronutrient levels and fatty acid profiles in mild and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.; Meulenbroek, O.; van Hees, A.M.J.; Sijben, J.W.C.; Vellas, B.; Shah, R.C.; Bennett, D.A.; Scheltens, P.; Rikkert, M.G.M.O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Circulating levels of uridine, selenium, vitamins B12, E and C, folate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than in healthy individuals. These low levels may affect disease pathways

  10. Plasma fibrinogen in relation to serum insulin, smoking habits and adipose tissue fatty acids in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cigolini, M; Targher, G; de Sandre, G; Muggeo, M; Seidell, J C

    Recent prospective studies have reported an independent association between fibrinogen plasma levels and risk of cardiovascular events. Aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between fibrinogen level and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in a random sample of 38 year-old

  11. Development of a displacement immunoassay for human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in plasma : the basic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, D; Pelsers, MMAL; Korf, J; Hermens, WT; Glatz, JFC

    2003-01-01

    To risk-stratify patients with chest pain who are admitted to emergency rooms and for whom initial evaluation is not conclusive, the use of cardiac markers has become a standard procedure. A recently introduced early plasma marker for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the 14.5-kDa cytoplasmic

  12. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of young post-pubertal dairy bulls alters the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and spermatozoa but has no effect on semen volume or sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C J; Fair, S; English, A M; Holden, S A; Dick, J R; Lonergan, P; Kenny, D A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with rumen protected n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the quantity and quality of semen from young post-pubertal dairy bulls. Pubertal Holstein-Friesian (n = 43) and Jersey (n = 7) bulls with a mean ± s.e.m. age and bodyweight of 420.1 ± 5.86 days and 382 ± 8.94 kg, respectively, were blocked on breed, weight, age and semen quality (based on the outcomes of two pre-trial ejaculates) and randomly assigned to one of three treatments: (i) a non-supplemented control (CTL, n = 15), (ii) rumen-protected safflower (SO, n = 15), (iii) rumen-protected n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil (FO, n = 20). Bulls were fed their respective diets, ad libitum for 12 weeks; individual intakes were recorded using an electronic feeding system for the initial 6 weeks of the feeding period. Semen was collected via electro-ejaculation at weeks -2, -1, 0, 7, 10, 11 and 12 relative to the beginning of the trial period (week 0). On collection, semen volume, sperm concentration and progressive linear motility (PLM) were assessed. On weeks -2, -1, 0, 10, 11, 12, semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and frozen using a programmable freezer. On weeks -1, 7 and 11; a sub-sample of semen was separated into sperm and seminal plasma, by centrifugation and stored at - 20 °C until analysis of lipid composition. Semen from 10 bulls per treatment were used for post-thaw analysis at weeks 10, 11 and 12 (3 straws per ejaculate). Sperm motility was analysed by computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). In addition, membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction and oxidative stress were assessed using flow cytometry. Sperm from bulls fed SO had a 1.2 fold higher total n-6 PUFA content at week 11 compared to week -1 (P semen volume, concentration or PLM of sperm when assessed either immediately following collection or post-thawing. Membrane fluidity and oxidative stress of sperm were also not affected by

  13. Plasma acyl ghrelin and nonesterified fatty acids are the best predictors for hunger status in pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, P; Yang, X J; Kim, J S; Menon, D; Pangeni, D; Manu, H; Tekeste, A; Baidoo, S K

    2017-12-01

    Sows are usually restricted fed during pregnancy to maximize their reproductive efficiency, which may predispose sows to a state of hunger. However, an objective measurement of hunger status has not been established. In the present study, we examined the correlation of plasma hormones and NEFA and selected the best predictors for hunger status using pregnant gilts. Three different levels of feed intake (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 × maintenance energy intake [0.5M, 1.0M and 2.0M, respectively]) were imposed from Day 28 to 34 of gestation to create different hunger statuses in pregnant gilts. Plasma hormones related to energy homeostasis and NEFA were analyzed to quantify their response to different levels of feed intake. A total of 18 gilts (197.53 ± 6.41 kg) were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Results showed that BW change, ADG, and G:F from Day 28 to 34 of gestation were higher ( ghrelin concentrations showed a relatively flat pattern during the 24-h period. Plasma acyl ghrelin and NEFA concentrations and areas under the curve (AUC) were greater ( ghrelin was the best predictor for consumption time ( = 0.82), whereas the AUC of NEFA was the best predictor for BW ( = 0.55) or backfat change ( = 0.42) from Day 28 to 34 of gestation. In conclusion, our data suggested that a relative flat pattern existed in pregnant gilts in terms of the diurnal plasma profile of acyl ghrelin and that the level of feed intake of pregnant gilts was negatively correlated with plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin and NEFA, which, in turn, were negatively associated with feed consumption time. The AUC of acyl ghrelin and NEFA seemed to be the best predictors for hunger status of pregnant gilts.

  14. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  15. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  16. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  17. Dyslipidemia, altered erythrocyte fatty acids and selenium are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous blood sample was drawn from all subjects and erythrocytes separated for the determination of fatty acids. Plasma lipids, selenium and vitamin E levels were also measured. There were no differences in BMI, weight and height among the three groups except for systolic BP that was lower in VD (148.3±41.8mmHg) ...

  18. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, which is catalyzed ... The aim of this review is to critically discuss short-chain fatty acids production and the functional ... Two major functions of monocarboxylate transporter proteins, namely the facilitation of the ...

  19. Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machulla, H.-J.; Knust, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing 123 I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for 123 I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17- 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho- 123 I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

  20. The effect of fish oil supplementation on brain DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Kelly J; Pickens, C Austin; Wiesinger, Jason A; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2017-12-18

    Supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may improve cognitive performance and protect against cognitive decline. However, changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition after supplementation with n-3 fatty acids are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to feed increasing n-3 fatty acids and characterise the changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and correlate the changes with red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma in mice. Increasing dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) did not alter brain DHA. Brain EPA increased and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased across treatment groups, and correlated with fatty acid changes in the RBC (r > 0.7). Brain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids oleic and nervonic acid (p acids arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acid (p acid changes upon increasing n-3 intake should be further investigated to determine their effects on cognition and neurodegenerative disease.

  1. Maternal adipose tissue becomes a source of fatty acids for the fetus in fasted pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-11-10

    The utilization of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) by the fetus may exceed its capacity to synthesize them from essential fatty acids, so they have to come from the mother. Since adipose tissue lipolytic activity is greatly accelerated under fasting conditions during late pregnancy, the aim was to determine how 24 h fasting in late pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions affects maternal and fetal tissue fatty acid profiles. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given isoenergetic diets containing 10% palm-, sunflower-, olive- or fish-oil. Half the rats were fasted from day 19 of pregnancy and all were studied on day 20. Triacylglycerols (TAG), glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were analyzed by enzymatic methods and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fasting caused increments in maternal plasma NEFA, glycerol and TAG, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolytic activity. Maternal adipose fatty acid profiles paralleled the respective diets and, with the exception of animals on the olive oil diet, maternal fasting increased the plasma concentration of most fatty acids. This maintains the availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during brain development. The results show the major role played by maternal adipose tissue in the storage of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy, thus ensuring adequate availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during late pregnancy, even when food supply is restricted.

  2. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B-6 and B-12 in recurrent depression : Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Visser, Ieke; Pouwer, Francois; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy

  3. Genomic variants at the PINK1 locus are associated with transcript abundance and plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in European whites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franks, P.W.; Scheele, C.; Loos, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    these were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. In primary adipocytes, Pink1 knockdown affected fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) expression, indicating that PINK1 may influence substrate metabolism. We demonstrate that PINK1 polymorphisms are associated with PINK1...

  4. Effects of vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the level of paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an investigation of activities in plasma, and heart and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mahnaz; Fakher, Shima; Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Farahbakhsh-Farsi, Payam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed and conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the activity of paraoxonase and arylesterase in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. A total of 64 male Sprague Dawley® rats, each weighing 250 g, were randomly distributed into four groups: (a) normal control; (b) diabetic control; (c) diabetic with vitamin A, C and E supplementation; and (d) diabetic with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The animals were anaesthetised after four weeks of intervention, and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in blood plasma, and liver and heart homogenates were measured. Arylesterase activity in the heart and liver homogenates was significantly lower in the diabetic control group than in the normal control group (p Vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly increased liver arylesterase activity (p Vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation were found to increase liver arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These supplements may be potential agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  7. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2. The path from PGA to fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-02-01

    By incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. /sup 13/C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA..-->..PEP..-->..pyruvate..-->..acetylCoA..-->..fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%).

  8. Influence of IL1B, IL6 and IL10 gene variants and plasma fatty acid interaction on metabolic syndrome risk in a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintinguer Norde, Marina; Oki, Erica; Ferreira Carioca, Antonio Augusto; Teixeira Damasceno, Nágila Raquel; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Lobo Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of interrelated risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, with underlying inflammatory pathophysiology. Genetic variations and diet are well-known risk factor for MetS, but the interaction between these two factors is less explored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of interaction between SNP of inflammatory genes (encoding interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and IL-10) and plasma fatty acids on the odds of MetS, in a population-based cross-sectional study. Among participants of the Health Survey - São Paulo, 301 adults (19-59 y) from whom a blood sample was collected were included. Individuals with and without MetS were compared according to their plasma inflammatory biomarkers, fatty acid profile, and genotype frequency of the IL1B (rs16944, rs1143623, rs1143627, rs1143634 and rs1143643), IL6 (rs1800795, rs1800796 and rs1800797) and IL10 (rs1554286, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890 and rs3024490) genes SNP. The influence of gene-fatty acids interaction on MetS risk was investigated. IL6 gene SNP rs1800795 G allele was associated with higher odds for MetS (OR = 1.88; p = 0.017). Gene-fatty acid interaction was found between the IL1B gene SNP rs116944 and stearic acid (p inter = 0.043), and between rs1143634 and EPA (p inter = 0.017). For the IL10 gene SNP rs1800896, an interaction was found for arachidonic acid (p inter = 0.007) and estimated D5D activity (p inter = 0.019). The IL6 gene SNP rs1800795 G allele is associated with increased odds for MetS. Plasma fatty acid profile interacts with the IL1B and IL10 gene variants to modulate the odds for MetS. This and other interactions of risk factors can account for the unexplained heritability of MetS, and their elucidation can lead to new strategies for genome-customized prevention of MetS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D'Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D'Oca, Marcelo G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  10. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...

  11. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO 2 in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO 2 and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and ω-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by β-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the ω-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the β-ketothiolase step of the β-oxidation pathway. The [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the [1- 14 C]labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the (ω-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1

  12. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than ...

  13. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition 1,2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P. B.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Mortensen, Per B

    1998-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN), initiated in patients with severe malabsorption or decreased oral intake, may exhaust stores of essential fatty acids and cause clinical manifestations, mainly dermatitis. Plasma fatty acid profiles were measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 37 healthy control...

  14. Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an

  15. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Scintigraphy with radioiodinated free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis several clinical and animal experimental studies of free fatty acids labeled with radioiodine are discussed. These radiolabeled fatty acids are used for cardiac imaging. Besides, the elimination rate of the radioactivity from the myocardium, as observed during a scintigraphic study, is correlated with fatty acid metabolism. Uptake and distribution of I-heptadecanoic acid (I-HDA) and I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-PPA) are compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl-201) in the normal and ischemic canine myocardium. For determination of the elimination rate (expressed in terms of halftime values) of the radioactivity from the myocardium, regions of interest have to be drawn over a scintigram. A method is described resulting in more reliable demarcation of normal and abnormal regions within the scintigram. (Auth.)

  17. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  18. New insights into the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fat is one of the most important energy sources of all the nutrients. Fatty acids, stored as triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) in the body, are an important reservoir of stored energy and derived primarily from animal fats and vegetable oils. Although the molecular mechanisms for the transport of water-insoluble amphipathic fatty acids across cell membranes have been debated for many years, it is now believed that the dominant means for intestinal fatty acid uptake is via membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins, that is, fatty acid transporters on the apical membrane of enterocytes. These findings indicate that intestinal fatty acid absorption is a multistep process that is regulated by multiple genes at the enterocyte level, and intestinal fatty acid absorption efficiency could be determined by factors influencing intraluminal fatty acid molecules across the brush border membrane of enterocytes. To facilitate research on intestinal, hepatic and plasma triacylglycerol metabolism, it is imperative to establish standard protocols for precisely and accurately measuring the efficiency of intestinal fatty acid absorption in humans and animal models. In this review, we will discuss the chemical structure and nomenclature of fatty acids and summarize recent progress in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of fatty acids, with a particular emphasis on the physical chemistry of intestinal lipids and the molecular physiology of intestinal fatty acid transporters. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption should lead to novel approaches to the treatment and the prevention of fatty acid-related metabolic diseases that are prevalent worldwide. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Regular activity breaks combined with physical activity improve postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, and insulin responses in healthy, normal weight adults: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Ashleigh R; Fenemor, Stephen P; Perry, Tracy L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Cameron, Claire M; Skeaff, C Murray; Peddie, Meredith C

    Compared with prolonged sitting, regular activity breaks immediately lower postprandial glucose and insulin, but not triglyceride responses. Postprandial triglycerides can be lowered by physical activity but the effect is often delayed by ∼12 to 24 hours. The objective of the study was to determine whether regular activity breaks affect postprandial triglyceride response in a delayed manner similar to physical activity. In a randomized crossover trial, 36 adults (body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 [standard deviation 3.9]) completed four 2-day interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT); (2) prolonged sitting with 30 minutes of continuous walking (60% VO 2max ), at the end of Day 1 (SIT + PA D1 ); (3) Sitting with 2 minutes of walking (60% VO 2max ) every 30 minutes (RAB); (4) A combination of the continuous walking and regular activity breaks in 2 and 3 above (RAB + PA D1 ). Postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin responses were measured in venous blood over 5 hours on Day 2. Compared with SIT, both RAB (difference: -43.61 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI] -83.66 to -2.67; P = .035) and RAB + PA D1 (-65.86 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% CI -112.14 to -19.58; P = .005) attenuated triglyceride total area under the curve (tAUC). RAB + PA D1 produced the greatest reductions in insulin tAUC (-23%; 95% CI -12% to -31%; P glucose tAUC (P = .290). Postprandial triglyceride response is attenuated by regular activity breaks, when measured ∼24 hours after breaks begin. Combining regular activity breaks with 30 minutes of continuous walking further improves insulinemic and lipidemic responses. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  1. Imaging with 123I labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the clinical results obtained with radioiodinated aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. The radiopharmaceuticals were 123 I labelled p-phenylpentadecanoic (p-IPPA) and 123 I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). The possibility to evaluate the myocardial metabolic function in man noninvasively add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow-up of patients with heart disease. (Auth.)

  2. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  3. Fatty acid oxidation in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J.F.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biochemical investigations described in this thesis deal with two aspects of fatty acid oxidation in muscle: a comparison of the use of cell-free and cellular systems for oxidation measurements, and studies on the assay and the role of the fatty acid binding protein in fatty acid metabolism. The fatty acid oxidation rates are determined radiochemically by the sum of 14 CO 2 and 14 C-labeled acid-soluble products formed during oxidation of [ 14 C]-fatty acids. A radiochemical procedure for the assay of fatty acid binding by proteins is described. (Auth.)

  4. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  5. Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl β-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl β-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of β-oxidation. Inhibition of β-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ω-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ω-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ω-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)

  6. Features of fatty acid synthesis in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, M [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Nakamura, Y

    1975-07-01

    In the biosynthesis of fatty acid in the presence of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, /sup 3/H is incorporated into the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid. The features in the fatty acid synthesis of higher plants were investigated by applying /sup 3/H/sub 2/O method to the measurement of the ability of spinach leaves synthesizing fatty acid. Sucrose, acetate, pyruvate, PGA, PEP, OAA, citrate, etc. were employed as the substrates of fatty acid synthesis to trace the process of synthesis of each fatty acid. The demand of various cofactors related to the ability of spinach chloroplast fatty acid synthesizing was also examined. Light dependence of the fatty acid synthesis of chloroplast as well as the influences of N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy phenyl hydrazone and NH/sub 4/Cl were discussed. The results were compared with the reports on the fatty acid synthesis of avocado pear, castor bean, etc.

  7. Erythrocyte and platelet fatty acids in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzial, A M; Bonomi, L; Cobbe, C; Olivieri, O; Girelli, D; Trevisan, M T; Bassi, A; Ferrari, S; Corrocher, R

    1991-05-01

    The fatty acid composition and the glutathione-peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) of erythrocytes and platelets, the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) by platelets and the activity of the main systems of transmembrane cation transport in erythrocyte have been studied in 12 patients (5 males and 7 females) affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A remarkable increase of saturated fatty acids (SFA), particularly of stearic acid (C18:0), has been noted in these patients. The reduced unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA) observed in both erythrocytes and platelets and the decrease of arachidonic acid in platelets may depend by an active peroxidation process as documented by the increase of MDA. Platelet glutathione-peroxidase (PTL-GSH-PX) and plasma retinol were in the normal range, whereas erythrocyte glutathione-peroxidase (E-GSH-PX), MDA and plasma alfa-toco-pherol were increased in patients with RP. The activities of Na(+)-K+ pump, cotransport and Na(+)-Li+ countertransport were normal in RP erythrocytes.

  8. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  10. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  11. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  12. The effect of different treatments for early-lactation hyperketonemia on blood β-hydroxybutyrate, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Behling-Kelly, E; McArt, J A A

    2017-08-01

    Despite increased efforts in preventing the occurrence of metabolic disorders in transition cows, hyperketonemia remains a frequent early-lactation metabolic disease affecting an average of 40% of cows in herds in the United States. Despite the demonstrated economic effect of this disorder, controlled clinical trials comparing different treatment strategies in affected cows are lacking. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of treatment with intravenous glucose, oral propylene glycol, or a combination of both on the reduction in blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations of early-lactation hyperketonemic dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows between 3 to 9 d in milk were screened for hyperketonemia using a handheld meter 3 times per week, and enrolled at whole blood BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L to 1 of 4 treatment groups: (1) 500 mL of a 50% dextrose solution i.v. once daily for 3 d (GLU, n = 9), (2) 300 mL of propylene glycol as a drench once daily for 3 d (PG, n = 9), (3) a combination treatment of a 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution i.v. and 300 mL of propylene glycol orally once daily for 3 d (GLU+PG, n = 8), or (4) an untreated control group (CTRL, n = 8). Blood samples were collected immediately before as well as at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after administration of the first treatment through a jugular catheter and 3 times per week thereafter from coccygeal vessels. Concentrations of BHB were measured in whole blood, and plasma samples were analyzed for glucose, fatty acid (NEFA), insulin, glucagon, and electrolyte concentrations. The EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples were assessed for red blood cell indices, and smears were made for evaluation of red blood cell morphology. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures analysis. Overall least squares means (95% CI) of whole blood BHB concentrations between 1 h and d 11 relative to first treatment were 1.11 (0.95 to 1.30), 1.26 (1.07 to 1.47), 0.96 (0.81 to 1.13), and 1

  13. The effect of palm oil or canola oil on feedlot performance, plasma and tissue fatty acid profile and meat quality in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M; Ponnampalam, E N; Hopkins, D L

    2013-06-01

    Twenty-four entire male Kacang kid goats were fed diets containing 3% canola (n=12) or palm oil (n=12) supplements for 16 weeks. The goats had an initial live weight of 14.2±1.46 kg and were fed a mixed ration ad libitum (10.4 MJ/ME and 14% crude protein). There was no difference in feedlot performance due to diet. Inclusion of canola oil reduced (Pgoats' diet increased muscle omega-3 fatty acid content, but lipid oxidation was lowered in the blood and muscle LL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipids and fatty acids in roasted chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S A; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; Souza, N E

    1999-09-01

    Total lipids from meat portions of breast, thigh, wing, side and back with and without skin from 10 roasted chickens were extracted with chloroform and methanol and gravimetrically determined, and their fatty acids were analysed as methyl esters by gaseous chromatography, using a flame ionization detector and capillary column. The main fatty acids found were: C16:0, C18:1 omega 9, and C18:2 omega 6. The average ratio observed between PUFA/SFA was of 0.98, mainly due to the great concentration of the C18:2 omega 6 fatty acid, with an average of 26.75%. Regarding to the lipids content, the skinless breast showed the lowest content, 0.78 g/100 g, while the back with skin was the one with the highest content, 12.13 g/100 g except for the pure skin, with 26.54 grams of lipids by 100 grams.

  15. Fatty Acids, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Methods: Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888. Serum FFA (n = 3,306, plasma glycerol (n = 3,776, and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469 were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. Results: In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p Conclusion: Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established.

  16. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  17. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of

  18. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    % of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has......Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60...

  19. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    2000-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation...... of the disease in question and determination of the carrier frequency in the general population may help in elucidating the penetrance of the genotype. This is exemplified in disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation....

  20. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  1. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Vidal, M.; Comet, M.; Pernin, C. (C.H.R.U. de Grenoble, 38 - La Tronche (France)); Godart, J.; Benabed, A. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ..omega.. iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ..omega.. bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ..omega.. iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. ..cap alpha.. iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation.

  2. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Vidal, M.; Comet, M.; Pernin, C.; Godart, J.; Benabed, A.; Bardy, A.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ω iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ω bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ω iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. α iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation [fr

  3. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolism of dietary fatty alcohol, fatty acid, and wax ester in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankura, Mitsumasa; Kayama, Mitsu; Iijima, Noriaki.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids in various tissues of the carp, Cyprinus carpio were analyzed. The fates of force-fed [1- 14 C]palmitic acids, [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol, and oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate, were compared with those given in vitro experiments. Major lipid classes in all except adipose tissue were found to be polar lipids (phospholipids) and triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in nearly all the tissues were 16 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2, and 22 : 6. Although the radioactivity incorporation into wax esters from [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol for various tissue homogenates was quite high, in vivo incorporation of these labelled compounds into wax esters was very low and radioactivity was distributed mainly in the lipids of muscle, skin, hepatopancreas, intestine, and gill. Almost all the radioactivity in various tissues was present in phospatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Most of the oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was easily hydrolyzed by various tissue homogenates. Force-fed oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was hydrolyzed in the intestine and then transported to other tissues, such as muscle, kin, gill, and hepatopancreas. Moreover, released radioactivity from oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was present in mainly phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Radioactivity was also detected in wax esters in plasma. Certain amounts for fatty acids released from [1- 14 C]triolein in the hepatopancreas homogenates were incorporated into wax esters; this was stimulated by the addition of oleyl alcohol. The present results indicate extensive hydrolysis of wax ester to possibly occur in the intestine and certain portions of the fatty alcohol moiety to be resterfied. The portions may be oxidized to fatty acids and which subsequently behave as dietary fatty acids. (author) 50 ref

  5. Frictional response of fatty acids on steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect.

  6. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  7. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kochan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.

  8. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  9. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Frigeni, Marta; Pasquali, Marzia

    2016-10-01

    Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. It can be synthesized by the body or assumed with the diet from meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine biosynthesis do not routinely result in low plasma carnitine levels. Carnitine is accumulated by the cells and retained by kidneys using OCTN2, a high affinity organic cation transporter specific for carnitine. Defects in the OCTN2 carnitine transporter results in autosomal recessive primary carnitine deficiency characterized by decreased intracellular carnitine accumulation, increased losses of carnitine in the urine, and low serum carnitine levels. Patients can present early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy, or later in life with skeletal and cardiac myopathy or sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, usually triggered by fasting or catabolic state. This disease responds to oral carnitine that, in pharmacological doses, enters cells using the amino acid transporter B(0,+). Primary carnitine deficiency can be suspected from the clinical presentation or identified by low levels of free carnitine (C0) in the newborn screening. Some adult patients have been diagnosed following the birth of an unaffected child with very low carnitine levels in the newborn screening. The diagnosis is confirmed by measuring low carnitine uptake in the patients' fibroblasts or by DNA sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. Some mutations are specific for certain ethnic backgrounds, but the majority are private and identified only in individual families. Although the genotype usually does not correlate with metabolic or cardiac involvement in primary carnitine deficiency, patients presenting as adults tend to have at least one missense mutation retaining residual activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler

  10. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  11. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  12. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world's thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  13. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  14. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  15. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the host. .... BE, Drewes LR (2003). Molecular features, regulation and ... Dynamics of ruminal volatile fatty acids in black and white bulls before and after feeding ...

  16. Biocatalytic acylation of carbohydrates with fatty acids from palm fatty acid distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; H-Kittikun, Aran; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    Palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) are by-products of the palm oil refining process. Their use as the source of fatty acids, mainly palmitate, for the biocatalytic synthesis of carbohydrate fatty acid esters was investigated. Esters could be prepared in high yields from unmodified acyl donors and non-activated free fatty acids obtained from PFAD with an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase preparation. Acetone was found as a compatible non-toxic solvent, which gave the highest conversion yields in a heterogeneous reaction system without the complete solubilization of the sugars. Glucose, fructose, and other acyl acceptors could be employed for an ester synthesis with PFAD. The synthesis of glucose palmitate was optimized with regard to the water activity of the reaction mixture, the reaction temperature, and the enzyme concentration. The ester was obtained with 76% yield from glucose and PFAD after reaction for 74 h with 150 U ml(-1) immobilized lipase at 40 degrees C in acetone.

  17. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  18. Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    KONHEFROVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis with the name "Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients" is divided into a theoretical and a research parts. The theoretical part is focused on sorting out lipids and the recommended daily dosing. Next there are described the chemical structure of fatty acids and basic differences between saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (trans and cis) fatty acids. The biggest part of the theory is formed by the unsaturated fatty acids, their characteristics, food source and their effect o...

  19. Fatty acid profile in patients with phenylketonuria and its relationship with bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sergio; Bueno, María; Andrade, Fernando; Prieto, José Angel; Delgado, Carmen; Legarda, María; Sanjurjo, Pablo; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis Jose

    2010-12-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) undergo a restrictive vegan-like diet, with almost total absence of n-3 fatty acids, which have been proposed as potential contributors to bone formation in the healthy population. The PKU diet might lead these patients to bone mass loss and, consequently, to the development of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Therefore, we proposed to analyze their plasma fatty acid profile status and its relationship with bone health. We recruited 47 PKU patients for this cross-sectional study and divided the cohort into three age groups (6-10 years, 11-18 years, 19-42 years). We measured their plasma fatty acid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) (both at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine). Seventy-seven healthy controls also participated as reference values of plasma fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 fatty acids were significantly diminished in PKU patients compared with healthy controls. DHA, EPA, and total n-3 fatty acids were also positively associated with bone mineral density (r = 0.83, p = 0.010; r = 0.57, p = 0.006; r = 0.73, p = 0.040, respectively). There was no association between phenylalanine (Phe), Index of Dietary Control (IDC), calcium, 25-hydroxivitamin D concentrations, daily calcium intake, and BMD. Our results suggest a possible influence of essential fatty acids over BMD in PKU patients. The lack of essential n-3 fatty acids intake in the PKU diet might affect bone mineralization. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm the effect of the n-3 essential fatty acids on bone accrual in a cohort of PKU patients.

  20. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  1. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  2. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the following...

  3. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...

  5. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot ...

  6. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  8. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Key words: Fatty acid, lipid, muscle, Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. INTRODUCTION. The content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (n-3 PUFAs) differentiates fish from the other food products. These fatty acids are important beneficial nutrients for the prevention of human coronary disease,.

  9. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  10. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  11. The Association between Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Plasma Omega-3 to Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio to Cognitive Impairment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Suwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has a potential for predicting cognitive impairment. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels are important for evaluating the extent of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether abnormal PUFA levels affected WMH grading and cognitive function in patients without significant cognitive impairment. Methods. Atherosclerotic risk factors, the internal carotid artery (ICA plaque, and serum ratios of eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acids (EPA/AA and docosahexaenoic to arachidonic acids (DHA/AA were assessed in 286 patients. The relationship among these risk factors, WMH, and cognitive function was evaluated using WMH grading and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. The development of WMH was associated with aging, hypertension, ICA plaques, and a low serum EPA/AA ratio (<0.38, obtained as the median value but was not related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and a low serum DHA/AA ratio (<0.84, obtained as the median value. In addition, the MMSE score deteriorated slightly with the progression of WMH (29.7 ± 1.0 compared to 28.4 ± 2.1, P<0.0001. Conclusions. The progression of WMH was associated with a low serum EPA/AA ratio and accompanied minimal deterioration in cognitive function. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake may be effective in preventing the development of cognitive impairment.

  12. Studies of reaction difference between γ-ray and glow discharge on hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Tatsuya; Nieda, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Kazuta; Ando, Kiyomi

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid esters using an inductively coupled plasma at low pressure was performed, and electron temperature and density were measured using a double-probe in order to investigate the reaction difference between γ-ray and glow discharge on hydrogenation. In this experiment, unsaturated fatty acid esters were partly hydrogenated by the hydrogen plasma that had electron temperature of 3.5 eV, which was more efficient than γ-ray irradiation method. As a result, it was found that the plasma can effectively supply electrons that had the optimum energy for hydrogenation at the interface of fatty acids as well as excited atoms and ions. Also, the plasma generated at low pressure would be possible to convert unsaturated fatty acids into saturated fatty acids without breaking the starting monomer. (author)

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  14. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  15. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  16. Identification of fatty acids and fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelly K; Ham, Bryan M; Nichols, Jason J; Ziegler, Corrie; Green-Church, Kari B

    2007-01-01

    The complex superficial lipid layer of the tear film functions to prevent evaporation and maintain tear stability. Although classes of lipids found in the tear film have been reported, individual lipid species are currently being studied with more sophisticated. The purpose of this work was to show the identification of fatty acids and the fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions by using electrospray mass spectrometry. methods. Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (positive- and negative-ion mode). Accurate mass determination and collision-induced dissociation of meibum, and lipid standards were used to identify lipid species. Mass analysis of meibum in an acidic chloroform-methanol solution in positive-ion mode revealed a mass peak of m/z 282.3, which was identified as the protonated molecule of oleamide [C(18)H(35)NO+H](+). The high-resolution mass analysis of the m/z 282.2788 peak (oleamide) demonstrated a mass accuracy of 3.2 parts per million (ppm). Collision-induced dissociation of this species from meibum, compared with an oleamide standard, confirmed its identification. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic free fatty acids were identified in a similar manner, as were the other fatty acid amides (myristamide, palmitamide, stearamide, and erucamide). The findings indicate that oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide), an endogenous fatty acid primary amide, is a predominant component of meibum when examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The novel finding of oleamide and other members of the fatty acid amide family in the tear film could lead to additional insights into the role of fatty acid amide activity in human biological systems and may indicate a new function for this lipid class of molecules in ocular surface signaling and/or in the maintenance of the complex tear film.

  17. Genetic predisposition scores for dyslipidaemia influence plasma lipid concentrations at baseline, but not the changes after controlled intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaleh, Aseel; Maniou, Zoitsa; Lewis, Fiona J; Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Thomas A B; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2014-07-01

    Inconsistent effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma lipids may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dyslipidaemia in genome-wide association studies, in 310 participants randomised to treatment with placebo or 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) (1.51:1) in a 12-month parallel controlled trial. Effects of risk alleles were assessed as trait-specific genetic predisposition scores (GPS) and singly. GPS were positively associated with baseline concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) and negatively with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. The TG-GPS was associated with 0.210 mmol/L higher TG per risk allele (P GPS was associated with 0.023 mmol/L lower TG per risk allele (P = 0.72). No interactions between GPS and treatment were significant; however, FADS1 SNP rs174546 C/T interaction with treatment was a significant determinant of plasma TG concentration (P = 0.047, n = 267). Concentration differed between genotype groups after the 1.8 g/day dose (P = 0.026), decreasing by 3.5 (95 % CI -15.1 to 8.2) % in non-carriers of the risk T-allele (n = 30) and by 21.6 (95 % CI -32.1 to -11.2) % in carriers (n = 37), who showed a highly significant difference between treatments (P = 0.007). Carriers of the FADS1 rs174546 risk allele could benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in normalising plasma TG.

  18. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Yi-Tsen; Chen, Pey-Rong; Lin, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Yuan-The; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2013-02-16

    Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  19. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  20. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  1. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  2. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  3. Relationship between red cell membrane fatty acids and adipokines in individuals with varying insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y; Lowy, C; Islam, S; Khan, F S; Swaminathan, R

    2011-06-01

    Plasma leptin and adiponectin, and membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition are implicated into the mechanism of insulin resistance but no clear pattern has emerged. Hence, this study examined these variables in subjects presenting to the diabetic clinic for a diagnostic glucose tolerance test. Body composition, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and red cell and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed from 42 normal and 28 impaired glucose tolerant subjects. Insulin sensitivity was determined by homeostatic model assessment. The plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition of the impaired glucose tolerant subjects was similar to that of normal subjects. However, the impaired glucose tolerant subjects had significantly lower linoleic (Pphosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine compared with the normal subjects. Moreover, red cell phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid correlated positively with adiponectin (r=0.290, Pinsulin (r=-0.335, Pinsulin resistance (r=-0.322, Pinsulin level whereas insulin was the only component that predicted the membrane fatty acids. We postulate that membrane phospholipids fatty acids have an indirect role in determining insulin concentration but insulin has a major role in determining membrane fatty acid composition.

  4. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric ...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  5. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  6. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...... in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men...

  7. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-01-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 μmol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 μCi [ 14 C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [ 14 C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14 C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1

  8. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty...

  11. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western diets are often deficient in n-3 fatty acids because of an insufficient intake of cold water oily fish. The main n-3 fatty acids in fatty fish are ... To date, no formally accepted dietary reference intakes for EPA and DHA exist, while international intake recommendations differ widely. Supplementation is an easy and ...

  12. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion...... of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant...... faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...

  13. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spannring, P.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid

  14. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  15. Influence of maternal diet during early pregnancy on the fatty acid profile in the fetus at late pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavia Spreafico; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Herrera, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different dietary fatty acids during the first half of pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of maternal adipose tissue and of maternal and fetal plasma at mid- and late-pregnancy. Pregnant rats received soybean-, olive-, fish-, linseed- or palm-oil diets from conception to day 12 of gestation. Virgin rats receiving the same treatments were studied in parallel. At day 12, some rats were sacrificed and others were returned to the standard diet and studied at day 20. At day 12, the concentrations of most fatty acids in plasma reflected the dietary composition and individual fatty acids in lumbar adipose tissue of pregnant rats correlated with those in the diet. At day 20, the plasma concentration of each fatty acid was higher in pregnant than in both virgin rats and day-12 pregnant rats. The composition in 20-day pregnant (but not in virgin) rats resembled the diet consumed during the first 12 days. Fatty acid concentration in fetal plasma was also influenced by the maternal diet during the first 12 days of pregnancy, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) concentrations correlated with those in the mothers. In conclusion, during the first half of pregnancy maternal adipose tissue stores dietary-derived fatty acids, which are released into blood during late pregnancy enabling LC-PUFA to become available to the fetus.

  16. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  17. Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A; Moscatelli, N; Di Giacomo, M; Zara, V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Fatty Acid-Based Monomers as Styrene Replacements for Liquid Molding Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    fatty acid length and unsaturation level on resin and polymer properties. Fig. 2. The addition of fatty acids ( oleic acid ) to glycidyl methacylate to...the synthetic route used to form the methacrylated fatty acids (MFA). The carboxylic acid of fatty acids undergoes a simple addition reaction with... form methacrylated fatty acid monomer

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Greg M.; Ma, Qiu-Lan; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    More than a dozen epidemiological studies have reported that reduced levels or intake of omega-3 fatty acids or fish consumption is associated with increased risk for age-related cognitive decline or dementia such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased dietary consumption or blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) appear protective for AD and other dementia in multiple epidemiological studies; however, three studies suggest that the ApoE4 genotype limits protection. DHA is broadly neuroprotective via multiple mechanisms that include neuroprotective DHA metabolites, reduced arachidonic acid metabolites, and increased trophic factors or downstream trophic signal transduction. DHA is also protective against several risk factors for dementia including head trauma, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. DHA is specifically protective against AD via additional mechanisms: It limits the production and accumulation of the amyloid β peptide toxin that is widely believed to drive the disease; and it also suppresses several signal transduction pathways induced by Aβ, including two major kinases that phosphorylate the microtubule associated protein tau and promote neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Based on the epidemiological and basic research data, expert panels have recommended the need for clinical trials with omega-3 fatty acids, notably DHA, for the prevention or treatment of age-related cognitive decline—with a focus on the most prevalent cause, AD. Clinical trials are underway to prevent and treat AD. Results to-date suggest that DHA may be more effective if it is begun early or used in conjunction with antioxidants. PMID:19523795

  20. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the α-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

  1. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, U; Sato, M; Tsuchiya, H; Namikawa, I

    1995-02-01

    The cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium species were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. E. brachy and E. lentum contained mainly branched-chain fatty acids, whereas the others contained straight-chain acids. E. brachy, E. lentum, E. yurii ssp. yurii, E. yurii spp. margaretiae, E. limosum, E. plauti and E. aerofaciens also contained aldehydes with even carbon numbers. In addition to species-specific components, the compositional ratios of fatty acids and aldehydes characterized each individual species. The 10 species tested were divided into 5 groups by the principal component analysis. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes would be chemical markers for interspecies differentiation of oral Eubacterium.

  2. Influence of fatty acids on the binding of warfarin and phenprocoumon to human serum albumin with relation to anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1996-01-01

    of palmitic, stearic, oleic or linoleic acids with energetic couplings for co-binding of one molecule of each of the fatty acids and one molecule of warfarin of 0.9, 1.1, 0.7 and 0.6 kJ mol-1, respectively. The affinity of phenprocoumon was only increased slightly on addition of palmitate with an energetic...... of warfarin but not of phenprocoumon was correlated to the increasing plasma fatty acid concentration. Anticoagulant therapy with phenprocoumon may thus be less sensitive than warfarin to changes in the fatty acid concentration of plasma. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Aug...

  3. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  4. Structurally modified fatty acids - clinical potential as tracers of metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.; Schmoliner, R.; Angelberger, P.; Knapp, F.F.; Goodman, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recently 15-p-iodophenyl-betamethyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMPPA) was proposed for myocardial scintigraphy, as possible probe of metabolic processes other than β-oxidation. In 19 patients myocardial scintigraphy was done after i.v. BMPPA (2 to 4 mCi). Data were collected (LAO 45 0 /14; anterior/5) for 100 minutes in the fasted patients. From heart (H) and liver (L) organ to background (BG) ratios were calculated, and the elimination (E) behavior was analyzed from BG (V. cava region) corrected time activity curves. In 10 patients plasma and urine were examined. By CHCl 3 /MeOH extraction of plasma samples (90 min. pi) both in water and in organic medium soluble catabolites were found. TLC fractionation showed that those were co-migrating, compared to standards, with benzoic acid, BMPPA and triglycerides. In urine (0 to 2h pi: 4.1% dose) hippuric acid was found. It is concluded that BMPPA is a useful agent for myocardial scintigraphy. Its longer retention in the heart compared to unbranched radioiodinated fatty acids may facilitate SPECT studies. Rate of elimination and plasma analysis indicate the metabolic breakdown of BMPPA. Yet, the complexity of the supposed mechanism may impede curve interpretation in terms of specific metabolic pathways. 19 refs., 5 tabs

  5. Dietary fatty acid metabolism in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christophe; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-01

    Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans. We have recently developed a novel imaging method using PET with oral administration of 14-R,S-F-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) to quantify organ-specific DFA partitioning. Our studies thus far confirmed impaired storage of DFA per volume of fat mass in abdominal adipose tissues of individuals with prediabetes. They also highlighted the increased channeling of DFA toward the heart, associated with subclinical reduction in cardiac systolic and diastolic function in individuals with prediabetes. In the present review, we summarize previous work on DFA metabolism in healthy and prediabetic states and discuss these in the light of our novel findings using PET imaging of DFA metabolism. We herein provide an integrated view of abnormal organ-specific DFA partitioning in prediabetes in humans.

  6. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  7. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

  8. Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

  9. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  10. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) contain approximately 44-56% oil made up of fatty acids. Oleic and linoleic acids comprise about 80% of fatty acids in groundnuts. Groundnuts with >80% oleic are beneficial health-wise and also improve groundnut quality, flavour, and extended shelf-life, which is beneficial to traders.

  11. Physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of star fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... refractive index (1.421), acid value (0.68), free fatty acid (0.84), iodine value (140.50 ... The fatty acid profiles were revealed using Gas Chromatography Mass ... The outcome of this study showed that Averrohoa carambola seed oil may find wider industrial application and ...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  13. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Eva Ivanišová; Štefan Dráb; Tomáš Krajčovič; Marián Tokár; Ján Mareček; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest c...

  14. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  15. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid mobilization by arterial free fatty acid concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Bülow, J; Nielsen, N E

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous, inguinal adipose tissue from dogs was perfused with blood in which the free fatty acid (FFA) concentration was varied corresponding to FFA/albumin molar ratios between 1 and 6. Otherwise the composition of the perfusate was kept constant. In order to stimulate lipolysis, isoprenaline...

  17. Fatty acid omega-oxidation as a rescue pathway for fatty acid oxidation disorders in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Komen, Jasper; Kemp, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) can be degraded via different mechanisms including alpha-, beta- and omega-oxidation. In humans, a range of different genetic diseases has been identified in which either mitochondrial FA beta-oxidation, peroxisomal FA beta-oxidation or FA alpha-oxidation is impaired. Treatment

  18. Effect of individual dietary fatty acids on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Miller, G.J.; Bysted, Anette

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances to the hemostatic system. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is increased in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma may promote factor VII (FVII) activation...

  19. Lipophilic antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoprotein classes: distribution and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, V.H.; Weber, Christine; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    supplementations, but fish oil increased the amount of n-3 fatty acids at the expense of n-6 fatty acids. Conclusion: Lipoprotein distribution of CoQ(10) is markedly different from that of alpha -tocopherol, suggesting that they may be metabolised by distinct routes. alpha -Tocopherol is distributed similarly to n......Objective: To study the lipoprotein distribution of supplemented coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)), vitamin E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Design: Balanced three- period crossover study. Setting: University research unit. Subjects: Eighteen apparently healthy free-living non-smoking volunteers...... the first period and then after each period. Plasma and isolated lipoproteins were analysed for cholesterol, triacylglycerol, alpha- and gamma -tocopherol, CoQ(10), and fatty acid composition. Results: Significant (P

  20. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  1. Exploring the Lean Phenotype of Glutathione-Depleted Mice: Thiol, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany K Elshorbagy

    Full Text Available Although reduced glutathione (rGSH is decreased in obese mice and humans, block of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO results in a lean, insulin-sensitive phenotype. Data is lacking about the effect of BSO on GSH precursors, cysteine and glutamate. Plasma total cysteine (tCys is positively associated with stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD activity and adiposity in humans and animal models.To explore the phenotype, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in BSO-treated mice.Male C3H/HeH mice aged 11 weeks were fed a high-fat diet with or without BSO in drinking water (30 mmol/L for 8 weeks. Amino acid and fatty acid changes were assessed, as well as food consumption, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, body composition and liver vacuolation (steatosis.Despite higher food intake, BSO decreased particularly fat mass but also lean mass (both P<0.001, and prevented fatty liver vacuolation. Physical activity increased during the dark phase. BSO decreased plasma free fatty acids and enhanced insulin sensitivity. BSO did not alter liver rGSH, but decreased plasma total GSH (tGSH and rGSH (by ~70%, and liver tGSH (by 82%. Glutamate accumulated in plasma and liver. Urine excretion of cysteine and its precursors was increased by BSO. tCys, rCys and cystine decreased in plasma (by 23-45%, P<0.001 for all, but were maintained in liver, at the expense of decreased taurine. Free and total plasma concentrations of the SCD products, oleic and palmitoleic acids were decreased (by 27-38%, P <0.001 for all.Counterintuitively, block of GSH synthesis decreases circulating tCys, raising the question of whether the BSO-induced obesity-resistance is linked to cysteine depletion. Cysteine-supplementation of BSO-treated mice is warranted to dissect the effects of cysteine and GSH depletion on energy metabolism.

  2. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-03-19

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and

  3. Fatty acid CoA ligase-4 gene polymorphism influences fatty acid metabolism in metabolic syndrome, but not in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Miroslav; Vecka, Marek; Jáchymová, Marie; Jirák, Roman; Tvrzická, Eva; Stanková, Barbora; Zák, Ales

    2009-04-01

    The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cell membranes and body tissues is altered in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depressive disorder (DD). Within the cell, fatty acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs) activate PUFAs by esterifying with CoA. The FACL4 isoform prefers PUFAs (arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid) as substrates, and the FACL4 gene is mapped to Xq23. We have analyzed the association between the common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1324805, C to T substitution) in the first intron of the FACL4 gene and MetS or DD. The study included 113 healthy subjects (54 Males/59 Females), 56 MetS patients (34M/22F) and 41 DD patients (7M/34F). In MetS group, T-carriers and patients with CC or C0 (CC/C0) genotype did not differ in the values of metabolic indices of MetS and M/F ratio. Nevertheless, in comparison with CC/C0, the T-allele carriers were characterized by enhanced unfavorable changes in fatty acid metabolism typical for MetS: higher content of dihomogammalinolenic acid (P phosphatidylcholine (PC) (P = 0.052), lower index of Delta5 desaturation (P insulin, conjugated dienes and index of insulin resistance, but showed no significant association with the studied SNP. The present study shows that the common SNP (C to T substitution) in the first intron of the FACL4 gene is associated with altered FA composition of plasma phosphatidylcholines in patients with MetS.

  4. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  5. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  6. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  7. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim aydin

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was reported to increase the levels of saturated fatty ... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid ..... silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography.

  8. The development of radioiodinated fatty acids for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Since free fatty acids are the principal energy source for the normally oxygenated myocardium, the use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acid analogues is an attractive approach for myocardial imaging. Interest in the use of these substances results from divergent fatty acid metabolic pathways in ischemic (triglyceride storage) versus normoxic tissue (β-oxidative clearance), following flow-dependent delivery. Iodine-123-labeled fatty acids may offer a unique opportunity to identity myocardial viability using single photon emission tomography. The development of structurally-modified fatty acids became of interest because of the relatively long acquisition periods required for SPECT. The significant time required by early generation single- or dual-head SPECT systems for data acquisition requires minimal redistribution during the acquisition period to ensure accurate evaluation of the regional fatty acid distribution pattern after re-construction. Research has focussed on the evaluation of structural modifications which can be introduced into the fatty acid chain which would inhibit the subsequent β-oxidative catabolism which normally results in rapid myocardial clearance. Introduction of a methyl group in position-3 of the fatty acid carbon chain has been shown to significantly delay myocardial clearance and iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3- R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a new tracer based on this strategy

  9. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid......-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate fatty acids were oxidized in the presence...... in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues...

  10. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  11. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  12. 1,4-Dihydroxy fatty acids: Artifacts by reduction of di- and polyunsaturated fatty acids with sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemt, Simone; Spiteller, Gerhard

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to detect lipid peroxidation products in human blood plasma, samples were treated with NaBH4 to reduce the reactive hydroperoxides to hydroxy compounds. After saponification of the lipids, the free fatty acid fraction obtained by extraction was methylated and separated by TLC. The fractions containing polar compounds were trimethylsilylated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Mass spectra allowed us to detect previously unknown 1,4-dihydroxy fatty acids due to their typical fragmentation pattern. If the reduction was carried out with NaBD4 instead of NaBH4, incorporation of two deuterium atoms was observed (appropriate mass shift). The two oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl groups were incorporated from air as shown by an experiment in 18O2 atmosphere. The reaction required the presence of free acids, indicating that BH3 was liberated, added to a 1,4-pentadiene system, and finally produced 1,4-diols by air oxidation.

  13. Naturally occurring and process-induced trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHOKRI

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, butter oil. INTRODUCTION ... important role in determining risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) than ... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade, supplied by.

  14. Oil hyphae of endolithic lichens and their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, E; Tietz, A; Galun, M

    1978-01-01

    The structure of medullary oil hyphae of twelve endolithic lichen species, belonging to different taxa and colonizing different habitats, was examined by light and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of lipids isolated from the oil hyphae and from two corresponding mycobionts grown in culture was determined. The oil hyphae of the various species appeared in different forms and contained large amounts of lipid in the form of oil globules. The hyphae of mycobionts isolated from two of the endoliths and grown in culture also contained large amounts of lipids. Triacylglycerol was the predominant lipid component in all the organisms examined. Hexadecanoic acid was the main saturated fatty acid; octadecenoic acid and octadecdienoic acid the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Tetradecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecanoic and octadectrienoic acids were also detected. The fatty acid distribution pattern appeared unaffected by the nature of substrate and climatic conditions. There is a certain similarity in the fatty acid composition in related species. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of the Aerial Parts of Some Centaurea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species, viz, Centaurea behen, C. saligna, C. depressa, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei, C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana and C. aggregata subsp. aggregata, from Elaz.., Turkey. Methods: Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of the oil extracts of four Centaurea species were ...

  16. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  17. Alternative origins for omega-3 fatty acids in the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish and seafood are important sources for LC PUFAs, EPA and DHA. These fatty acids may be synthesised in the body from short-chain fatty acids, including ALA; however, the enzymes involved in this pathway are considered inefficient. This means direct EPA and DHA sources are an important part of

  18. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  19. GC – MS Characterization of Degutted White Grubs' Fatty Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acids composition of white grubs examined by GC- MS identified 19 different fatty acids; 11 saturated, 7 monoene and a cyclopropaneoctanoate. The identified ones are Methyl tetradecanoate (C14:0), Methyl dodecanoate (C12:0), Methyl cis – 9 - octadecenote (C18:1), Methyl(7E) – 7 – hexadecenoate (C16:1), Methyl ...

  20. Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fucoxanthin has been successfully isolated from species of Malaysian brown seaweed, namely Padina australis. The purity of the fucoxanthin is >98% as indicated by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This seaweed also contains a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Thirteen fatty acids were ...

  1. Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid ...

  2. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  3. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

    . The fatty acids specific to the above mentioned fungi can be used as biomarkers for taxonomic purposes. High concentrations of C18 PUFAs (18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9) together with relatively high concentrations of saturated fatty acids like palmitic (16...

  4. Interaction between fatty acid and the elastin network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the

  5. Neonatal fatty acid status and cardiometabolic health at 9 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seggers, Jorien; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; Decsi, Tamas; Boehm, Gunther; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status is associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We previously demonstrated no effect of LCPUFA supplementation after birth on BP and anthropometrics. Little is known about the association between fatty acid status at

  6. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  7. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  8. pH-sensitive liposomes containing polymerized phosphatidylethanolamine and fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Han, H S; Kim, H

    1992-11-01

    With the ultimate aim of targeting cancer drugs to malignant tissues, liposomes containing polymeric phosphatidylethanolamine and a fatty acid were prepared. For this purpose diacetylenic phosphatidylethanolamine (DAPE), a phosphatidylethanolamine containing diacetylene, was synthesized. Liposomes containing DAPE, fatty acid, and either phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylethanolamine-beta-oleoyl-gamma-palmitoyl (POPE) were then prepared. Polymerization of DAPE was effected by UV illumination. The polymeric liposomes so obtained were stable at physiological pH but became leaky below pH 6.5. Of various compositions studied, the greatest pH-sensitivity was found with liposomes composed of 35 mol% DAPE, 35 mol% POPE, and 30 mol% saturated fatty acid. The presence of blood plasma albumin decreased vesicle stability while apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) had the opposite effect and plasma as a whole had a slightly stabilizing effect.

  9. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  10. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  11. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired

  13. Heterogeneity in limb fatty acid kinetics in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Olsen, D B; Saltin, B

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched...... control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. METHODS: Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion and measurement of arteriovenous differences. RESULTS: The systemic palmitate rate...... in the dysregulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism, with only the leg, but not the arm, showing an impairment of fatty acid kinetics at baseline and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp causing a physiological increase in insulin concentration....

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voll, Fernando A.P.; Silva, Camila da; Rossi, Carla C.R.S.; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

  15. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  17. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  18. Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Møller, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular...... packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally...... with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average...

  19. Role of n-3 fatty acids in muscle loss and myosteatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, Julia B; Almasud, Alaa; Mazurak, Vera C

    2014-06-01

    Image-based methods such as computed tomography for assessing body composition enables quantification of muscle mass and muscle density and reveals that low muscle mass and myosteatosis (fat infiltration into muscle) are common in people with cancer. Myosteatosis and low muscle mass have emerged as independent risk factors for mortality in cancer; however, the characteristics and pathogenesis of these features have not been resolved. Muscle depletion is associated with low plasma eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) in cancer and supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has been shown to ameliorate muscle loss and myosteatosis in clinical studies, suggesting a relationship between n-3 fatty acids and muscle health. Since the mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acids alter body composition in cancer remain unknown, related literature from other conditions associated with myosteatosis, such as insulin resistance and obesity is considered. In these noncancer conditions, it has been reported that n-3 fatty acids act by increasing insulin sensitivity, reducing inflammatory mediators, and altering adipokine profiles and transcription factors; therefore, the plausibility of these mechanisms of action in the neoplastic state are considered. The aim of this review is to summarize what is known about the effects of n-3 fatty acids with regards to muscle condition and to discuss potential mechanisms for effects of n-3 fatty acids on muscle health.

  20. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  1. Relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xiaoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and serum level of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP. MethodsA total of 160 patients who underwent physical examination in the Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from July to November 2010 were included in our study. These subjects were divided into two groups according to the diagnostic criteria for NAFLD formulated by the Chinese Medical Association: control group (n=71 and NAFLD group (n=89. The two groups were compared with respect to general condition, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, AFABP, serum insulin, and other serological indices. The relationship of serum AFABP with NAFLD and other metabolic parameters was analyzed using the Spearman linear correlation coefficient. Comparison of measurement data was made by t test and rank sum test; comparison of enumeration data was made by chi-square test. ResultsThere were more males than females in the NAFLD group. Compared with the control group, the NAFLD group had higher BMI and levels of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and uric acid and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL level; in addition, the NAFLD group had significantly higher serum AFABP and insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that serum AFABP was positively correlated with NAFLD, BMI, HOMA-IR, serum insulin, blood glucose, TG, ALT, AST, and uric acid but negatively correlated with HDL. After adjustment for sex, age, and BMI, serum AFABP was positively correlated with NAFLD, HOMA-IR, serum insulin, blood glucose, TG, ALT, and uric acid, but had no significant correlation with HDL and AST. ConclusionSerum AFABP is closely associated with NAFLD and may be an independent plasma marker of this disease. AFABP plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  2. Fatty acids labelled in the. omega. -position with iodine isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Comet, M. (Universite Scientifique et Medicale de Grenoble, 38 - La Tronche (France)); Riche, F.; Vidal, M. (Laboratoire d' Etudes Dynamiques et Structurales de la Selectivite, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Coornaert, S.; Bardy, A. (CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Godart, J. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of saturated acetylenic and olefinic (Z or E) ..omega..-iodinated fatty acids has been carried out and their labelling with iodine-131 or 123 by exchange I/sup -/, *I/sup -/ has been studied. The influence of several parameters -water and fatty acid concentrations, specific activity, labelling solution acidity, iodine carrier presence- on this exchange reaction has been noted, enabling experimental conditions to be defined that produce labelling yields of greater than 95%. These results should lead to widespread clinical use of iodine labelled fatty acids.

  3. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new fatty acid amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oca, Caroline Da Ros Montes; Coelho, Tatiane; Marinho, Tamara Germani; Hack, Carolina Rosa Lopes; Duarte, Rodrigo da Costa; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes

    2010-09-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new fatty acid amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:1 (OH), and 18:2 fatty acids families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time the activity of these compounds as antituberculosis agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, M. tuberculosis rifampicin resistance (ATCC 35338), and M. tuberculosis isoniazid resistance (ATCC 35822). The fatty acid amides derivate from ricinoleic acid were the most potent one among a series of tested compounds, with a MIC 6.25 microg/mL for resistance strains. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase activities of fatty acids found in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Geneive E; Momin, Rafikali A; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Dewitt, David L

    2002-04-10

    Several commercially available C-8 to C-24 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (1-29) were assayed for cyclooxygenase-I (COX-I) and cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the saturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1), there was an increase in antioxidant activity with increasing chain length from octanoic acid to myristic acid (C-8-C-14) and a decrease thereafter. All unsaturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1) showed good antioxidant activity except for undecylenic acid (12), cis-5-dodecenoic acid (13), and nervonic acid (29). The highest inhibitory activities among the saturated fatty acids tested on cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-I and COX-II were observed for decanoic acid to lauric acid (3-5) at 100 microg mL(-1). Similarly, among the unsaturated fatty acids tested, the highest activities were observed for cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (25) and cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid (27) at 100 microg mL(-1).

  5. Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in plasma and rumen tissue, and rumen epithelium development in lambs.

  6. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp..The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fattyacid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggscontained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.Keywords: Amino acids, carotenoid total, fatty acid, flying fish egg, α-tocopherol

  7. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  8. Low muscle glycogen and elevated plasma free fatty acid modify but do not prevent exercise-induced PDH activation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Gudmundsson, Mikkel; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2010-01-01

    to the contra-lateral leg (CON) the day before the experiment day. On the experimental days, plasma FFA was ensured normal or remained elevated by consuming breakfast rich (low FFA) or poor (high FFA) in carbohydrate, 2 hours before performing 20 min of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Vastus lateralis...

  9. Increase in Skin Autofluorescence and Release of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Plasma Predicts Mortality of Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J.; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (DAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients.

  10. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  11. Bacterial fatty acid metabolism in modern antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is essential for many pathogens and different from the mammalian counterpart. These features make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a desirable target for antibiotic discovery. The structural divergence of the conserved enzymes and the presence of different isozymes catalyzing the same reactions in the pathway make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a narrow spectrum target rather than the traditional broad spectrum target. Furthermore, bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors are single-targeting, rather than multi-targeting like traditional monotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics. The single-targeting nature of bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors makes overcoming fast-developing, target-based resistance a necessary consideration for antibiotic development. Target-based resistance can be overcome through multi-targeting inhibitors, a cocktail of single-targeting inhibitors, or by making the single targeting inhibitor sufficiently high affinity through a pathogen selective approach such that target-based mutants are still susceptible to therapeutic concentrations of drug. Many of the pathogens requiring new antibiotic treatment options encode for essential bacterial fatty acid synthesis enzymes. This review will evaluate the most promising targets in bacterial fatty acid metabolism for antibiotic therapeutics development and review the potential and challenges in advancing each of these targets to the clinic and circumventing target-based resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, B.; Vlugter, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    The use of copper and cadmium oxides or soaps as catalysts for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols has been investigated. It is shown that copper soaps homogeneously activate hydrogen. When copper and cadmium oxides are used as catalysts, they react with the

  13. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  14. Long term influence of regular intake of high dose n-3 fatty acids on CD40-ligand, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and matrix metalloproteinase-9 following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsetøy, Hildegunn; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Hetland, Øyvind; Grundt, Heidi; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2006-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), both zinc-binding endopeptidases, are abundantly expressed in ruptured and eroded plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The adhesion molecule CD-40 ligand (CD40L), expressed on activated platelets and T-lymphocytes, can activate metalloproteinases and thereby promote plaque-rupture. N-3 fatty acids, through their anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties, might reduce the levels of these proatherosclerotic markers and thereby the development of ACS. 300 patients were randomized on day 4 to 6 following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) to receive either 4 g of n-3 fatty acids or a similar daily dose of corn oil for at least one year. We compared levels of PAPP-A, MMP-9 and sCD-40 L at baseline and 12 months in each group, and also looked for inter-group changes. In the omega-3 group, the median level of PAPP-A rose from 0.47 mU/l to 0.56 mU/l (p < 0.001). In the same group, sCD-40 L decreased from a mean baseline value of 5.19 ng/ml to 2.45 ng/ml (p < 0.001) and MMP-9 decreased nonsignificantly from 360.50 ng/ml to 308.00 ng/ml. Corresponding values for the corn oil group were 0.54 mU/l to 0.59 mU/l for PAPP-A (p = 0.007), 5.27 ng/ml to 2.84 ng/ml for sCD-40 L (p < 0.001) and 430.00 ng/ml to 324.00 ng/ml for MMP-9 (p = ns), respectively. In conclusion; both interventions resulted in a significant rise in PAPP-A, a significant decrease in sCD40L and a non-significant decrease in MMP-9 after 12 months of treatment in MI survivors. No inter-group differences were noted.

  15. Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra

  16. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves...... improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by metabolic engineering, e.g. through over-expression of fatty acid synthases, over-expression of other...

  17. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  18. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosynthesis, degradation, and pharmacological importance of the fatty acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Emma K.; Merkler, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of two biologically active fatty acid amides, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and oleamide, has generated a great deal of excitement and stimulated considerable research. However, anandamide and oleamide are merely the best-known and best-understood members of a much larger family of biologically-occurring fatty acid amides. In this review, we will outline which fatty acid amides have been isolated from mammalian sources, detail what is known about how these molecules are made and degraded in vivo, and highlight their potential for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:18598910

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Gene polymorphisms of desaturase enzymes of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and adiponutrin and the increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi Vernekar; Deepak Amarapurkar; Kalpana Joshi; Rekha Singhal

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adiponutrin gene polymorphisms have been associated with NAFLD worldwide. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been studied to have anti-inflammatory effects and plasma lipid lowering properties. PUFAs are endogenously synthesized with the help of delta-6-desaturase and delta-5-desaturase enzymes. They are encoded by FADS2 and FADS1 genes respectively. Polymorphisms in ...

  2. Physicochemical properties and analysis of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Majd Ahmed; Yusoff, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad; Salimon, Jumat

    2018-04-01

    Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is cheap and valuable byproduct of edible oil processing industries. This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled (PFAD). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, hydroxyl value, specific gravity at 28°C, moisture content, viscosity at 40°C and colour at 28°C values were 87.04± 0.1 %, 190.6± 1 mg/g, 53.3±0.2 mg/g, 210.37±0.8 mg/g, 1.5±0.1%, 47±0.2 mg/g, 0.87 g/ml, 0.63 %, 30 cSt and yellowish respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition in PFAD. The fatty acids were found to be comprised mostly with 48.9 % palmitic acid (C16:0), 37.4 % oleic acid (C18:1), 9.7 % linoleic acid (C18:2), 2.7 % stearic acid (C18:0) and 1.1 % myristic acid (C14:0). The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted with 99.2 % of FFA, while diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol were 0.69 and 0.062 % respectively.

  3. An amino acid substitution in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein is associated with increased fatty acid binding, increased fat oxidation, and insulin resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, L J; Sacchettini, J C; Knowler, W C; Eads, J; Paolisso, G; Tataranni, P A; Mochizuki, H; Bennett, P H; Bogardus, C; Prochazka, M

    1995-01-01

    The intestinal fatty acid binding protein locus (FABP2) was investigated as a possible genetic factor in determining insulin action in the Pima Indian population. A polymorphism at codon 54 of FABP2 was identified that results in an alanine-encoding allele (frequency 0.71) and a threonine-encoding allele (frequency 0.29). Pimas who were homozygous or heterozygous for the threonine-encoding allele were found to have a higher mean fasting plasma insulin concentration, a lower mean insulin-stimu...

  4. Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

  5. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  6. Topical electrophilic nitro-fatty acids potentiate cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Alicia R; Carey, Cara D; Killeen, Meaghan E; Salvatore, Sonia R; Ferris, Laura K; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J; Falo, Louis D

    2018-02-01

    Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation. To accomplish this, the effect of topically applied OA-NO 2 on skin inflammation was evaluated using established murine models of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). In contrast to the effects of subcutaneously injected OA-NO 2 , topical OA-NO 2 potentiated hapten-dependent inflammation inducing a sustained neutrophil-dependent inflammatory response characterized by psoriasiform histological features, increased angiogenesis, and an inflammatory infiltrate that included neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, and γδ T cells. Consistent with these results, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of skin from psoriasis patients displayed a 56% increase in nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-NO 2 ) levels in lesional skin compared to non-lesional skin. These results suggest that nitro-fatty acids in the skin microenvironment are products of cutaneous inflammatory responses and, in high local concentrations, may exacerbate inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatty Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Metal Binding to the Multi-Metal Site on Serum Albumin: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blindauer, Claudia A; Khazaipoul, Siavash; Yu, Ruitao; Stewart, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the major protein in blood plasma and is responsible for circulatory transport of a range of small molecules including fatty acids, metal ions and drugs. We previously identified the major plasma Zn2+ transport site on HSA and revealed that fatty-acid binding (at a distinct site called the FA2 site) and Zn2+ binding are interdependent via an allosteric mechanism. Since binding affinities of long-chain fatty acids exceed those of plasma Zn2+, this means that under certain circumstances the binding of fatty acid molecules to HSA is likely to diminish HSA Zn2+-binding, and hence affects the control of circulatory and cellular Zn2+ dynamics. This relationship between circulatory fatty acid and Zn2+ dynamics is likely to have important physiological and pathological implications, especially since it has been recognised that Zn2+ acts as a signalling agent in many cell types. Fatty acid levels in the blood are dynamic, but most importantly, chronic elevation of plasma fatty acid levels is associated with some metabolic disorders and disease states - including myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we briefly review the metal-binding properties of albumin and highlight the importance of their interplay with fatty acid binding. We also consider the impact of this dynamic link upon levels and speciation of plasma Zn2+, its effect upon cellular Zn2+ homeostasis and its relevance to cardiovascular and circulatory processes in health and disease.

  8. Placental fatty acid transport in maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, I; Parisi, F; Berti, C; Mandò, C; Desoye, G

    2012-12-01

    Pregestational obesity is a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal obesity is associated with a specific proinflammatory, endocrine and metabolic phenotype that may lead to higher supply of nutrients to the feto-placental unit and to excessive fetal fat accumulation. In particular, obesity may influence placental fatty acid (FA) transport in several ways, leading to increased diffusion driving force across the placenta, and to altered placental development, size and exchange surface area. Animal models show that maternal obesity is associated with increased expression of specific FA carriers and inflammatory signaling molecules in placental cotyledonary tissue, resulting in enhanced lipid transfer across the placenta, dislipidemia, fat accumulation and possibly altered development in fetuses. Cell culture experiments confirmed that inflammatory molecules, adipokines and FA, all significantly altered in obesity, are important regulators of placental lipid exchange. Expression studies in placentas of obese-diabetic women found a significant increase in FA binding protein-4 expression and in cellular triglyceride content, resulting in increased triglyceride cord blood concentrations. The expression and activity of carriers involved in placental lipid transport are influenced by the endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic milieu of obesity, and further studies are needed to elucidate the strong association between maternal obesity and fetal overgrowth.

  9. Effects of ethanol on pancreatic beta-cell death: interaction with glucose and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Nguyen, K Hoa; Hernandez, Tiffany A; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2009-04-01

    Western lifestyle plays an important role in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes by causing insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. High fat diet and alcohol are major components of the western diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ethanol and fatty acids on beta-cell survival and metabolism. We treated the rat beta-cell line RINm5F with ethanol, a mixture of palmitic and oleic acids, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by (5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) (CM-H2DCFDA) fluorescence assay, and mitochondrial activity was assessed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay and by determining ATP production. Cell viability was assessed with a cell counter and trypan blue exclusion, and the mode of cell death by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining. With both ethanol and fatty acid treatments, MTT reduction and ATP production decreased, whereas ROS production increased. Ethanol treatment had no effect on cell number, whereas fatty acid treatment reduced the cell number. Cell incubation with ethanol, fatty acids, or both increased the number of Hoechst 33342-positive nuclei. However, the majority of nuclei from fatty acid-treated cells were stained with propidium iodide, indicating a loss of plasma membrane integrity. We conclude that both ethanol and fatty acids generate cellular oxidative stress, and affect mitochondrial function in RINm5F beta-cells. However, ethanol causes beta-cell death by apoptosis, whereas fatty acids cause cell death predominantly by necrosis. It is not known whether these results are applicable to human beta-cells.

  10. A microfluidic device for the automated derivatization of free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Cindy T; Roper, Michael G

    2012-02-21

    Free fatty acid (FFA) compositions are examined in feedstock for biodiesel production, as source-specific markers in soil, and because of their role in cellular signaling. However, sample preparation of FFAs for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis can be time and labor intensive. Therefore, to increase sample preparation throughput, a glass microfluidic device was developed to automate derivatization of FFAs to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). FFAs were delivered to one input of the device and methanolic-HCl was delivered to a second input. FAME products were produced as the reagents traversed a 29 μL reaction channel held at 55 °C. A Design of Experiment protocol was used to determine the combination of derivatization time (T(der)) and ratio of methanolic-HCl:FFA (R(der)) that maximized the derivatization efficiencies of tridecanoic acid and stearic acid to their methyl ester forms. The combination of T(der) = 0.8 min and R(der) = 4.9 that produced optimal derivatization conditions for both FFAs within a 5 min total sample preparation time was determined. This combination of T(der) and R(der) was used to derivatize 12 FFAs with a range of derivatization efficiencies from 18% to 93% with efficiencies of 61% for tridecanoic acid and 84% for stearic acid. As compared to a conventional macroscale derivatization of FFA to FAME, the microfluidic device decreased the volume of methanolic-HCl and FFA by 20- and 1300-fold, respectively. The developed microfluidic device can be used for automated preparation of FAMEs to analyze the FFA compositions of volume-limited samples.

  11. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are via metabolites such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and resolvins. The effects of ω3-PUFAs are in contrast to those of fatty acids with virtually identical structures, such as the ω6-PUFAs linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, and their corresponding metabolites. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss both the nutrigenomics (nutrient-gene interactions) and nutrigenetics (genetic variation in nutrition) of dietary fatty acids with a focus on the ω3-PUFAs (Gebauer et al., 2007(1)). Important in the biological response for these fatty acids or their metabolites are cognate receptors that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with CVD and cancer. Four nuclear receptor (NR) subfamilies will be emphasized as receptors that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands: (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, (2) retinoid X receptors, (3) liver X receptors, and (4) farnesoid X receptor. In addition to the different responses elicited by varying structures of fatty acids, responses may vary because of genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize ω3- and ω6 fatty acids or that respond to them. In particular, polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturases and the aforementioned NRs contribute to the complexity of nutritional effects seen with ω3-PUFAs. Following a brief introduction to the health benefits of ω3-PUFAs, the regulation of gene expression by these dietary fatty acids via NRs will be characterized. Subsequently, the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key enzymes involved in the metabolism and response to ω3-PUFAs will

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  13. Circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits are associated with serum polyunsaturated Fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K; Svingen, Gard F T; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A; Gregory, Jesse F; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman's rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

  14. Stearic acid: a possible substitute for trans fatty acids from industrial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavella, Marcelo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trans isomers, contained in partially hydrogenated oils, which are used in the food industry, have been questioned and nowadays trends are heading towards reducing their consumption. The food industry is facing a dilemma, since in order to remove trans fatty acids, hydrogenated fats should be eliminated and replaced by fats rich in saturated fatty acids. Scientific research has shown that saturated fatty acids have negative effects on the lipid profile and its consumption is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. Therefore it is recommended to avoid their consumption. Nevertheless, not all fatty acids behave in the same way, with stearic acid (18:0 the exception. Stearic acid has a low level of intestinal absorption and its intake does not negatively modify the lipid profile. For this reason, it is considered a “neutral” fatty acid with regard to cardiovascular health. B-100 apolipoprotein, whose levels determine plasma VLDL and LDL concentration (triglycerides and cholesterol carriers, respectively, is not modified by diets which provide up to 7% of the energy as stearic acid. Markers of cardiovascular risk, such as activation of platelet aggregation factors or C-reactive protein levels, are not modified by diets providing stearic acid, as occurs with other saturated fatty acids. The confirmation of the “neutral” effect of stearic acid represents a perspective for the development of fats with high contents of this fatty acid to replace hydrogenated fats containing trans isomers. The present review discusses these aspects.Los isómeros trans que contienen los aceites parcialmente hidrogenados de origen industrial, han sido cuestionados y la recomendación es reducir su consumo. La industria de alimentos se enfrenta a un dilema, ya que para disminuir los isómeros trans debe reducir los aceites parcialmente hidrogenados y reemplazarlos por grasas ricas en ácidos grasos saturados. La investigación ha demostrado que los

  15. Radiotherapy improves serum fatty acids and lipid profile in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Sana; Channa, Naseem Aslam; Talpur, Farha Naz; Younis, Muhammad; Tabassum, Naila

    2017-05-18

    Breast cancer is a disease with diverse clinical symptoms, molecular profiles, and its nature to response its therapeutic treatments. Radiotherapy (RT), along with surgery and chemotherapy is a part of treatment in breast cancer. The aim of present study was to investigate pre and post treatment effects of radiotherapy in serum fatty acids and its lipids profile in patients with breast cancer. In this comparative as well as follow up study, Serum fatty acids were performed by gas chromatography to investigate fatty acids and Microlab for analysis of lipid profile. Among serum free and total fatty acids the major saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in serum lipids of breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) were stearic acid (18:0) and palmitic acid (16:0). These fatty acids contributed about 35-50% of total fatty acids. The decreased concentrations of linoleic acid (C18:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4) with a lower ratio of C18:2/C18:1 was found in pretreated breast cancer patients as compared to controls. The n-3/n-6 ratio of breast cancer patients was decreased before treatment but it was 35% increased after treatment. In addition, plasma activity of D6 desaturase was increased in the breast cancer patients, while the activity of D5 desaturase was decreased. Increased levels of SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) as compared to controls. Serum total cholesterol (TC) (224.4 mg/dL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (142.9 mg/dL) were significantly increased in pretreated breast cancer patients but after the radiotherapy treatment, the TC (150.2 mg/dL) and LDL-C (89.8 mg/dL) were decreased. It seems that RT would have played a potential role in the treatment of BC. After RT the serum levels of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C are improved. Our study reinforces the important role of RT in the management of BC. The level of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C can be

  16. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routaboul Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3 or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrienoic (16:3 acids typically account for approximately two-thirds of all thylakoid membrane fatty acids and over 90% of the fatty acids of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, the major thylakoid lipid [1, 2]. The occurrence of trienoic fatty acids as a major component of the thylakoid membrane is especially remarkable since these fatty acids form highly reactive targets for active oxygen species and free radicals, which are often the by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most temperature-sensitive functions of plant [3, 4]. There remains a widespread belief that these trienoic fatty acids might have some crucial role in plants to be of such universal occurrence, especially in photosynthesis tolerance of temperature [5].

  17. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  18. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  19. Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the Japanese Black and Limousin cattle breeds (Short communication). NOM Tshipuliso, LJ Alexander, TW Geary, VM Snelling, DC Rule, JE Koltes, BE Mote, MD MacNeil ...

  20. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty acids changes of baby food fat by γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflaki, F.; Matloubi, H.; Ahmadi, M. A. A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a mutual protection when mixtures of components irradiated together, so experimental investigation is necessary for determination of the effects that actually occur in different class of nutrients in formulated foods. This work is concerned with the effect of γ irradiated on fatty acids content of a formulated baby food fat and the results is compared with changes of fatty acids in irradiated whole foods. Irradiation was performed with a gamma cell (Co-60) at dose levels of 0.5, 1.5, 6, 10, 30, 45 kGy at room temperature and in the presence of air. The samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that destruction of fatty acids in this formulated food is reasonably less than fatty acids of whole foods fat

  2. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-23

    Agilent Auto Analyzer 7683 B series, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, Calif, USA) into ..... laboratory facilities and financial support. ... supplementation on fatty acid composition and gene expression in adipose tissue of growing ...

  3. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  4. Comparison of fatty acid profile of wild and farm reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lingam

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... brooders for broodstock diet formulation. Paramaraj Balamurugan. 1 ... Of these, saturated fatty acids dominate over the mono- unsaturated (MUFA) ..... and formation of central nervous system in embryo (Cavalli et al., 1999).

  5. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  7. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Ryall, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation/inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) is believed to be the principal pathway regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, during exercise AMPK activity and ACC Ser-221 phosphorylation does not always correlate...... with rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contraction-stimulated fatty acid oxidation utilizing transgenic mice expressing a muscle-specific kinase...... dead (KD) AMPK alpha2. In wild-type (WT) mice, AICAR and contraction increased AMPK alpha2 and alpha1 activities, the phosphorylation of ACC2 and rates of fatty acid oxidation while tending to reduce malonyl-CoA levels. Despite no activation of AMPK in KD mice, ACC2 phosphorylation was maintained...

  8. Micronutrients, Essential Fatty Acids and Bone Health in Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdas, Serwet; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Hollak, Carla E M; van der Lee, J Hanneke; Bisschop, Peter H; Vaz, Fred M; Ter Horst, Nienke M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Bosch, Annet M

    2017-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), a natural protein-restricted dietary treatment prevents severe cognitive impairment. Nutrient deficiencies may occur due to strict diet. This study is aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients and essential fatty acids (FA), bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture history in patients on long-term dietary treatment. Sixty early diagnosed Dutch patients (aged 1-39 years) were included in a multi-center cross-sectional study. Their dietary intake, blood concentrations of micronutrients, FA, fracture history and BMD were assessed. Selenium dietary intake and serum concentrations were low in 14 and 46% of patients, respectively. The serum 25-OH vitamin D2 + D3 concentration was low in 14% of patients while 20% of patients had a low vitamin D intake. Zinc serum concentrations were below normal in 14% of patients, despite adequate intake. Folic acid serum concentrations and intake were elevated. Despite safe total protein and fat intake, arginine plasma concentrations and erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid were below reference values in 19 and 6% of patients, respectively. Low BMD (Z-score <-2) was slightly more prevalent in patients, but the lifetime fracture prevalence was comparable to the general population. Dutch patients with PKU on long-term dietary treatment have a near normal nutrient status. Supplementation of micronutrients of which deficiency may be deleterious (e.g., vitamin D and selenium) should be considered. BMD warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Fatty acids identified in the Burmese python promote beneficial cardiac growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cecilia A; Magida, Jason A; Harrison, Brooke C; Wall, Christopher E; Marr, Thomas G; Secor, Stephen M; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2011-10-28

    Burmese pythons display a marked increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of physiological signal transduction pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of superoxide dismutase, a cardioprotective enzyme. We also identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice.

  10. Selective remodeling of cardiolipin fatty acids in the aged rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapoport Stanley I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart is rich in cardiolipin, a phospholipid acylated in four sites, predominately with linoleic acid. Whether or not aging alters the composition of cardiolipin acyl chains is controversial. We therefore measured the fatty acid concentration of cardiolipin in hearts of 4, 12 and 24 month old rats that consumed one diet, adequate in fatty acids for the duration of their life. Results The concentration (nmol/g of linoleic acid was decreased in 24 month old rats (3965 ± 617, mean ± SD vs 4 month old rats (5525 ± 656, while the concentrations of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in 24 month old rats (79 ± 9 vs 178 ± 27 and 104 ± 16 vs 307 ± 68 for arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, 4 months vs 24 months, respectively. Similar changes were not observed in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids or plasma unesterified fatty acids, suggesting specificity of these effects to cardiolipin. Conclusion These results demonstrate that cardiolipin remodeling occurs with aging, specifically an increase in highly unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Functional alteration of breast muscle fatty acid profile by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast muscle fatty acid (FA) profile was studied in broiler chickens fed at different levels of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios in 4 treatment groups; very high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VH), high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (H), low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (L), very low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VL) and control, respectively.

  12. Physicochemical characterization and fatty acid content of 'venadillo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From physicochemical oil evaluations, an oil density of 0.9099 mg∙ml-1 at 28°C; a refraction index of 1.4740 at 20°C; a saponification index of 159.55 mg KOH∙g-1; a peroxide index of 0.739 meq O2∙kg-1, and 0.367% free fatty acid content were shown. From chromatographic oil evaluations, eight fatty acids were identified ...

  13. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    acetyl- cholinesterase inhibitors have been developed, many with femtomolar binding affinities (7). This body of literature also confirms that the...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for...May 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Revised Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 May 2009-30 Apr 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for

  14. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    compounds. For example, numerous classes of acetyl- cholinesterase inhibitors have been developed, m any with fe mtomolar binding affinities (7). This...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for...CONTRACT NUMBER Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0204 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  15. Effects of commercial enrichment products on fatty acid components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... 3050 (ZB) and Spresso (ZC) on fatty acid compositions in rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were intensively ... docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ratio of n–3/n–6 in enriched rotifers groups were higher (p < 0.05). The level of ...... acid profiles and bacterial load in cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis ...

  16. Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jason H.Y.; Marklund, Matti; Imamura, Fumiaki; Tintle, Nathan; Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Goede, de Janette; Zhou, Xia; Yang, Wei Sin; Oliveira Otto, de Marcia C.; Kröger, Janine; Qureshi, Waqas; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Bassett, Julie K.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Lankinen, Maria; Murphy, Rachel A.; Rajaobelina, Kalina; Gobbo, Del Liana C.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Kalsbeek, Anya; Veenstra, Jenna; Luo, Juhua; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Hung Ju; Siscovick, David S.; Boeing, Heiner; Chen, Tzu An; Steffen, Brian; Steffen, Lyn M.; Hodge, Allison; Eriksdottir, Gudny; Smith, Albert V.; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Berr, Claudine; Helmer, Catherine; Samieri, Cecilia; Laakso, Markku; Tsai, Michael Y.; Giles, Graham G.; Nurmi, Tarja; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Schulze, Matthias B.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chien, Kuo Liong; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Sun, Qi; Harris, William S.; Lind, Lars; Ärnlöv, Johan; Riserus, Ulf; Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Background: The metabolic effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remain contentious, and little evidence is available regarding their potential role in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the associations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers with

  17. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication

  18. Importance of medium chain fatty acids in animal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, B.; Starčević, M.; Đorđević, J.; Mrdović, B.; Marković, R.

    2017-09-01

    Fats in animal and human nutrition are a common subject of research. These studies most often pay attention to particular fat groups (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fats or fats grouped by the length of their fatty acid chains into short, medium or long chain fatty acids). Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have two main sources: milk and coconut oil. To date, research has shown these acids have positive effects on health, production, feed digestibility and lower body and muscle fats in broilers and swine. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. Nowadays, commercial MCFA products are available for use in animal nutrition as feed additives.

  19. Fatty acid analysis of Erwinia amylovora from Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ivanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated method of fatty acid analysis was used to identify and study heterogeneity of 41 Erwinia amylovora strains, originating from 8 plant species grown in 13 locations in Serbia and one in Montenegro. All strains contained 14:0 3OH fatty acid,characteristic for the “amylovora” group. According to fatty acid composition 39 strains were identified as E. amylovora as the first choice from the database. Due to their specific fatty acid composition, two strains were identified as E. amylovora, but as a second choice. Fatty acid analysis also showed that E. amylovora population from Serbia could be differentiated in three groups, designated in this study as α, β and γ. All strains originating from central or south Serbia, as well as four strains from north Serbia clustered into group α. Group β and γ contained only strains isolated in northern Serbia (Vojvodina. The results show that E. amylovora population in this area is heterogeneous and indicate pathogen introduction from different directions. Fatty acid analysis enabled identificationat species level, as well as new insights of heterogeneity of E. amylovora population.

  20. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat.These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  1. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  2. Lowering dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: interaction with brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashmali, Shoug M; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the brain, where they have many biological effects, including on inflammation, cell-signaling, appetite regulation, and blood flow. The Western diet contains a high ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFA. Although interest in lowering this ratio has largely focused on increasing intake of n-3 PUFA, few studies have examined lowering dietary n-6 PUFA. This review will evaluate the effect of lowering dietary n-6 PUFA on levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in animal models and in humans, with a primary focus on the brain. In animal models, lowering dietary ARA or linoleic acid generally lowers levels of brain ARA and raises DHA. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA can also modulate the levels of ARA and DHA metabolizing enzymes, as well as their associated bioactive mediators. Human studies examining changes in plasma fatty acid composition following n-6 PUFA lowering demonstrate no changes in levels of ARA and DHA, though there is evidence of alterations in their respective bioactive mediators. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA, in animal models, can alter the levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in the brain, but it remains to be determined whether these changes are clinically meaningful.

  3. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, JP; Ford, TJ; Kim, SN; Chen, AM; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2013-07-09

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4-12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even-and odd-chain-length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired.

  4. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P.; Ford, Tyler J.; Kim, Scott N.; Chen, Amanda M.; Way, Jeffrey C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4–12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even- and odd-chain–length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired. PMID:23798438

  5. Processing and fatty acid acylation of RAS1 and RAS2 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, A.; Tamanoi, F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the pathway for the biosynthesis of RAS1 and RAS2 gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae leading to their localization in membranes. The primary translation products of these genes are detected in a soluble fraction. Shortly after synthesis, these precursor molecules are converted to forms that migrate slightly faster than the precursor forms on a NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel. These processed proteins are further modified by fatty acid acylation, which is detected by [ 3 H]palmitic acid labeling. The acylated derivatives are found exclusively in cell membranes, indicating the translocation of the RAS proteins from cytosol to membranes during maturation process. The attached fatty acids can be released by mild alkaline hydrolysis, suggesting that the linkage between the fatty acid and the protein is an ester bond. The site of the modification by fatty acid is presumably localized to the COOH-terminal portion of the RAS proteins. Fraction of the membranes by sucrose gradient demonstrates that a majority of the fatty-acylated RAS proteins are localized in plasma membrane

  6. Mass spectrometry profiling reveals altered plasma levels of monohydroxy fatty acids and related lipids in healthy humans after controlled exposure to biodiesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Unosson, Jon; Sehlstedt, Maria; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Nording, Malin L

    2018-08-14

    Experimental human exposure studies are an effective tool to study adverse health effects from acute inhalation of particulate matter and other constituents of air pollution. In this randomized and double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the systemic effect on bioactive lipid metabolite levels after controlled biodiesel exhaust exposure of healthy humans and compared it to filtered air at a separate exposure occasion. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins, as well as endocannabinoids and related lipids, were quantified in plasma from 14 healthy volunteers at baseline and at three subsequent time points (2, 6, and 24 h) after 1 h exposure sessions. Protocols based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods were developed to detect temporal changes in circulating levels after biodiesel exhaust exposure. The exhaust was generated by a diesel engine fed with an undiluted rapeseed methyl ester fuel. Among the 51 analyzed lipid metabolites, PGF 2α , 9,10-DiHOME, 9-HODE, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE, and DEA displayed significant responsiveness to the biodiesel exhaust exposure as opposed to filtered air. Of these, 9-HODE and 5-HETE at 24 h survived the 10% false discovery rate cutoff (p emphasis on metabolites with inflammation related properties and implications on cardiovascular health and disease. These observations aid future investigations on air pollution effects, especially with regard to cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of body condition and bovine somatotropin on estrous behavior, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum somatotropin and plasma fatty acids in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R; Looper, M L; Rorie, R W; Lamb, M A; Reiter, S T; Hallford, D M; Kreider, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2007-05-01

    Ninety-nine multiparous Brahman-influenced (1/4 to 3/8 Brahman) cows were managed to achieve low (BCS = 4.3 +/- 0.1; n = 50) or moderate (BCS = 6.1 +/- 0.1; n = 49) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of bovine somatotropin (bST) on estrous characteristics, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum GH and plasma NEFA. Beginning 32 d postpartum, cows within each BC were assigned randomly to treatment with or without bST. Non-bST-treated cows received no treatment, and treated cows were administered bST (Posilac, 500 mg s.c.) on d -35, -21, and -7 before initiation of the breeding season. On d -7, all cows received an intravaginal, controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) device. On d 0 (initiation of the 70-d breeding season), the CIDR were removed and cows received prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Blood samples were collected from the median caudal vein of the cows at each bST treatment and at d -28 and 0. Estrous behavior was monitored by radiotelemetry during the first 30 d of the breeding season. Growth hormone was increased (P conception rate tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for bST-low BC cows than non-bST-treated cows in low or moderate BC. On d 0, NEFA were greater (P conception rate during the first 30 d of breeding and pregnancy rates during the first 3 d of breeding in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows.

  8. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia: the EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very high triglyceridEs (EVOLVE) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, John J. P.; Maki, Kevin C.; Susekov, Andrey; Ezhov, Marat; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Machielse, Ben N.; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms. The aim was to evaluate the safety and lipid-altering efficacy in subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia of an investigational pharmaceutical

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Qawasmi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with unaffected controls. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and…

  10. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are essential components of biological membranes or act as precursors for eicosanoid formation, in case of the 20 carbon atom fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, dihomo-c-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. During pregnancy LC-PUFA are enriched in the fetal circulation relative to maternal plasma. The corresponding placental processes have not been fully elucidated so far, but there are good indications that the LC-PUFA enrichment during the materno-fetal transfer is mediated by differences in the incorporation into lipid classes within the placenta between fatty acids and that specific fatty acid binding and transfer proteins are of major importance. In vitro a plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein could be identified, which preferentially binds DHA and AA compared to linoleic and oleic acids; in addition the m-RNA expression of fatty acid transfer protein 4 (FATP-4 in placental tissue was found to correlate significantly with the DHA percentage in cord blood phospholipids. After birth the percentage of LC-PUFA in infantile blood rapidly declines to levels depending on the dietary LC-PUFA supply, although preterm and full-term babies can convert linoleic and _-linolenic acids into AA and DHA, respectively. Breast milk provides preformed LC-PUFA, and breastfed infants have higher LC-PUFA levels in plasma and tissue than infants fed formulas without LC-PUFA. The high percentage of DHA in brain and other nervous tissue and the fact that the perinatal period is a period of fast brain growth suggests the importance of placental DHA transfer and dietary DHA content for optimal infantile development. Most but not all randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials in preterm and in healthy full term infants demonstrated benefits of formulas supplemented with DHA and AA for the neurological development compared to formulas without LC-PUFA. Furthermore

  11. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent that crop derived biofuels will not be sufficient to satisfy future energy demands. Thus, especially in the last decade a lot of research has focused on the production of next generation biofuels. A major subject of these investigations has been the microbial fatty acid biosynthesis with the aim to produce fatty acids or derivatives for substitution of diesel. As an industrially important organism and with the best studied microbial fatty acid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli has been chosen as producer in many of these studies and several reviews have been published in the fields of E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis or biofuels. However, most reviews discuss only one of these topics in detail, despite the fact, that a profound understanding of the involved enzymes and their regulation is necessary for efficient genetic engineering of the entire pathway. The first part of this review aims at summarizing the knowledge about fatty acid biosynthesis of E. coli and its regulation, and it provides the connection towards the production of fatty acids and related biofuels. The second part gives an overview about the achievements by genetic engineering of the fatty acid biosynthesis towards the production of next generation biofuels. Finally, the actual importance and potential of fatty acid-based biofuels will be discussed. PMID:24405789

  12. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  13. Molecular characterization of an enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty-acid amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravatt, B F; Giang, D K; Mayfield, S P; Boger, D L; Lerner, R A; Gilula, N B

    1996-11-07

    Endogenous neuromodulatory molecules are commonly coupled to specific metabolic enzymes to ensure rapid signal inactivation. Thus, acetylcholine is hydrolysed by acetylcholine esterase and tryptamine neurotransmitters like serotonin are degraded by monoamine oxidases. Previously, we reported the structure and sleep-inducing properties of cis-9-octadecenamide, a lipid isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats. cis-9-Octadecenamide, or oleamide, has since been shown to affect serotonergic systems and block gap-junction communication in glial cells (our unpublished results). We also identified a membrane-bound enzyme activity that hydrolyses oleamide to its inactive acid, oleic acid. We now report the mechanism-based isolation, cloning and expression of this enzyme activity, originally named oleamide hydrolase, from rat liver plasma membranes. We also show that oleamide hydrolase converts anandamide, a fatty-acid amide identified as the endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor, to arachidonic acid, indicating that oleamide hydrolase may serve as the general inactivating enzyme for a growing family of bioactive signalling molecules, the fatty-acid amides. Therefore we will hereafter refer to oleamide hydrolase as fatty-acid amide hydrolase, in recognition of the plurality of fatty-acid amides that the enzyme can accept as substrates.

  14. Effect of impaired fatty acid oxidation on myocardial kinetics of 11C- and 123I-labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with palmitate 11 C and single photon imaging with terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogues (FFA 123 I) were evaluated for the noninvasive assessment of regional myocardial fatty acid metabolism during ischaemia. Decreased uptake of tracer and delayed clearance of activity in the ischaemic myocardium were reported for both 11 C- and 123 I-labelled compounds. However, since during ischaemia both myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism are reduced concomitantly, either factor can be responsible for the changes observed. Experimental preparations in which fatty acid metabolism can be modified independently of flow are helpful for the characterization of the relationship between metabolism and myocardial kinetics of labelled fatty acids. Results obtained during flow-independent inhibition of fatty acid oxidation include the following observations: - In dogs with controlled coronary perfusion the rate of clearance of palmitate 11 C-activity is decreased during diminished delivery of oxygen, regardless of whether myocardial perfusion is concomitantly reduced or not. - In isolated rabbit hearts perfused at normal flow, the extraction of FFA 123 I is decreased during hypoxia. - During pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid oxidation the deiodination of FFA 123 I is markedly reduced in rat hearts in vivo and in vitro. (orig.)

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1970-01-01

    - 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2....... A wide range (C4:0–C18:0) of fatty acids was synthesised and the proportions were modified by substrate concentrations in the same manner as for purified rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase. - 3. The relative amount of radioactivity incorporated from added acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA depended...... of long-chain fatty acids was synthesised from carboxylated acetyl-CoA than from added malonyl-CoA. - 5. It is suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase may carboxylate acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase....

  16. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  17. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with severe fat malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    Essential fatty acid deficiency is commonly described in patients receiving parenteral nutrition, but the occurrence in patients with severe fat malabsorption not receiving parenteral nutrition is uncertain. One hundred twelve patients were grouped according to their degree of fat malabsorption......: group 1, 50% (n = 15). Fecal fat was measured by the method of Van de Kamer the last 2 of 5 d of a 75-g fat diet. Serum fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were measured by gas-liquid chromatography after separation...... by thin-layer chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids. The concentration of linoleic acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 21.7%, 19.4%, 16.4%, and 13.4% respectively (P acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 0.4%, 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.3%, respectively...

  18. Biooxidation of fatty acid distillates to dibasic acids by a mutant of Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Nandi, Sumit; Ghosh, Santinath

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid distillates (FADs) produced during physical refining of vegetable oil contains large amount of free fatty acid. A mutant of Candida tropicalis (M20) obtained after several stages of UV mutation are utilized to produce dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) from the fatty acid distillates of rice bran, soybean, coconut, palm kernel and palm oil. Initially, fermentation study was carried out in shake flasks for 144 h. Products were isolated and identified by GLC analysis. Finally, fermentation was carried out in a 2 L jar fermenter, which yielded 62 g/L and 48 g/L of total dibasic acids from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate and coconut oil fatty acid distillate respectively. FADs can be effectively utilized to produce DCAs of various chain lengths by biooxidation process.

  19. Fatty acids measured in plasma and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipids and derived by food-frequency questionnaire and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes a pilot study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, P.S.; Sharp, S.J.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence for the association between types of fatty acid and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent This may in part be due to the limitations of fatty acid measurement methods Objective The objective was to use 3 different measures of fatty acid to estimate the prospective

  20. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-10-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  1. Impact of diesel exhaust exposure on the liver of mice fed on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Masakazu; Nakamura, Masayuki; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf A; Onoda, Atsuto; Shaheen, Hazem M; Hori, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yusuke; El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Far, Ali H; Takeda, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and may systemically affect lipid metabolism. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation, but many daily diets are deficient in this nutrient. Therefore, the effect of DE exposure in mice fed n-3 PUFA-deficient diet was investigated. Mice were fed control chow or n-3 PUFA-deficient diet for 4 weeks, then exposed to clean air or DE by inhalation for further 4 weeks. Liver histology, plasma parameters, and expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes were evaluated. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet increased hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and expression of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis: Acaca, Acacb, and Scd1. DE further increased the plasma leptin and the expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes: Acacb, Fasn, and Scd1. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet and DE exposure potentially enhanced hepatic fatty acid synthesis and subsequently accumulation of lipid droplets. The combination of low-dose DE exposure and intake of n-3 PUFA-deficient diet may be an additional risk factor for the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study suggests an important mechanism for preventing toxicity of DE on the liver through the incorporation of n-3 PUFAs in the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  3. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA, a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA. We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA.

  4. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocatio