WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma disruption

  1. Plasma current asymmetries during disruptions in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, S. N.; Hender, T. C.; Morris, J.; Riccardo, V.; Zakharov, L. E.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-07-01

    A key feature of disruptions during vertical displacement events, discovered in JET in 1996, is the toroidal variation in the measured plasma current Ip, i.e. the plasma current asymmetries, lasting for almost the entire current quench. The unique magnetic diagnostics at JET (full set of poloidal coils and saddle loops recorded either from two toroidally opposite or from four toroidally orthogonal locations) allow for a comprehensive analysis of asymmetrical disruptions with a large scale database. This paper presents an analysis of 4854 disruptions over an 18 year period that includes both the JET carbon (C) wall and the ITER-like (IL) wall (a mixed beryllium/tungsten first wall). In spite of the Ip quench time significantly increasing for the IL-wall compared to C-wall disruptions, the observed toroidal asymmetry time integral (˜ sideways force impulse), did not increase for IL-wall disruptions. The Ip asymmetry has a dominantly n = 1 structure. Its motion in the toroidal direction has a sporadic behaviour, in general. The distributions of the number of rotation periods are found to be very similar for both C- and IL-wall disruptions, and multi-turn rotation was sometimes observed. The Ip asymmetry amplitude has no degradation with rotation frequency for either the C- or IL-wall disruption. Therefore dynamic amplification remains a potentially serious issue for ITER due to possible mechanical resonance of the machine components with the rotating asymmetry.

  2. Characterization of plasma current quench during disruption in EAST tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大龙; 沈飙; 杨飞; 钱金平; 肖炳甲

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of plasma current quench is presented in this paper based on the disruption database. It demon-strates that 26.8%discharges have disrupted in the last 2012 campaign, in addition, plasma disruptive rate grows with the increase of plasma current. Best-fit linear and instantaneous plasma current quench rate is extracted from the recent EAST disruptions, showing that 80%–30%interval of the maximum plasma current is well fit for EAST device. The lowest area-normalized current quench time is 3.33 ms/m2 with the estimated plasma electron temperature being 7.3 eV∼9.5 eV. In the disruption case the maximum eddy current goes up to 400 kA, and a fraction of currents are respectively driven on upper and lower outer plate with nearly 100 MPa–200 MPa stress in the leg.

  3. Effect of plasma disruption on superconducting magnet in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junjun, E-mail: lijunjun73@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei (China); Wang, Qiuliang [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Li, Jiangang; Wu, Yu; Qian, Jing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei (China)

    2013-10-15

    For the safe operation of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with higher plasma performance discharge in future, it is important to study the effect of plasma disruption on central solenoid (CS) coils. The outlet temperature rise of CS1-6 coils measured in experiment is analyzed. It is found that the outlet temperature rise of CS1-6 coils caused by plasma disruption cannot be observed in experimental data, because the effect of plasma disruption on outlet of CS coils is a small value, and the discretization error of experimental data is bigger than this value. In addition, the maximum temperature of CS coils during the plasma discharge is simulated by SAITOKPF code, and it appears that the maximum temperature of CS coils increases a little in the plasma disruption, but the temperature rise is a small quantity.

  4. Control of disruption-generated runaway plasmas in TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Bell, M. G.; Taylor, G.; Medley, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Many disruptions in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) (Meade and the TFTR Group 1991 Proc. Int. Conf. on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (Washington, DC, 1990) vol 1 (Vienna: IAEA) pp 9-24) produced populations of runaway electrons which carried a significant fraction of the original plasma current. In this paper, we describe experiments where, following a disruption of a low-beta, reversed-shear plasma, currents of up to 1 MA carried mainly by runaway electrons were controlled and then ramped down to near zero using the ohmic transformer. In the longer lasting runaway plasmas, events resembling Parail-Pogutse instabilities were observed.

  5. Disruption avoidance through active magnetic feedback in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Zanca, Paolo; Yanovskiy, Vadim; Finotti, Claudio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Piron, Chiara; Carraro, Lorella; Franz, Paolo; RFX Team

    2014-10-01

    Disruptions avoidance and mitigation is a fundamental need for a fusion relevant tokamak. In this paper a new experimental approach for disruption avoidance using active magnetic feedback is presented. This scheme has been implemented and tested on the RFX-mod device operating as a circular tokamak. RFX-mod has a very complete system designed for active mode control that has been proved successful for the stabilization of the Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs). In particular the current driven 2/1 mode, unstable when the edge safety factor, qa, is around (or even less than) 2, has been shown to be fully and robustly stabilized. However, at values of qa (qa > 3), the control of the tearing 2/1 mode has been proved difficult. These results suggested the idea to prevent disruptions by suddenly lowering qa to values around 2 where the tearing 2/1 is converted to a RWM. Contrary to the universally accepted idea that the tokamaks should disrupt at low qa, we demonstrate that in presence of a well designed active control system, tokamak plasmas can be driven to low qa actively stabilized states avoiding plasma disruption with practically no loss of the plasma internal energy.

  6. Plasma disruption prediction using machine learning methods: DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupin-Jimenez, L.; Kolemen, E.; Eldon, D.; Eidietis, N.

    2016-10-01

    Plasma disruption prediction is becoming more important with the development of larger tokamaks, due to the larger amount of thermal and magnetic energy that can be stored. By accurately predicting an impending disruption, the disruption's impact can be mitigated or, better, prevented. Recent approaches to disruption prediction have been through implementation of machine learning methods, which characterize raw and processed diagnostic data to develop accurate prediction models. Using disruption trials from the DIII-D database, the effectiveness of different machine learning methods are characterized. Developed real time disruption prediction approaches are focused on tearing and locking modes. Machine learning methods used include random forests, multilayer perceptrons, and traditional regression analysis. The algorithms are trained with data within short time frames, and whether or not a disruption occurs within the time window after the end of the frame. Initial results from the machine learning algorithms will be presented. Work supported by US DOE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. 3D MHD disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Strauss, Hank; Breslau, Joshua

    2008-11-01

    Tokamaks Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model, implemented in the M3D code [1], is completed with the presence of a 2D homogeneous wall with finite resistivity. This allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magneto-hydro-dynamical perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this work, the main drive of the disruptions. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given. [1] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X.Z. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 1796.

  8. Mechanisms of plasma disruption and runaway electron losses in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaev, S S; Wongrach, K; Tokar, M; Koslowski, H R; Willi, O; Zeng, L

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of data from the numerous dedicated experiments on plasma disruptions in the TEXTOR tokamak mechanisms of the formation of runaway electron beams and their losses are proposed. The plasma disruption is caused by strong stochastic magnetic field formed due to nonlinearly excited low-mode number MHD modes. It is hypothesized that the runaway electron beam is formed in the central plasma region confined inside the intact magnetic surface located between $q=1$ and the closest low--order rational [$q=4/3$ or $q=3/2$] magnetic surfaces. The thermal quench time caused by the fast electron transport in a stochastic magnetic field is calculated using the collisional transport model. The current decay stage is due to the ambipolar particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. The runaway electron beam in the confined plasma region is formed due to their acceleration the inductive toroidal electric field. The runaway electron beam current is modeled as a sum of toroidally symmetric part and a ...

  9. Linear MHD stability analysis of post-disruption plasmas in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleynikova, K.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Aleynikov, P.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the plasma current can be replaced by a runaway electron (RE) current during plasma disruptions in ITER. In this case the post-disruption plasma current profile is likely to be more peaked than the pre-disruption profile. The MHD activity of such plasma will affect the runaway electron generation and confinement and the dynamics of the plasma position evolution (Vertical Displacement Event), limiting the timeframe for runaway electrons and disruption mitigation. In the present paper, we evaluate the influence of the possible RE seed current parameters on the onset of the MHD instabilities. By varying the RE seed current profile, we search for subsequent plasma evolutions with the highest and the lowest MHD activity. This information can be applied to a development of desirable ITER disruption scenario.

  10. Establishment and Assessment of Plasma Disruption and Warning Databases from EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Robert, Granetz; Xiao, Bingjia; Li, Jiangang; Yang, Fei; Li, Junjun; Chen, Dalong

    2016-12-01

    Disruption database and disruption warning database of the EAST tokamak had been established by a disruption research group. The disruption database, based on Structured Query Language (SQL), comprises 41 disruption parameters, which include current quench characteristics, EFIT equilibrium characteristics, kinetic parameters, halo currents, and vertical motion. Presently most disruption databases are based on plasma experiments of non-superconducting tokamak devices. The purposes of the EAST database are to find disruption characteristics and disruption statistics to the fully superconducting tokamak EAST, to elucidate the physics underlying tokamak disruptions, to explore the influence of disruption on superconducting magnets and to extrapolate toward future burning plasma devices. In order to quantitatively assess the usefulness of various plasma parameters for predicting disruptions, a similar SQL database to Alcator C-Mod for EAST has been created by compiling values for a number of proposed disruption-relevant parameters sampled from all plasma discharges in the 2015 campaign. The detailed statistic results and analysis of two databases on the EAST tokamak are presented. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2014GB103000)

  11. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  12. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  13. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions.

  14. Electromagnetic Analysis For The Design Of ITER Diagnostic Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Y

    2014-03-03

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to plasma. The design of diagnotic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate response of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs). Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  15. Electromagnetic Analysis of ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Zhai, R. Feder, A. Brooks, M. Ulrickson, C.S. Pitcher and G.D. Loesser

    2012-08-27

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functionsincluding structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs), Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  16. FAR-TECH's Nanoparticle Plasma Jet System and its Application to Disruptions, Deep Fueling, and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    Hyper-velocity plasma jets have potential applications in tokamaks for disruption mitigation, deep fueling and diagnostics. Pulsed power based solid-state sources and plasma accelerators offer advantages of rapid response and mass delivery at high velocities. Fast response is critical for some disruption mitigation scenario needs, while high velocity is especially important for penetration into tokamak plasma and its confining magnetic field, as in the case of deep fueling. FAR-TECH is developing the capability of producing large-mass hyper-velocity plasma jets. The prototype solid-state source has produced: 1) >8.4 mg of H2 gas only, and 2) >25 mg of H2 and >180 mg of C60 in a H2/C60 gas mixture. Using a coaxial plasma gun coupled to the source, we have successfully demonstrated the acceleration of composite H/C60 plasma jets, with momentum as high as 0.6 g.km/s, and containing an estimated C60 mass of ˜75 mg. We present the status of FAR-TECH's nanoparticle plasma jet system and discuss its application to disruptions, deep fueling, and diagnostics. A new TiH2/C60 solid-state source capable of generating significantly higher quantities of H2 and C60 in <0.5 ms will be discussed.

  17. Interplay between intrinsic plasma rotation and magnetic island evolution in disruptive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, G.; Severo, J. H. F.; Salzedas, F.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Sanada, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    The behavior of the intrinsic toroidal rotation of the plasma column during the growth and eventual saturation of m/ n = 2/1 magnetic islands, triggered by programmed density rise, has been carefully investigated in disruptive discharges in TCABR. The results show that, as the island starts to grow and rotate at a speed larger than that of the plasma column, the angular frequency of the intrinsic toroidal rotation increases and that of the island decreases, following the expectation of synchronization. As the island saturates at a large size, just before a major disruption, the angular speed of the intrinsic rotation decreases quite rapidly, even though the island keeps still rotating at a reduced speed. This decrease of the toroidal rotation is quite reproducible and can be considered as an indicative of disruption.

  18. Non-Axisymmetric Disruption SOL Current Measurement In DIII-D Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Joshua; Hanson, J.; Navratil, G.; Bialek, J.

    2016-10-01

    J. Cabrera, J. Hanson, G. Navratil, J. Bialek, Columbia U-During tokamak disruptions known as vertical displacement events (VDEs) currents which flow between the plasma core and plasma facing components can reach nearly 20% of the total plasma current. These scrape off layer (SOL) currents are thought to affect the dynamics of plasma disruption. We have made use of an array of tile current monitors installed on the DIII-D tokamak to perform low toroidal mode number (n VDEs. In all cases examined (over 30 shots) currents exhibited toroidal asymmetry with toroidal peaking factor 2. Strong initial peaking in n=1 current measurements are correlated with n=1 magnetic fluctuations during VDEs. Following the peak SOL current and after observation of the final last closed flux surface (LCFS), n=1 mode activity 20% of n=0 peak amplitude persists for 10ms. Predictions from the VALEN-IVB simulation code utilizing current profile reconstructions from magnetic sensor array measurements will be compared with SOL current measurements. Possible effects of these SOL currents on plasma dynamics during disruption are considered. Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  19. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs during plasma disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Y., E-mail: yzhai@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Feder, R.; Brooks, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ulrickson, M. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitcher, C.S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul lez Durance (France); Loesser, G.D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Disruption loads on ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs are extracted. ► Upward major disruption produces the largest radial moment and radial force on diagnostic first walls and diagnostic shield modules. ► Large eddy currents on supporting rails, keys and water pipes are observed during disruption. -- Abstract: ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the diagnostic first walls (DFWs), diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  20. 3D MHD VDE and disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas including some ITER scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, R.; Strauss, H. R.; Breslau, J.

    2009-03-01

    Tokamaks vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model is completed with the presence of a 2D wall with finite resistivity which allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magnetic perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this paper, the main drive of the disruption evolution. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given.

  1. Forcast of TEXT plasma disruptions using soft X-rays as input signal in a neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucci, A.; Oliveira, K.A.; Tajima, T.

    1998-03-03

    A feed-forward neural network with two hidden layers is used in this work to forecast major and minor disruptive instabilities in TEXT discharges. Using soft X-ray signals as input data, the neural net is trained with one disruptive plasma pulse, and a different disruptive discharge is used for validation. After being properly trained the networks, with the same set of weights. is then used to forecast disruptions in two others different plasma pulses. It is observed that the neural net is able to predict the incoming of a disruption more than 3 ms in advance. This time interval is almost three times longer than the one already obtained previously when magnetic signal from a Mirnov coil was used to feed the neural networks with. To our own eye we fail to see any indication of an upcoming disruption from the experimental data this far back from the time of disruption. Finally, from what we observe in the predictive behavior of our network, speculations are made whether the disruption triggering mechanism would be associated to an increase of the m = 2 magnetic island, that disturbs the central part of the plasma column afterwards or, in face of the results from this work, the initial perturbation would have occurred first in the central part of the plasma column, within the q = 1 magnetic surface, and then the m = 2 MHD mode would be destabilized afterwards.

  2. Electric disruption in a hydrogen toroidal plasma; Ruptura eletrica em um plasma toroidal em hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, M. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, C.A.B. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica

    1990-12-31

    By using a zero-dimensional model the ionizing initial phase of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated. The model consists on describing the plasma time evolution through the density and particle temperature space averaged on the plasma volume. The involved equations are energy and particles balance equations (electrons and ions). The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss is due to ionizing, processes of Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating transformer gives a initial voltage necessary to the breaking 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Mechanism of runaway electron beam formation during plasma disruptions in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaev, S S; Wongrach, K; Tokar, M; Koslowski, H R; Willi, O; Zeng, L

    2015-01-01

    A new physical mechanism of the formation of runaway electron (RE) beams during plasma disruptions in tokamaks is proposed. The plasma disruption is caused by strong stochastic magnetic field formed due to nonlinearly excited low-mode number magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. It is conjectured that the runaway electron beam is formed in the central plasma region confined inside the intact magnetic surface located between $q=1$ and the closest low--order rational magnetic surfaces [$q=3/2$, $q=4/3$, \\dots]. It results in that runaway electron beam current has a helical nature with a predominant $m/n=1/1$ component. The thermal quench and current decay times are estimated using the collisional models for electron diffusion and ambipolar particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field, respectively. Possible mechanisms of the decay of runaway electron current due to an outward drift electron orbits and resonance interaction of high--energy electrons with the $m/n=1/1$ MHD mode are discussed.

  4. Interpretation of machine-learning-based disruption models for plasma control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew S.

    2017-08-01

    While machine learning techniques have been applied within the context of fusion for predicting plasma disruptions in tokamaks, they are typically interpreted with a simple ‘yes/no’ prediction or perhaps a probability forecast. These techniques take input signals, which could be real-time signals from machine diagnostics, to make a prediction of whether a transient event will occur. A major criticism of these methods is that, due to the nature of machine learning, there is no clear correlation between the input signals and the output prediction result. Here is proposed a simple method that could be applied to any existing prediction model to determine how sensitive the state of a plasma is at any given time with respect to the input signals. This is accomplished by computing the gradient of the decision function, which effectively identifies the quickest path away from a disruption as a function of the input signals and therefore could be used in a plasma control setting to avoid them. A numerical example is provided for illustration based on a support vector machine model, and the application to real data is left as an open opportunity.

  5. Characterization of the plasma current quench during disruptions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, S.P., Menard, J.E., and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-12-17

    A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change.

  6. Development of non-axisymmetric structures during MHD disruptions in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Strauss, H. R.; Breslau, Joshua

    2009-11-01

    Recently the problem of 3D simulations of vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions in tokamak plasmas has been addressed [R.Paccagnella, H. Strauss, J. Breslau, Nucl. Fusion 49 (2009) 035003] by using the M3D code, in the relatively ``benign'' cases where the on-axis q is above 1 and vertical plasma movement is mainly driven by a resistive wall mode (RWM) on the time scale of the magnetic field penetration of the conducting wall. In this paper we extend the previous simulations to cases in which the on-axis q is below 1 and the driving mode is an external resistive kink able to drive a reconnection process in the central plasma region. In these cases the disruptions are faster and evolve on the Alfv'en time scale. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents and forces at the wall are calculated in both cases. Comparisons with tokamak experimental data and predictions for ITER are also given.

  7. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  8. First Production of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Study of Disruption Mitigation for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2012-10-01

    Unique fast response and large mass-velocity delivery of nanoparticle plasma jets (NPPJs) provide a novel application for ITER disruption mitigation, runaway electrons diagnostics and deep fueling. NPPJs carry a much larger mass than usual gases. An electromagnetic plasma gun provides a very high injection velocity (many km/s). NPPJ has much higher ram pressure than any standard gas injection method and penetrates the tokamak confining magnetic field. Assimilation is enhanced due to the NP large surface-to-volume ratio. Radially expanding NPPJs help achieving toroidal uniformity of radiation power. FAR-TECH's NPPJ system was successfully tested: a coaxial plasma gun prototype (˜35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge injector produced a hyper-velocity (>4 km/s), high-density (>10^23 m-3), C60 plasma jet in ˜0.5 ms, with ˜1-2 ms overall response-delivery time. We present the TiH2/C60 cartridge injector output characterization (˜180 mg of sublimated C60 gas) and first production results of a high momentum C60 plasma jet (˜0.6 g.km/s).

  9. Real-time Numerical Solution for the Plasma Response Matrix for Disruption Avoidance in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alexander; Kolemen, Egemen; Glasser, A. H.

    2016-10-01

    Real-time analysis of plasma stability is essential to any active feedback control system that performs ideal MHD disruption avoidance. Due to singularities and poor numerical conditioning endemic to ideal MHD models of tokamak plasmas, current state-of-the-art codes require serial operation, and are as yet inoperable on the sub- O (1s) timescale required by ITER's MHD evolution time. In this work, low-toroidal-n ideal MHD modes are found in near real-time as solutions to a well-posed boundary value problem. Using a modified parallel shooting technique and linear methods to subdue numerical instability, such modes are integrated with parallelization across spatial and ``temporal'' parts, via a Riccati approach. The resulting state transition matrix is shown to yield the desired plasma response matrix, which describes how magnetic perturbations may be employed to maintain plasma stability. Such an algorithm may be helpful in designing a control system to achieve ITER's high-performance operational objectives. Sponsored by US DOE under DE-SC0015878 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. Experimental study on electromagnetic interactions between plasmas and a vacuum vessel during disruptions in the Hitachi tokamak HT-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Mitsushi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Fukumoto, Hideshi; Shimizu, Masashi; Otsuka, Michio (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Research Lab.)

    1990-02-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between plasmas and a vacuum vessel during disruptions are examined experimentally in the Hitachi tokamak HT-2. Eddy currents which flow in the toroidal direction and poloidal coil currents are determined from the measured magnetic data. The currents enable calculation of the electromagnetic force on the vacuum vessel and resistively dissipated magnetic energy. Eddy currents and electromagnetic forces are mainly due to the plasma displacement (shell effect), not decay of the plasma current. Large plasma current quench rate -dI{sub p}/dt is associated with scraping of the plasma by the inner limiter through the rapid plasma radial movement, and the decay rate in circular plasma is twice as large as that in elongated plasma. The magnetic energy dissipation is mainly due to the eddy current of the net toroidal current mode which is induced by large current quench rate. (author).

  11. Experimental Study on Electromagnetic Interactions between Plasmas and a Vacuum Vessel during Disruptions in the Hitachi Tokamak HT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsushi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Fukumoto, Hideshi; Shimizu, Masashi; Otsuka, Michio

    1990-02-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between plasmas and a vacuum vessel during disruptions are examined experimentally in the Hitachi tokamak HT-2. Eddy currents which flow in the toroidal direction and poloidal coil currents are determined from the measured magnetic data. The currents enable calculation of the electromagnetic force on the vacuum vessel and resistively dissipated magnetic energy. Eddy currents and electromagnetic forces are mainly due to the plasma displacement (shell effect), not decay of the plasma current. Large plasma current quench rate -dIP/dt is associated with scraping of the plasma by the inner limiter through the rapid plasma radial movement, and the decay rate in circular plasma is twice as large as that in elongated plasma. The magnetic energy dissipation is mainly due to the eddy current of the net toroidal current mode which is induced by large current quench rate.

  12. Measurement of toroidal vessel eddy current during plasma disruption on J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L. J.; Yu, K. X.; Zhang, M., E-mail: zhangming@hust.edu.cn; Zhuang, G.; Li, X.; Yuan, T.; Rao, B.; Zhao, Q. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we have employed a thin, printed circuit board eddy current array in order to determine the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the eddy current density at the surface of a steel plate. The eddy current in the steel plate can be calculated by analytical methods under the simplifying assumptions that the steel plate is infinitely large and the exciting current is of uniform distribution. The measurement on the steel plate shows that this method has high spatial resolution. Then, we extended this methodology to a toroidal geometry with the objective of determining the poloidal distribution of the toroidal component of the eddy current density associated with plasma disruption in a fusion reactor called J-TEXT. The preliminary measured result is consistent with the analysis and calculation results on the J-TEXT vacuum vessel.

  13. Characterization of Plasma Gun with TiH2/C60 Cartridge for Disruption Mitigation in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; HyperV Technologies Corp. Team

    2011-10-01

    Impurity injection for disruption mitigation in tokamaks must be faster than growth time of plasma instabilities, requires sufficient mass to get critical electron density, high penetrability, and large assimilation fraction in the core plasma, with rapid impurity redistribution over the whole plasma. FAR-TECH, Inc. proposed the innovative idea to use hyper-velocity (>30 km/s), high-density (>1023 m-3) C60/C plasma jets with high ram pressure to deliver the impurity mass in plasma accelerator. We report the complete characterization of the TiH2/C60 cartridge with 5 kJ capacitive driver which demonstrated the capability of producing >30 mg of C60 gas in coaxial plasma gun (~35 cm length) prototype with TiH2/C60 cartridge for a small scale, proof-of-principle experiment on a tokamak. Work supported by the US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  14. Progress in Development of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Diagnostic of Runaway Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction and Disruption Mitigation Study for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    We produced a C60 nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) with uniquely fast response-to-delivery time (~ 1 - 2 ms) and unprecedentedly high momentum (~ 0 . 6 g .km/s). The C60 NPPJ was obtained by using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge producing ~180 mg of C60 molecular gas by sublimation and by electromagnetic acceleration of the C60 plasma in a coaxial gun (~35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) with the output of a high-density (>1023 m-3) hyper-velocity (>4 km/s) plasma jet. The ~ 75 mg C60/C plasma jet has the potential to rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to significantly increase electron density (to ne ~ 2 . 4 ×1021 m-3, i.e. ~ 60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value, ne 0 ~ 4 ×1019 m-3), and to modify the 'critical electric field' and the runaway electrons (REs) collisional drag during different phases of REs dynamics. The C60 NPPJ, as a novel injection technique, allows RE beam-plasma interaction diagnostic by quantitative spectroscopy of C ions visible/UV line intensity. The system is scalable to ~ 1 - 2 g C60/C plasma jet output and technology is adaptable to ITER acceptable materials (BN and Be) for disruption mitigation. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  16. Research on High Pressure Gas Injection As a Method of Fueling, Disruption Mitigation and Plasma Termination for Future Tokamak Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure gas injection has proved to be an effective disruption mitigation technique in DⅢ-D tokamak experiments. If the method can be applied in future tokamak reactors not only for disruption mitigation but also for plasma termination and fueling, it will have an attractive advantage over the pellet and liquid injection from the viewpoint of economy and engineering design. In order to investigate the feasibility of this option, a study has been carried out with relevant parameters for conveying tubes of different geometrical sizes and for different gases.These parameters include pressure drop, lagger time after the valve's opening, gas diffusion in an ultra-high vacuum condition, and particle number contour.

  17. Models and Simulations of C60-Fullerene Plasma Jets for Disruption Mitigation and Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, Ioan-Niculae; Galkin, Sergei A.; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2009-11-01

    We present the models and simulation results of C60-fullerene plasma jets proposed to be used for the disruption mitigation on ITER and for magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The model describing the fast production of a large mass of C60 molecular gas in the pulsed power source by explosive sublimation of C60 micro-grains is detailed. Several aspects of the magnetic ``piston'' model and the 2D interchange (magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor) instability in the rail gun arc dynamics are described. A plasma jet adiabatic expansion model is used to investigate the in-flight three-body recombination during jet transport to the plasma boundary. Our LSP PIC code 3D simulations show that heavy C60 plasmoid penetrates deeply through a transverse magnetic barrier demonstrating self-polarization and magnetic field expulsion effects. The LSP code 3D simulation of two plasma jets head-on injection along a magnetic field lines for MIF are also discussed.

  18. Plasma cysteine/cystine redox couple disruption in animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Liang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently the field of epilepsy lacks peripheral blood-based biomarkers that could predict the onset or progression of chronic seizures following an epileptogenic injury. Thiol/disulfide ratios have been shown to provide a sensitive means of assessing the systemic redox potential in tissue and plasma. In this study, we utilized a rapid, simple and reliable method for simultaneous determination of several thiol-containing amino acids in plasma using HPLC with electrochemical detection in kainic acid (KA and pilocarpine rat models of epilepsy. In contrast to GSH and GSSG levels, the levels of cysteine (Cys were decreased by 42% and 62% and cystine (Cyss were increased by 46% and 23% in the plasma of KA- and pilocarpine-injected rats, respectively after 48 h. In chronically epileptic rats, plasma cysteine was decreased by 40.4% and 37.7%, and plasma GSSG increased by 33.8% and 35.0% following KA and pilocarpine, respectively. Treatment of rats with a catalytic antioxidant, 60 min after KA or pilocarpine significant attenuated the decrease of plasma Cys/Cyss ratios at the 48 h time point in both models. These observations suggest that the decreased cysteine and ratio of Cys/Cyss in plasma could potentially serve as redox biomarkers in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  19. Experimental Characterization of a Plasma Deflagration Accelerator for Simulating Fusion Wall Response to Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the suitability of a pulsed deflagration accelerator to simulate the interaction of edge-localized modes with plasma first wall materials is investigated. Experimental measurements derived from a suite of diagnostics are presented that focus on the both the properties of the plasma jet and the manner in which such jets couple with material interfaces. Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic plasma state variables within the jet are presented using a quadruple Langmuir probe operating in current-saturation mode. This data in conjunction with spectroscopic measurements of H α Stark broadening via a fast-framing, intensified CCD camera provide spatial and temporal measurements of how the plasma density and temperature scale as a function of input energy. Using these measurements, estimates for the energy flux associated with the deflagration accelerator are found to be completely tunable over a range spanning 150 MW m-2 - 30 GW m-2. The plasma-material interface is investigated using tungsten tokens exposed to the plasma plume under variable conditions. Visualizations of resulting shock structures are achieved through Schlieren cinematography and energy transfer dynamics are discussed by presenting temperature measurements of exposed materials. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  20. Restoration of the plasma discharge during density limit disruptions in the T-10 tokamak using electron cyclotron heating and ohmic power supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrukhin, P. V.; Shestakov, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments in the T-10 tokamak [Alikaev et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 381 (1988)] have demonstrated the possibility of control of the plasma current and prevention of formation of the non-thermal (Eγ > 150 keV) electron beams after an energy quench at the density limit disruption using electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) and controlled operation of the Ohmic power supply system. Quasi-stable plasma operation with repetitive sawtooth oscillations can be restored after an energy quench using high auxiliary power Pec > 2-5 Poh. Optimal conditions of the plasma discharge recovery after an energy quench using auxiliary heating are identified. At high auxiliary power, restoration of the plasma discharge can be provided with the location of the EC resonance zone within the whole plasma cross section. The auxiliary power required for discharge restoration is minimal when the power is deposited around the m = 2, n = 1 magnetic island (here m and n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers). The threshold ECRH power increases linearly with plasma current. Prevention of the non-thermal electron beams during density limit disruption is associated with stabilization of bursts of the magnetohydrodynamic modes, creation of the saturated magnetic islands, and heating of the background plasma using ECRH. Plasma discharge recovery after an energy quench in a tokamak reactor using auxiliary heating and controllable reduction of the plasma current is discussed.

  1. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-10-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (qa) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the qa value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench.

  2. Alternative Techniques for Injecting Massive Quantities of Gas for Plasma Disruption Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Injection of massive quantities of noble gases or D2 has proven to be effective at mitigating some of the deleterious effects of disruptions in tokamaks. Two alternative methods that might offer some advantages over the present technique for massive gas injection are shattering massive pellets and employing closecoupled rupture disks. Laboratory testing has been carried out to evaluate their feasibility. For the study of massive pellets, a pipe gun pellet injector cooled with a cryogenic refrigerator was fitted with a relatively large barrel (16.5 mm bore), and D2 and Ne pellets were made and were accelerated to speeds of ~600 and 300 m/s, respectively. Based on the successful proof-of-principle testing with the injector and a special double-impact target to shatter pellets, a similar system has been prepared and installed on DIII-D, with preliminary experiments already carried out. To study the applicability of rupture disks for disruption mitigation, a simple test apparatus was assembled in the lab. Commercially available rupture disks of 1 in. nominal diameter were tested at conditions relevant for the application on tokamaks, including tests with Ar and He gases and rupture pressures of ~54 bar. Some technical and practical issues of implementing this technique on a tokamak are discussed.

  3. Plasma clearance of hemoglobin and haptoglobin in mice and effect of CD163 gene targeting disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzerodt, Anders; Kjolby, Mads; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Maniecki, Maciej; Svendsen, Pia; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2013-06-10

    In humans, plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and the macrophage receptor CD163 promote a fast scavenging of hemoglobin (Hb). In the present study, we have compared the mouse and human CD163-mediated binding and uptake of Hb and HpHb complex in vitro and characterized the CD163-mediated plasma clearance of Hb in CD163 gene knockout mice and controls. Contrary to human Hp, mouse Hp did not promote high-affinity binding to CD163. This difference between mouse and man was evident both by analysis of the binding of purified proteins and by ligand uptake studies in CD163-transfected cells. Plasma clearance studies in mice showed a fast clearance (half-life few minutes) of fluorescently labeled mouse Hb with the highest uptake in the kidney and liver. HPLC analysis of serum showed that the clearance curve exhibited a two-phase decay with a faster clearance of Hb than plasma-formed HpHb. In CD163-deficient mice, the overall clearance of Hb was slightly slower and followed a one-phase decay. In conclusion, mouse Hp does not promote high-affinity binding of mouse Hb to CD163, and noncomplexed mouse Hb has a higher CD163 affinity than human Hb has. Moreover, CD163-mediated uptake in mice seems to only account for a part of the Hb clearance. The new data further underscore the fact that the Hp system in man seems to have a broader and more sophisticated role. This has major implications in the translation of data on Hb metabolism from mouse to man.

  4. Transient snakes in an ohmic plasma associated with a minor disruption in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Songtao; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Kaiyun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2014-05-15

    A transient burst (∼2 ms, an order of the fast-particle slowdown timescale) of a spontaneous snake is observed for the first time in a HT-7 heavy impurity ohmic plasma. The features of the low-Z impurity snake are presented. The flatten electron profile due to the heavy impurity reveals the formation of a large magnetic island. The foot of the impurity accumulation is consistent with the location of the transient snake. The strong frequency-chirping behaviors and the spatial structures of the snake are also presented.

  5. Disrupted plasma membrane localization and loss of function reveal regions of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 involved in structural integrity and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivillac, Nicole M I; Wasal, Karanvir; Villani, Daniela F; Naydenova, Zlatina; Hanna, W J Brad; Coe, Imogen R

    2009-10-01

    Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (hENT1) is an integral membrane protein that transports nucleosides and analog drugs across cellular membranes. Very little is known about intracellular processing and localization of hENT1. Here we show that disruption of a highly conserved triplet (PWN) near the N-terminus, or the last eight C-terminal residues (two hydrophobic triplets separated by a positive arginine) result in loss of plasma membrane localization and/or transport function. To understand the role of specific residues within these regions, we studied the localization patterns of N- or C-terminal deletion and/or substitution mutants of GFP-hENT1 using confocal microscopy. Quantification of GFP-hENT1 (mutant and wildtype) protein at the plasma membrane was conducted using nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) binding. Functionality of the GFP-hENT1 mutants was determined by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by measurement of uridine uptake. Mutation of the proline within the PWN motif disrupts plasma membrane localization. C-terminal mutations (primarily within the hydrophobic triplets) lead to hENT1 retention within the cell (e.g. in the ER). Some mutants still localize to the plasma membrane but show reduced transport activity. These data suggest that these two regions contribute to the structural integrity and thus correct processing and function of hENT1.

  6. Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    SJ, Fox PM, Rec LJ, Somers K, Stark RH, et al. (2002) Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (nsPEF) Effects on Cells and Tissues: Apoptosis Induction and...and a case report of intense nanosecond pulsed electric field as a local therapy for human malignancies. Int J Cancer 121: 675–682. 22. Nuccitelli R...Chen X, Pakhomov AG, Baldwin WH, Sheikh S, et al. (2009) A new pulsed electric field therapy for melanoma disrupts the tumor’s blood supply and causes

  7. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, J.; Pan, M. H.; Chin, H. F.

    2012-01-01

    STARD4, a member of the evolutionarily conserved START gene family, has been implicated in the non-vesicular intracellular transport of cholesterol. However, the direction of transport and the membranes with which this protein interacts are not clear. We present studies of STARD4 function using...... small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT...... synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein...

  8. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2007-03-14

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at concentration in the 2-70 ng L(-1) range while 17alpha and 17beta estradiol were quantified in only few samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 6 ng L(-1). Exogenous contributions of estrogens will therefore constitute a relatively higher proportion of sex hormone activity in the immature child.

  9. Rapidly alternating photoperiods disrupt central and peripheral rhythmicity and decrease plasma glucose, but do not affect glucose tolerance or insulin secretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Tamara J; Gatford, Kathryn L; Voultsios, Athena; Salkeld, Mark D; Boden, Michael J; Rattanatray, Leewen; Kennaway, David J

    2014-09-01

    Disrupting circadian rhythms in rodents perturbs glucose metabolism and increases adiposity. To determine whether these effects occur in a large diurnal animal, we assessed the impact of circadian rhythm disruption upon metabolic function in sheep. Adult ewes (n = 7) underwent 3 weeks of a control 12 h light-12 h dark photoperiod, followed by 4 weeks of rapidly alternating photoperiods (RAPs) whereby the time of light exposure was reversed twice each week. Measures of central (melatonin secretion and core body temperature) and peripheral rhythmicity (clock and metabolic gene expression in skeletal muscle) were obtained over 24 h in both conditions. Metabolic homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance tests and 24 h glucose and insulin profiles. Melatonin and core body temperature rhythms resynchronized within 2 days of the last photoperiod shift. High-amplitude Bmal1, Clock, Nr1d1, Cry2 and Per3 mRNA rhythms were apparent in skeletal muscle, which were phase advanced by up to 3.5 h at 2 days after the last phase shift, whereas Per1 expression was downregulated at this time. Pparα, Pgc1α and Nampt mRNA were constitutively expressed in both conditions. Nocturnal glucose concentrations were reduced following chronic phase shifts (zeitgeber time 0, -5.5%; zeitgeber time 12, -2.9%; and zeitgeber time 16, -5.7%), whereas plasma insulin, glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were not altered. These results demonstrate that clock gene expression within ovine skeletal muscle oscillates over 24 h and responds to changing photoperiods. However, metabolic genes which link circadian and metabolic clocks in rodents were arrhythmic in sheep. Differences may be due to the ruminant versus monogastric digestive organization in each species. Together, these results demonstrate that despite disruptions to central and peripheral rhythmicity following exposure to rapidly alternating photoperiods, there was minimal impact on glucose homeostasis in

  10. Disruption of human plasma high-density lipoproteins by streptococcal serum opacity factor requires labile apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-02-24

    Human plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipidscholesteryl esters and some triglyceridesurrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins [apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II]. A HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent, or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of approximately 100,000 HDL particles (D approximately 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D > 100 nm), leaving a new HDL-like particle [neo HDL (D approximately 5.8 nm)] while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics, suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physicochemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, a HDL containing nonlabile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. On the basis of kinetic cryo-electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 microM) to neo HDL via a stepwise mechanism in which intermediate-sized particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k of (4.400 +/- 0.004) x 10(-2) min(-1). Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy (DeltaH()), entropy (DeltaS(++)), and free energy (DeltaG()) of activation of 73.9 kJ/mol, -66.87 J/K, and 94.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the

  11. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay angry, or avoid fights altogether? Your children model themselves on you. Departures and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family ...

  12. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  13. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  14. Politisk disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på.......Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på....

  15. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  16. Disruptive innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Viglia, Giampaolo; Werthner, H.; Buhalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of disrupting innovations has generated significant market changes, modifying the dominant logic and affecting the strategic positioning of companies. This structural change is affecting market structure, the networks and the services that tourism players are supposed to use (Gretzel et al. 2015). One can also refer to the notion of digital infrastructure, which provides a nice framework that connects the different stakeholders, their relations as well as internal dynamics. At t...

  17. Disruptive innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Viglia, Giampaolo; H. Werthner; Buhalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of disrupting innovations has generated significant market changes, modifying the dominant logic and affecting the strategic positioning of companies. This structural change is affecting market structure, the networks and the services that tourism players are supposed to use (Gretzel et al. 2015). One can also refer to the notion of digital infrastructure, which provides a nice framework that connects the different stakeholders, their relations as well as internal dynamics. At t...

  18. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    While projects of governance by transparency have become widespread over the past decades, theyare usually investigated and theorized in isolation from the wider field of visibility and surveillancein which they are embedded. Building on theories of governance, visibility and surveillance...... appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...... of surveillance produce new forms of governing, potentiallywidening the space of manoeuvring for corporations....

  19. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...

  20. Down-regulation of BLIMP1α by the EBV oncogene, LMP-1, disrupts the plasma cell differentiation program and prevents viral replication in B cells: implications for the pathogenesis of EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzalikova, Katerina; Vockerodt, Martina; Leonard, Sarah; Bell, Andrew; Wei, Wenbin; Schrader, Alexandra; Wright, Kenneth L; Kube, Dieter; Rowe, Martin; Woodman, Ciaran B; Murray, Paul G

    2011-06-02

    An important pathogenic event in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas is the suppression of virus replication, which would otherwise lead to cell death. Because virus replication in B cells is intimately linked to their differentiation toward plasma cells, we asked whether the physiologic signals that drive normal B-cell differentiation are absent in EBV-transformed cells. We focused on BLIMP1α, a transcription factor that is required for plasma cell differentiation and that is inactivated in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. We show that BLIMP1α expression is down-regulated after EBV infection of primary germinal center B cells and that the EBV oncogene, latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1), is alone capable of inducing this down-regulation in these cells. Furthermore, the down-regulation of BLIMP1α by LMP-1 was accompanied by a partial disruption of the BLIMP1α transcriptional program, including the aberrant induction of MYC, the repression of which is required for terminal differentiation. Finally, we show that the ectopic expression of BLIMP1α in EBV-transformed cells can induce the viral lytic cycle. Our results suggest that LMP-1 expression in progenitor germinal center B cells could contribute to the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphomas by down-regulating BLIMP1α, in turn preventing plasma cell differentiation and induction of the viral lytic cycle.

  1. Differential effect of T-type voltage-gated calcium channel disruption on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Henrik; Cardel, Majken

    2014-01-01

    of two T-type Cav knock-out mice strains. Continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate, and para-aminohippurate clearance (renal plasma flow) and inulin clearance (GFR) were performed in conscious, chronically catheterized, wild type and Cav 3.1-/- and Cav 3.2-/- mice. Contractility of afferent...

  2. High consumption of farmed salmon does not disrupt the steady state of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in human plasma and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Trygve; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Polder, Anuschka; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Julshamn, Kåre; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K; Skorve, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine any changes in the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and mercury (Hg) in human plasma and adipose tissue and (2) examine associations between plasma levels of pollutants and dietary fat intake. Outpatients with different metabolic disorders (n = 42) consumed 380 g of farmed Atlantic salmon fillets or 60 g of salmon oil per week in two study periods of 15 wk each, and were compared with a control group (n = 14). Concentrations of POP and Hg were measured in salmon fillets, salmon oil capsules, plasma and abdominal fat biopsies from patients before and after intervention. Mean concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-DDE, sum of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (id-PCB), and sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in abdominal fat at intervention start were 21, 191, 267, and 4.2 ng/g lipid weight. After 15 or 30 wk of salmon consumption no significant changes in concentrations of POP and Hg in samples of human plasma and abdominal fat were observed, indicating that steady-state levels of these pollutants were not markedly affected. The lack of significant changes may partly be attributed to a limited number of samples, large interindividual variation in POP levels, and a large age span (20-70 yr). After adjusting for age, significant associations were found between different plasma long-chain fatty acid concentrations, including n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and oleic acid, and some of the POP. The results indicate that the latter have different food products as their main sources of human exposure.

  3. The association of hs-CRP with fasting and postprandial plasma lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes is disrupted by dietary monounsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetto, L; De Natale, C; Di Capua, L; Della Corte, G; Patti, L; Maione, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Annuzzi, G

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether two dietary approaches recommended for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular prevention-high-MUFA or complex carbohydrates/fiber-differently influence inflammation. A 4-week crossover study in 12 individuals with type 2 diabetes was performed. Fasting and postprandial hs-CRP plasma levels were not significantly different after a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index (CHO/fiber) and a high-MUFA diet. Compared with fasting, hs-CRP levels decreased significantly after the MUFA but not after the CHO/fiber meal. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were significantly lower after the CHO/fiber than the MUFA diet. At fasting and postprandially, hs-CRP correlated with triglyceride in whole plasma, chylomicrons, small and large VLDL after the CHO/fiber but not after the MUFA diet. In conclusion, a MUFA-rich diet and a carbohydrate/fiber-rich diet induced similar effects on plasma hs-CRP concentrations. However, these dietary approaches seem to influence hs-CRP levels through different mechanisms. i.e., direct acute postprandial effects by MUFA and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins mediated effects by CHO/fiber.

  4. Electromagnetic analysis for blanket of fusion reactor under plasma disruption%等离子体破裂工况下的聚变堆包层组件电磁分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明锋; 刘素梅; 孙朋飞; 雷明准; 王忠伟

    2015-01-01

    In a fusion reactor, the blanket is one of the core components inside the vacuum vessel, it is directly facing the plasma, and the working environment is very harsh. In this paper, the induced eddy current and suffered electromagnetic force in the blanket of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) has been calculated by the vector electromagnetic method of ANSYS in the major plasma disruption or the vertical displacement event. The modeling, the current source loading, boundary conditions setting, solving and calculated results are presented. This will provides the necessary reference data and method for future detailed design and optimization of the blanket components.%在聚变堆中,包层是真空室内的核心部件之一,它直接面对等离子体,工作环境十分恶劣.利用ANSYS软件的矢量电磁法,计算了中国聚变工程实验堆(CFETR)包层在离子体破裂和垂直位移事件中感应的涡电流和电磁力.介绍了建模、电流源加载、边界条件的设置、求解和计算结果.这为今后包层组件结构的详细设计和优化提供了必要的参考数据和方法.

  5. Wall force produced during disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.

    2009-11-01

    The study of disruptions is of great importance for ITER. Previous work on disruptions [1] is extended to compute toroidally asymmetric wall force in ITER, using the M3D code. The disruptions are produced by n = 1 resistive wall modes or external kink modes. A thin wall resistive boundary model is used to calculate the wall forces. The symmetric wall force, produced by a VDE, and the asymmetric wall force, produced by n = 1 modes, are comparable in magnitude. It is found that the asymmetric and axisymmetric forces scale with the growth rate of the instability multiplied by the square of the current divided by magnetic field. A similar scaling was reported for VDEs in JET [2]. Numerically, the study of disruptions is very challenging. In the M3D extended MHD code, dealiasing was applied in the toroidal direction. Advection terms were treated with a numerical upwind method. These techniques provided sufficient numerical stability to simulate entire disruption events. [4pt] [1] R. Paccagnella, H. R. Strauss, and J. Breslau, Nucl. Fusion (2009) 49 035003. [2] V. Riccardo, T. C. Hender, P. J. Lomas, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion (2004)

  6. Automatic location of disruption times in JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R; Vega, J; Murari, A

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors).

  7. A New Criterion for Disruption Prediction on HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing-Wei; JI Xiao-Quan; DING Xuan-Tong; HL-2A team; ZHOU Hang-Yu; FENG Bei-Bin; LIU Yi; PAN Yu-Dong; LI Wei; DUAN Xu-Ru; CHEN Wei; CUI Zheng-Ying

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new criterion has been proposed to predict the major disruptions caused by tearing mode instabilities. According to the HL-2A experimental results, the statistical analyses are employed to investigate the relationships between MHD activities and the plasma disruptions. Two kinds of the tearing mode activities can finally cause the disruption on HL-2A operations. By introducing a new parameter, i.e. an integral of poloidal magnetic field over time, as the criterion of disruption precursor, almost all of the disruptions can be predicted.

  8. Simulation study of disruption characteristics in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkyu; Kim, J. Y.; Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F.

    2012-10-01

    A detailed simulation study of disruption in KSTAR had been performed using the Tokamak Simulation Code(TSC) [1] during the initial design phase of KSTAR [2]. Recently, however, a partial modification in the structure of passive plate was made in relation to reduce eddy current and increase the efficiency of control of vertical position. A substantial change can then occur in disruption characteristics and plasma behavior during disruption due to changes in passive plate structure. Because of this, growth rate of vertical instability is expected to be increased and eddy current and its associated electomagnetic force are expected to be reduced. To check this in more detail, a new simulation study is here given with modified passive plate structure of KSTAR. In particular, modeling of vertical disruption that is vertical displacement event (VDE) was carried out. We calculated vertical growth rate for a drift phase of plasma and electromagnetic force acting on PFC structures and compared the results between in a new model and an old model. [4pt] [1] S.C. Jardin, N. Pomphrey and J. Delucia, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).[0pt] [2] J.Y. Kim, S.Y. Cho and KSTAR Team, Disruption load analysis on KSTAR PFC structures, J. Accel. Plasma Res. 5, 149 (2000).

  9. Application of the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to developing a machine-portable disruption predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew; Tang, William; Feibush, Eliot

    2016-10-01

    Plasma disruptions pose a major threat to the operation of tokamaks which confine a large amount of stored energy. In order to effectively mitigate this damage it is necessary to predict an oncoming disruption with sufficient warning time to take mitigative action. Machine learning approaches to this problem have shown promise but require further developments to address (1) the need for machine-portable predictors and (2) the availability of multi-dimensional signal inputs. Here we demonstrate progress in these two areas by applying the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to data from JET and NSTX, and discuss topics of focus for ongoing work in support of ITER. The author is also supported under the Fulbright U.S. Student Program as a graduate student in the department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  10. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  11. Confronting the disruptive physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, B J

    1997-01-01

    Ignoring disruptive behavior is no longer an option in today's changing health care environment. Competition and managed care have caused more organizations to deal with the disruptive physician, rather than look the other way as many did in years past. But it's not an easy task, possibly the toughest of your management career. How should you confront a disruptive physician? By having clearly stated expectations for physician behavior and policies in place for dealing with problem physicians, organizations have a context from which to address the situation.

  12. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts....... The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improves search in complementary technologies, while demoting it when strategic interests are misaligned in disruptive technologies....... However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...

  13. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts....... The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improves search in complementary technologies, while demoting it when strategic interests are misaligned in disruptive technologies....... However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...

  14. HL-2A tokamak disruption forecasting based on an artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hao; Wang Ai-Ke; Yang Qing-Wei; Ding Xuan-Tong; Dong Jia-Qi; Sanuki H; Itoh K

    2007-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are trained to forecast the plasma disruption in HL-2A tokamak. Optimized network architecture is obtained. Saliency analysis is made to assess the relative importance of different diagnostic signals as network input. The trained networks can successfully detect the disruptive pulses of HL-2A tokamak. The results obtained show the possibiliry of developing a neural network predictor that intervenes well in edvance for avoiding plasma disruption or mitigating its effects.

  15. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...... and genistein, a mixture of phytoestrogens, and a mixture of environmentally relevant estrogenic EDCs of various origins. Moreover, mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals were investigated. These include a mixture of pesticides and a mixture of environmentally relevant anti-androgenic EDCs of various origins...

  16. The disruption management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  17. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    Extant research on external knowledge search and open innovation assumes that collaborators are aligned in their strategic interests towards solving innovation problems. However, disruptive innovation is known to threaten the competitive advantage of incumbent firms, thereby creating a potential...... conflict of interest between these firms and their collaborators. This paper explores the extent to which strategic interests influence joint problem solving in both complementary and disruptive technologies by analyzing the effects of incumbent collaboration. The analysis disentangles inability...... and strategic intent to find that non-incumbents experience suppression of problem solving likelihood within disruptive technologies when incumbent collaborators are not strategically committed. The paper contributes to extant theory by showing the influence of firms’ underlying strategic interests...

  18. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  19. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.

  20. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  1. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  2. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Observation of runaway electron behaviour during disruptions in LHCD discharges in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H.W.; Hu, L.Q.; Li, S.Y.; Zhou, R.J.; Zhong, G.Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2011-09-15

    Production of runaway electrons during disruptions has been observed in the HT-7 Tokamak. The runaway current plateaus, which can carry part of the pre-disruptive current, are observed in lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) limiter discharges. It is found that the runaway current can mitigate the disruptions effectively. We can use gas puffing to increase the line-averaged density to restrain the runaway electrons and rebuild the plasmas after the disruptions. Detailed observations are presented on the runaway electrons generated following disruptions in the HT-7 tokamak discharges. The results indicate that the magnetic oscillations play a significant role in the loss of runaway electrons in disruptions. There are two important preconditions to rebuild plasmas by runaway electrons after the disruptions. One of them are weak magnetic oscillations; another one are LHWs (lower-hybrid waves) (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  5. Search and Disrupt

    OpenAIRE

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts. The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improv...

  6. Structure of the runaway electron loss during induced disruptions in TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrach, K.; Finken, K. H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Willi, O.; Zeng, L.; Xu, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The loss of runaway electrons during an induced disruption is recorded by a synchrotron imaging technique using a fast infrared CCD camera. The loss is predominantly diffuse. During the "spiky-loss phase", when the runaway beam moves close to the wall, a narrow channel between the runaway column and a scintillator probe is formed and lasts until the runaway beam is terminated. In some cases, the processed images show a stripe pattern at the plasma edge. A comparison between the MHD dominated disruptions and the MHD-free disruption is performed. A new mechanism of plasma disruptions with the runaway electron generation and a novel model which reproduces many characteristic features of the plasma beam evolution during a disruption is briefly described.

  7. Structure of the runaway electron loss during induced disruptions in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongrach, K.; Finken, K. H.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser- und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany); Abdullaev, S. S. [Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich 52428 (Germany); Zeng, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Xu, Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The loss of runaway electrons during an induced disruption is recorded by a synchrotron imaging technique using a fast infrared CCD camera. The loss is predominantly diffuse. During the “spiky-loss phase”, when the runaway beam moves close to the wall, a narrow channel between the runaway column and a scintillator probe is formed and lasts until the runaway beam is terminated. In some cases, the processed images show a stripe pattern at the plasma edge. A comparison between the MHD dominated disruptions and the MHD-free disruption is performed. A new mechanism of plasma disruptions with the runaway electron generation and a novel model which reproduces many characteristic features of the plasma beam evolution during a disruption is briefly described.

  8. Disruptive Space Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 "The Innovator’s Dilemma" by Clayton M. Christensen became a popular book in the small satellite and launch vehicle communities. But like the weather, every one talks about “Disruptive Technology” but few do anything about it. In the ‘70s and ‘80s, people were looking for “Paradigm Shifts,” and since the resurrection of Donald Rumsfeld, a recent watchword has been “Transformational Technology.” But today’s buzzword is now “Responsive Space Systems.”

  9. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  10. Celibacy and Family Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaletdinov B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes for celibacy, divorces and successful marriage are discussed in the article. Absence of true love and inability to build and keep it are the main reasons for family disruption. Amorousness, immature love and various forms of false or flawed love substitute the true feeling. It is caused by increased women’s independence, loss of mutual understanding and trust (due to infidelity or jealousy, incompatibility of characters or values. Celibacy is often conditioned by physical disability, revaluation of freedom and independence, huge requirements to partners, consumer attitude to life, infertility, alcohol and drug abuse, abnormalities in personality and sexuality.

  11. Manuel's asteroid disruption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Manuel; Ipe, Abraham; Jacob, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    A seventy-year-old male presented with dense asteroid hyalosis in both eyes. He had undergone cataract extraction in one eye 3 years ago, and the other eye had immature cataract. Both the autorefractor and dilated streak retinoscopy did not give readings and subjective visual improvement could not be achieved. Immediately following YAG posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitreous asteroid disruption, the vision improved to 20/20 with recordable auto refractor and streak retinoscopy values. Our initial experience indicates that the treatment is simple, safe and effective but needs controlled and prospective studies to confirm its long-term safety.

  12. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies.

  13. Onset conditions for disruptions during VDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Janardhan; Gerhardt, Stefan; Boozer, Allen; NSTX Team

    2011-10-01

    The Vertical Displacement Event, VDE, evolves on a slow timescale relative to the ideal MHD Alfvenic timescale. At some point the kink mode is strongly destabilized, leading to the final disruption. In most cases this occurs when q-edge is slightly less than two. Non-axisymmetric halo currents are often observed, well before the disruption. The evolution of the plasma during the VDE is modeled as a sequence of shrinking equilibria, where the core current profile remains constant so that the safety-factor at the axis, q-axis, remains fixed and the q-edge systematically decreases. Stability analysis shows that the plasma is indeed stable or has a small growth-rate until q- edge drops below 2, at which point the growth-rate rises rapidly, approaching γTA = 1 . The kink mode is characterized by m / n = 2 / 1 , where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. The surface currents associated with the MHD perturbation are computed. These may be related to the non-axisymmetric component of the halo currents and may be providing stability at modest growth-rates. This model is compared with observations on NSTX. This manuscript has been authored by Princeton University and collaborators under Contract Number(s) DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Sustainable Disruption Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar

    an increasingly expensive resource, and it is being consumed in vast amounts by the transportation industry. The single largest expense for both airlines and shipping companies is fuel, which exceeds both labour costs and capital expenditure. This thesis addresses how fuel considerations can be taken into account...... management fits in to the larger scope of optimization related processes in an airline and provides a brief survey of these. The thesis goes into more detail with disruption management and does as its main contribution describe how this can be combined with flight planning. Flight planning is the calculation...... of the horizontal and vertical flight path, which an aircraft should follow in order to get from airport A to airport B. The objective of this calculation is typically to minimize fuel consumption, while satisfying airspace regulations. To the knowledge of the author the work in this thesis represents the first...

  15. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-05-25

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity.

  16. Rat Tumor Response to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plasma 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels, and Tumor Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley D. McPhail

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using Ktrans and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC as response biomarkers. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the plasma concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA following treatment to provide an index of increased vessel permeability and vascular damage. Finally, tumor necrosis was assessed by grading hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections cut from the same tumors investigated by MRI. Both tumor Ktrans and IAUGC were significantly reduced 24 hours posttreatment with 350 mg/kg DMXAA only, with no evidence of dose response. HPLC demonstrated a significant increase in plasma 5-HIAA 24 hours posttreatment with 200 and 350 mg/kg DMXAA. Histologic analysis revealed some evidence of tumor necrosis following treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg DMXAA, reaching significance with 350 mg/kg DMXAA. The absence of any reduction in Ktrans or IAUGC following treatment with 200 mg/kg, despite a significant increase in 5-HIAA, raises concerns about the utility of established DCE-MRI biomarkers to assess tumor response to DMXAA.

  17. The characteristics of railway service disruption: implications for disruption management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, D; Dadashi, N

    2017-03-01

    Rail disruption management is central to operational continuity and customer satisfaction. Disruption is not a unitary phenomenon - it varies by time, cause, location and complexity of coordination. Effective, user-centred technology for rail disruption must reflect this variety. A repertory grid study was conducted to elicit disruption characteristics. Construct elicitation with a group of experts (n = 7) captured 26 characteristics relevant to rail disruption. A larger group of operational staff (n = 28) rated 10 types of rail incident against the 26 characteristics. The results revealed distinctions such as business impact and public perception, and the importance of management of the disruption over initial detection. There were clear differences between those events that stop the traffic, as opposed to those that only slow the traffic. The results also demonstrate the utility of repertory grid for capturing the characteristics of complex work domains. Practitioner Summary: The aim of the paper is to understand how variety in rail disruption influences socio-technical design. It uses repertory grid to identify and prioritise 26 constructs, and group 10 disruption types, identifying critical factors such as whether an incident stops or merely slows the service, and business reputation.

  18. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Clément, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  19. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Matrali, S. H. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Gazeli, K. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Clement, F. [IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Antimisiaris, S. G. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICES)-FORTH, Rion 26504 (Greece)

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  20. Disruption mitigation using laser ablation of high-Z impurities in HL-1M tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yong-Zhen; Feng Xing-Ya; Guo Gan-Cheng; Xu De-Ming; Zheng Yin-Jia

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary experiment triggering a plasma current quench by laser ablation of high-Z impurities has been performed in the HL-1M tokamak. The injection of impurities with higher electric charges into tokamak plasmas can increase the radiation cooling of the plasma. Resistive, highly radiating plasma formed prior to the thermal quench can dissipate both the thermal and magnetic energies, which is possibly a simple and potential approach to reducing significantly the plasma thermal energy and magnetic energy before a disruption thereby a safe plasma termination is obtained.

  1. Inspection of Disruptive Behaviours at Jet Using Generative Topographic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, G. A.; Vega, J. A.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.

    Tokamaks are the most promising configuration of magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a physical phenomenon that leads the plasma out to its operational bounds, called disruption, remains unavoidable. Disruptions cause the abrupt termination of the discharge and in addition to affecting the execution of the research program, they can constitute a risk for the structural integrity of the machine. In this article two important aspects that can facilitate the better understanding of the phenomenon are presented. First, the selection of the physical parameters and their main characteristics related to disruptions are reviewed. Second, the application of Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) to visualize and compare disruptive and non disruptive experiments at different times is shown. The resulting maps are aimed to evidence the evolution of the phenomenon, since it is unrecognizable till it can be distinguished. The identification of the instant when precursors of disruptions can be noticed is highly relevant in nuclear fusion since it determines the time margin the control systems have to apply mitigation or avoidance actions.

  2. Disrupting Ethnography through Rhizoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Masny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates principles of ethnography in education proposed by Mills and Morton: raw tellings, analytic pattern, vignette and empathy. This article adopts a position that is uncomfortable, unconventional and interesting. It involves a deterritorialization/ rupture of ethnography in education in order to reterritorialize a different concept: rhizoanalysis, a way to position theory and data that is multilayered, complex and messy. Rhizoanalysis, the main focus of this article is not a method. It is an approach to research conditioned by a reality in which Deleuze and Guattari disrupt representation, interpretation and subjectivity. In this article, Multiple Literacies Theory, a theoretical and practical framework, becomes a lens to examine a rhizomatic study of a Korean family recently arrived to Australia and attending English as a second language classes. Observations and interviews recorded the daily lives of the family. The vignettes were selected by reading data intensively and immanently through a process of palpation, an innovative approach to educational research. Rhizoanalysis proposes to abandon the given and invent different ways of thinking about and doing research and what might happen when reading data differently, intensively and immanently, through Multiple Literacies Theory. Rhizoanalysis, a game-changer in the way research can be conducted, affords a different lens to tackle issues in education through research.

  3. Disruption scenarios, their mitigation and operation window in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, M.; Shimada, M.; Fujieda, H.; Gribov, Yu.; Ioki, K.; Kawano, Y.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Lukash, V.; Ohmori, J.

    2007-04-01

    The impacts of plasma disruptions on ITER have been investigated in detail to confirm the robustness of the design of the machine to the potential consequential loads. The loads include both electro-magnetic (EM) and heat loads on the in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel. Several representative disruption scenarios are specified based on newly derived physics guidelines for the shortest current quench time as well as the maximum product of halo current fraction and toroidal peaking factor arising from disruptions in ITER. Disruption simulations with the DINA code and EM load analyses with a 3D finite element method code are performed for these scenarios. Some margins are confirmed in the EM load on in-vessel components due to induced eddy and halo currents for these representative scenarios. However, the margins are not very large. The heat load on various parts of the first wall due to the vertical movement and the thermal quench (TQ) is calculated with a 2D heat conduction code based on the database of heat deposition during disruptions and simulation results with the DINA code. For vertical displacement event, it is found that the beryllium (Be) wall does not melt during the vertical movement, prior to the TQ. Significant melting is anticipated for the upper Be wall and the tungsten divertor baffle due to TQ after the vertical movement. However, its impact could be substantially mitigated by implementing a reliable detection system of the vertical movement and a mitigation system, e.g. massive noble gas injection. Some melting of the upper Be wall is anticipated at major disruptions. At least several tens of unmitigated disruptions must be considered even if an advanced prediction/mitigation system is implemented. With these unmitigated disruptions, the loss of the Be layer is expected to be within ap30-100 µm/event out of a 10 mm thick Be first wall.

  4. Tidal disruption event demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  5. Interception and disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solem, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Given sufficient warning we might try to avert a collision with a comet or asteroid by using beamed energy or by using the kinetic energy of an interceptor rocket. If motivated by the opportunity to convert the object into a space asset, perhaps a microgravity mine for construction materials or spacecraft fuels, we might try a rendezvous to implant a propulsion system of some sort. But the most cost-effective means of disruption is a nuclear explosive. In this paper, I discuss optimal tactics for terminal intercept, which can be extended to remote-interdiction scenarios as well. I show that the optimal mass ratio of an interceptor rock carrying a nuclear explosive depends mainly on the ratio of the exhaust velocity to the assailant-object closing velocity. I compare the effectiveness of stand-off detonation, surface burst, and penetration, for both deflection and pulverization, concluding that a penetrator has no clear advantage over a surface-burst device for deflection, but is a distinctly more capable pulverizer. The advantage of a stand-off device is to distribute the impulse more evenly over the surface of the object and to prevent fracture, an event which would greatly complicate the intercept problem. Finally, I present some results of a model for gravitationally bound objects and obtain the maximum non-fracturing deflection speed for a variety of object sizes and structures. For a single engagement, I conclude that the non-fracturing deflection speed obtainable with a stand-off device is about four times the speed obtainable with a surface-burst device. Furthermore, the non-fracturing deflection speed is somewhat dependent on the number of competent components of the object, the speed for a 13 component object being about twice that for a 135 component object.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Locked Modes and their Disruptivity at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, R.; Choi, W.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Volpe, F. A.

    2014-10-01

    A database has been developed to study locking and disruptivity of neoclassical tearing modes with poloidal and toroidal mode numbers m = 2 and n = 1. Approximately 30,000 DIII-D discharges are studied providing statistics on the fraction of disruptions containing locked modes (LMs) and the ratio of disruptive LMs to all LMs. Other quantities analyzed include the time-scales between mode-formation and locking, and between locking and disruption, the amplitude of the mode upon locking and disruption, the existence or lack of a rotating precursor, and the toroidal phase of locking. Correlations are examined between locking and disruptivity and parameters such as plasma beta and neutral beam torque. Simple interpretations are provided in terms of island size and torques acting on the island, and implications for an automatic locked mode controller are discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0008520.

  7. Statistical study of TCV disruptivity and H-mode accessibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Y.; Deschenaux, C.; Lister, J.B.; Pochelon, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-06-01

    Optimising tokamak operation consists of finding a path, in a multidimensional parameter space, which leads to the desired plasma characteristics and avoids hazards regions. Typically the desirable regions are the domain where an L-mode to H-mode transition can occur, and then, in the H-mode, where ELMs and the required high densitydisruptivity. On TCV, learning the safe and successful paths is achieved empirically. This will no longer be possible in a machine like ITER, since only a small percentage of disrupted discharges will be tolerable. An a priori knowledge of the hazardous regions in ITER is therefore mandatory. This paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the occurrence of disruptions in TCV. (author) 4 figs.

  8. Plasma Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-10-04

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a

  9. Tidal disruption of inviscid protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Alan P.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    Roche showed that equilibrium is impossible for a small fluid body synchronously orbiting a primary within a critical radius now termed the Roche limit. Tidal disruption of orbitally unbound bodies is a potentially important process for planetary formation through collisional accumulation, because the area of the Roche limit is considerably larger then the physical cross section of a protoplanet. Several previous studies were made of dynamical tidal disruption and different models of disruption were proposed. Because of the limitation of these analytical models, we have used a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to model the tidal disruption process. The code is basically the same as the one used to model giant impacts; we simply choose impact parameters large enough to avoid collisions. The primary and secondary both have iron cores and silicate mantles, and are initially isothermal at a molten temperature. The conclusions based on the analytical and numerical models are summarized.

  10. Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W

    2016-01-01

    In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses --- and thus the degree of disruption --- that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter $M$, a ratio between the Alfv\\'en speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number $\\mbox{Rm}$). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when $M^{2}\\mbox{Rm} = O(1)$. To test our prediction, we analyse direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flo...

  11. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  12. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  13. Persistent forecasting of disruptive technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Forecasting Future Disruptive Technologies; National Research Council

    ...) and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) tasked the Committee for Forecasting Future Disruptive Technologies with providing guidance and insight on how to build a persistent forecasting system to predict, analyze, and reduce the impact...

  14. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the

  15. Disruptive innovation: the demand side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Clark C

    2008-01-01

    The notion of disruptive innovation provides a welcome framework for considering the prospects for low-cost alternatives in American medicine. Such innovations as have been seen, however, are largely the result of demand by patients paying their own bills because they have high-deductible coverage or are uninsured. Many other cost-saving innovations are discouraged by financing systems that are themselves largely immune to competition from disruptive innovators.

  16. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, Sebastián [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); López, Juan M. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM/ENEA per la Fusione, Padua (Italy); Ramírez, Jesús M. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Raúl [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Mariano [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Alves, Diogo [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear – Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Felton, Robert [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%.

  17. Runaway generation during disruptions in JET and TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnen, M., E-mail: m.lehnen@fz-juelich.d [Institute of Energy Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Abdullaev, S.S. [Institute of Energy Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Arnoux, G. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bozhenkov, S.A. [Institute of Energy Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Jakubowski, M.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Jaspers, R. [FOM-Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Plyusnin, V.V. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear/IST, Associacao EURATOM-IST, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Riccardo, V. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Samm, U. [Institute of Energy Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Runaway electrons generated during ITER disruptions are of concern for the integrity of the plasma facing components. It is expected that a power of up to 8 GW is exposed to ITER PFCs. We present in this article observations from JET and TEXTOR on the generation of runaways and the heat load deposition. Suppression techniques like massive gas injection and resonant magnetic perturbations are discussed.

  18. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  19. Online Education Cast as "Disruptive Innovation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Technology-based forces of "disruptive innovation" are gathering around public education and will overhaul the way K-12 students learn--with potentially dramatic consequences for established public schools, according to an upcoming book that draws parallels to disruptions in other industries. In his "Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation…

  20. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING FOR FUSION PLASMAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Blokland, J. W. S.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic model for fusion plasma dynamics governs the large-scale equilibrium properties, and sets the most stringent constraints on the parameter space accessible without violent disruptions. In conjunction with linear stability analysis in the complex tokamak geometry, the MHD parad

  1. Tidal disruption of inviscid planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, A. P.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    In view of previous efforts' demonstration that strongly dissipative planetesimals are immune to tidal disruption, an examination is presently conducted of the complementary case of inviscid planetesimals arising from collisions that are sufficiently energetic to entirely melt the resulting planetesimal and debris. The tidal disruption is numerically simulated by means of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code of Cameron and Benz (1991), concentrating on the tidal disruption of 0.01 earth-mass planetesimals passing by the earth with variations in the impact parameter at perigee and velocity at infinity. The SPH models show that tidal forces during a close encounter can efficiently convert orbital angular momentum into spin angular momentum, thereby initiating equatorial mass-shedding to inviscid planetesimals that have been spun up beyond the limit of rotational stability.

  2. DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONGST DOCTORS, MYTH OR REALITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Avtar Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Disruptive behavior in a medical setting is defined as objectionable or offensive interpersonal behavior that leads to disruption of professional activities in the workplace. 1 It has been observed that majority of doctors do not show disruptive behavior in their day today conduct and only few doctors are identified for their disruptive behavior . Special commi ttee on professional conduct and ethics defines disruptive behavio...

  3. Market Susceptibility Toward Disruptive Business Model Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dover, Oliver; Nord, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the conditional factors indicating market susceptibility toward disruptive innovation. There is a need to separate the different forms of disruptive innovation into segments targeting; technology, product or business model disruption. The concepts are fundamentally different and the literature to date is very one sided toward disruptive technology/product innovation. A shortage of studies on disruptive business model innovation has been discovered. This study therefore pr...

  4. Liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge in air: liposome characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Asimakoulas, L.; Katsafadou, M.; Pachis, K.; Kostazos, N.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing interest of the plasma community in the application of atmospheric-pressure cold plasmas to bio-specimen treatment has led to the creation of the emerging field of plasma biomedicine. Accordingly, plasma setups based on dielectric-barrier discharges have already been widely tested for the inactivation of various cells. Most of these systems refer to the plasma jet concept where noble gases penetrate atmospheric air and are subjected to the influence of high electric fields, thus forming guided streamers. Following the original works of our group where liposomal membranes were proposed as models for studying the interaction between plasma jets and cells, we present herein a study on liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge running in atmospheric air. Liposomal membranes of various lipid compositions, lamellarities, and sizes are treated at different times. It is shown that the dielectric-barrier discharge of low mean power leads to efficient liposomal membrane disruption. The latter is achieved in a controllable manner and depends on liposome properties. Additionally, it is clearly demonstrated that liposomal membrane disruption takes place even after plasma extinction, i.e. during post-treatment, resembling thus an ‘apoptosis’ effect, which is well known today mainly for cell membranes. Thus, the adoption of the present concept would be beneficial for tailoring studies on plasma-treated cell-mimics. Finally, the liposome treatment is discussed with respect to possible physicochemical mechanisms and potential discharge modification due to the various compositions of the liquid electrode.

  5. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  6. Plasma is a strategic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengers, Paul F W; Klein, Harvey G

    2016-12-01

    Plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) such as immunoglobulins and clotting factors are listed by the World Health Organization as essential medicines. These and other PDMPs are crucial for the prophylaxis and treatment of patients with bleeding disorders, immune deficiencies, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a variety of congenital deficiency disorders. While changes in clinical practice in developed countries have reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions thereby significantly reducing the collection volumes of whole blood and recovered plasma suitable for fractionation, the need for PDMPs worldwide continues to increase. The majority of plasma supplies for the manufacture of PDMPs is met by the US commercial plasma industry. However, geographic imbalance in the collection of plasma raises concerns that local disruptions of plasma supplies could result in regional and global shortages of essential PDMPs. Plasma, which fits the definition of a strategic resource, that is, "an economically important raw material which is subject to a higher risk of supply interruption," should be considered a strategic resource comparable to energy and drinking water. Plasma collections should be increased outside the United States, including in low- and middle-income countries. The need for capacity building in these countries is an essential part to strengthen quality plasma collection. This will require changes in national and regional policies. We advocate the need for the restoration of an equitable balance of the international plasma supply to reduce the risk of supply shortages worldwide. Strategic independence of plasma should be endorsed on a global level. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  8. Strategic network disruption and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Britta; De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We study a game between a network designer, who uses costly links to connect nodes in a network, and a network disruptor who tries to disrupt the resulting network as much as possible by deleting either nodes or links. For low linking costs networks with all nodes in symmetric positions are a best r

  9. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  10. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  11. The Theory of the Kink Mode during the Vertical Disruption Events in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2008-01-14

    This paper explains the locked m/n = 1/1 kink mode during the vertical disruption event when the plasma has an electrical contact with the plasma facing conducting surfaces. It is shown that the kink perturbation can be in equilibrium state even with a stable safety factor q > 1, if the halo currents, excited by the kink mode, can flow through the conducting structure. This suggests a new explanation of the so-called sideway forces on the tokamak in-vessel components during the disruption event. __________________________________________________

  12. Assessment of NSTX-U pedestal control and disruption avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Fil

    2015-11-01

    We report on the pedestal control and disruption avoidance strategies in NSTX-U. Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, due to the high heat fluxes on plasma facing surfaces. One aim of NSTX-U is to characterize the H-Mode pedestal structure at increased BT, Ip and NBI heating power and compare it to NSTX. We will assess the pedestal stability in both standard and snowflake configurations and identify the underlying mechanisms controlling the pedestal structure using the high spatial resolution edge diagnostics (e.g., BES, ME-SXR, bolometer). The new capabilities of NSTX-U will be used to effectively control the pedestal for optimum performance (e.g. LGI, molecular cluster injector). Control tools already deployed on EAST and DIII-D will be used. Disruptions also represent a major challenge for ITER and future devices due to the high heat fluxes on PFCs, electromagnetic forces on the structure and the generation of runaway electrons during the current quench. We will report on active resistive wall mode and plasma rotation control for disruption avoidance in NSTX-U. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. A Sharp Boundary Model of Nonaxisymmetric Vertical Disruption Events in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2010-11-01

    A semi-analytic sharp boundary model of a nonaxisymmetric vertical disruption event (VDE) in a vertically elongated tokamak plasma is developed. The model is used to simulate nonaxisymmetric VDEs with a wide range of different plasma equilibrium and vacuum vessel parameters. These simulations yield poloidal halo current fractions and toroidal peaking factors that are similar to those seen in experiments. The simulations also reproduce the experimentally observed inverse scaling between the current fraction and the peaking factor. The peak poloidal halo current density is found to correlate strongly with the reciprocal of the minimum edge safety-factor attained during the disruption. The peak vertical force per unit area acting on the vacuum vessel is observed to have a strong correlation with the equilibrium toroidal plasma current at the onset of the disruption, but is also seen to increase with increasing vacuum vessel conductivity relative to the SOL plasma. Finally, the peak horizontal force is found to be largely determined by the plasma beta prior to the disruption.

  14. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  15. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation.

  16. Optimal Disruption of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The collection of all the strongly connected components in a directed graph, among each cluster of which any node has a path to another node, is a typical example of the intertwining structure and dynamics in complex networks, as its relative size indicates network cohesion and it also composes of all the feedback cycles in the network. Here we consider finding an optimal strategy with minimal effort in removal arcs (for example, deactivation of directed interactions) to fragment all the strongly connected components into tree structure with no effect from feedback mechanism. We map the optimal network disruption problem to the minimal feedback arc set problem, a non-deterministically polynomial hard combinatorial optimization problem in graph theory. We solve the problem with statistical physical methods from spin glass theory, resulting in a simple numerical method to extract sub-optimal disruption arc sets with significantly better results than a local heuristic method and a simulated annealing method both...

  17. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  18. US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, R.T. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yamashina, T. [ed.] [Hokkadio Univ. (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition.

  19. Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. Methods: A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. Results: The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Conclusions: Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment. Citation: Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J

  20. Disruptive technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flavin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of “disruptive” innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and used by students and staff. Instead, other technologies not owned or controlled by HEIs are widely used to support learning and teaching. According to Christensen's theory of Disruptive Innovation, these disruptive technologies are not designed explicitly to support learning and teaching in higher education, but have educational potential. This study uses Activity Theory and Expansive Learning to analyse data regarding the impact of disruptive technologies. The data were obtained through a questionnaire survey about awareness and use of technologies, and through observation and interviews, exploring participants’ actual practice. The survey answers tended to endorse Disruptive Innovation theory, with participants establishing meanings for technologies through their use of them, rather than in keeping with a designer's intentions. Observation revealed that learners use a narrow range of technologies to support learning, but with a tendency to use resources other than those supplied by their HEIs. Interviews showed that participants use simple and convenient technologies to support their learning and teaching. This study identifies a contradiction between learning technologies made available by HEIs, and technologies used in practice. There is no evidence to suggest that a wide range of technologies is being used to support learning and teaching. Instead, a small range of technologies is being used for a wide range of tasks. Students and lecturers are not dependent on their HEIs to support learning and teaching. Instead, they self-select technologies, with use weighted towards established brands. The

  1. HOW TO IDENTIFY DISRUPTIVE NEW BUSINESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Robles

    2015-01-01

    In almost any industry, the most dramatic stories of growth and success were launched from a platform of disruptive innovation (Christensen et al., 2002). The probability of creating a successful, new growth business is 10 times greater if the innovators pursue a disruptive strategy rather than a sustaining one. Genuinely disruptive innovations are the ones that result in the creation of entirely new markets and business models. Few companies have introduced these innovations. Disruptive inno...

  2. LYSOSOMAL DISRUPTION BY BACTERIAL TOXINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheimer, Alan W.; Schwartz, Lois L.

    1964-01-01

    Bernheimer, Alan W. (New York University School of Medicine, New York), and Lois L. Schwartz. Lysosomal disruption by bacterial toxins. J. Bacteriol. 87:1100–1104. 1964.—Seventeen bacterial toxins were examined for capacity (i) to disrupt rabbit leukocyte lysosomes as indicated by decrease in turbidity of lysosomal suspensions, and (ii) to alter rabbit liver lysosomes as measured by release of β-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase. Staphylococcal α-toxin, Clostridium perfringens α-toxin, and streptolysins O and S affected lysosomes in both systems. Staphylococcal β-toxin, leucocidin and enterotoxin, Shiga neurotoxin, Serratia endotoxin, diphtheria toxin, tetanus neurotoxin, C. botulinum type A toxin, and C. perfringens ε-toxin were not active in either system. Staphylococcal δ-toxin, C. histolyticum collagenase, crude C. perfringens β-toxin, and crude anthrax toxin caused lysosomal damage in only one of the test systems. There is a substantial correlation between the hemolytic property of a toxin and its capacity to disrupt lysosomes, lending support to the concept that erythrocytes and lysosomes are bounded by similar membranes. PMID:5874534

  3. MHD simulations of Plasma Jets and Plasma-surface interactions in Coaxial Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2016-10-01

    Coaxial plasma accelerators belong to a class of electromagnetic acceleration devices which utilize a self-induced Lorentz force to accelerate magnetized thermal plasma to large velocities ( 40 Km/s). The plasma jet generated as a result, due to its high energy density, can be used to mimic the plasma-surface interactions at the walls of thermonuclear fusion reactors during an Edge Localized Mode (ELM) disruption event. We present the development of a Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation tool to describe the plasma acceleration and jet formation processes in coaxial plasma accelerators. The MHD model is used to study the plasma-surface impact interaction generated by the impingement of the jet on a target material plate. The study will characterize the extreme conditions generated on the target material surface by resolving the magnetized shock boundary layer interaction and the viscous/thermal diffusion effects. Additionally, since the plasma accelerator is operated in vacuum conditions, a novel plasma-vacuum interface tracking algorithm is developed to simulate the expansion of the high density plasma into a vacuum background in a physically consistent manner.

  4. Dissipative nonlinear structures in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Razumova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of different kinds of instabilities may be developed in high temperature plasma located in a strong toroidal magnetic field (tokamak plasma. Nonlinear effects in the instability development result in plasma self-organization. Such plasma has a geometrically complicated configuration, consisting of the magnetic surfaces imbedded into each other and split into islands with various characteristic numbers of helical twisting. The self-consistency of the processes means that the transport coefficients in plasma do not depend just on the local parameters, being a function of the whole plasma configuration and of the forces affecting it. By disrupting the bonds between separate magnetic surfaces filled with islands, one can produce zones of reduced transport in the plasma, i.e. “internal thermal barriers”, allowing one essentially to increase the plasma temperature and density.

  5. Disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Yang, S.-J.S.; Singh, P.; Prajogo, D.; O'Neill, P.; Rahman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Research on conditions and causal mechanisms that influence disruptive innovation has been relatively unexplored in the extant research in disruptive innovation. By re-conceptualizing disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process at product, firm and industry levels, this paper draws on emergi

  6. Disruption and Distinctiveness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    "Disruption"--while an evocative word triggering feelings of anxiety and perhaps even fear--also signals renewal and growth. The Higher Education (HE) sector in England has experienced some profound disruption over the years, and yet has emerged stronger and renewed in many ways. The impact of recent disruptive forces, from fees to the…

  7. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  8. Disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Yang, S.-J.S.; Singh, P.; Prajogo, D.; O'Neill, P.; Rahman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Research on conditions and causal mechanisms that influence disruptive innovation has been relatively unexplored in the extant research in disruptive innovation. By re-conceptualizing disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process at product, firm and industry levels, this paper draws on

  9. Formation and termination of runaway beams in ITER disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.

    2017-06-01

    A self-consistent analysis of the relevant physics regarding the formation and termination of runaway beams during mitigated disruptions by Ar and Ne injection is presented for selected ITER scenarios with the aim of improving our understanding of the physics underlying the runaway heat loads onto the plasma facing components (PFCs) and identifying open issues for developing and accessing disruption mitigation schemes for ITER. This is carried out by means of simplified models, but still retaining sufficient details of the key physical processes, including: (a) the expected dominant runaway generation mechanisms (avalanche and primary runaway seeds: Dreicer and hot tail runaway generation, tritium decay and Compton scattering of γ rays emitted by the activated wall), (b) effects associated with the plasma and runaway current density profile shape, and (c) corrections to the runaway dynamics to account for the collisions of the runaways with the partially stripped impurity ions, which are found to have strong effects leading to low runaway current generation and low energy conversion during current termination for mitigated disruptions by noble gas injection (particularly for Ne injection) for the shortest current quench times compatible with acceptable forces on the ITER vessel and in-vessel components ({τ\\text{res}}∼ 22~\\text{ms} ). For the case of long current quench times ({τ\\text{res}}∼ 66~\\text{ms} ), runaway beams up to  ∼10 MA can be generated during the disruption current quench and, if the termination of the runaway current is slow enough, the generation of runaways by the avalanche mechanism can play an important role, increasing substantially the energy deposited by the runaways onto the PFCs up to a few hundreds of MJs. Mixed impurity (Ar or Ne) plus deuterium injection proves to be effective in controlling the formation of the runaway current during the current quench, even for the longest current quench times, as well as in decreasing

  10. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  11. Rapid actions of xenoestrogens disrupt normal estrogenic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Cheryl S; Hu, Guangzhen; Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana A

    2014-03-01

    Some chemicals used in consumer products or manufacturing (e.g. plastics, surfactants, pesticides, resins) have estrogenic activities; these xenoestrogens (XEs) chemically resemble physiological estrogens and are one of the major categories of synthesized compounds that disrupt endocrine actions. Potent rapid actions of XEs via nongenomic mechanisms contribute significantly to their disruptive effects on functional endpoints (e.g. cell proliferation/death, transport, peptide release). Membrane-initiated hormonal signaling in our pituitary cell model is predominantly driven by mERα with mERβ and GPR30 participation. We visualized ERα on plasma membranes using many techniques in the past (impeded ligands, antibodies to ERα) and now add observations of epitope proximity with other membrane signaling proteins. We have demonstrated a range of rapid signals/protein activations by XEs including: calcium channels, cAMP/PKA, MAPKs, G proteins, caspases, and transcription factors. XEs can cause disruptions of the oscillating temporal patterns of nongenomic signaling elicited by endogenous estrogens. Concentration effects of XEs are nonmonotonic (a trait shared with natural hormones), making it difficult to design efficient (single concentration) toxicology tests to monitor their harmful effects. A plastics monomer, bisphenol A, modified by waste treatment (chlorination) and other processes causes dephosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases, in contrast to having no effects as it does in genomic signaling. Mixtures of XEs, commonly found in contaminated environments, disrupt the signaling actions of physiological estrogens even more severely than do single XEs. Understanding the features of XEs that drive these disruptive mechanisms will allow us to redesign useful chemicals that exclude estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities.

  12. Changing perspectives in medical practice: disruptive innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterick, Zachary R; Pradhan, Sala R; Paterick, Timothy E; Waterhouse, Blake E

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive innovation represents a business model that identifies a market location and increases consumer options. Retail clinics may represent a disruptive healthcare innovation that identifies strategies to reduce the cost of healthcare at the primary care level. The future of healthcare demands disruptive innovation that will allow for the 50 million uninsured members of our society to receive medical care. Disruptive innovative solutions need to ensure access, quality, and reasonable cost. Retail clinics represent the tip of the iceberg in disruptive innovative thinking. The obstacles that retail clinics must solve will be lessons learned for those that identify future innovative techniques.

  13. From Digital Disruption to Business Model Scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Thomsen, Peter Poulsen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the terms disruption, digital disruption, business models and business model scalability. It illustrates how managers should be using these terms for the benefit of their business by developing business models capable of achieving exponentially increasing returns to scale...... will seldom lead to business model scalability capable of competing with digital disruption(s)....... as a response to digital disruption. A series of case studies illustrate that besides frequent existing messages in the business literature relating to the importance of creating agile businesses, both in growing and declining economies, as well as hard to copy value propositions or value propositions that take...

  14. Viewgraphs presented at the ASDEX/DOE workshop on disruptions in divertor tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granetz, R.; Gruber, O.; Zohm, H. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The emphasis of this year`s ASDEX/DOE workshop was on disruptions in diverted tokamaks. The meeting was held here at MIT on 14--15 March. It is particularly appropriate that MIT hosted the workshop this year, since Alcator C-Mod had just recently completed its very first run campaign, and disruptions are one of the key areas of research in our program. There were a total of 14 speakers, with participants from IPP (Garching), CRPP (Lausanne), Culham, General Atomics, PPPL, Sandia, ORNL, the ITER JCT, and MIT. The subjects addressed included statistical analysis of disruption probabilities in ASDEX, modelling of the vertical axisymmetric plasma motion in DIII-D, impact of disruptions on the design of the ITER divertors, modelling of runaway electrons, and TSC calculations of disruption-induced currents and forces in TPX, etc. One item of particular interest to us was the experimental correlation of halo current magnitude with plasma current on ASDEX-Upgrade. The data indicates at least a linear, and possibly even a quadractic dependence. This has important implications for Alcator C-Mod, since it would predict halo currents of order 1 MA or more at full performance. At the conclusion of the talks, an informal discussion of disruption databases was held, primarily for the purpose of helping us develop a useful one for C-Mod.

  15. A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation code for design of position and shape control on tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Haruhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Senda, Ikuo

    1999-04-01

    A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation (TSPS) code has been developed for investigating the position and shape control on tokamak plasmas. The analyses of three-dimensional eddy currents on the conducting components around the plasma and the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium are taken into account in this code. The code can analyze the plasma position and shape control during the minor disruption in which the deformation of plasma is not negligible. Using the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) parameters, some examples of calculations are shown in this paper. (author)

  16. Development of a Fast Valve for Disruption Mitigation and its Preliminary Application to EAST and HT-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huidong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    In large tokamaks, disruption of high current plasma would damage plasma facing component surfaces (PFCs) or other inner components due to high heat load, electromagnetic force load and runaway electrons. It would also influence the subsequent plasma discharge due to production of impurities during disruptions. So the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions is essential for the next generation of tokamaks, such as ITER. Massive gas injection (MGI) is a promising method of disruption mitigation. A new fast valve has been developed successfully on EAST. The valve can be opened in 0.5 ms, and the duration of open state is largely dependent on the gas pressure and capacitor voltage. The throughput of the valve can be adjusted from 0 mbar·L to 700 mbar·L by changing the capacitor voltage and gas pressure. The response time and throughput of the fast valve can meet the requirement of disruption mitigation on EAST. In the last round campaign of EAST and HT-7 in 2010, the fast valve has operated successfully. He and Ar was used for the disruption mitigation on HT-7. By injecting the proper amount of gas, the current quench rate could be slowed down, and the impurities radiation would be greatly improved. In elongated plasmas of EAST discharges, the experimental data is opposite to that which is expected.

  17. Professional Disruption in Health Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    How do professions respond to fast-moving technological changes? Disruptive innovations overturn expectations about how markets function and develop, and they often raise moral, legal and scientific concerns among professionals. Sudden technological changes can result in a state of professional...... recent revision to the Tobacco Products Directive. Medical and public health professionals that control tobacco issues were challenged by a coalition of e-cigarette industry representatives, e-cigarette users, and liberal politicians. The challengers drew on the contending norm of harm reduction...

  18. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  19. Incumbent response to disruptive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    changes, however successful in minor business model adaptions. An implication hereof is that the business model concept as such has low predictive power in explaining success and failure and is in the need of an operationalization. In addition, the article discusses the relationship between technological...... in relation to disruptive change. In relation to technical change the case company has successfully in transferred its technology from one generation to the next during more than 20 years. In relation to business model change the case company has been proactive but not successful in major business model...... innovation and business innovation....

  20. Impact and mitigation of disruptions with the ITER-like wall in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnen, M.; Arnoux, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Flanagan, J.; Gerasimov, S. N.; Hartmann, N.; Hender, T. C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kiptily, V.; Kruezi, U.; Matthews, G. F.; Morris, J.; Plyusnin, V. V.; Reux, C.; Riccardo, V.; Sieglin, B.; de Vries, P. C.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2013-01-01

    Disruptions are a critical issue for ITER because of the high thermal and magnetic energies that are released on short timescales, which results in extreme forces and heat loads. The choice of material of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) can have significant impact on the loads that arise during

  1. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Lipid Rafts Disruption Increases Ochratoxin A Cytotoxicity to Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Qi, Xiaozhe; Zheng, Juanjuan; Luo, Yunbo; Zhao, Changhui; Hao, Junran; Li, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2016-02-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains in plasma membrane and can mediate cytotoxicity. In this study, the role of lipid rafts in ochratoxin A-induced toxicity was investigated using Hepatoblastoma Cell Line HepG-2 cells. Disruption of cholesterol-containing lipid rafts enhanced Ochratoxin A (OTA) toxicity, as shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage, increased reactive oxygen species level and reduction of superoxide dismutase activity in a time-dependent manner. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomics of the cell membranes showed that nearly 85.5% proteins were downregulated by OTA, indicating that OTA inhibited the membrane protein synthesis. Most of altered proteins were involved in Gene Ontology "transport", "cell adhesion" and "vesicle-mediated transport". In conclusion, lipid rafts play a key role in OTA-induced cytotoxicity. This study provides insight into how OTA toxicity is regulated by the plasma membrane, especially the lipid rafts.

  3. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  4. Avoidance of disruptions at high βN in ASDEX Upgrade with off-axis ECRH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, B.; Granucci, G.; Maraschek, M.; Nowak, S.; Gude, A.; Igochine, V.; Lazzaro, E.; McDermott, R.; Poli, E.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; Zohm, H.; Brunetti, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2011-08-01

    Experiments on disruption avoidance have been carried out in H-mode ASDEX Upgrade plasmas: the localized perpendicular injection of ECRH (1.5 MW ~ 0.2Ptot) onto the q = 2 resonant surface has led to the delay and/or complete avoidance of disruptions in a high βN scenario (Ip = 1 MA, Bt = 2.1 T, q95 ~ 3.6, with NBI ~7.5 MW). In these discharges (at low q95 and low density) neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are excited: the growth and locking of the m/n = 2/1 mode leads to the disruption. The scheme of the experiment is successfully applied in the same way as in previous disruption avoidance experiments in FTU and ASDEX Upgrade. As soon as the disruption precursor signal (the locked mode detector and/or the loop voltage) reaches the preset threshold, the ECRH power is triggered by real-time control. A poloidal scan in deposition location (ρdep) has been carried out by setting the poloidal launching mirrors at different angles in each discharge. The results depend on ρdep: complete disruption avoidance can be achieved when the power is injected close to or onto the 2/1 island. When ECRH is injected outside the island (either at radii inside or outside the q = 2 surface), the discharge is disrupted as in the reference case.

  5. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Gottardi, N.; Gowers, C.; Harbour, P.; Loarte, A.; Horton, L.; Lingertat, J.; Lowry, C.G.; Saibene, G.; Stamp, M.; Stork, D. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R. [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Cationic peptide exposure enhances pulsed-electric-field-mediated membrane disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Kennedy

    Full Text Available The use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs to irreversibly electroporate cells is a promising approach for destroying undesirable cells. This approach may gain enhanced applicability if the intensity of the PEF required to electrically disrupt cell membranes can be reduced via exposure to a molecular deliverable. This will be particularly impactful if that reduced PEF minimally influences cells that are not exposed to the deliverable. We hypothesized that the introduction of charged molecules to the cell surfaces would create regions of enhanced transmembrane electric potential in the vicinity of each charged molecule, thereby lowering the PEF intensity required to disrupt the plasma membranes. This study will therefore examine if exposure to cationic peptides can enhance a PEF's ability to disrupt plasma membranes.We exposed leukemia cells to 40 μs PEFs in media containing varying concentrations of a cationic peptide, polyarginine. We observed the internalization of a membrane integrity indicator, propidium iodide (PI, in real time. Based on an individual cell's PI fluorescence versus time signature, we were able to determine the relative degree of membrane disruption. When using 1-2 kV/cm, exposure to >50 μg/ml of polyarginine resulted in immediate and high levels of PI uptake, indicating severe membrane disruption, whereas in the absence of peptide, cells predominantly exhibited signatures indicative of no membrane disruption. Additionally, PI entered cells through the anode-facing membrane when exposed to cationic peptide, which was theoretically expected.Exposure to cationic peptides reduced the PEF intensity required to induce rapid and irreversible membrane disruption. Critically, peptide exposure reduced the PEF intensities required to elicit irreversible membrane disruption at normally sub-electroporation intensities. We believe that these cationic peptides, when coupled with current advancements in cell targeting techniques will be

  7. Current concepts in neuroendocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Olea, Martha; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Orlando, Edward F; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Wolstenholme, Jennifer T; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  8. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce;

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption...... not intimately familiar with the topic of endocrine disruption and therefore susceptible to false generalizations of bias and subjectivity....

  9. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  10. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  11. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 microns dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (rh?=?0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60? (greater than 10(exp 5) km in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 microns image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing approximately 5.2?×?10(exp 10) kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  12. Disrupting Entanglement of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Leichenauer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement in thermofield double states of strongly coupled CFTs by analyzing two-sided Reissner-Nordstrom solutions in AdS. The central object of study is the mutual information between a pair of regions, one on each asymptotic boundary of the black hole. For large regions the mutual information is positive and for small ones it vanishes; we compute the critical length scale, which goes to infinity for extremal black holes, of the transition. We also generalize the butterfly effect of Shenker and Stanford to a wide class of charged black holes, showing that mutual information is disrupted upon perturbing the system and waiting for a time of order $\\log E/\\delta E$ in units of the temperature. We conjecture that the parametric form of this timescale is universal.

  13. Resistance to disruption in a classroom setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E; Neal, Carrie M; Ahearn, William H; Wheeler, Emily E; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B; Dube, William V

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple variable-interval (VI) 7-s VI 30-s schedule for 6 participants with developmental disabilities. Resistance to disruption was measured by presenting a distracting item. Response rates in the disruption components were compared to within-session response rates in prior baseline components. Results were consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum theory for 5 of 6 participants.

  14. Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Bevelacqua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated.

  15. Numerical investigation of disruption characteristics for the snowflake divertor configuration in HL-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Duan, X. R.; Zheng, G. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Pan, Y. D.; Yan, S. L.; Dokuka, V. N.; Lukash, V. E.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    Cold and hot vertical displacement events (VDEs) are frequently related to the disruption of vertically-elongated tokamaks. The weak poloidal magnetic field around the null-points of a snowflake divertor configuration may influence the vertical displacement process. In this paper, the major disruption with a cold VDE and the vertical disruption in the HL-2M tokamak are investigated by the DINA code. In order to better illustrate the effect from the weak poloidal field, a double-null snowflake configuration is compared with the standard divertor (SD) configuration under the same plasma parameters. Computational results show that the weak poloidal magnetic field can be partly beneficial for mitigating the vertical instability of the plasma under small perturbations. For major disruption, the peak poloidal halo current fraction is almost the same between the snowflake and the SD configurations. However, this fraction becomes much larger for the snowflake in the event of a hot VDE. Furthermore, during the disruption for a snowflake configuration, the distribution of electromagnetic force on a vacuum vessel gets more non-uniform during the current quench.

  16. Model of vertical plasma motion during the current quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiramov, D. I.; Breizman, B. N.

    2017-10-01

    Tokamak disruptions impair plasma position control, which allows the plasma column to move and hit the wall. These detrimental events enhance thermal and mechanical loads due to halo currents and runaway electron losses. Their fundamental understanding and prevention is one of the high-priority items for ITER.

  17. High speed cine film studies of plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodall, D.H.J. (Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon (UK). Culham Lab.)

    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions. Several workers have filmed discharges in tokamaks including ASDEX, DITE, DIVA, ISX, JFT2, TFR and PLT. These films are discussed and examples given of the observed phenomena which include plasma limiter interactions, diverted discharges, disruptions, magnetic islands and moving glowing objects often known as 'UFOs'. Examples of plasma structures in ASDEX and DITE not previously published are also given. The paper also reports experiments in DITE to determine the origin of UFOs.

  18. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption is b...

  19. Network Formation under the Threat of Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis are focused on the impact the presence of a network disruptor has on network formation models. In particular, we build two theoretical models to study the effect of network disruption on network formation and test the effect network disruption has on equilibrium selection

  20. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Main, Katharina M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many studies of thyroid-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals have been published. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid disruption of the developing organism may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Chemicals may exert ...

  1. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  2. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  3. Network Formation under the Threat of Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis are focused on the impact the presence of a network disruptor has on network formation models. In particular, we build two theoretical models to study the effect of network disruption on network formation and test the effect network disruption has on equilibrium selection

  4. Plasma flow interaction with ITER divertor related surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojčinović, Ivan P.

    2010-11-01

    It has been found that the plasma flow generated by quasistationary plasma accelerators can be used for simulation of high energy plasma interaction with different materials of interest for fusion experiments. It is especially important for the studies of the processes such as ELMs (edge localized modes), plasma disruptions and VDEs (vertical displacement events), during which a significant part of the confined hot plasma is lost from the core to the SOL (scrape off layer) enveloping the core region. Experiments using plasma guns have been used to assess erosion from disruptions and ELMs. Namely, in this experiment modification of different targets, like tungsten, molybdenum, CFC and silicon single crystal surface by the action of hydrogen and nitrogen quasistationary compression plasma flow (CPF) generated by magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) has been studied. MPC plasma flow with standard parameters (1 MJ/m2 in 0.1 ms) can be used for simulation of transient peak thermal loads during Type I ELMs and disruptions. Analysis of the targets erosion, brittle destruction, melting processes, and dust formation has been performed. These surface phenomena are results of specific conditions during CPF interaction with target surface. The investigations are related to the fundamental aspects of high energy plasma flow interaction with different material of interest for fusion. One of the purposes is a study of competition between melting and cleavage of treated solid surface. The other is investigation of plasma interaction with first wall and divertor component materials related to the ITER experiment.

  5. Monster Sawtooth Activity in Ohmically Heated HT-7 Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡立群; 石跃江; 刘胜侠

    2001-01-01

    Experimental properties of monster sawtooth activities in ohmic HT-7 plasma are presented in this paper. The monster sawtooth activities belong to global fluctuations and are characterized with a series of large core collapses on SXR intensity traces with a long period, a large amplitude fluctuation and a large inversion radius. However, they emerge without apparent deterioration of plasma confinement and without major plasma disruption. During the events,long partial sawtooth collapses and abundant MHD phenomena are also observed.

  6. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  7. Disrupted Stars in Unusual Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star passes a little too close to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Tidal forces from the black hole cause the passing star to be torn apart, resulting in a brief flare of radiation as the stars material accretes onto the black hole. A recent study asks the following question: do TDEs occur most frequently in an unusual type of galaxy?A Trend in DisruptionsSo far, we have data from eight candidate TDEs that peaked in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. The spectra from these observations have shown an intriguing trend: many of these TDEs host galaxies exhibit weak line emission (indicating little or no current star-formation activity), and yet they show strong Balmer absorption lines (indicating star formation activity occurred within the last Gyr). These quiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies likely underwent a period of intense star formation that recently ended.To determine if TDEs are overrepresented in such galaxies, a team of scientists led by Decker French (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) has quantified the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that exhibit similar properties to those of TDE hosts.Quantifying OverrepresentationSpectral characteristics of SDSS galaxies (gray) and TDE candidate host galaxies (colored points): line emission vs. Balmer absorption. The lower right-hand box identifies thequiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies which contain most TDE events, yet are uncommon among the galaxy sample as a whole. Click for a better look! [French et al. 2016]French and collaborators compare the optical spectra of the TDE host galaxies to those of nearly 600,000 SDSS galaxies, using two different cutoffs for the Balmer absorption the indicator of past star formation. Their strictest cut, filtering for very high Balmer absorption, selected only 0.2% of the SDSS galaxies, yet 38% of the TDEs are hosted in such galaxies. Using a more relaxed cutoff selects 2.3% of

  8. A Double-Disruption Substorm Model - The Growth Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofko, G. J.; McWilliams, K. A.; Hussey, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    When the IMF turns from Bz- to Bz+, dayside merging forms open lobe field lines at low latitudes. These lobe lines are populated with shocked solar wind and dayside magnetospheric plasma from the reconnection inflow. As those lobe flux tubes pass tailward over the polar caps, they are also populated with outflow from the north and south polar cap ionospheres. As the lobe lines move tailward, they acquire a convex curvature that blocks the westward-flowing cross-tail current (XTJ). This constitutes the first stage of XTJ disruption, and it begins less than 10 min after the frontside merging.The disrupted XTJ closes dawn-to-dusk in the transition plasmasheet (TPS), where it produces a downward FAC to the ionosphere. This causes the proton arc, which is seen for the period from about 10 - 80 min after frontside merging begins at time t=0. The lobe lines eventually reconnect well downtail at about t=30 minutes. The middle section that closes the lobe lines has concave curvature and is called the Neutral Sheet (NSh). The resulting stretched field lines thus have a central NSh which separates the two convex-curvature regions to the north and south, regions which are called the Disruption Zones (DZs); the overall combination of the NDZ, NSh and SDZ is called the Stretched Plasmasheet (SPS). As the SPS continues to grow and the stretched lines are pulled earthward to relieve the magnetic tension, the filling of the NSh occurs both from the DTNL with the higher energy magnetospheric particle population on the lobe lines, but eventually also at about 25 earth radii when the polar cap ionospheric outflow (PCO) component finally reaches the NSh. A NSh FAC system forms, from which electrons flow down to the auroral ionosphere to create the pre-onset arc, starting at about t=65 min. At the same time, the Lyons-Speiser mechanism is initiated in the inner NSh, causing the PCO ions to become trapped and accelerated in the inner NSh region. Eventually, when the SPS grows earthward

  9. DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONGST DOCTORS, MYTH OR REALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Disruptive behavior in a medical setting is defined as objectionable or offensive interpersonal behavior that leads to disruption of professional activities in the workplace. 1 It has been observed that majority of doctors do not show disruptive behavior in their day today conduct and only few doctors are identified for their disruptive behavior . Special commi ttee on professional conduct and ethics defines disruptive behavior in physicians as aberrant behavior manifested through personal interaction with physicians , hospital personnel , health care professionals , patients , family members or others which interferes with patient care or could reasonably be expected to interfere with the process of delivering quality care. 2 Common forms of disruptive behaviors generally seen amongst young doctors are use of abusive language , yelling or shouting at patients , colleagues and subordinate staff , showing in disciplined behavior and at times indulging in physical abuse. 3 - 4 STUDY DESIGN : Study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital where 614 health care professionals participated which included 108 doctors 432 nurs ing staff and 74 paramedical staff METHOD : Data collection was done by semi structured pretested questionnaire and was entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed for frequency and percentages . RESULTS : 64 % doctor , 66% nursing staff and 50% of the paramedicals answered that they have seen doctors showing disruptive behavior at one time or the other . Not all the doctors show disruptive behavior but this type of aberrant behavior is seen mainly in2 - 3 percent of doctors only. While answering to the que stion as to the type of disruptive behavior , 57% health care professionals reported that commonest form of disruptive behavior noticed by them amongst doctors was yelling or shouting on junior staff , patients and colleagues . 47% answered that doctors with disruptive behavior do not follow laid down orders or

  10. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  11. School-based interventions for disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Youth disruptive behavior is a concern for youth, school personnel,families, and society. Early childhood disruptive behaviors negatively impact the classroom, and are associated with negative academic, social, behavioral, emotional, substance use, health, and justice system outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Effective, comprehensive, multicomponent interventions targeting risk/protective factors and pathways associated with antisocial behavior reduce and/or mitigate these negative outcomes. Positive effects have been demonstrated for universal and indicated programs for participating youth and families in early childhood, and for high-risk youth in adolescence and young adulthood. These empirically supported programs inform the treatment of complex and difficult-to-treat disruptive behavior.

  12. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  13. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  14. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  15. Suppression of runaway current generation by supersonic molecular beam injection during disruptions on J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D. W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Dai, A. J.; Wang, X. L.; Jiang, Z. H.; Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.; Pan, Y.; J-TEXT Team

    2017-08-01

    The suppression of disruption-generated runaway electrons (REs) by supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) has been investigated on the J-TEXT tokamak. Experimental results demonstrate that the hydrogen injected by SMBI during plasma current flattop phase can provoke magnetic perturbations, which increase RE losses rapidly. The effective radial diffusion coefficient of REs due to SMBI is estimated as D r ≈ 16 m2 s-1. Based on this benefit, the SMBI has been used to explore the suppression of disruption-generated REs. In J-TEXT, RE current is created with rapid argon injection by a massive gas injection valve. It is found that hydrogen SMBI before disruption efficiently suppresses the generation of RE current.

  16. Pellet Fueling, ELM pacing, and Disruption Mitigation Technology Development for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Meitner, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; ThomasJr., C. E. [Third Dimension Technologies, LLC, Knoxville, TN

    2009-01-01

    Plasma fueling with pellet injection, pacing of edge localized modes (ELMs) by small frequent pellets, and disruption mitigation with gas jets or injected pellets are some of the most important technological capabilities needed for successful operation of ITER. Tools are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that can be employed on ITER to provide the necessary core pellet fueling and the mitigation of ELMs and disruptions. Here we present progress on the development of the technology to provide reliable high throughput inner wall pellet fueling, pellet ELM pacing with high frequency small pellets, and disruption mitigation with gas jets and pellets. Examples of how these tools can be employed on ITER are discussed.

  17. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  18. Shell Galaxies, Dynamical Friction, and Dwarf Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrova, Ivana; Canalizo, Gabriela; Bennert, Nicola; Jilkova, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Using N-body simulations of shell galaxies created in nearly radial minor mergers, we investigate the error of collision dating, resulting from the neglect of dynamical friction and of gradual disruption of the cannibalized dwarf.

  19. Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital platforms are disruptive information technology (IT) artifacts that erode conventional business logic associated with traditional market structures. This paper presents a framework for examining the disruptive potential of digital platforms whereby we postulate that the strategic interplay...... of governance regimes and platform layers is deterministic of whether disruptive derivatives are permitted to flourish. This framework has been employed in a comparative case study between centralized (i.e., PayPal) and decentralized (i.e., Coinkite) digital payment platforms to illustrate its applicability...... and yield propositions on the nature and impact of digital platform disruptions. Preliminary findings indicate that centralized digital platforms attempt to create unique configurals to obtain monopolistic power by tightly coupling platform layers, which are difficult to replicate. Conversely, decentralized...

  20. The Logic of Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    Digital platforms are disruptive IT artifacts, because they facilitate the quick release of innovative platform derivatives from third parties (e.g., apps). This study endeavours to unravel the disruptive potential, caused by distinct designs and configurations of digital platforms on market...... environments. We postulate that the disruptive potential of digital platforms is determined by the degree of alignment among the business, technology and platform profiles. Furthermore, we argue that the design and configuration of the aforementioned three elements dictates the extent to which open innovation...... is permitted. To shed light on the disruptive potential of digital platforms, we opted for payment platforms as our unit of analysis. Through interviews with experts and payment providers, we seek to gain an in-depth appreciation of how contemporary digital payment platforms are designed and configured...

  1. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  2. Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnerot, Clément; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M

    2016-01-01

    When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to be transmitted to the debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of $\\sim 10$. However, this valu...

  3. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  4. Double tidal disruptions in galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    A star on a nearly radial trajectory approaching a massive black hole (MBH) gets tidally disrupted if it comes sufficiently close to the MBH. Here we explore what happens to binary stars whose centers of mass approach the MBH on nearly radial orbits. The interaction with the MBH often leads to both stars being disrupted in sequence. We argue that such events could produce light curves that are substantially different from those of the single disruptions, with possible features such as two local maxima. Tidal forces from the MBH can also lead the binary components to collide; these merger products can form highly magnetized stars, whose subsequent tidal disruption may enable prompt jet formation.

  5. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  6. Integrated Decision Support Tools for Disruption Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besinovic, N.; Cacchiani, V.; Dollevoet, T.; Goverde, R.M.P.; Huisman, D.; Kidd, M.P.; Kroon, L.G.; Quaglietta, E.; Rodriguez, J.; Toth, P.; Veelenturf, L.; Wagenaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    During railway operations unexpected events can require railway operators and infrastructure managers to adjust their schedules. In this research we investigate the disruption management process. More specifically, we come up with an architecture and algorithmic framework which railway operators cou

  7. The Logic of Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    Digital platforms are disruptive IT artifacts, because they facilitate the quick release of innovative platform derivatives from third parties (e.g., apps). This study endeavours to unravel the disruptive potential, caused by distinct designs and configurations of digital platforms on market...... environments. We postulate that the disruptive potential of digital platforms is determined by the degree of alignment among the business, technology and platform profiles. Furthermore, we argue that the design and configuration of the aforementioned three elements dictates the extent to which open innovation...... is permitted. To shed light on the disruptive potential of digital platforms, we opted for payment platforms as our unit of analysis. Through interviews with experts and payment providers, we seek to gain an in-depth appreciation of how contemporary digital payment platforms are designed and configured...

  8. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  9. DOUBLE TIDAL DISRUPTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandel, Ilya [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Levin, Yuri, E-mail: imandel@star.sr.bham.ac.uk, E-mail: yuri.levin@monash.edu [Monash Center for Astrophysics and School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2015-05-20

    A star on a nearly radial trajectory approaching a massive black hole (MBH) gets tidally disrupted if it comes sufficiently close to the MBH. Here we explore what happens to binary stars whose centers of mass approach the MBH on nearly radial orbits. The interaction with the MBH often leads to both stars being disrupted in sequence. We argue that such events could produce light curves that are substantially different from those of the single disruptions, with possible features such as two local maxima. Tidal forces from the MBH can also lead the binary components to collide; these merger products can form highly magnetized stars, whose subsequent tidal disruption may enable prompt jet formation.

  10. Structuring the Classroom to Prevent Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, William; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Specific suggestions to help teachers structure the classroom to prevent disruptive behaviors are offered in the areas of physical arrangement and "traffic rules" time management, assignments, grouping practices, classroom atmosphere, and professional demeanor. (DB)

  11. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; Reus, M.A. de; Collin, G.; Snijders, T.M.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Stam, C.J.; Heuvel, M.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions

  12. Impact and mitigation of disruptions with the ITER-like wall in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, M.; Arnoux, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Flanagan, J.; Gerasimov, S. N.; Hartmann, N.; Hender, T. C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kiptily, V.; Kruezi, U.; Matthews, G. F.; Morris, J.; Plyusnin, V. V.; Reux, C.; Riccardo, V.; Sieglin, B.; de Vries, P. C.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2013-09-01

    Disruptions are a critical issue for ITER because of the high thermal and magnetic energies that are released on short timescales, which results in extreme forces and heat loads. The choice of material of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) can have significant impact on the loads that arise during a disruption. With the ITER-like wall (ILW) in JET made of beryllium in the main chamber and tungsten in the divertor, the main finding is a low fraction of radiation. This has dropped significantly with the ILW from 50-100% of the total energy being dissipated during disruptions in CFC wall plasmas, to less than 50% on average and down to just 10% for vertical displacement events (VDEs). All other changes in disruption properties and loads are consequences of this low radiation: long current quenches (CQs), high vessel forces caused by halo currents and toroidal current asymmetries as well as severe heat loads. Temperatures close to the melting limit have been locally observed on upper first wall structures during deliberate VDE and even at plasma currents as low as 1.5 MA and thermal energy of about 1.5 MJ only. A high radiation fraction can be regained by massive injection of a mixture of 10% Ar with 90% D2. This accelerates the CQ thus reducing the halo current and sideways impulse. The temperature of PFCs stays below 400 °C. MGI is now a mandatory tool to mitigate disruptions in closed-loop operation for currents at and above 2.5 MA in JET.

  13. A new Disruption Mitigation System for deuterium–tritium operation at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruezi, Uron, E-mail: uron.kruezi@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Jachmich, Stefan [Laboratory for Plasma Physic, ERM/KMS, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Koslowski, Hans Rudolf [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-4, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Lehnen, Michael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS90046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Brezinsek, Sebastijan [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-4, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Matthews, Guy [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Disruption Mitigation System based on massive gas injections has been designed. • The DMS has been installed at the JET-tokamak for routine machine protection. • The DMS is capable of a throughput of up to 4.6 kPa m{sup 3}. • The new DMS is compatible with the deuterium–tritium operation at JET. - Abstract: Disruptions, the fast accidental losses of plasma current and stored energy in tokamaks, represent a significant risk to the mechanical structure as well as the plasma facing components of reactor-scale fusion facilities like ITER. At JET, the tokamak experiment closest to ITER in terms of operating parameters and size, massive gas injection has been established as a disruption mitigation method. As a “last resort” measure it reduces thermal and electromagnetic loads during disruptions which can potentially have a serious impact on the beryllium and tungsten plasma-facing materials of the main chamber and divertor. For the planned deuterium–tritium experiments, a new Disruption Mitigation System (DMS) has been designed and installed and is presented in this article. The new DMS at JET consists of an all metal gate valve compatible with gas injections, a fast high pressure eddy current driven valve, a high voltage power supply and a gas handling system providing six supply lines for pure and mixed noble and flammable gases (Ar, Ne, Kr, D{sub 2}, etc.). The valve throughput varies with the injection pressure and gas type (efficiency – injected/charged gas 50–97%); the maximum injected amount of gas is approximately 4.6 kPa m{sup 3} (at maximum system pressure of 5.0 MPa).

  14. Measurement of scrape-off-layer current dynamics during MHD activity and disruptions in HBT-EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Brooks, J. W.; Abler, M. C.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P. J.; Hansen, C. J.; Hughes, P. E.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Rhodes, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    We report scrape-off layer (SOL) current measurements during magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode activity, resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), and disruptions in the High Beta Tokamak—Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device. Currents are measured via segmented plasma current Rogowski coils, jumpers running toroidally between otherwise-isolated vessel sections, and a grounded electrode in the scrape-off layer. These currents strongly depend on the plasma’s major radius, and amplitude and phase of non-axisymmetric field components. SOL currents connecting through the vessel are seen to reach  ∼0.2{--}0.5 % of the plasma current during typical kink activity and RMPs. Plasma current asymmetries and scrape-off-layer currents generated during disruptions, which are commonly called halo currents, reach  ∼4 % of I p. Asymmetric toroidal currents between vessel sections rotate at tens of kHz through most of the current quench, then symmetrize once I p reaches  ∼30 % of its pre-disruptive value. Toroidal jumper currents oscillate between co- and counter-I p, with co-I p being dominant on average during disruptions. A relative increase in local plasma current measured by a segmented I p Rogowski coil correlates with counter-I p current in the nearest toroidal jumper. Measurements are interpreted in the context of two models that produce contrary predictions for the toroidal vessel current polarity during disruptions. Plasma current asymmetry measurements are consistent with both models, and SOL currents scale with plasma displacement toward the vessel wall. The design of an upcoming SOL current diagnostic and control upgrade is also briefly presented.

  15. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are tho...

  16. Anastomotic disruption after large bowel resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad U NasirKhan; Farshad Abir; Walter Longo; Robert Kozol

    2006-01-01

    Anastomotic disruption is a feared and serious complication of colon surgery. Decades of research have identified factors favoring successful healing of anastomoses as well as risk factors for anastomotic disruption. However, some factors, such as the role of mechanical bowel preparation, remain controversial.Despite proper caution and excellent surgical technique,some anastomotic leaks are inevitable. The rapid identification of anastomotic leaks and the timely treatment in these cases are paramount.

  17. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Goswami; J.C Kalita

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs). This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the a...

  18. BUSINESS MODEL PATTERNS FOR DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    BENJAMIN AMSHOFF; CHRISTIAN DÜLME; JULIAN ECHTERFELD; JÜRGEN GAUSEMEIER

    2015-01-01

    Companies nowadays face a myriad of business opportunities as a direct consequence of manifold disruptive technology developments. As a basic characteristic, disruptive technologies lead to a severe shift in value-creation networks giving rise to new market segments. One of the key challenges is to anticipate the business logics within these nascent and formerly unknown markets. Business model patterns promise to tackle this challenge. They can be interpreted as proven business model elements...

  19. Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnerot, Clément; Price, Daniel J.; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M.

    2017-08-01

    When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to pervade its debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of ˜10. However, this value represents a lower limit since it increases with numerical resolution. For an initial field strength of 1 G, the magnetic field never becomes dynamically important. Instead, the disruption of a star with a strong 1 MG magnetic field produces a debris stream within which magnetic pressure becomes similar to gas pressure a few tens of hours after disruption. If the remnant of one or multiple partial disruptions is eventually fully disrupted, its magnetic field could be large enough to magnetically power the relativistic jet detected from Swift J1644+57. Magnetized streams could also be significantly thickened by magnetic pressure when it overcomes the confining effect of self-gravity.

  20. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost e cient methods to handle airline...... disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it o ers an introduction to airline disruption management, provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second part we...

  1. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost efficient methods to handle...... airline disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it offers an introduction to airline disruption management provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second...

  2. Current disruption and its spreading in collision-less magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neeraj; Buechner, Joerg; Dorfman, Seth; Ji, Hantao; Sharma, A. Surjalal; Max-Planck/Princeton CenterPlasma Physics Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Recent magnetic reconnection experiments (MRX) [Dorfman et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 233 (2012)] have disclosed current disruption in the absence of guide field. During current disruption in MRX, current density and total out-of-reconnection-plane current drop simultaneous with a rise in out-of-reconnection-plane electric field. Here we show that current disruption is an intrinsic property of dynamic formation of X-point configuration of magnetic field in magnetic reconnection, independent of the model used for plasma description and of dimensionality (2-D or 3-D) of reconnection. An analytic expression for the current drop is derived from Ampere's equation and its predictions are verified by 2-D and 3-D electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) simulations. Three dimensional EMHD simulations show that the current disruption due to localized reconnection spreads along the direction of electron flow with a speed which depends on the wave number of the perturbation. The implications of these results for MRX and other reconnection experiments will be presented. This work was partially funded by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics.

  3. Simulation of disruptions on C-Mod in support of the new outer divertor project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, F.; Kessel, C.; Titus, P.; Zhang, H.; Doody, J.; Granetz, R.; Lipschultz, B.

    2011-10-01

    Disruptions in C-Mod lead to large forces on structures inside the vacuum vessel and can be grouped in two classes depending on whether they begin with a thermal quench (midplane disruptions) or not (VDEs). VDEs induce the largest currents in the lower divertor, which is being re-designed to be toroidally continuous and allow operation at high temperatures (< 600C). Both types of disruptions have been simulated with TSC and the vector potential has been integrated in the ANSYS code (ANSYS® Multiphysics, Release 12.1) to calculate magnetic fields, induced currents in the structures of interest and forces. These forces are then used to calculate stress and deformation in the part. The TSC simulations are adjusted (thermal quench time, halo temperature and width, etc) to match the plasma characteristics as close as possible to experiments. The results of these simulations will be shown and the dependence of disruption time scales and characteristics on these plasma parameters and the new outer divertor structures will be discussed. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-CH0911466 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  4. Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, M.; Finken, K. H.; Lehnen, M.; Willi, O.; Xu, Y.; the TEXTOR Team

    2012-05-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the total runaway electron energy are carried out using a reciprocating probe during induced TEXTOR disruptions. A comparison with the energy inferred from runaway energy spectra, which are measured with a scintillator probe, is used as an independent check of the results. A typical runaway current of 100 kA at TEXTOR contains 30 to 35 kJ of runaway energy. The dependencies of the runaway energy on the runaway current, the radial probe position, the toroidal magnetic field and the predisruptive plasma current are studied. The conversion efficiency of the magnetic plasma energy into runaway energy is calculated to be up to 26%.

  5. Synergetic Effects of Runaway and Disruption Induced by VDE on the First Wall Damage in HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋先瑛; 杨进蔚; 李旭; 袁国梁; 张轶泼

    2012-01-01

    The plasma facing component in HL-2A has been damaged seriously after disruption, and for this reason its operation is suspended for maintenance. The experimental phenomena and plasma configurations, calculated by the current filament code (CF-code) using the plasma parameters measured by diagnostics and the signals of the magnetic probes, confirm that the first wall is damaged by the synergetic effects of runaway electrons and disruption induced by a vertical displacement event (VDE). When the plasma column is displaced upward/downward, the strong runaway electrons normally hit the baffle plate of the MP3 or MP1 coil in the upper and lower divertor during the disruption, causing the baffle plates to be holed and wrinkled by the energetic runaway current, and water (for cooling or heating the baffle plates) to leak into the vacuum vessel. Another disastrous consequence is that bellows underlying the baffle plate and outside the coil of MP3 for connecting two segments of the jacket casing pipe are punctured by arcing. The arc may be part of the halo current that forms a complete circuit. The experimental phenomena are indirect but compelling evidence for the existence of a halo current during the disruption and VDE, though the halo current has not been measured by the diagnostics in the HL-2A tokamak.

  6. Disruption of the blood-brain interface in neonatal rat neocortex induces a transient expression of metallothionein in reactive astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Moos, T

    1995-01-01

    rats were subjected to a localized freeze lesion of the neocortex of the right temporal cortex. This lesion results in a disrupted blood-brain interface, leading to extravasation of plasma proteins. From 16 h, reactive astrocytosis, defined as an increase in the number and size of cells expressing GFAP...

  7. Synergetic Effects of Runaway and Disruption Induced by VDE on the First Wall Damage in HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianying; Yang, Jinwei; Li, Xu; Yuan, Guoliang; Zhang, Yipo

    2012-03-01

    The plasma facing component in HL-2A has been damaged seriously after disruption, and for this reason its operation is suspended for maintenance. The experimental phenomena and plasma configurations, calculated by the current filament code (CF-code) using the plasma parameters measured by diagnostics and the signals of the magnetic probes, confirm that the first wall is damaged by the synergetic effects of runaway electrons and disruption induced by a vertical displacement event (VDE). When the plasma column is displaced upward/downward, the strong runaway electrons normally hit the baffle plate of the MP3 or MP1 coil in the upper and lower divertor during the disruption, causing the baffle plates to be holed and wrinkled by the energetic runaway current, and water (for cooling or heating the baffle plates) to leak into the vacuum vessel. Another disastrous consequence is that bellows underlying the baffle plate and outside the coil of MP3 for connecting two segments of the jacket casing pipe are punctured by arcing. The arc may be part of the halo current that forms a complete circuit. The experimental phenomena are indirect but compelling evidence for the existence of a halo current during the disruption and VDE, though the halo current has not been measured by the diagnostics in the HL-2A tokamak.

  8. Adverse metabolic consequences in humans of prolonged sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Orfeu M; Cain, Sean W; O'Connor, Shawn P; Porter, James H; Duffy, Jeanne F; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A; Shea, Steven A

    2012-04-11

    Epidemiological studies link short sleep duration and circadian disruption with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption, as can occur in people performing shift work, impairs glucose regulation and metabolism. Healthy adults spent >5 weeks under controlled laboratory conditions in which they experienced an initial baseline segment of optimal sleep, 3 weeks of sleep restriction (5.6 hours of sleep per 24 hours) combined with circadian disruption (recurring 28-hour "days"), followed by 9 days of recovery sleep with circadian re-entrainment. Exposure to prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption, with measurements taken at the same circadian phase, decreased the participants' resting metabolic rate and increased plasma glucose concentrations after a meal, an effect resulting from inadequate pancreatic insulin secretion. These parameters normalized during the 9 days of recovery sleep and stable circadian re-entrainment. Thus, in humans, prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption alters metabolism and could increase the risk of obesity and diabetes.

  9. Toxicological profiling of sediments using in vitro bioassays, with emphasis on endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Cenijn, Peter H; Hamers, Timo; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette; Murk, Albertinka J; Brouwer, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    In vitro bioassays are valuable tools for screening environmental samples for the presence of bioactive (e.g., endocrine-disrupting) compounds. They can be used to direct chemical analysis of active compounds in toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) approaches. In the present study, five in vitro bioassays were used to profile toxic potencies in sediments, with emphasis on endocrine disruption. Nonpolar total and acid-treated stable extracts of sediments from 15 locations in the Rhine Meuse estuary area in The Netherlands were assessed. Dioxin-like and estrogenic activities (using dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression [DR-CALUX] and estrogen-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression [ER-CALUX] assays) as well as genotoxicity (UMU test) and nonspecific toxic potency (Vibrio fischeri assay) were observed in sediment extracts. For the first time, to our knowledge, in vitro displacement of thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) from the thyroid hormone transport protein thransthyretin by sediment extracts was observed, indicating the presence of compounds potentially able to disrupt T4 plasma transport processes. Antiestrogenic activity was also observed in sediment. The present study showed the occurrence of endocrine-disrupting potencies in sediments from the Dutch delta and the suitability of the ER- and DR-CALUX bioassays to direct endocrine-disruption TIE studies.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that H. pylori also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major H. pylori virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with H. pylori wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. H. pylori disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to H. pylori exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that H. pylori activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  11. Disrupting incrementalism in health care innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farzad; Zenios, Stefanos

    2011-08-01

    To build enabling innovation frameworks for health care entrepreneurs to better identify, evaluate, and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. Powerful frameworks have been developed to enable entrepreneurs and investors identify which opportunity areas are worth pursuing and which start-up ideas have the potential to succeed. These frameworks, however, have not been clearly defined and interpreted for innovations in health care. Having a better understanding of the process of innovation in health care allows physician entrepreneurs to innovate more successfully. A review of academic literature was conducted. Concepts and frameworks related to technology innovation were analyzed. A new set of health care specific frameworks was developed. These frameworks were then applied to innovations in various health care subsectors. Health care entrepreneurs would greatly benefit from distinguishing between incremental and disruptive innovations. The US regulatory and reimbursement systems favor incrementalism with a greater chance of success for established players. Small companies and individual groups, however, are more likely to thrive if they adopt a disruptive strategy. Disruption in health care occurs through various mechanisms as detailed in this article. While the main mechanism of disruption might vary across different health care subsectors, it is shown that disruptive innovations consistently require a component of contrarian interpretation to guarantee considerable payoff. If health care entrepreneurs choose to adopt an incrementalist approach, they need to build the risk of disruption into their models and also ascertain that they have a very strong intellectual property (IP) position to weather competition from established players. On the contrary, if they choose to pursue disruption in the market, albeit the competition will be less severe, they need to recognize that the regulatory and reimbursement hurdles are going to be very high. Thus, they would benefit

  12. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  13. Disruptive Intelligence : How to gather Information to deal with disruptive innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.; Solberg Søilen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive innovations are innovations that have the capacity to transform a whole business into one with products that are more accessible and affordable (cf. Christensen et al. 2009). As Christensen et al. argue no business is immune to such disruptive innovations. If these authors are right, it

  14. Disruptive Intelligence : How to gather Information to deal with disruptive innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.; Solberg Søilen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive innovations are innovations that have the capacity to transform a whole business into one with products that are more accessible and affordable (cf. Christensen et al. 2009). As Christensen et al. argue no business is immune to such disruptive innovations. If these authors are right, it m

  15. Preschool Children's Observed Disruptive Behavior: Variations across Sex, Interactional Context, and Disruptive Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%),…

  16. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  17. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  18. Tokamak Plasmas : Plasma position control in SST1 tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Bandyopadhyay; S P Deshpande

    2000-11-01

    For long duration steady state operation of SST1, it would be very crucial to maintain the plasma radial and vertical positions accurately. For designing the position controller in SST1 we have adopted the simple linear RZIP control model. While the vertical position instability is slowed down by a set of passive stabilizers placed closed to the plasma edge, a pair of in-vessel active feedback coils can adequately control vertical position perturbations of up to 1 cm. The shifts in radial position arising due to minor disruptions would be controlled by a separate pair of poloidal field (PF) coils also placed inside the vessel, however the controller would ignore fast but insignificant changes in radius arising due to edge localised modes. The parameters of both vertical and radial position control coils and their power supplies are determined based on the RZIP simulations.

  19. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  20. Disruption, beamstrahlung, and beamstrahlung pair creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.

    1988-12-01

    The two major effects from the interaction of e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ beams---beamstrahlung and disruption---are reviewed, with emphasis on flat beam collisions. For the disruption effects we discuss the luminosity enhancement factor, the maximum and rms disruption angles, and the ''kink instability''. All the results are obtained from computer simulations, and scaling laws based on these are deduced whenever possible. For the beamstrahlung effects, we concentrate only on the final electron energy spectrum and the deflection angle associated with low energy particles. In addition to the generic studies on the beam-beam effects, we also list the relevant beam-beam parameters obtained from simulations on two sample designs: the TLC and the ILC. As an addendum, the newly discovered phenomenon of coherent beamstrahlung pair creation, together with the incoherent process, are discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Isolated Sleep Paralysis: Fear, Prevention, and Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian Andrew; Grom, Jessica Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about isolated sleep paralysis (ISP), and no empirically supported treatments are available. This study aims to determine: the clinical impact of ISP, the techniques used to prevent or disrupt ISP, and the effectiveness of these techniques. 156 undergraduates were assessed with lifetime ISP using a clinical interview. 75.64% experienced fear during ISP, and 15.38% experienced clinically significant distress/interference, while 19.23% attempted to prevent ISP, and 79.31% of these believed their methods were successful. Regarding disruption, 69.29% made attempts, but only 54.12% reported them effective. Disruption was more common than prevention, but several techniques were useful. Encouraging individuals to utilize these techniques and better monitor their symptoms may be an effective way to manage problematic ISP.

  2. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in The Netherlands, respectively. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  3. Extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael D; Springer, Bryan D

    2015-02-01

    Extensor mechanism disruption is a rare and potentially devastating complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. Disruption can occur at the quadriceps or patellar tendons or, in the setting of a fracture, at the patella. Recognition of the risk factors for disruption and prevention via meticulous surgical technique are critical to avoid this complication. Various management techniques and the challenges associated with treatment have been described. Nonsurgical management consists of the use of walking aids and/or knee braces, which may not be acceptable for the active patient. Surgical options include primary repair and reconstructive techniques using allograft, autograft, synthetic material, and gastrocnemius rotational flaps. However, no single method has reliably demonstrated satisfactory outcomes. Although research on reconstructive procedures with synthetic materials has been promising, further study is need to assess the use of these materials.

  4. Disc formation from stellar tidal disruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnerot, Clément; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The potential of tidal disruption of stars to probe otherwise quiescent supermassive black holes cannot be exploited, if their dynamics is not fully understood. So far, the observational appearance of these events has been commonly derived from analytical extrapolations of the debris dynamical properties just after the stellar disruption. In this paper, we perform hydrodynamical simulations of stars in highly eccentric orbits, that follow the stellar debris after disruption and investigate their ultimate fate. We demonstrate that gas debris circularize on an orbital timescale because relativistic apsidal precession causes the stream to self-cross. The higher the eccentricity and/or the deeper the encounter, the faster is the circularization. If the internal energy deposited by shocks during stream self-interaction is readily radiated, the gas forms a narrow ring at the circularization radius. It will then proceed to accrete viscously at a super-Eddington rate, puffing up under radiation pressure. If instead c...

  5. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  6. 3D MHD Simulations of Tokamak Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James

    2014-10-01

    Two disruption scenarios are modeled numerically by use of the CORSICA 2D equilibrium and NIMROD 3D MHD codes. The work follows the simulations of pressure-driven modes in DIII-D and VDEs in ITER. The aim of the work is to provide starting points for simulation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques currently in the CDR phase for ITER. Pressure-driven instability growth rates previously observed in simulations of DIIID are verified; Halo and Hiro currents produced during vertical displacements are observed in simulations of ITER with implementation of resistive walls in NIMROD. We discuss plans to exercise new code capabilities and validation.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasma-surface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.

  8. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  9. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  10. Effect of "rose essential oil" inhalation on stress-induced skin-barrier disruption in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Mika; Kano, Eri; Miyoshi, Michio; Komaki, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2012-05-01

    In stressed animals, several brain regions (e.g., hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus [PVN]) exhibit neuronal activation, which increases plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoids. We previously reported that so-called "green odor" inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA axis) and thereby prevents the chronic stress-induced disruption of the skin barrier. Here, we investigated whether rose essential oil, another sedative odorant, inhibits the stress-induced 1) increases in PVN neuronal activity in rats and plasma glucocorticoids (corticosterone [CORT] in rats and cortisol in humans) and 2) skin-barrier disruption in rats and humans. The results showed that in rats subjected to acute restraint stress, rose essential oil inhalation significantly inhibited the increase in plasma CORT and reduced the increases in the number of c-Fos-positive cells in PVN. Inhalation of rose essential oil significantly inhibited the following effects of chronic stress: 1) the elevation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), an index of the disruption of skin-barrier function, in both rats and humans and 2) the increase in the salivary concentration of cortisol in humans. These results suggest that in rats and humans, chronic stress-induced disruption of the skin barrier can be limited or prevented by rose essential oil inhalation, possibly through its inhibitory effect on the HPA axis.

  11. Constraining Cluster Disruption in M83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Villa, E.; Adamo, A.; Bastian, N.; Fouesneau, M.

    2014-09-01

    Currently two contrasting models have been put forward to explain cluster disruption. These models are known as Mass Independent Disruption (MID) and Mass Dependent Disruption (MDD) models. Here we will shortly introduce the two models and present the latest observational results obtained in the field. We will focus on the results achieved us- ing the new and unprecedented Hubble Space Telescope-WFC3 dataset of the face-on, spiral galaxy M83. The dataset, composed of 7 different fields, covers the galaxy up to a radius of ˜8 kpc, and is used to construct one of the most complete and systematic star cluster catalogues for a galaxy in the local universe. The cluster properties were estimated comparing the photometry (NUV and optical) with Single Stellar Population (SSP) models. If the age distribution is approximated by a single power-law, we find indices between -0.6 and 0 for the seven fields (independently of the binning used), finding a systematic trend with the local environment. Additionally, our results are inconsistent with the expected slope of ˜1 from the MID model, showing to be flatter. The combination of our results with the M31 galaxy (The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program), and the LMC (Baumgardt et al. 2013), is starting to guide the global understanding on star cluster disruption, and how these systems are strongly correlated with the local environment where they were formed.

  12. Study of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Juvancz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC cause more and more seriousenvironmental pollutions. The EDCs show only ng-μg/l concentration level in theenvironment, therefore their determinations require multistep sample preparationprocesses and highly sophisticated instrumentation. This paper discuss the EDC effects,and show examples for determination of such compounds.

  13. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  14. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  15. Analysis of recent fuel-disruption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.M.; Kraft, T.E.; DiMelfi, R.J.; Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent USDOE-sponsored DEH, FGR, and TREAT F series fuel-disruption experiments are analyzed with existing analytical models. The experiments are interpreted and the results used to evaluate the models. Calculations are presented using the FRAS3 fission-gas-behavior code and the DiMelfi-Deitrich fuel-response model.

  16. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2011-11-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products--including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption.

  18. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become `stronger', after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort.

  19. Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170

    CERN Multimedia

    A Lopez - TS/CE

    2005-01-01

    The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE

  20. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  1. Is Online Learning a Disruptive Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2011-01-01

    In their desire to plan for the future, planners must assess the role of both internal and external influences on the institution. What then should people make of the idea that technology is disruptive? This perception fuels the views of Barone and Hagner (2001), who claimed that technology would "transform" higher education; Duderstadt (2000),…

  2. E-Learning: Between Augmentation and Disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilesen, Simon B.; Josephsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Based on a framework for analysis combining diffusion theory, content layer analysis and sense making, this paper discusses the theme of "e-learning as augmentation or disruption" from the point of view of technological innovation. Two cases of on-campus blended learning at Roskilde University, Denmark, are introduced to illustrate the…

  3. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  4. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  5. Managing Disruptive Behaviour in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Both faculty and students at many colleges and universities report numerous incidents of disruptive and uncivil behaviour. However, studies show that faculty are often reluctant to confront these situations, or they feel ill-equipped to intervene. If the behaviour escalates, a disproportionate amount of time and effort can be spent trying to…

  6. Disrupting Educational Inequalities through Youth Digital Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornaiuolo, Amy; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews scholarship on youth and young adult activism in digital spaces, as young users of participatory media sites are engaging in political, civic, social, or cultural action and advocacy online to create social change. The authors argue that youth's digital activism serves as a central mechanism to disrupt inequality, and that…

  7. Development of Disruptive Open Access Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry; McConkey, Brigette

    2009-01-01

    Open access (OA) publication has emerged, with disruptive effects, as a major outlet for scholarly publication. OA publication is usually associated with on-line distribution and provides access to scholarly publications to anyone, anywhere--regardless of their ability to pay subscription fees or their association with an educational institution.…

  8. Is Online Learning a Disruptive Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2011-01-01

    In their desire to plan for the future, planners must assess the role of both internal and external influences on the institution. What then should people make of the idea that technology is disruptive? This perception fuels the views of Barone and Hagner (2001), who claimed that technology would "transform" higher education; Duderstadt (2000),…

  9. Hot Super Earths: disrupted young jupiters?

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Recent {\\em Kepler} observations revealed an unexpected abundance of "hot" Earth-size to Neptune-size planets in the inner $0.02-0.2$ AU from their parent stars. We propose that these smaller planets are the remnants of massive giant planets that migrated inward quicker than they could contract. We show that such disruptions naturally occur in the framework of the Tidal Downsizing hypothesis for planet formation. We find that the characteristic planet-star separation at which such "hot disruptions" occur is $R \\approx 0.03-0.2$ AU. This result is independent of the planet's embryo mass but is dependent on the accretion rate in the disc. At high accretion rates, $\\dot M \\simgt 10^{-6}\\msun$ yr$^{-1}$, the embryo is unable to contract quickly enough and is disrupted. At late times, when the accretion rate drops to $\\dot M \\simlt 10^{-8} \\msun$ yr$^{-1}$, the embryos migrate sufficiently slow to not be disrupted. These "late arrivals" may explain the well known population of hot jupiters. If type I migration reg...

  10. Analysis of recent fuel-disruption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.M.; Kraft, T.E.; DiMelfi, R.J.; Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent USDOE-sponsored DEH, FGR, and TREAT F series fuel-disruption experiments are analyzed with existing analytical models. The experiments are interpreted and the results used to evaluate the models. Calculations are presented using the FRAS3 fission-gas-behavior code and the DiMelfi-Deitrich fuel-response model.

  11. Neutron irradiation effects on plasma facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, V.; Federici, G.; Rödig, M.; Snead, L. L.; Wu, C. H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the effects of neutron irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties and bulk tritium retention of armour materials (beryllium, tungsten and carbon). For each material, the main properties affected by neutron irradiation are described and the specific tests of neutron irradiated armour materials under thermal shock and disruption conditions are summarized. Based on current knowledge, the expected thermal and structural performance of neutron irradiated armour materials in the ITER plasma facing components are analysed.

  12. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  13. Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Kong, Ying-Yee; Michalewski, Henry J; Starr, Arnold

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity were systematically studied in 21 subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with auditory neuropathy (AN), a recently defined disorder characterized by normal outer hair cell function but disrupted auditory nerve function. Neurological and electrophysical evidence suggests that disrupted auditory nerve activity is due to desynchronized or reduced neural activity or both. Psychophysical measures showed that the disrupted neural activity has minimal effects on intensity-related perception, such as loudness discrimination, pitch discrimination at high frequencies, and sound localization using interaural level differences. In contrast, the disrupted neural activity significantly impairs timing related perception, such as pitch discrimination at low frequencies, temporal integration, gap detection, temporal modulation detection, backward and forward masking, signal detection in noise, binaural beats, and sound localization using interaural time differences. These perceptual consequences are the opposite of what is typically observed in cochlear-impaired subjects who have impaired intensity perception but relatively normal temporal processing after taking their impaired intensity perception into account. These differences in perceptual consequences between auditory neuropathy and cochlear damage suggest the use of different neural codes in auditory perception: a suboptimal spike count code for intensity processing, a synchronized spike code for temporal processing, and a duplex code for frequency processing. We also proposed two underlying physiological models based on desynchronized and reduced discharge in the auditory nerve to successfully account for the observed neurological and behavioral data. These methods and measures cannot differentiate between these two AN models, but future studies using electric stimulation of the auditory nerve via a cochlear implant might. These results not only show the unique

  14. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the following three hypotheses: ①plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm; ②the circadian rhyt hm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet; ③high NaCl diet elevates plasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arteria l pressure (MAP) of SHR. Methods After having been instrumen ted with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age, all rats (Spontaneously Hypertensi ve Rat, SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat, WKY) experienced two experimental protocols, th e mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples als o been analysed for sodium contents. Results On basal NaCl diet, plasma sodium concentrations in SHR w ere significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured a nd the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phase s; on high NaCl diet, the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposit e in WKY. In SHR, the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhyt hm. Conclusion Plasma sodium displays a significant circadian rhythm in rats. The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  15. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  16. Evaluation of cell-disruption effects of pulsed-electric-field treatment of Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie; Vannela, Raveender; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-04-15

    In order to use Synechocystis PCC 6803 as feedstock of nonpetroleum-based diesel fuel, pulsed electric field (PEF) technology was used for cell disruption prior to extraction of intracellular lipids. Severe cell disruption was evident after PEF treatment, especially with treatment intensity (TI) > 35 kWh/m(3). Temperature increase during the treatment brought about most of the destruction of autofluorescence compounds, as well as a fraction of inactivation and the destruction of the plasma and thylakoid membranes. However, the forces associated with the pulsing electric field caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments, which resulted in biomass loss. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Thus, PEF shows promise for lowering the costs and environmental effects of the lipid-extraction step.

  17. Generation and suppression of runaway electrons in disruption mitigation experiments in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozhenkov, S A; Lehnen, M; Finken, K H; Kantor, M; Marchuk, O V; Uzgel, E; Zimmermann, O; Reiter, D [Institute for Energy Research-Plasma Physics, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Jakubowski, M W; Wolf, R C [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Jaspers, R [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster PO BOX 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegin (Netherlands); Wassenhove, G van [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, LPP-ERM/KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: s.bozhenkov@fz-juelich.de

    2008-10-15

    Runaway electrons represent a serious problem for the reliable operation of the future experimental tokamak ITER. Due to the multiplication factor of exp(50) in the avalanche even a few seed runaway electrons will result in a beam of high energetic electrons that is able to damage the machine. Thus suppression of runaway electrons is a task of great importance, for which we present here a systematic study of runaway electrons following massive gas injection in TEXTOR. Argon injection can cause the generation of runaways carrying up to 30% of the initial plasma current, while disruptions triggered by injection of helium or of mixtures of argon (5%, 10%, 20%) with deuterium are runaway free. Disruptions caused by argon injection finally become runaway free for very large numbers of injected atoms. The appearance/absence of runaway electrons is related to the fraction of atoms delivered to the plasma centre. This so-called mixing efficiency is deduced from a 0D model of the current quench. The estimated mixing efficiency is 3% for argon, 15% for an argon/deuterium mixture and about 40% for helium. A low mixing efficiency of high-Z impurities can have a strong implication for the design of the disruption mitigation system for ITER. However, a quantitative prediction requires a better understanding of the mixing mechanism.

  18. Effects of estrogens and estrogenic disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Patricia I S; Estêvão, Maria D; Power, Deborah M

    2014-08-15

    Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities.

  19. Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. S. Pinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs, regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities.

  20. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  1. Observation of Multiple Reconnections during Self-organization Process of High Temperature Fusion Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Munsat, T.; Donné, A. J. H.; Spakman, G. W.; Textor Team

    2011-10-01

    Images of a high resolution 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic shows evidence of multiple magnetic reconnection processes during the internal disruption of a high temperature tokamak plasmas. The disruption induces magnetic self-organization of the toroidal plasma being accompanied by successive or simultaneous multiple layer reconnection. The degree of asymmetric deformation of the internal magnetic structure (m/n=1/1 mode) prior to temperature crash influences the outcome of the disruptive behavior. The observation is critical for the building block of first principle theoretical modeling of the sawtooth oscillation in current driven toroidal plasmas and the understandings can be applied to the impulsive disruptive behavior in flares of the solar, accretion disk and stellar coronae, Earth magnetospheric storms, and controlled fusion. Work supported by the NRF of Korea, the US DOE, the NWO of the Netherlands, and the EURATOM-FOM association.

  2. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption.

  3. Characterization of thermal and current quench of JET plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, V.; Barabaschi, P.; Loarte, A.; Sugihara, M.

    2004-11-01

    JET provides crucial scaling points and unique physics access for the extrapolation of disruptions to ITER. Disruption and ELM heat loads influence the selection of materials for plasma facing components (PFCs). Most JET thermal quenches occur when the plasma thermal energy is less than half that at full performance, suggesting a more optimistic life expectancy for ITER PFCs. The exceptions are ITB collapses and pure VDEs, which are also more likely to lead to the shortest thermal quenches. For the fast current quench disruptions, the EM load due to the induced eddy currents represent the most severe electromechanical design condition for in-vessel components. The minimum linear decay time normalised to the plasma cross section extrapolates to a 40 ms disruption for ITER, based on data from JET and most other tokamaks. Some very fast JET events are better fit by an exponential, with the minimum characteristic current decay time scaling to 35 ms for ITER. Contrary to expectations, the quench rate of high and low thermal energy disruptions does not vary substantially.

  4. Scaling mechanisms of vapour/plasma shielding from laser-produced plasmas to magnetic fusion regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    The plasma shielding effect is a well-known mechanism in laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) reducing laser photon transmission to the target and, as a result, significantly reducing target heating and erosion. The shielding effect is less pronounced at low laser intensities, when low evaporation rate together with vapour/plasma expansion processes prevent establishment of a dense plasma layer above the surface. Plasma shielding also loses its effectiveness at high laser intensities when the formed hot dense plasma plume causes extensive target erosion due to radiation fluxes back to the surface. The magnitude of emitted radiation fluxes from such a plasma is similar to or slightly higher than the laser photon flux in the low shielding regime. Thus, shielding efficiency in LPPs has a peak that depends on the laser beam parameters and the target material. A similar tendency is also expected in other plasma-operating devices such as tokamaks of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactors during transient plasma operation and disruptions on chamber walls when deposition of the high-energy transient plasma can cause severe erosion and damage to the plasma-facing and nearby components. A detailed analysis of these abnormal events and their consequences in future power reactors is limited in current tokamak reactors. Predictions for high-power future tokamaks are possible only through comprehensive, time-consuming and rigorous modelling. We developed scaling mechanisms, based on modelling of LPP devices with their typical temporal and spatial scales, to simulate tokamak abnormal operating regimes to study wall erosion, plasma shielding and radiation under MFE reactor conditions. We found an analogy in regimes and results of carbon and tungsten erosion of the divertor surface in ITER-like reactors with erosion due to laser irradiation. Such an approach will allow utilizing validated modelling combined with well-designed and well-diagnosed LPP experimental studies for predicting

  5. Conversion of homothallic yeast to heterothallism trough HO gene disruption

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, WH

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple method was developed for the conversion of homothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeaststrains to heterothallism through HO gene disruption. An integrative ho:: neo disrupted allele was constructed by cloning a dominant selectable marker...

  6. Endocrine disrupters. The case of estrogen xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest of the scientific community in chemical substances able to alter the hormone balance –endocrine disrupters- has grown with increasing evidence of the consequences for animal populations of exposure to these substances. As has occurred on previous occasions, observational data on animal populations have been sufficiently suggestive to cause concerns among clinicians that similar effects may be produced in human populations. Although data on the effects on populations of animals are more easily generated than those on individuals, clinical observations on human individuals alongside the few existing epidemiological studies have shown a certain parallelism. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo models have been able to designate many chemical compounds as hormonal mimics, including both natural and human-produced compounds to which there are exposure risks. The present work reviews the conceptual premises of endocrine disruption and the development of the use of this term.

  7. Minimally Disruptive Medicine for Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Valentina; Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Boehmer, Kasey R; Montori, Victor M

    2017-09-23

    Patients with diabetes must deal with the burden of symptoms and complications (burden of illness). Simultaneously, diabetes care demands practical and emotional work from patients and their families, work to access and use healthcare and to enact self-care (burden of treatment). Patient work must compete with the demands of family, job, and community life. Overwhelmed patients may not have the capacity to access care or enact self-care and will thus experience suboptimal diabetes outcomes. Minimally disruptive medicine (MDM) is a patient-centered approach to healthcare that prioritizes patients' goals for life and health while minimizing the healthcare disruption on patients' lives. In patients with diabetes, particularly in those with complex lives and multimorbidity, MDM coordinates healthcare and community responses to improve outcomes, reduce treatment burden, and enable patients to pursue their life's hopes and dreams.

  8. The hexagon hypothesis: Six disruptive scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtles, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to bring a simple but effective and comprehensive approach to the development, delivery and monitoring of business continuity solutions. To ensure that the arguments and principles apply across the board, the paper sticks to basic underlying concepts rather than sophisticated interpretations. First, the paper explores what exactly people are defending themselves against. Secondly, the paper looks at how defences should be set up. Disruptive events tend to unfold in phases, each of which invites a particular style of protection, ranging from risk management through to business continuity to insurance cover. Their impact upon any business operation will fall into one of six basic scenarios. The hexagon hypothesis suggests that everyone should be prepared to deal with each of these six disruptive scenarios and it provides them with a useful benchmark for business continuity.

  9. Rotavirus disrupts cytoplasmic P bodies during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Rahul; Mukherjee, Arpita; Patra, Upayan; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2015-12-02

    Cytoplasmic Processing bodies (P bodies), the RNA-protein aggregation foci of translationally stalled and potentially decaying mRNA, have been reported to be differentially modulated by viruses. Rotavirus, the causative agent of acute infantile gastroenteritis is a double stranded RNA virus which completes its entire life-cycle exclusively in host cell cytoplasm. In this study, the fate of P bodies was investigated upon rotavirus infection. It was found that P bodies get disrupted during rotavirus infection. The disruption occurred by more than one different mechanism where deadenylating P body component Pan3 was degraded by rotavirus NSP1 and exonuclease XRN1 along with the decapping enzyme hDCP1a were relocalized from cytoplasm to nucleus. Overall the study highlights decay and subcellular relocalization of P body components as novel mechanisms by which rotavirus subverts cellular antiviral responses.

  10. Ultrasonic cavitation for disruption of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, Justin M; Tester, Jefferson W

    2015-05-01

    Challenges with mid-stream fractionation steps in proposed microalgae biofuel pathways arise from the typically dilute cell density in growth media, micron scale cell sizes, and often durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation by some method will be necessary. This study evaluates ultrasonic cell disruption as a processing step that fractionates microalgae. A range of species types with different sizes and cell wall compositions were treated. The initial seconds of sonication offered the most significant disruption, even for the more durable Nannochloropsis cells. Following this initial period, diminishing effectiveness was attributed, by acoustic measurements, to attenuation of the ultrasound in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. At longer exposure times, differences between species were more pronounced. Processing higher concentrations of Isochrysis slowed cell disintegration only marginally, making the expenditure of energy more worthwhile.

  11. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  12. Observations of infrared radiation during disruptions in TEXTOR: heat pulses and runaway electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, R. [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Grewe, T. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Finken, K.H. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kraemer-Flecken, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Lopes Cardozo, N.J. [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Mank, G. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Waidmann, G. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Disruptions are studied in TEXTOR using two infrared cameras. In the thermal quench phase, fast changing heat fluxes are observed, each delivering energies larger than 1 kJ/m{sup 2} to the limiter. These bursts are correlated with an electron temperature pulse near the limiter and an increased release of impurities. Further bursts are observed in the current decay phase. For the first time a disruption generated beam of runaway electrons, accelerated in about 10 ms to about 20 MeV, is observed inside the plasma by the infrared synchrotron radiation. This beam carries a current of about 20 kA and is lost within approximately 100 {mu}s. The heat deposition on the limiter due to the runaways is comparable to the power flux by the heat bursts. ((orig.)).

  13. Role of explosive instabilities in high-$\\beta$ disruptions in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Aydemir, A Y; Lee, S G; Seol, J; Park, B H; In, Y K

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically explosive growth of a ballooning finger is demonstrated in nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic calculations of high-$\\beta$ disruptions in tokamaks. The explosive finger is formed by an ideally unstable n=1 mode, dominated by an m/n=2/1 component. The quadrupole geometry of the 2/1 perturbed pressure field provides a generic mechanism for the formation of the initial ballooning finger and its subsequent transition from exponential to explosive growth, without relying on secondary processes. The explosive ejection of the hot plasma from the core and stochastization of the magnetic field occur in Alfv\\'enic time scales, accounting for the extremely fast growth of the precursor oscillations and the rapidity of the thermal quench in some high-$\\beta$ disruptions.

  14. The mass disruption of Jupiter Family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    2015-01-01

    I show that the size-distribution of small scattered-disk trans-neptunian objects when derived from the observed size-distribution of Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) and other observational constraints implies that a large percentage (94-97%) of newly arrived active comets within a range of 0.2-15.4 km effective radius must physically disrupt, i.e., macroscopically disintegrate, within their median dynamical lifetime. Additional observational constraints include the numbers of dormant and active nuclei in the near-Earth object (NEO) population and the slope of their size distributions. I show that the cumulative power-law slope (-2.86 to -3.15) of the scattered-disk TNO hot population between 0.2 and 15.4 km effective radius is only weakly dependent on the size-dependence of the otherwise unknown disruption mechanism. Evidently, as JFC nuclei from the scattered disk evolve into the inner Solar System only a fraction achieve dormancy while the vast majority of small nuclei (e.g., primarily those with effective radius Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Jedicke, R., Wiegert, P.A., Bottke Jr., W.F. [2002]. Science 296, 2212-2215) suggesting that all types of comet nuclei may have similar structural characteristics even though they may have different source regions and thermal histories. The typical disruption rate for a 1 km radius active nucleus is ∼5 × 10-5 disruptions/year and the dormancy rate is typically 3 times less. We also estimate that average fragmentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.04 events/year/comet, somewhat above the lower limit of 0.01 events/year/comet observed by Chen and Jewitt (Chen, J., Jewitt, D.C. [1994]. Icarus 108, 265-271).

  15. Five disruptive technology directions for 5G

    OpenAIRE

    Boccardi, Federico; W. Heath Jr., Robert; Lozano, Angel; L. Marzetta, Thomas; POPOVSKI, Petar

    2014-01-01

    New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications. The key ideas for each technology are described, along with their potential impact on 5G and the research challenges th...

  16. Subtle sabotage: endocrine disruption in wild populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cheek, Ann Oliver

    2016-01-01

    How important is endocrine disruption as a threat to wildlife populations? This review applies causal criteria to existing studies of wild populations of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals to answer three questions: (1) Have endocrine-mediated effects of contaminant exposure been documented? (2) Have individual adverse effects that could lead to population effects been documented? (3) Have population level effects been documented? In fish, the possibility of population level effec...

  17. Five disruptive technology directions for 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; W. Heath Jr., Robert; Lozano, Angel

    2014-01-01

    New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive...... MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications. The key ideas for each technology are described, along with their potential impact on 5G and the research challenges that remain....

  18. Identifying and engaging 'disengaged' and 'disruptive' students

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Cole

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines concerns in the UK about young people who are disruptive in class and/or disengaged from the normal educational process. After discussing who these children are and estimating their numbers, the paper examines recent research on how best to meet their needs. This research indicates the appropriateness of the UK government's recent softening of its position on 'inclusion'. The studies cited indicate that far more can be done in 'normal' school settings to promote engagement...

  19. Policy development for disruptive student behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Farnsworth, Judy; Springer, Pamela J

    2008-01-01

    Nursing students who demonstrate disruptive and at-risk behaviors in the classroom and clinical arena compromise the learning environment and are unable to provide safe, quality client care. They require early and swift identification, consultation, sanctions, or possible referral into treatment to protect themselves and public safety. The authors describe the evolution of a comprehensive policy for faculty intervention with at-risk students and provide an exemplar of a situation illustrating the use of the policy.

  20. Disruptive technologies and networking in telecom industries

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Hartington, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article discuss’ how economics of scale in supply and demand in the telecommunication industry has developed and how this has had great effect on the widespread usage and popularity of smart phones. By using this as a theoretical ground the paper looks into technical innovation in the telecommunication industry and finds significant similarities between the industry development and the literature on disruptive technology, which finds that incumbent companies are not able to react in a su...

  1. Influence of Dynamic Capabilities in Creating Disruptive Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Čiutienė, R; Thattakath, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Disruptive Innovation. For doing so the concepts of Dynamic Capabilities and Disruptive Innovation are reviewed. The criteria of an innovation named Disruptive Innovation are obtained by comparative study between the various innovation types. To demonstrate the role of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Disruptive Innovation, the Innovation Lifecycle is demonstrated with respect to Dynamic Capabilities. Th...

  2. A case for change: disruption in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Marc J; Maurer, Ralph; Wartman, Steven A; Sachs, Benjamin P

    2014-09-01

    Disruptive technologies allow less expensive and more efficient processes to eventually dominate a market sector. The academic health center's tripartite mission of education, clinical care, and research is threatened by decreasing revenues and increasing expenses and is, as a result, ripe for disruption. The authors describe current disruptive technologies that threaten traditional operations at academic health centers and provide a prescription not only to survive, but also to prosper, in the face of disruptive forces.

  3. Disruption effects on the beam size measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

    1995-06-01

    At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D{sub y} is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10{sup 10} particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 {mu}m horizontally and 0.55 {mu}m vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H{sub D} of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit.

  4. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  5. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affan eShaikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance (PHS is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet 20th-century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation – used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets, is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet – an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond.

  6. Natural Hazards and Supply Chain Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy through disruptions in supply chain networks. Moreover, despite increasing investment to infrastructure for disaster risk management, economic damages and losses caused by natural hazards are increasing. Manufacturing companies today have reduced inventories and streamlined logistics in order to maximize economic competitiveness. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks, which are the risk of collapse of an entire network caused by a few node of the network. For instance, the prolonged floods in Thailand in 2011 caused supply chain disruptions in their primary industries, i.e. electronic and automotive industries, harming not only the Thai economy but also the global economy. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and the Earthquake in Kumamoto Japan in 2016. This study attempts to discover what kind of effective measures are available for private companies to manage supply chain disruptions caused by floods. It also proposes a method to estimate potential risks using a Bayesian network. The study uses a Bayesian network to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains such as logistics, multiple layers of suppliers, warehouses, and consumer markets. Considering situations across different times, our study shows desirable data requirements for the analysis and effective measures to improve Value at Risk (VaR) for private enterprises and supply chains.

  7. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  8. The impact of disruptive innovations in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Erik; Bozic, Kevin J

    2009-10-01

    The US healthcare system is currently facing daunting demographic and economic challenges. Because musculoskeletal disorders and disease represent a substantial and growing portion of this healthcare burden, novel approaches will be needed to continue to provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible orthopaedic care to our population. The concept of "disruptive innovations," which has been studied and popularized by Harvard Business School Professor Clayton Christensen, may offer a potential framework for developing strategies to improve quality and control costs associated with musculoskeletal care. The introduction of mobile fluoroscopic imaging systems, the development of the Surgical Implant Generation Network intramedullary nail for treatment of long bone fractures in the developing world, the expanding role and contributions of physician assistants and nurse practitioners to the orthopaedic team, and the rise of ambulatory surgery centers are all examples of disruptive innovations in the field of orthopaedics. Although numerous cultural and regulatory barriers have limited the widespread adoption of these "disruptive innovations," we believe they represent an opportunity for clinicians to regain leadership in health care while at the same time improving quality and access to care for patients with musculoskeletal disease.

  9. Circadian dysregulation disrupts bile acid homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bile acids are potentially toxic compounds and their levels of hepatic production, uptake and export are tightly regulated by many inputs, including circadian rhythm. We tested the impact of disrupting the peripheral circadian clock on integral steps of bile acid homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both restricted feeding, which phase shifts peripheral clocks, and genetic ablation in Per1(-/-/Per2(-/- (PERDKO mice disrupted normal bile acid control and resulted in hepatic cholestasis. Restricted feeding caused a dramatic, transient elevation in hepatic bile acid levels that was associated with activation of the xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, indicative of liver damage. In the PERDKO mice, serum bile acid levels were elevated and the circadian expression of key bile acid synthesis and transport genes, including Cyp7A1 and NTCP, was lost. This was associated with blunted expression of a primary clock output, the transcription factor DBP, which transactivates the promoters of both genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that disruption of the circadian clock results in dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis that mimics cholestatic disease.

  10. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Affan T; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J N

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation - used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets - is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet - an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond.

  11. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  12. Runaway electron beam generation and mitigation during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Boboc, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coffey, I.; Decker, J.; Drewelow, P.; Devaux, S.; de Vries, P. C.; Fil, A.; Gerasimov, S.; Giacomelli, L.; Jachmich, S.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Kiptily, V.; Koslowski, R.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Lupelli, I.; Lomas, P. J.; Manzanares, A.; De Aguilera, A. Martin; Matthews, G. F.; Mlynář, J.; Nardon, E.; Nilsson, E.; Perez von Thun, C.; Riccardo, V.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Shevelev, A. E.; Sips, G.; Sozzi, C.; contributors, JET

    2015-09-01

    Disruptions are a major operational concern for next generation tokamaks, including ITER. They may generate excessive heat loads on plasma facing components, large electromagnetic forces in the machine structures and several MA of multi-MeV runaway electrons. A more complete understanding of the runaway generation processes and methods to suppress them is necessary to ensure safe and reliable operation of future tokamaks. Runaway electrons were studied at JET-ILW showing that their generation dependencies (accelerating electric field, avalanche critical field, toroidal field, MHD fluctuations) are in agreement with current theories. In addition, vertical stability plays a key role in long runaway beam formation. Energies up to 20 MeV are observed. Mitigation of an incoming runaway electron beam triggered by massive argon injection was found to be feasible provided that the injection takes place early enough in the disruption process. However, suppressing an already accelerated runaway electron beam in the MA range was found to be difficult even with injections of more than 2 kPa.m3 high-Z gases such as krypton or xenon. This may be due to the presence of a cold background plasma weakly coupled to the runaway electron beam which prevents neutrals from penetrating in the electron beam core. Following unsuccessful mitigation attempts, runaway electron impacts on beryllium plasma-facing components were observed, showing localized melting with toroidal asymmetries.

  13. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To test the following three hypotheses:(1)plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm;(2)the circadian rhythm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet;(3)high NaCl diet elevates lpasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arterial pressure(MAP)of SHR.Methods:After having been instrumented with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age,all rats(Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat,SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat,WKY) experienced two experimental protocols,the mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples also been analysed for sodium contents.Results:On basal NaCl diet,plasma sodium concentrations in SHR were significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured and the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phases;on high NaCl diet,the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposite in WKY,In SHR,the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhythm.Conclusion:Plasma sodium displays a significant ciradian rhythm in rats.The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  14. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Faniband; Lindh, Christian H; Bo AG Jönsson

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and o...

  15. Disruptive Behaviour of Students in Primary Education and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esturgo-Deu, M. Estrella; Sala-Roca, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the relation between disruptive behaviours and the emotional abilities of children in primary education. To do this, disruptive behaviour and emotional abilities were evaluated in 1422 pupils aged between 6 and 12 years of age at 11 education centres using EQIjv. No relation was found between disruptive behaviours and age, but…

  16. A CIT Investigation of Disruptive Faculty Behaviors: The Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on disruptive student behaviors in the classroom, little attention has been given to disruptive faculty behaviors. Utilizing theoretical concepts developed in the services-marketing literature, this study empirically explores student perceptions of disruptive faculty behaviors in the classroom. More specifically, this…

  17. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  18. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  19. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  20. CYP450-Dependent Biotransformation of the Insecticide Fipronil into Fipronil Sulfone Can Mediate Fipronil-Induced Thyroid Disruption in Rats (Full paper and erratum)

    OpenAIRE

    ROQUES, Beatrice; Lacroix, Marlène; Puel, Sylvie; Gayrard, Véronique; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Jouanin, Isabelle; Perdu, Elisabeth; Martin, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    In rats, the widely used insecticide fipronil increases the clearance of thyroxine (T-4). This effect is associated with a high plasma concentration of fipronil sulfone, the fipronil main metabolite in several species including rats and humans. In sheep, following fipronil treatment, fipronil sulfone plasma concentration and thyroid disruption are much lower than in rats. We postulated that fipronil biotransformation into fipronil sulfone by hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP) could act as a pote...

  1. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  2. Demonstration of the hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessner, Spencer J.

    2016-09-17

    A plasma wakefield accelerator is a device that converts the energy of a relativistic particle beam into a large-amplitude wave in a plasma. The plasma wave, or wakefield, supports an enormous electricfield that is used to accelerate a trailing particle beam. The plasma wakefield accelerator can therefore be used as a transformer, transferring energy from a high-charge, low-energy particle beam into a high-energy, low-charge particle beam. This technique may lead to a new generation of ultra-compact, high-energy particle accelerators. The past decade has seen enormous progress in the field of plasma wakefield acceleration with experimental demonstrations of the acceleration of electron beams by several gigaelectron-volts. The acceleration of positron beams in plasma is more challenging, but also necessary for the creation of a high-energy electron-positron collider. Part of the challenge is that the plasma responds asymmetrically to electrons and positrons, leading to increased disruption of the positron beam. One solution to this problem, first proposed over twenty years ago, is to use a hollow channel plasma which symmetrizes the response of the plasma to beams of positive and negative charge, making it possible to accelerate positrons in plasma without disruption. In this thesis, we describe the theory relevant to our experiment and derive new results when needed. We discuss the development and implementation of special optical devices used to create long plasma channels. We demonstrate for the first time the generation of meter-scale plasma channels and the acceleration of positron beams therein.

  3. On non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets and plasma bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinpei

    2012-10-01

    Because of the enhanced plasma chemistry, atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas (APNPs) have been widely studied for several emerging applications such as biomedical applications. For the biomedical applications, plasma jet devices, which generate plasma in open space (surrounding air) rather than in confined discharge gaps only, have lots of advantages over the traditional dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices. For example, it can be used for root canal disinfection, which can't be realized by the traditional plasma device. On the other hand, currently, the working gases of most of the plasma jet devices are noble gases or the mixtures of the noble gases with small amount of O2, or air. If ambient air is used as the working gas, several serious difficulties are encountered in the plasma generation process. Amongst these are high gas temperatures and disrupting instabilities. In this presentation, firstly, a brief review of the different cold plasma jets developed to date is presented. Secondly, several different plasma jet devices developed in our lab are reported. The effects of various parameters on the plasma jets are discussed. Finally, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the plasma bullet is discussed and its behavior is described. References: [1] X. Lu, M. Laroussi, V. Puech, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21, 034005 (2012); [2] Y. Xian, X. Lu, S. Wu, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123702 (2012); [3] X. Pei, X. Lu, J. Liu, D. Liu, Y. Yang, K. Ostrikov, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, J. Phys. D 45, 165205 (2012).

  4. Disruptive coloration in woodland camouflage: evaluation of camouflage effectiveness due to minor disruptive patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, Gorm K.; Heinrich, Daniela H.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from an observer based photosimulation study of generic camouflage patterns, intended for military uniforms, where three near-identical patterns have been compared. All the patterns were prepared with similar effective color, but were different in how the individual pattern patches were distributed throughout the target. We did this in order to test if high contrast (black) patches along the outline of the target would enhance the survivability when exposed to human observers. In the recent years it has been shown that disruptive coloration in the form of high contrast patches are capable of disturbing an observer by creating false edges of the target and consequently enhance target survivability. This effect has been shown in different forms in the Animal Kingdom, but not to the same extent in camouflaged military targets. The three patterns in this study were i) with no disruptive preference, ii) with a disruptive patch along the outline of the head and iii) with a disruptive patch on the outline of one of the shoulders. We used a high number of human observers to assess the three targets in 16 natural (woodland) backgrounds by showing images of one of the targets at the time on a high definition pc screen. We found that the two patterns that were thought to have a minor disruptive preference to the remaining pattern were more difficult to detect in some (though not all) of the 16 scenes and were also better in overall performance when all the scenes were accounted for.

  5. Comprehensive simulation of vertical plasma instability events and their serious damage to ITER plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.

    2008-11-01

    Safe and reliable operation is still one of the major challenges in the development of the new generation of ITER-like fusion reactors. The deposited plasma energy during major disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs) and vertical displacement events (VDEs) causes significant surface erosion, possible structural failure and frequent plasma contamination. While plasma disruptions and ELM will have no significant thermal effects on the structural materials or coolant channels because of their short deposition time, VDEs having longer-duration time could have a destructive impact on these components. Therefore, modelling the response of structural materials to VDE has to integrate detailed energy deposition processes, surface vaporization, phase change and melting, heat conduction to coolant channels and critical heat flux criteria at the coolant channels. The HEIGHTS 3D upgraded computer package considers all the above processes to specifically study VDE in detail. Results of benchmarking with several known laboratory experiments prove the validity of HEIGHTS implemented models. Beryllium and tungsten are both considered surface coating materials along with copper structure and coolant channels using both smooth tubes with swirl tape insert. The design requirements and implications of plasma facing components are discussed along with recommendations to mitigate and reduce the effects of plasma instabilities on reactor components.

  6. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  7. Implementation of a plasma-neutral model in NIMROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, S.; Shumlak, U.; King, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Interaction between plasma fluid and neutral species is of great importance in the edge region of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The presence of neutrals can have beneficial effects such as fueling burning plasmas and quenching the disruptions in tokamaks, as well as deleterious effects like depositing high energy particles on the vessel wall. The behavior of edge plasmas in magnetically confined systems has been investigated using computational approaches that utilize the fluid description for the plasma and Monte Carlo transport for neutrals. In this research a reacting plasma-neutral model is implemented in NIMROD to study the interaction between plasma and neutral fluids. This model, developed by E. T. Meier and U. Shumlak, combines a single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma model with a gas dynamic neutral fluid model which accounts for electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange. Incorporating this model into NIMROD allows the study of the interaction between neutrals and plasma in a variety of plasma science problems. An accelerated plasma moving through a neutral gas background in a coaxial electrode configuration is modeled, and the results are compared with previous calculations from the HiFi code.

  8. Plasma and cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser microsurgery in vivo

    CERN Document Server

    Hutson, M Shane

    2007-01-01

    We compare the plasma and cavitation dynamics underlying pulsed laser microsurgery in water and in fruit fly embryos (in vivo) - specifically for nanosecond pulses at 355 and 532 nm. We find two key differences. First, the plasma-formation thresholds are lower in vivo - especially at 355 nm - due to the presence of endogenous chromophores that serve as additional sources for plasma seed electrons. Second, the biological matrix constrains the growth of laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Both effects reduce the disrupted region in vivo when compared to extrapolations from measurements in water.

  9. Interaction of microwave radiation with an erosion plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, V. G.; Pashchina, A. S.; Ryazanskiy, N. M.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of high-power pulsed microwave radiation with a plasma jet formed by a discharge in an ablative capillary is studied. A significant influence of microwave radiation on the plasma jet flow is found. Depending on the intensity of the initial perturbation of the jet, different scenarios of its evolution downstream are possible: attenuation or amplification accompanied with the development of turbulence up to the disruption of the flow if a certain threshold of the energy action is exceeded. A significant influence of the plasma jet and its state on the spatial position of the microwave energy release zone is found.

  10. Tidal disruption events from supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Eric R; Nixon, Chris; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pre-disruption gravitational dynamics and post-disruption hydrodynamics of the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. We focus on binaries with relatively low mass primaries ($10^6M_{\\odot}$), moderate mass ratios, and separations with reasonably long gravitational wave inspiral times (tens of Myr). First, we generate a large ensemble (between 1 and 10 million) of restricted three-body integrations to quantify the statistical properties of tidal disruptions by circular SMBH binaries of initially-unbound stars. Compared to the reference case of a disruption by a single SMBH, the binary potential induces significant variance into the specific energy and angular momentum of the star at the point of disruption. Second, we use Newtonian numerical hydrodynamics to study the detailed evolution of the fallback debris from 120 disruptions randomly selected from the three-body ensemble (excluding only the most deeply penetrating encounters). We find that the overall mor...

  11. Response of beryllium to severe thermal shocks -simulation of disruption and vertical displacement events in future thermonuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Roedig, M.; Schuster, A. [Association Euratom-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Merola, M.; Qian, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium will play an important role for plasma facing components in next step thermonuclear fusion devices such as ITER. In particular for the first wall beryllium will be used with an armor thickness of several millimeters. However, during plasma instabilities they will experience severe thermal shocks. Here plasma disruptions with deposited energy densities of several ten MJm{sup -2} are the most essential damaging mechanism. However, a signifant fraction of the incident energy will be absorbed by a dense cloud of ablation vapor, hence reducing the effective energy density at the beryllium surface to values in the order of 10 MJm{sup -2}. To investigate the material response to all these plasma instabilities thermal shock tests on small scale test coupons (disruption effects) and on actively cooled divertor modules (VDEs) have been performed in the electron beam test facility JUDITH at ITER relevant surface heat loads. These tests have been performed on different bulk beryllium grades and on plasma sprayed coatings; the influence of pulse duration, power density, and temperature effects has been investigated experimentally. Detailed in-situ diagnostics (for beam characterization, optical pyrometry etc.) and post mortem analyses (profilometry, metallography, optical and electron microscopy) have been applied to quantify the resulting material damage. 1D- and 2D models have developed to verify the experimental results obtained in the electron beam simulation experiments. (J.P.N.)

  12. FIRE, a novel concept of massive gas injection for disruption mitigation in ITER: Validation on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Laurent, F., E-mail: francois.saint-laurent@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martin, G.; Alarcon, T.; Le Luyer, A.; Pastor, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Putvinski, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vincent, B.; Bucalossi, J.; Bremond, S.; Moreau, Ph.; Nardon, E.; Reux, C. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Bursting Disc Cartridge Injector has been tested on Tore Supra. • Very high particle flux can be injected for disruption mitigation. • Direct (ballistic) penetration of gas jet into hot plasma is observed. • Radial penetration of gas jet stops at q = 2 surface and turns to poloidal propagation. • This prototype demonstrates the proof of principle of such a design. - Abstract: Disruptions in large size tokamak like ITER must be mitigated to reduce detrimental effects on the device. Massive impurity injection prior to disruption is a promising mitigation technique. Many injector designs have already been tested on nowadays tokamaks. A novel concept of injector has been designed and tested on Tore Supra. It is based on the use of high pressure cartridges sealed with a bursting disc. For firing, an electric arc is generated inside the cartridge close to the rupture disc. This initiates a shock wave which breaks the disc. Tests show that the opening is achieved in less than 400 μs. A detailed modeling of the fast injector operation is presented. One result is that the gas is expelled in about 2 ms and an outflow rate as large as 4.2 × 10{sup 25} atoms/s can be achieved at the nozzle exit (1 cm diameter). Massive neon gas injections have be performed on stable plasma to validate the concept. The gas penetration into the plasma prior to disruption is followed by a fast camera. Comparison with a ferromagnetic-valve based injector was also carried out. It is found that the velocity of the cold front penetration into the hot plasma is larger using this new injector.

  13. Watch Out for Falling Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The path taken by the falling fragment in the June 2011 event. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]Sometimes plasma emitted from the Sun doesnt escape into space, but instead comes crashing back down to the solar surface. What can observations and models of this process tell us about how the plasma falls and the local conditions on the Sun?Fallback from a FlareOn 7 June 2011, an M-class flare erupted from the solar surface. As the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly looked on, plasma fragments from the flare arced away from the Sun and then fell back to the surface.Some fragments fell back where the Suns magnetic field was weak, returning directly to the surface. But others fell within active regions, where they crashed into the Suns magnetic field lines, brightening the channels and funneling along them through the dense corona and back to the Suns surface.The authors model of the falling blobs at several different times in their simulation. The blobs get disrupted when they encounter the field lines, and are then funneled along the channels to the solar surface. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]This sort of flare and fall-back event is a common occurrence with the Sun, and SDOs observations of the June 2011 event present an excellent opportunity to understand the process better. A team of scientists led by Antonino Petralia (University of Palermo, Italy and INAF-OAPA) modeled this event in an effort to learn more about how the falling plasma interacts with strong magnetic fields above the solar surface.Magnetic Fields as GuidesPetralia and collaborators used three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical modeling to attempt to reproduce the observations of this event. They simulated blobs of plasma as they fall back to the solar surface and interact with magnetic field lines over a range of different conditions.The team found that only simulations that assume a relatively strong magnetic field resulted in the blobs funneling along a channel to the

  14. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla;

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls...... and the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for human...

  15. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  17. Disruption of Four Kinesin Genes in Dictyostelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soga Ikko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinesin and dynein are the two families of microtubule-based motors that drive much of the intracellular movements in eukaryotic cells. Using a gene knockout strategy, we address here the individual function(s of four of the 13 kinesin proteins in Dictyostelium. The goal of our ongoing project is to establish a minimal motility proteome for this basal eukaryote, enabling us to contrast motor functions here with the often far more elaborate motor families in the metazoans. Results We performed individual disruptions of the kinesin genes, kif4, kif8, kif10, and kif11. None of the motors encoded by these genes are essential for development or viability of Dictyostelium. Removal of Kif4 (kinesin-7; CENP-E family significantly impairs the rate of cell growth and, when combined with a previously characterized dynein inhibition, results in dramatic defects in mitotic spindle assembly. Kif8 (kinesin-4; chromokinesin family and Kif10 (kinesin-8; Kip3 family appear to cooperate with dynein to organize the interphase radial microtubule array. Conclusion The results reported here extend the number of kinesin gene disruptions in Dictyostelium, to now total 10, among the 13 isoforms. None of these motors, individually, are required for short-term viability. In contrast, homologs of at least six of the 10 kinesins are considered essential in humans. Our work underscores the functional redundancy of motor isoforms in basal organisms while highlighting motor specificity in more complex metazoans. Since motor disruption in Dictyostelium can readily be combined with other motility insults and stresses, this organism offers an excellent system to investigate functional interactions among the kinesin motor family.

  18. Nomofungin: a new microfilament disrupting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, A S; Yoshida, W Y; Mooberry, S L; Hemscheidt, T K

    2001-12-28

    A new alkaloid, nomofungin, has been isolated from the fermentation broth of an unidentified endophytic fungus obtained from the bark of Ficus microcarpa L. The structure of nomofungin was determined by application of spectroscopic methods. The absolute stereochemistry of nomofungin was assigned by using the exciton chirality method. Nomofungin disrupts microfilaments in cultured mammalian cells and is moderately cytotoxic with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2 and 4.5 microg/mL against LoVo and KB cells, respectively. The ring system of nomofungin is unprecedented.

  19. Multimedia data mining and analytics disruptive innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Baughman, Aaron; Pan, Jia-Yu; Petrushin, Valery A

    2015-01-01

    This authoritative text/reference provides fresh insights into the cutting edge of multimedia data mining, reflecting how the research focus has shifted towards networked social communities, mobile devices and sensors. Presenting a detailed exploration into the progression of the field, the book describes how the history of multimedia data processing can be viewed as a sequence of disruptive innovations. Across the chapters, the discussion covers the practical frameworks, libraries, and open source software that enable the development of ground-breaking research into practical applications.

  20. Disruptive Innovation by Emerging Multinational Latecomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    Despite the growing interest in the emerging-economy multinational enterprise (EMNE), there is little knowledge about the underlying mechanism for EMNEs as latecomers to catch up with and even leapfrog the traditional MNEs as early-movers. The cross-fertilization between the research streams...... on disruptive innovation (DI) and the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) provides a great opportunity to shed light on the key issue. To take advantage of this “missed” opportunity, I integrate the two reframed constructs of DI and BOP and also develop a typology of four ideal-typical innovations toward a theory...

  1. Defending the Pittsburgh Waterways Against Catastrophic Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis develops an Operatorâ s Model that mimics the real-world behavior of coal transport in the Port of Pittsburgh and allows for systematic investigation of â what ifâ disruption scenarios. We model the multi-modal flow of coal using a network of nodes and arcs representing river transport, with support from a surrounding system of rail lines and roads. Each mode of shipment has finite capacities with varying costs. Our model routes flows in order to satisfy contracted...

  2. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  3. Functional MRI studies in disruptive behaviour disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, M; Garzitto, M; Brambilla, P

    2012-03-01

    Aggressive or antisocial behaviours with violations of social rules are the main features of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), which are developmental diseases and include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. In the last decade, several efforts have been made to shed light on the biological underpinnings of DBDs. In this context, the main findings of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in DBD are reported here. There are indications of neural dysfunctions in response to affective stimuli, especially regarding medial and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex and connected subcortical structures.

  4. Manuel′s asteroid disruption technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A seventy-year-old male presented with dense asteroid hyalosis in both eyes. He had undergone cataract extraction in one eye 3 years ago, and the other eye had immature cataract. Both the autorefractor and dilated streak retinoscopy did not give readings and subjective visual improvement could not be achieved. Immediately following YAG posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitreous asteroid disruption, the vision improved to 20/20 with recordable auto refractor and streak retinoscopy values. Our initial experience indicates that the treatment is simple, safe and effective but needs controlled and prospective studies to confirm its long-term safety.

  5. Disruptive Innovation in Air Measurement Technology: Reality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is a big picture overview on the changing state of air measurement technology in the world, with a focus on the introduction of low-cost sensors into the market place. The presentation discusses how these new technologies may be a case study in disruptive innovation for the air pollution measurement field. The intended audience is primarily those with experience in air pollution measurement methods, but much of the talk is accessible to the general public. This is a keynote presentation on emerging air monitoring technology, to be provided at the AWMA measurements conference in March, 2016.

  6. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    , no significant metabolic transformation of the azole fungicides was detected. CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Overall, the results from the studies presented in this thesis support the evidence suggesting that nutrition relevant concentrations of PEs, both alone and in mixtures, induce various endocrine disrupting...... of in vitro metabolising systems in conection with in vitro testing of EDCs METHODS: Twelve dietary relevant phytoestrogens (PEs) either alone or in mixtures were analysed in a battery of in vitro bioassays designed to look for effects on: a) steroid hormone production in human adrenal corticocarcinoma cells...

  7. Disruption of Spectrin-Like Cytoskeleton in Differentiating Keratinocytes by PKCδ Activation Is Associated with Phosphorylated Adducin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Masci, Paul P.; Lavin, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Spectrin is a central component of the cytoskeletal protein network in a variety of erythroid and non-erythroid cells. In keratinocytes, this protein has been shown to be pericytoplasmic and plasma membrane associated, but its characteristics and function have not been established in these cells. Here we demonstrate that spectrin increases dramatically in amount and is assembled into the cytoskeleton during differentiation in mouse and human keratinocytes. The spectrin-like cytoskeleton was predominantly organized in the granular and cornified layers of the epidermis and disrupted by actin filament inhibitors, but not by anti-mitotic drugs. When the cytoskeleton was disrupted PKCδ was activated by phosphorylation on Thr505. Specific inhibition of PKCδ(Thr505) activation with rottlerin prevented disruption of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and the associated morphological changes that accompany differentiation. Rottlerin also inhibited specific phosphorylation of the PKCδ substrate adducin, a cytoskeletal protein. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous adducin affected not only expression of adducin, but also spectrin and PKCδ, and severely disrupted organization of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal distribution of both adducin and PKCδ. These results demonstrate that organization of a spectrin-like cytoskeleton is associated with keratinocytes differentiation, and disruption of this cytoskeleton is mediated by either PKCδ(Thr505) phosphorylation associated with phosphorylated adducin or due to reduction of endogenous adducin, which normally connects and stabilizes the spectrin-actin complex. PMID:22163289

  8. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  9. Disruption of spectrin-like cytoskeleton in differentiating keratinocytes by PKCδ activation is associated with phosphorylated adducin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong-Nan Zhao

    Full Text Available Spectrin is a central component of the cytoskeletal protein network in a variety of erythroid and non-erythroid cells. In keratinocytes, this protein has been shown to be pericytoplasmic and plasma membrane associated, but its characteristics and function have not been established in these cells. Here we demonstrate that spectrin increases dramatically in amount and is assembled into the cytoskeleton during differentiation in mouse and human keratinocytes. The spectrin-like cytoskeleton was predominantly organized in the granular and cornified layers of the epidermis and disrupted by actin filament inhibitors, but not by anti-mitotic drugs. When the cytoskeleton was disrupted PKCδ was activated by phosphorylation on Thr505. Specific inhibition of PKCδ(Thr505 activation with rottlerin prevented disruption of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and the associated morphological changes that accompany differentiation. Rottlerin also inhibited specific phosphorylation of the PKCδ substrate adducin, a cytoskeletal protein. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous adducin affected not only expression of adducin, but also spectrin and PKCδ, and severely disrupted organization of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal distribution of both adducin and PKCδ. These results demonstrate that organization of a spectrin-like cytoskeleton is associated with keratinocytes differentiation, and disruption of this cytoskeleton is mediated by either PKCδ(Thr505 phosphorylation associated with phosphorylated adducin or due to reduction of endogenous adducin, which normally connects and stabilizes the spectrin-actin complex.

  10. Wall mode stabilization at slow plasma rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Betti, Riccardo; Reimerdes, Holger; Garofalo, Andrea; Manickam, Janardhan

    2007-11-01

    Unstable pressure-driven external kink modes, which become slowly growing resistive wall modes (RWMs) in the presence of a resistive wall, can lead to tokamak plasma disruptions at high beta. It has been shown that RWMs are stabilized by fast plasma rotation (about 1-2% of the Alfv'en frequency) in experiments. Conventional theories attribute the RWM suppression to the dissipation induced by the resonances between plasma rotation and ion bounce/transit or shear Alfv'en frequencies [1]. In those theories, the kinetic effects associated with the plasma diamagnetic frequencies and trapped-particle precession drift frequencies are neglected. It has been observed in recent experiments [2,3] that the RWM suppression also occurs at very slow plasma rotation (about 0.3% of the Alfv'en frequency), where the conventional dissipation is too small to fully suppress the RWMs. Here it is shown, that the trapped-particle kinetic contribution associated with the precession motion [4] is large enough to stabilize the RWM in DIII-D at low rotation. Work supported by the US-DoE OFES. [1] A. Bondeson and M. S. Chu, Physics of Plasmas, 3,3013 (1996). [2] H. Reimerdes et al., Physical Review Letters, 98,055001 (2007). [3] M. Takechi et al., Physical Review Letters, 98,055002 (2007). [4] B. Hu and R. Betti, Physical Review Letters, 93,105002 (2004).

  11. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  12. A Simple Ideal MHD Model of Vertical Disruption Events in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2008-11-01

    A simple model of axisymmetric vertical disruption events (VDEs) in tokamaks is presented in which the halo current force exerted on the vacuum vessel is calculated directly from linear, marginally stable, ideal-magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) stability analysis. The basic premise of the model is that the halo current force modifies pressure balance at the edge of the plasma, and therefore also modifies ideal-MHD plasma stability. In order to prevent the ideal vertical instability, responsible for the VDE, from growing on the very short Alfv'en time- scale, the halo current force must adjust itself such that the instability is rendered marginally stable. The model predicts halo currents which are similar in magnitude to those observed experimentally. An approximate non-axisymmetric version of the model is developed in order to calculate the toroidal peaking factor of the halo current force.

  13. A simple ideal magnetohydrodynamical model of vertical disruption events in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simple model of axisymmetric vertical disruption events (VDEs) in tokamaks is presented in which the halo current force exerted on the vacuum vessel is calculated directly from linear, marginally stable, ideal-magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) stability analysis. The basic premise of the model is that the halo current force modifies pressure balance at the edge of the plasma, and therefore also modifies ideal-MHD plasma stability. In order to prevent the ideal vertical instability, responsible for the VDE, from growing on the very short Alfvén time scale, the halo current force must adjust itself such that the instability is rendered marginally stable. The model predicts halo currents which are similar in magnitude to those observed experimentally. An approximate nonaxisymmetric version of the model is developed in order to calculate the toroidal peaking factor for the halo current force.

  14. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baweja R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raman Baweja, Susan D Mayes, Usman Hameed, James G Waxmonsky Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. Keywords: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent irritability, temper outbursts 

  15. Abundance Anomalies In Tidal Disruption Events

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanek, C S

    2015-01-01

    The ~10% of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than the Sun should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ~25% on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of 2-3 for debris at a common orbital period. These helium abundance variations may be a contributor to the observed diversity of hydrogen and helium line strengths in TDEs. A still more striking anomaly is the rapid enhancement of nitrogen and the depletion of carbon due to the CNO cycle -- stars more massive than the Sun quickly show an increase in their average N/C ratio by factors of 3-10. Because low mass stars evolve slowly and high mass stars are rare, TDEs showing high N/C will almost all be due to 1-2Msun stars disr...

  16. Modeling Steroidogenesis Disruption Using High-Throughput ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental chemicals can elicit endocrine disruption by altering steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis) causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Historically, a lack of assays resulted in few chemicals having been evaluated for effects on steroidogenesis. The steroidogenic pathway is a series of hydroxylation and dehydrogenation steps carried out by CYP450 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, yet the only enzyme in the pathway for which a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay has been developed is aromatase (CYP19A1), responsible for the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. Recently, the ToxCast HTS program adapted the OECD validated H295R steroidogenesis assay using human adrenocortical carcinoma cells into a high-throughput model to quantitatively assess the concentration-dependent (0.003-100 µM) effects of chemicals on 10 steroid hormones including progestagens, androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids. These results, in combination with two CYP19A1 inhibition assays, comprise a large dataset amenable to clustering approaches supporting the identification and characterization of putative mechanisms of action (pMOA) for steroidogenesis disruption. In total, 514 chemicals were tested in all CYP19A1 and steroidogenesis assays. 216 chemicals were identified as CYP19A1 inhibitors in at least one CYP19A1 assay. 208 of these chemicals also altered hormone levels in the H295R assay, suggesting 96% sensitivity in the

  17. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (τ <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  19. Globally disruptive events show predictable timing patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Michael P.; Erenler, Hilary E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally disruptive events include asteroid/comet impacts, large igneous provinces and glaciations, all of which have been considered as contributors to mass extinctions. Understanding the overall relationship between the timings of the largest extinctions and their potential proximal causes remains one of science's great unsolved mysteries. Cycles of about 60 Myr in both fossil diversity and environmental data suggest external drivers such as the passage of the Solar System through the galactic plane. While cyclic phenomena are recognized statistically, a lack of coherent mechanisms and a failure to link key events has hampered wider acceptance of multi-million year periodicity and its relevance to earth science and evolution. The generation of a robust predictive model of timings, with a clear plausible primary mechanism, would signal a paradigm shift. Here, we present a model of the timings of globally disruptive events and a possible explanation of their ultimate cause. The proposed model is a symmetrical pattern of 63 Myr sequences around a central value, interpreted as the occurrence of events along, and parallel to, the galactic midplane. The symmetry is consistent with multiple dark matter disks, aligned parallel to the midplane. One implication of the precise pattern of timings and the underlying physical model is the ability to predict future events, such as a major extinction in 1-2 Myr.

  20. Multiband lightcurves of tidal disruption events

    CERN Document Server

    Lodato, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Unambiguous detection of the tidal disruption of a star would allow an assessment of the presence and masses of supermassive black holes in quiescent galaxies. It would also provide invaluable information on bulge scale stellar processes (such as two-body relaxation) via the rate at which stars are injected into the tidal sphere of influence of the black holes. This rate, in turn, is essential to predict gravitational radiation emission by compact object inspirals. The signature of a tidal disruption event is thought to be a fallback rate for the stellar debris onto the black hole that decreases as $t^{-5/3}$. This mass flux is often assumed to yield a luminous signal that decreases in time at the same rate. In this paper, we calculate the monochromatic lightcurves arising from such an accretion event. Differently from previous studies, we adopt a more realistic description of the fallback rate and of the super-Eddigton accretion physics. We also provide simultaneous lightcurves in optical, UV and X-rays. We ...

  1. Cool Core Disruption in Abell 1763

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Edmund; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Randall, Scott W.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Sabry, Ziad

    2017-01-01

    We present the analysis of a 20 ksec Chandra archival observation of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1763. A model-subtracted image highlighting excess cluster emission reveals a large spiral structure winding outward from the core to a radius of ~950 kpc. We measure the gas of the inner spiral to have significantly lower entropy than non-spiral regions at the same radius. This is consistent with the structure resulting from merger-induced motion of the cluster’s cool core, a phenomenon seen in many systems. Atypical of spiral-hosting clusters, an intact cool core is not detected. Its absence suggests the system has experienced significant disruption since the initial dynamical encounter that set the sloshing core in motion. Along the major axis of the elongated ICM distribution we detect thermal features consistent with the merger event most likely responsible for cool core disruption. The merger-induced transition towards non-cool core status will be discussed. The interaction between the powerful (P1.4 ~ 1026 W Hz-1) cluster-center WAT radio source and its ICM environment will also be discussed.

  2. Disruptive Conduct: The Impact of Disruptive Technologies on Social Relations in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) have invested significantly in digital technologies for learning and teaching. However, technologies provided by HEIs have not been universally successful in terms of adoption and usage. Meanwhile, both students and lecturers use disruptive technologies to support learning and teaching. This article examines…

  3. Disrupting Law School: How Disruptive Innovation Will Revolutionize the Legal World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Michele R.; Horn, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Facing dramatic declines in enrollment, revenue, and student quality at the same time that their cost structure continues to rise and public support has waned, law schools are in crisis. A key driver of the crisis is shrinking employment opportunities for recent graduates, which stem in part from the disruption of the traditional business model…

  4. Disruptive Conduct: The Impact of Disruptive Technologies on Social Relations in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) have invested significantly in digital technologies for learning and teaching. However, technologies provided by HEIs have not been universally successful in terms of adoption and usage. Meanwhile, both students and lecturers use disruptive technologies to support learning and teaching. This article examines…

  5. Laboratory simulation of energetic flows of magnetospheric planetary plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Posukh, V. G.; Melekhov, A. V.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Prokopov, P. A.; Ponomarenko, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic interaction of super-sonic counter-streaming plasmas moving in dipole magnetic dipole is studied in laboratory experiment. First, a quasi-stationary flow is produced by plasma gun which forms a magnetosphere around the magnetic dipole. Second, explosive plasma expanding from inner dipole region outward is launch by laser beams focused at the surface of the dipole cover. Laser plasma is energetic enough to disrupt magnetic field and to sweep through the background plasma for large distances. Probe measurements showed that far from the initially formed magnetosphere laser plasma carries within itself a magnetic field of the same direction but order of magnitude larger in value than the vacuum dipole field at considered distances. Because no compression of magnetic field at the front of laser plasma was observed, the realized interaction is different from previous experiments and theoretical models of laser plasma expansion into uniform magnetized background. It was deduced based on the obtained data that laser plasma while expanding through inner magnetosphere picks up a magnetized shell formed by background plasma and carries it for large distances beyond previously existing magnetosphere.

  6. A Study of the Flow Patterns of Expanding Impurity Aerosol Following a Disruption Event in a Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Rudrodip

    The current study focuses on the adiabatic expansion of aerosol impurity in the post-disruption and thermal quench scenario inside the vacuum chamber of a fusion reactor. A pulsed electrothermal plasma (ET) capillary source has been used as a source term simulating the surface ablation of the divertor or other interior critical components of a tokamak fusion reactor under hard disruption-like conditions. The capillary source generates particulates from wall evaporation by depositing transient radiant high heat flux onto the inner liner of the capillary. The particulates form a plasma jet moving towards the capillary exit at high speed and high pressure. The first chapter discusses briefly the relevance of the study pertaining to the impurities in a fusion reactor based on the work available in the form of published literature. The second chapter discusses briefly the operating principle of a pulsed electrothermal plasma source (PEPS), the virtual integration of PEPS with 1-D electrothermal plasma flow solver ETFLOW and the use of capillary plasma sources in various industrial applications. The third chapter discusses about primitive computational work, backed by the data from actual electrothermal source experiments from the in-house facility "PIPE" (Plasma Interactions with Propellants Experiment), that shows the supersonic bulk flow patterns for the temperature, density, pressure, bulk velocity and the flow Mach number of the impurity particulates as they get ejected as a high-pressure, high-temperature and hyper-velocity jet from the simulated source term. It also shows the uniform steady-state subsonic expansion of bulk aerosol inside the expansion chamber. The fourth chapter discusses scaling laws in 1-D for the aforesaid bulk plasma parameters for ranges of axial length traversed by the flow, so that one can retrieve the flow parameters at some preferred locations. The fifth chapter discusses the effect of temperature and the non--linearity of the adiabatic

  7. SIMULATING THE SUPPLY DISRUPTION FOR THE COORDINATED SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are many disruptive accidents in the supply chain operations system and achieving the coordination of supply chain is main objective for supply chain research. While disruptive accidents have increasingly influenced the coordinated operation of the supply chain, existing research literature on the supply chain coordination is setting in a stationary environment. The answer for how the disruptive accidents affect the coordinated supply chain is given in this paper. Based on the benchmark supply chain which is coordinated by the negative incentive mechanism, we study the impacts of supply disruption on the supply chain system by using simulation approach in which two different distribution function of random variable are used to express the supply disruption. Comparison between these two simulation results and possible coordination mechanism under the supply disruption are proposed. From the perspective of supply chain risk management, we provide the inspiration for the manager.

  8. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Tidal Disruption Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenko, Stephen B.

    2017-08-01

    When a star passes within the sphere of disruption of a massive black hole, tidal forces will overcome self-gravity and unbind the star. While approximately half of the stellar debris is ejected at high velocities, the remaining material stays bound to the black hole and accretes, resulting in a luminous, long-lived transient known as a tidal disruption flare (TDF). In addition to serving as unique laboratories for accretion physics,TDFs offer the hope of measuring black hole masses in galaxies much too distant for resolved kinematic studies.In order to realize this potential, we must better understand the detailed processes by which the bound debris circularizes and forms an accretion disk. Spectroscopy is critical to this effort, as emission and absorption line diagnostics provide insight into the location and physical state (velocity, density, composition) of the emitting gas (in analogy with quasars). UV spectra are particularly critical, as most strong atomic features fall in this bandpass, and high-redshift TDF discoveries from LSST will sample rest-frame UV wavelengths.Here I present recent attempts to obtain UV spectra of tidal disruption flares. I describe the UV spectrum of ASASSN-14li, in which we detect three classes of features: narrow absorption from the Milky Way (probably a high-velocity cloud), and narrow absorption and broad (2000-8000 km s-1) emission lines at or near the systemic host velocity. The absorption lines are blueshifted with respect to the emission lines by 250-400 km s-1. Due both to this velocity offset and the lack of common low-ionization features (Mg II, Fe II), we argue these arise from the same absorbing material responsible for the low-velocity outflow discovered at X-ray wavelengths. The broad nuclear emission lines display a remarkable abundance pattern: N III], N IV], and He II are quite prominent, while the common quasar emission lines of C III] and Mg II are weak or entirely absent. Detailed modeling of this spectrum will

  9. Rotation Induced Disruption of Cohesive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Lana, Diego; Scheeres, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    We use a Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) code to study the evolution of self-gravitating cohesive granular aggregates that are spun to disruption as a proxy to "rubble-pile" asteroids. Calculations have shown that the fine regolith in asteroids and molecular Van der Waals forces together may act as a cohesive matrix that provides enough structural strength to hold small NEAs together even at the observed high spin rates. With this in mind we have implemented cohesive forces between the large 10 m) particles that form our aggregates; its strength being controlled by the mean particle size of the matrix. The addition of rolling friction also has allowed us to obtain cohesionless aggregates with friction angles of at least 35° as measured by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. A series of experiments were run with the code, keeping the size, density and number of grains constant while increasing the cohesive strength of the matrix holding the grains in place. It can be shown, through a scaling analysis, that when the cohesive strength between rubble pile components is increased by a factor of f, that the effective size of the asteroid being modeled will decrease by a factor of 1/√f. To evaluate this we ran a series of 12 cases with increasing cohesive strength, effectively modeling rubble piles of size from 0.1 km up to 100 km with a constant cohesive strength of 25 Pa. Some of our main results are as follows: 1. results from simulations are compatible with a simple model of asteroid strength that predicts, in the cohesion dominated case, that the spin rate for fission is inversely proportional to the size of the asteroid; 2. aggregates may disrupt by shedding or fission, depending on the cohesive strength and the size of the aggregate (shape and heterogeneity factors have not yet been considered); 3. disruption by fission is more likely for small aggregates than for larger aggregates with the same cohesive strength. Further results with spherical and a

  10. Probing Runaway Electrons with Nanoparticle Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The injection of C60/C nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) into tokamak plasma during a major disruption has the potential to probe the runaway electrons (REs) during different phases of their dynamics and diagnose them through spectroscopy of C ions visible/UV lines. A C60/C NPPJ of ~75 mg, high-density (>1023 m-3), hyper-velocity (>4 km/s), and uniquely fast response-to-delivery time (~1 ms) has been demonstrated on a test bed. It can rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to increase electron density to ~2.4 × 1021 m-3, ~60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value. We will present the results of our investigations on: 1) C60 fragmentation and gradual release of C atoms along C60 NPPJ penetration path through the RE carrying residual cold plasma, 2) estimation of photon emissivity coefficient for the lines of the C ions, and 3) simulation of C60/C PJ penetration to the RE beam location in equivalent conditions to the characteristic ~1 T B-field of DIII-D. The capabilities of this injection technique provide a unique possibility in understanding and controlling the RE beam, which is a critical problem for ITER. Work supported by US DOE DE-SC0011864 Grant.

  11. Modeling and Simulation for Nanoparticle Plasma Jet Diagnostic Probe for Runaway Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    The C60 nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) rapid injection into a tokamak major disruption is followed by C60 gradual fragmentation along plasma-traversing path. The result is abundant C ion concentration in the core plasma enhancing the potential to probe and diagnose the runaway electrons (REs) during different phases of their dynamics. A C60/C NPPJ of 75 mg, high-density (>1023 m-3) , hyper-velocity (>4 km/s), and uniquely fast response-to-delivery time ( 1 ms) has been demonstrated on a test bed. It can rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to increase electron density to 2.4x1021 m-3, 60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value. We will present the results of our on-going work on: 1) self-consistent model for RE current density evolution (by Dreicer mechanism and ``avalanche'') focused on the effect of fast and deep deposition of C ions, 2) improvement of single C60q+ fragmenting ion penetration model through tokamak B(R)-field and post-TQ plasma, and 3) simulation of C60q+ PJ penetration through the DIII-D characteristic 2 T B-field to the RE beam central location by using the Hybrid Electro-Magnetic 2D code (HEM-2D. Work supported by US DOE DE-SC0015776 Grant.

  12. Disruption forces on the tokamak wall with and without poloidal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2017-05-01

    The contributions into the disruption radial force on the tokamak vacuum vessel wall are calculated and analyzed. One is due to the induced toroidal current in the wall, and another is due to the poloidal current. The latter is not accounted for in the models that represent the wall as a set of isolated toroidal filaments. It is shown that such modeling must lead to significant errors in the evaluation of the force during either thermal or current quench. The analytical derivations are performed here for an arbitrary tokamak configuration with final estimates for a circular large-aspect-ratio plasma and a coaxial wall reacting on perturbations as a perfect conductor. The results are compared with those recently obtained numerically by the codes DINA, MAXFEA and CarMa0NL. The discrepancies between the DINA simulations (Khayrutdinov et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 115012) and earlier analytical predictions are explained. The recent conclusion (Villone et al 2015 Fusion Eng. Des. 93 57) on the role of the disruption-induced poloidal current in the wall is confirmed and extended to a wider area.

  13. Overview of manifold learning techniques for the investigation of disruptions on JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Murari, A.; Pau, A.; Sias, G.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    Identifying a low-dimensional embedding of a high-dimensional data set allows exploration of the data structure. In this paper we tested some existing manifold learning techniques for discovering such embedding within the multidimensional operational space of a nuclear fusion tokamak. Among the manifold learning methods, the following approaches have been investigated: linear methods, such as principal component analysis and grand tour, and nonlinear methods, such as self-organizing map and its probabilistic variant, generative topographic mapping. In particular, the last two methods allow us to obtain a low-dimensional (typically two-dimensional) map of the high-dimensional operational space of the tokamak. These maps provide a way of visualizing the structure of the high-dimensional plasma parameter space and allow discrimination between regions characterized by a high risk of disruption and those with a low risk of disruption. The data for this study comes from plasma discharges selected from 2005 and up to 2009 at JET. The self-organizing map and generative topographic mapping provide the most benefits in the visualization of very large and high-dimensional datasets. Some measures have been used to evaluate their performance. Special emphasis has been put on the position of outliers and extreme points, map composition, quantization errors and topological errors.

  14. Research progress of the endocrine disrupting activities of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jingming; QIN Zhanfen; CONG Lin; XU Xiaobai

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global persistent organic pollutants. Almost all commercial PCBs mixtures, single PCB congener, and their metabolites possess endocrine disrupting activities. They can disrupt the estrogen/androgen system, thyroid hormone system and other endocrine systems by interfering with the synthesis, transport, storage, metabolism, and feedback regulation of hormones. The newest data related to the endocrine disrupting activities of PCBs and their mechanisms are reviewed and the research perspectives are also discussed.

  15. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  16. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  17. Disruptive behavior in the elementary school with special curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Medved, Tina

    2016-01-01

    The thesis describes disruptive behaviour issues in pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. In the theoretical part I present mild intellectual disabilities in the light of mental development, emotional and behavioural difficulties/disorders. Further on I discuss the issue of disruptive behaviour. Then I focus on disruptive behaviours in pupils with with mild intellectual disabilities. I still present mental disorder in pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. I was interested in t...

  18. Mechanical cell disruption for lipid extraction from microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ronald; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Tull, Dedreia L; Webley, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    Cell disruption is an integral part of the downstream operation required to produce biodiesel from microalgae. This study investigated the use of ultrasonication and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) as cell disruption methods for two microalgal species, Tetraselmis suecica (TS) and Chlorococcum sp. (C sp.). The kinetics of cell disruption followed a first-order model (0.65triglyceride yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  20. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  1. TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) disruption scenarios and CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) vacuum vessel force evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, R.O.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Simulation Code and the TWIR postprocessor code have been used to develop credible plasma disruption scenarios for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) in order to predict the evolution of forces on CIT conducting structures and to provide results required for detailed structural design analysis. The extreme values of net radial and vertical vacuum vessel (VV) forces were found to be F{sub R}={minus}12.0 MN/rad and F{sub Z}={minus}3.0 MN/rad, respectively, for the CIT 2.1-m, 11-MA design. Net VV force evolution was found to be altered significantly by two mechanisms not noted previously. The first, due to poloidal VV currents arising from increased plasma paramagnetism during thermal quench, reduces the magnitude of the extreme F{sub R} by 15-50{percent} and modifies the distribution of forces substantially. The second effect is that slower plasma current decay rates give more severe net vertical VV loads because the current decay occurs when the plasma has moved farther from midplane than is the case for faster decay rates. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Disrupted secretory activation of the mammary gland after antenatal glucocorticoid treatment in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jennifer J; Hartmann, Peter E; Moss, Timothy J M; Doherty, Dorota A; Newnham, John P

    2008-11-01

    Antenatal glucocorticoids are administered to women at risk of preterm delivery to prevent neonatal respiratory morbidity. The effects of exogenous glucocorticoids on the development of lactation are unknown. This study investigated the effects of a single dose of antenatal glucocorticoids on secretory activation in sheep before and after parturition. Pregnant ewes (N=36) were randomised to receive either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) at 118 days of pregnancy and betamethasone at 125 days (BETA group), MPA at 118 days and saline at 125 days (MPA group) or saline at 118 and 125 days (SALINE group). The concentration of lactose, progesterone, cortisol and prolactin in maternal plasma was measured during pregnancy. After term parturition, the concentration of lactose in milk and maternal plasma was measured daily for 5 days. Lambs were weighed at birth and at 5 days of age; milk volume was measured on day 5. The concentration of lactose in maternal plasma increased significantly after betamethasone administration, corresponding to a fall in plasma progesterone. No changes in lactose were observed in MPA or SALINE ewes. Transient decreases in cortisol and increases in prolactin were observed in the BETA group, but not in either the MPA or SALINE group. After parturition, BETA ewes experienced reduced milk yield and lamb weight gain, and delayed increases in milk lactose levels compared with MPA and saline controls. This study demonstrated that, in sheep, antenatal glucocorticoid administration disrupted secretory activation, causing precocious mammary secretion before parturition and compromising postpartum milk production and lamb growth.

  3. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  4. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  5. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  6. Metabolism disrupting chemicals and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Blumberg, Bruce; Cave, Mathew; Machtinger, Ronit; Mantovani, Alberto; Mendez, Michelle A; Nadal, Angel; Palanza, Paola; Panzica, Giancarlo; Sargis, Robert; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick

    2017-03-01

    The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes(T2D), liver lipid disorders and metabolic syndrome have largely been attributed to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. However, there is now considerable evidence that other environmental factors may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of these metabolic diseases. This review will examine changes to the incidence of obesity, T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the contribution of genetics to these disorders and describe the role of the endocrine system in these metabolic disorders. It will then specifically focus on the role of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the etiology of obesity, T2D and NAFLD while finally integrating the information on EDCs on multiple metabolic disorders that could lead to metabolic syndrome. We will specifically examine evidence linking EDC exposures during critical periods of development with metabolic diseases that manifest later in life and across generations.

  7. The disruptive effect of Think Aloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Thinking Aloud Thinking Aloud is the most commonly used technique used to test users´ interaction with computers. The assumption is that Think Aloud gives access to what goes on in the users´ minds. However, interfaces are multi modal and play heavily on user´s visual perception. Reflecting upon...... Think Aloud (TA), we ask the question: what happens when users are required to verbalise their visual perceptions and interactions? We argue that TA may have a disruptive effect, suggesting that other techniques be considered. With a theoretical distinction between focal and subsidiary awareness...... and a focus on the sense making process, we develop a frame for test of user´s visual interaction which rely on the coordination between hand/mouse and eye/cursor.Author Keywords: Think Aloud, visual perception, interaction, test...

  8. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  9. Disrupting neuronal transmission: Mechanism of DBS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi eChiken

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Applying high-frequency stimulation to deep brain rain structure, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS, has now been recognized an effective therapeutic option for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS targeting the basal ganglia thalamo-cortical loop, especially the internal segment of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and thalamus, has been widely employed as a successful surgical therapy for movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and tremor. However, the neurophysiological mechanism underling the action of DBS remains unclear and is still under debate: does DBS inhibit or excite local neuronal elements? In this review, we will examine this question and propose the alternative interpretation: DBS dissociates inputs and outputs, resulting in disruption of abnormal signal transmission.

  10. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  11. Stabilization of tearing modes to suppress major disruptions in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, S.J.; Waddell, B.V.

    1979-02-01

    It is shown, for q-profiles which lead to a disruption, that the control of the amplitude of the 2/1 tearing mode avoids the disruption. Q-profiles measured in T-4 and PLT before a major disruption were studied. Two methods of controlling the 2/1 mode amplitude have been considered: (1) Feedback stabilization with the feedback signal locked in phase with the 2/1 mode. (2) Heating slightly outside the q = 2 surface. In both cases it is only necessary to decrease the 2/1 mode amplitude to suppress the disruption. It is not always necessary to stabilize the unstable modes fully.

  12. A model of disruptive surgeon behavior in the perioperative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Amalia; Elder, William B

    2014-09-01

    Surgeons are the physicians with the highest rates of documented disruptive behavior. We hypothesized that a unified conceptual model of disruptive surgeon behavior could be developed based on specific individual and system factors in the perioperative environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 operating room staff of diverse occupations at a single institution. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Participants described episodes of disruptive surgeon behavior, personality traits of perpetrators, environmental conditions of power, and situations when disruptive behavior was demonstrated. Verbal hostility and throwing or hitting objects were the most commonly described disruptive behaviors. Participants indicated that surgical training attracts and creates individuals with particular personality traits, including a sense of shame. Interviewees stated this behavior is tolerated because surgeons have unchecked power, have strong money-making capabilities for the institution, and tend to direct disruptive behavior toward the least powerful employees. The most frequent situational stressors were when something went wrong during an operation and working with unfamiliar team members. Each factor group (ie, situational stressors, cultural conditions, and personality factors) was viewed as being necessary, but none of them alone were sufficient to catalyze disruptive behavior events. Disruptive physician behavior has strong implications for the work environment and patient safety. This model can be used by hospitals to better conceptualize conditions that facilitate disruptive surgeon behavior and to establish programs to mitigate conduct that threatens patient safety and employee satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DISRUPTION MANAGEMENT FOR SUPPLY CHAIN COORDINATION WITH EXPONENTIAL DEMAND FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The coordination problem of a supply chain comprising one supplier and one retailer under market demand disruption is studied in this article. A novel exponential demand function is adopted, and the penalty cost is introduced explicitly to capture the deviation production cost caused by the market demand disruption. The optimal strategies are obtained for different disruption scale under the centralized mode. For the decentralized mode, it is proved that the supply chain can be fully coordinated by adjusting the price discount policy appropriately when disruption occurs. Furthermore, the authors point out that similar results can be established for more general demand functions that represent different market circumstances if certain assumptions are satisfied.

  14. Exploring the relationship between retrieval disruption from collaboration and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-07-01

    When people recall together in a collaborative group they recall less than their potential. This phenomenon of collaborative inhibition is explained in terms of retrieval disruption. However, collaborative recall also re-exposes individuals to items recalled by others that they themselves might otherwise have forgotten. This re-exposure produces post-collaborative benefits in individual recall. The current study examined whether reduced retrieval disruption during group recall is related not only to less collaborative inhibition, but also to greater post-collaborative recall benefits. To test this we devised a paradigm to calculate the extent to which each individual experienced retrieval disruption during group recall. We also included two types of collaborative groups, one of which was expected to experience greater retrieval disruption than the other. Results suggest that the relationship between retrieval disruption and recall performance depends on the level at which retrieval disruption is measured. When retrieval disruption was assessed at the individual level, then minimising retrieval disruption was associated with higher recall (i.e., less collaborative inhibition and greater post-collaborative individual recall). However, when retrieval disruption was assessed at the group level there was no relationship with recall. Furthermore, the findings from this design suggest a role of cross-cueing in modulating group recall levels.

  15. Is your hospital safe? Disruptive behavior and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2008-01-01

    The author defines disruptive behavior; distinguishes among disruptive, impaired, and incompetent behavior; describes the prevalence of disruptive behavior; and identifies some recommendations to prevent and resolve disruptive behavior in hospitals. The proactive prevention and management of workplace bullying have implications on managing costs, quality, and satisfaction in hospitals among patients, families, staff, and physicians. The author describes an evidence-based framework and recommends that hospital administrators use it to design an organizational approach to promoting a work environment that is psychologically and physiologically safe and that enables staff to focus on delivering high-quality, cost-effective, and satisfying care.

  16. A bright year for tidal disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Stone, Nicholas C.

    2016-09-01

    When a star is tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole (SMBH), roughly half of its mass falls back to the SMBH at super-Eddington rates. As this gas is tenuously gravitationally bound and unable to cool radiatively, only a small fraction fin ≪ 1 may accrete, with the majority instead becoming unbound in an outflow of velocity ˜104 km s-1. The outflow spreads laterally as it expands to large radii, encasing the SMBH and blocking the inner disc's EUV/X-ray radiation, which becomes trapped in a radiation-dominated nebula. Ionizing nebular radiation heats the inner edge of the ejecta, converting the emission to optical/near-UV wavelengths where photons more readily escape due to the lower opacity. This can explain the unexpectedly low and temporally constant effective temperatures of optically discovered tidal disruption event (TDE) flares. For high-mass SMBHs, M• ≳ 107 M⊙, the ejecta can become fully ionized at an earlier stage, or for a wider range of viewing angles, producing a TDE flare accompanied by thermal X-ray emission. The peak optical luminosity is suppressed as the result of adiabatic losses in the inner disc wind when M• ≪ 107 M⊙, possibly contributing to the unexpected dearth of optical TDEs in galaxies with low-mass SMBHs. In the classical picture, where fin ≈ 1, TDEs de-spin supermassive SMBHs and cap their maximum spins well below theoretical accretion physics limits. This cap is relaxed in our model, and existing Fe Kα spin measurements provide preliminary evidence that fin < 1.

  17. Disrupted Working Memory Circuitry in Adolescent Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Eckfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ consistently show deficits in spatial working memory (WM and associated atypical patterns of neural activity within key WM regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC and parietal cortices. However, little research has focused on adolescent psychosis (AP and potential age-associated disruptions of WM circuitry that may occur in youth with this severe form of illness. Here we utilized each subject’s individual spatial WM capacity to investigate task-based neural dysfunction in 17 patients with AP (16.58 ± 2.60 years old as compared to 17 typically developing, demographically comparable adolescents (18.07 ± 3.26 years old. AP patients showed lower behavioral performance at higher WM loads and lower overall WM capacity compared to healthy controls. Whole-brain activation analyses revealed greater bilateral precentral and right postcentral activity in controls relative to AP patients, when controlling for individual WM capacity. Seed-based psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses revealed significantly greater co-activation between the left dlPFC and left frontal pole in controls relative to AP patients. Significant group-by-age interactions were observed in both whole-brain and PPI analyses, with AP patients showing atypically greater neural activity and stronger coupling between WM task activated brain regions as a function of increasing age. Additionally, AP patients demonstrated positive relationships between right dlPFC neural activity and task performance, but unlike healthy controls, failed to show associations between neural activity and out-of-scanner neurocognitive performance. Collectively, these findings are consistent with atypical WM-related functioning and disrupted developmental processes in youth with AP.

  18. High-{beta} disruption in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Janos, A. [and others

    1995-07-01

    Three dimensional MHD simulations of high-{beta} plasmas show that toroidally localized high-n ballooning modes can be driven unstable by the local pressure steepening which arises from the evolution of low-n modes. Nonlinearly, the high-n mode becomes even more localized and produces a strong local pressure bulge which destroys the flux surfaces resulting in a thermal quench. The flux surfaces then recover temporarily but now contain large magnetic islands. This scenario is supported by experimental data.

  19. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Blocker Conivaptan Reduces Brain Edema and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Experimental Stroke in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zeynalov

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP. AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2 and tolvaptan (V2 are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate if these drugs can prevent brain edema and BBB disruption in mice after stroke.Experimental mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with reperfusion. Mice were treated with conivaptan, tolvaptan, or vehicle. Treatments were initiated immediately at reperfusion and administered IV (conivaptan or orally (tolvaptan for 48 hours. Physiological variables, neurological deficit scores (NDS, plasma and urine sodium and osmolality were recorded. Brain water content (BWC and Evans Blue (EB extravasation index were evaluated at the end point.Both conivaptan and tolvaptan produced aquaresis as indicated by changes in plasma and urine sodium levels. However plasma and urine osmolality was changed only by conivaptan. Unlike tolvaptan, conivaptan improved NDS and reduced BWC in the ipsilateral hemisphere: from 81.66 ± 0.43% (vehicle to 78.28 ± 0.48% (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05 vs vehicle. Conivaptan also attenuated the EB extravasation from 1.22 ± 0.08 (vehicle to 1.01 ± 0.02 (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05.Continuous IV infusion with conivaptan for 48 hours after experimental stroke reduces brain edema, and BBB disruption. Conivaptan but not tolvaptan may potentially be used in patients to prevent brain edema after stroke.

  20. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  1. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impair Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various endpoints studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29 but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 6 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. International movement of plasma and plasma contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, A

    2005-01-01

    Plasma fractionation is a global business characterised by technological stability, increasing consolidation and a high level of regulatory oversight. All these factors affect the ease with which plasma derivatives can be accessed in the world market. As domestic regulatory measures in the first world blood economies become increasingly resonant to the precautionary approach, the availability of plasma as a raw material, as well as its cost, become an increasingly significant component in the cost of the final product. This decreases the amount of plasma which fractionators are able to allocate for export activities. Also, regulatory standards in the country of manufacture will reflect priorities in that country which may not be similar to those in export markets, but which will affect entry to those markets. While many countries possess a fractionation capacity, the limiting factor in supply worldwide is the amount of plasma available, and nationalistic drivers for each country to have its own plant are inimical to product safety and supply. Rather, the provision of sufficient supplies of domestic plasma should be the focus of resource allocation, with a choice of an appropriate contract fractionator. However, contract fractionation too may be affected by domestic considerations unrelated to the needs of the country of plasma origin. This chapter will review the global plasma market and the influences on plasma and plasma product movement across national borders. Problems in ensuring adequate safety and supply will be identified, and some tentative approaches to the amelioration of current barriers to the provision of plasma derivatives will be outlined.

  3. A Preferred Home for Disrupted Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Observed burps from the shredding of stars by supermassive black holes suggest that this behavior is more common in an unusual type of galaxy. A new study has examined NGC 3156, an example from this galaxy type, to better understand what causes this preference.Stellar BetrayalAn artists illustration of a tidal disruption event, in which a star is sent on a plunging orbit near a supermassive black hole and is subsequently torn apart by the black holes tidal forces. [NASA/CXC/M.Weiss]Tidal disruption events (TDEs) are events where a star plunges too close to a supermassive black hole and is torn apart by the black holes tidal forces. Weve observed roughly a dozen of these violent events in the last five years, and we expect to finds hundreds to thousands more with future surveys.TDEs are triggered when a star is sent on a plunging orbit close to a supermassive black hole. But what sends the star into harms way? One possible culprit is a dynamical mechanism known as two-body relaxation. In this process, stars orbiting a black hole undergo individual starstar interactions that, with a close enough encounter, can send them on plunging orbits.Choosing an Unusual HostOne puzzle with TDEs is that they tend to be preferentially found in rather unusual galaxies: galaxies that recently exhibited a lot of star formation but are now quiescent. In particular, several of the TDEs have been discovered in what are known as E+A galaxies, a rare subtype of elliptical galaxy that has recently undergone a major starburst.Since this subtype makes up only ~0.1% of all galaxies, its surprising that weve found so many TDEs in E+A galaxies so far. So why the preference?In an effort to answer this question, two scientists, Nicholas Stone (Einstein Fellow at Columbia University) and Sjoert van Velzen (Hubble Fellow at Johns Hopkins University), have teamed up to examine a nearby E+A galaxy, NGC 3156.Tidal disruption rates as a function of central supermassive-black-hole mass. The blue curve

  4. Why looking at social media at work disrupts your concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    You might have heard of the bystander-effect, but what about the Pinball-effect, which disrupts your attention on important tasks?......You might have heard of the bystander-effect, but what about the Pinball-effect, which disrupts your attention on important tasks?...

  5. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to

  6. Why looking at social media at work disrupts your concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    You might have heard of the bystander-effect, but what about the Pinball-effect, which disrupts your attention on important tasks?......You might have heard of the bystander-effect, but what about the Pinball-effect, which disrupts your attention on important tasks?...

  7. Review of railway disruption management practice and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaemi, N.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges of railway traffic controllers in dealing with big disruptions and the kind of support tools that could help to improve their task in terms of performance and lead time. The disruption handling process can be partitioned into three phases according to the batht

  8. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Asklund, Camilla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    and molecular studies, all suggestive of an interrelation between the different symptoms. The aetiology of TDS is suspected to be related to genetic and/or environmental factors, including endocrine disrupters. Few human studies have found associations/correlations between endocrine disrupters, including...

  9. Noncontingent peer attention as treatment for disruptive classroom behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, K. M.; Drew, H A; Weber, N L

    2000-01-01

    A functional analysis isolated peer attention as the primary maintaining variable for disruptive behavior displayed by a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Using a brief reversal design, noncontingent reinforcement was then shown to reduce disruptive behavior relative to the peer attention condition. Implications for assessing behavior disorders in mainstream school settings are discussed.

  10. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  11. Parents' Education, Personality, and Their Children's Disruptive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to understand the effects of parents' education and personality aspects on child disruptive behavior, (2) to know the correlation between the parents' personality aspects (N-Deference, N-Succorance, N-Dominance and N-Aggression) and the children' disruptive behavior. A quantitative approach to the correlational…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of Disruptive Behaviour in Schools: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Poppy; Schlösser, Annette; Scarr, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into school teachers' perceptions of disruptive behaviour from a psychological perspective. The inter-disciplinary nature of this research bridges the understanding between educational and psychological perspectives on disruptive behaviour. This article discusses evidence that for the most troubled pupils,…

  13. Disruption management of the vehicle routing problem with vehicle breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Q; Fu, Z; Lysgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of problem, the disrupted vehicle routing problem (VRP), which deals with the disruptions that occur at the execution stage of a VRP plan. The paper then focuses on one type of such problem, in which a vehicle breaks down during the delivery and a new routing...

  14. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs. This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the animals which gets exposed to the chemicals through wide variety of veterinary drugs, but also the aquatic organisms and other form of Wildlife which are non target and indirectly gets exposed to the chemicals through individual human activity. Parabens includes a group of compound of which methylparaben, butylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben are most widely used as preservatives in various PPCPs. Recent concern over the use of parabens has been drawn by the scientific community as these chemicals are reported to exert a weak estrogenic activity, with butylparaben showing the most potent activity among methyl-, ethyl- and propyl esters in in vitro recombinant yeast assay and in in vivo uterotrophic assay. Human exposure to butylparaben which occur mainly through inhalation, ingestion, or eye or skin contact, from intake of foods or drugs or use of cosmetics and personal care products where butylparaben is mainly used as a preservative. Effects of butylparaben are studied in various animal model systems like rodents to determine the possible effects in human which showed various effects which include defects in male reproductive system like increase in weight of epididymis, also change in serum testosterone level and a significant increase in uterine weight in ovariectomized and immature rats. Other effects include irritation to the respiratory tract, allergic skin reactions, atrophy of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes and multifocal

  15. Communication through Plasma Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Zakharov, V E

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  16. Supply Chain Disruptions Theory and Practice of Managing Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrotra, Anuj; Ray, Saibal

    2012-01-01

    One of the most critical issues facing supply chain managers in today’s globalized and highly uncertain business environments is how to deal proactively with disruptions that might affect the complicated supply networks characterizing modern enterprises. Supply Chain Disruptions: Theory and Practice of Managing Risk presents a state-of the-art perspective on this particular issue. Supply Chain Disruptions: Theory and Practice of Managing Risk demonstrates that effective management of supply disruptions necessitates both strategic and tactical measures – the former involving optimal design of supply networks; the latter involving inventory, finance and demand management. It shows that managers ought to use all available levers at their disposal throughout the supply network – like sourcing and pricing strategies, providing financial subsidies, encouraging information sharing and incentive alignment between supply chain partners – in order to tackle supply disruptions. The editors combine up-to-date aca...

  17. Algal cell disruption using microbubbles to localize ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel D; Schideman, Lance C; King, Daniel A; Freund, Jonathan B

    2014-12-01

    Microbubbles were added to an algal solution with the goal of improving cell disruption efficiency and the net energy balance for algal biofuel production. Experimental results showed that disruption increases with increasing peak rarefaction ultrasound pressure over the range studied: 1.90 to 3.07 MPa. Additionally, ultrasound cell disruption increased by up to 58% by adding microbubbles, with peak disruption occurring in the range of 10(8)microbubbles/ml. The localization of energy in space and time provided by the bubbles improve efficiency: energy requirements for such a process were estimated to be one-fourth of the available heat of combustion of algal biomass and one-fifth of currently used cell disruption methods. This increase in energy efficiency could make microbubble enhanced ultrasound viable for bioenergy applications and is expected to integrate well with current cell harvesting methods based upon dissolved air flotation.

  18. Simulations of Magnetic Fields in Tidally-Disrupted Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Guillochon, James

    2016-01-01

    We perform the first magnetohydrodynamical simulations of tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes. We consider stars with both tangled and ordered magnetic fields, for both grazing and deeply disruptive encounters. When the star survives disruption, we find its magnetic field amplifies by a factor of up to twenty, but see no evidence for the a self-sustaining dynamo that would yield arbitrary field growth. For stars that do not survive, and within the tidal debris streams produced in partial disruptions, we find that the component of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of stretching along the debris stream only decreases slightly with time, eventually resulting in a stream where the magnetic pressure is in equipartition with the gas. Our results suggest that the returning gas in most (if not all) stellar tidal disruptions is already highly magnetized by the time it returns to the black hole.

  19. Mixing in plasma and low density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, S.; Strykowski, P. J.; Pfender, E.

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the mechanisms which produce the large entrainment measured near the exit of thermal plasma torches. A research facility was constructed to examine low density jet behavior under similar dimensionless conditions as those produced by thermal plasma spray torches; the Reynolds number based on jet diameter and average properties was 1000, and the ratio of jet to ambient density was 0.07. This very low density jet produced organized vortex structures which were partially responsible for the rapid entrainment of external air. The formation of these organized structures could be disrupted by introducing turbulence, but the rapid entrainment process was not significantly affected. The structure of the jet produced by a commercial plasma torch was examined and compared to the low density research jet. At low gas flow rates the plasma jet also displayed the formation of coherent vortex structures, the passage frequency of which compared favorably with that measured in the low density research jet. At higher gas flow rates the shear layer of the plasma jet rapidly broke down producing relatively small scale turbulence. Visualizations of the hot plasma core were compared against measurements of the torch voltage fluctuations caused by arc instabilities. At low flow rates the arc voltage fluctuations were quite low and the plume was very steady. At higher flow rates the arc voltage fluctuations increased and produced “surging” and “whipping” in the hot potential core. It is believed that this low frequency unsteadiness is partially responsible for the rapid entrainment measured in plasma torches.

  20. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-04-23

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  1. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  2. Tidal Disruption Events Prefer Unusual Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    French, K Decker; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are transient events observed when a star passes close enough to a supermassive black hole to be tidally destroyed. Many TDE candidates have been discovered in host galaxies whose spectra have weak or no line emission yet strong Balmer line absorption, indicating a period of intense star formation that has recently ended. As such, TDE host galaxies fall into the rare class of quiescent Balmer-strong galaxies. Here, we quantify the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with spectral properties like those of TDE hosts, determining the extent to which TDEs are over-represented in such galaxies. Galaxies whose spectra have Balmer absorption H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$ $-$ $\\sigma$(H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$) $>$ 4 \\AA\\ (where $\\sigma$(H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$) is the error in the Lick H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$ index) and H$\\alpha$ emission EW $$ 1.31 \\AA\\ and H$\\alpha$ EW $80\\times$ enhancement in such hosts and providing an observational link between the $\\gamma$/X-ray-bright and optical/UV-br...

  3. Passive hand movements disrupt adults’ counting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eImbo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we experimentally tested the role of hand motor circuits in simple-arithmetic strategies. Educated adults solved simple additions (e.g., 8+3 or simple subtractions (e.g., 11–3 while they were required to retrieve the answer from long-term memory (e.g., knowing that 8+3 = 11, to transform the problem by making an intermediate step (e.g., 8+3 = 8+2+1 = 10+1 = 11 or to count one-by-one (e.g., 8+3 = 8…9…10…11. During the process of solving the arithmetic problems, the experimenter did or did not move the participants’ hand on a 4-point matrix. The results show that passive hand movements disrupted the counting strategy while leaving the other strategies unaffected. This pattern of results is in agreement with a procedural account, showing that the involvement of hand motor circuits in adults’ mathematical abilities is reminiscent of finger counting during childhood.

  4. Disruptive innovation: the future of healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowlees, Peter; Odor, Alberto; Patrice, Kesha; Parish, Michelle Burke; Nafiz, Najia; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hilty, Donald

    2011-04-01

    The traditional face-to-face doctor-patient relationship is the core of conventional medical practice. One key aspect of this changing relationship is the increasing dependency on asynchronous data collection in clinical consultations. Such electronic communications and data streams may be numeric, text-based, audio, digitized still pictures, video and radiologic, as well as emanating from multiple medical devices. While asynchronous medicine may be established in specialties like radiology and dermatology, there is little research regarding the use of asynchronous medicine in areas of medicine that traditionally rely on the physical doctor-patient interaction such as primary care, internal medicine, geriatrics, and psychiatry. The practice of psychiatry stands out as a discipline that is highly dependent on the quality of the physical meeting between the doctor and the patient, yet even in this specialty it is possible to utilize asynchronous medicine for some types of psychiatric consultations. Asynchronous medicine has the potential to be significantly disruptive to our current healthcare processes, as well as more clinically and economically efficient.

  5. Neuromuscular disruption with ultrashort electrical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei; Kolb, Juergen F.; Joshi, Ravindra P.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Dayton, Thomas; Comeaux, James; Ashmore, John; Beason, Charles

    2006-05-01

    Experimental studies on single cells have shown that application of pulsed voltages, with submicrosecond pulse duration and an electric field on the order of 10 kV/cm, causes sudden alterations in the intracellular free calcium concentration, followed by immobilization of the cell. In order to examine electrical stimulation and incapacitation with such ultrashort pulses, experiments on anesthetized rats have been performed. The effect of single, 450 nanosecond monopolar pulses have been compared with that of single pulses with multi-microsecond duration (TASER pulses). Two conditions were explored: 1. the ability to elicit a muscle twitch, and, 2. the ability to suppress voluntary movement by using nanosecond pulses. The second condition is relevant for neuromuscular incapacitation. The preliminary results indicate that for stimulation microsecond pulses are advantageous over nanosecond pulses, whereas for incapacitation, the opposite seems to apply. The stimulation effects seem to scale with electrical charge, whereas the disruption effects don't follow a simple scaling law. The increase in intensity (time of incapacitation) for a given pulse duration, is increasing with electrical energy, but is more efficient for nanosecond than for microsecond pulses. This indicates different cellular mechanisms for incapacitation, most likely subcellular processes, which have been shown to become increasingly important when the pulse duration is shortened into the nanosecond range. If further studies can confirm these initial results, consequences of reduced pulse duration are a reduction in weight and volume of the pulse delivery system, and likely, because of the lower required energy for neuromuscular incapacitation, reduced safety risks.

  6. Disruption in a Neurodevelopmental Model of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rolland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia. Antioxidant Peroxysome Proliferator-Activated Receptors α (PPARα agonist fenofibrate has neuroprotective properties and could reverse early preclinical infringements that could trigger the illness. We have evaluated the neuroprotective interest of fenofibrate in a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. The oxidative lesion induced by Kainic Acid (KA injection at postnatal day (PND 7 has previously been reported to disrupt Prepulse Inhibition (PPI at PND56 but not at PND35. In 4 groups of 15 male rats each, KN (KA-PND7 + normal postweaning food, KF (KA-PND7 + fenofibrate 0.2% food, ON (saline-PND7 + normal food, and OF (saline + fenofibrate food, PPI was recorded at PND35 and PND56. Three levels of prepulse were used: 73 dB, 76 dB, and 82 dB for a pulse at 120 dB. Four PPI scores were analyzed: PPI73, PPI76, PPI82, and mean PPI (PPIm. Two-way ANOVAs were used to evaluate the effects of both factors (KA + fenofibrate, and, in case of significant results, intergroup Student’s t-tests were performed. We notably found a significant difference (P<0.05 in PPIm between groups KN and KF at PND56, which supposes that fenofibrate could be worthy of interest for early neuroprotection in schizophrenia.

  7. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  8. Neuroimaging findings in disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalind H; Clanton, Roberta L; Rogers, Jack C; De Brito, Stéphane A

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are a heterogeneous population. Over the past 20 years, researchers have distinguished youths with DBD as those displaying high (DBD/HCU) versus low (DBD/LCU) callous-unemotional (CU) traits. These traits include flat affect and reduced empathy and remorse, and are associated with more severe, varied, and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior and aggression. Conduct problems in youths with HCU and LCU are thought to reflect distinct causal vulnerabilities, with antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/HCU reflecting a predominantly genetic etiology, while antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/LCU is associated primarily with environmental influences. Here we selectively review recent functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) magnetic resonance imaging research on DBD, focusing particularly on the role of CU traits. First, fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of affective stimuli, emotional face processing, empathy, theory of mind, morality, and decision-making in DBD are discussed. This is followed by a review of the studies investigating brain structure and structural connectivity in DBD. Next, we highlight the need to further investigate females and the role of sex differences in this population. We conclude the review by identifying potential clinical implications of this research.

  9. Disruption of Mitotic Progression by Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic is an enigmatic xenobiotic that causes a multitude of chronic diseases including cancer and also is a therapeutic with promise in cancer treatment. Arsenic causes mitotic delay and induces aneuploidy in diploid human cells. In contrast, arsenic causes mitotic arrest followed by an apoptotic death in a multitude of virally transformed cells and cancer cells. We have explored the hypothesis that these differential effects of arsenic exposure are related by arsenic disruption of mitosis and are differentiated by the target cell's ability to regulate or modify cell cycle checkpoints. Functional p53/CDKN1A axis has been shown to mitigate the mitotic block and to be essential to induction of aneuploidy. More recent preliminary data suggest that microRNA modulation of chromatid cohesion also may play a role in escape from mitotic block and in generation of chromosomal instability. Other recent studies suggest that arsenic may be useful in treatment of solid tumors when used in combination with other cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin.

  10. A Bright Year for Tidal Disruptions?

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    When a star is tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole (BH), roughly half of its mass falls back to the BH at super-Eddington rates. Being tenuously gravitationally bound and unable to cool radiatively, only a small fraction f_in few 1e4 K, converting the emission to optical/near-UV wavelengths where photons more readily escape due to the lower opacity. This can explain the unexpectedly low and temporally constant effective temperatures of optically-discovered TDE flares. For BHs with relatively high masses M_BH > 1e7 M_sun the ejecta can become ionized at an earlier stage, or for a wider range of viewing angles, producing a TDE flare which is instead dominated by thermal X-ray emission. We predict total radiated energies consistent with those of observed TDE flares, and ejecta velocities that agree with the measured emission line widths. The peak optical luminosity for M_BH < 1e6 M_sun is suppressed due to adiabatic losses in the inner disk wind, possibly contributing to the unexpected dearth of o...

  11. Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrukhin, P V; Ermolaeva, A I; Shestakov, E A; Khramenkov, A V

    2014-10-01

    Non-thermal x-ray radiation (Eγ up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ∼ 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (Eγ up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (2-3 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

  12. Mefloquine-Induced Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis in Mammalian Cells Is Similar to That Induced by Ionomycin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, D.; Yourick, D.; Cabezas, M.; Wolf, L.; Hudson, T. H.; Dow, G. S.

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that mefloquine disrupts calcium homeostasis in neurons by depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, followed by an influx of external calcium across the plasma membrane. In this study, we explore two hypotheses concerning the mechanism(s) of action of mefloquine. First, we investigated the possibility that mefloquine activates non-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors and the inositol phosphate 3 (IP3) signaling cascade leading to ER calcium release. Second, we compared the disruptive effects of mefloquine on calcium homeostasis to those of ionomycin in neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Ionomycin is known to discharge the ER calcium store (through an undefined mechanism), which induces capacitative calcium entry (CCE). In radioligand binding assays, mefloquine showed no affinity for the known binding sites of several glutamate receptor subtypes. The pattern of neuroprotection induced by a panel of glutamate receptor antagonists was dissimilar to that of mefloquine. Both mefloquine and ionomycin exhibited dose-related and qualitatively similar disruptions of calcium homeostasis in both neurons and macrophages. The influx of external calcium was blocked by the inhibitors of CCE in a dose-related fashion. Both mefloquine and ionomycin upregulated the IP3 pathway in a manner that we interpret to be secondary to CCE. Collectively, these data suggest that mefloquine does not activate glutamate receptors and that it disrupts calcium homeostasis in mammalian cells in a manner similar to that of ionomycin. PMID:17999964

  13. Tebuconazole disrupts steroidogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    or animals adapted to the xenobiotic, blood samples were collected 12 days into the study and at termination (day 27). After 12 days of exposure to 100 and 500μgL(-1) tebuconazole, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were increased, while plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations...... were greatly reduced. Exposure to 0.1μgL(-1), on the other hand, resulted in decreased levels of T and DHT, with no effects observed for E2. After 27 days of exposure, effects were no longer observed in circulating androgen levels while the suppressive effect on E2 persisted in the two high......-exposure groups (100 and 500μgL(-1)). Furthermore, tebuconazole increased gonadal concentrations of T and DHT as well as expression of the enzyme CYP17 (500μgL(-1), 27 days). These results suggest that tebuconazole exposure may supress the action of CYP17 at the lowest exposure (0.1μgL(-1)), while CYP19...

  14. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  15. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  16. Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C B Dwivedi

    2000-11-01

    Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.

  17. Extremely fast vertical displacement event induced by a plasma betap collapse in high betap tokamak disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    中村 幸治; 芳野 隆治; N.Pomphrey; Jardin, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    抵抗性シェルを有する、縦長断面、高ベータトカマクにおいて、強いbetap崩壊が生じると極めて速い垂直移動現象(VDE)が発生することをトカマクシミュレーションコードを用いた計算機シミュレーションを通じて示した。低ベータトカマクにおけるVDEの主因であるプラズマ電流崩壊が観測されなかったにもかかわらず、観測されたVDEの成長率(gamma~655sec-1)は通常の位置不安定性の成長率(gamma~149sec-1)のおおよそ5倍であった。本VDE発生の基本機構として、安定指数nsの減少に加えて、さらにn指数が突然大きく悪化するために位置不安定性がさらに不安定化するためであることを示した。シェルの幾何学的配置がVDE挙動を特徴付けること、VDEの成長率がbetap崩壊の規模および崩壊が起こる前のn指数に強い依存することを示した。...

  18. Mechanisms of plasma disruption and runaway electron losses in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, S. S.; Finken, K. H.; Wongrach, K.; Tokar, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Willi, O.; Zeng, L.; Zeng

    2015-10-01

    > . The thermal quench (TQ) time caused by the fast electron transport in a stochastic magnetic field is calculated using the collisional transport model. The current quench (CQ) stage is due to the particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. The RE beam current is modelled as a sum of a toroidally symmetric part and a small-amplitude helical current with a predominant component. The REs are lost due to two effects: (i) by outward drift of electrons in a toroidal electric field until they touch the wall and (ii) by the formation of a stochastic layer of REs at the beam edge. Such a stochastic layer for high-energy REs is formed in the presence of the MHD mode. It has a mixed topological structure with a stochastic region open to the wall. The effect of external resonant magnetic perturbations on RE loss is discussed. A possible cause of the sudden MHD signals accompanied by RE bursts is explained by the redistribution of runaway current during the resonant interaction of high-energetic electron orbits with the MHD mode.

  19. Focal junctions retard lateral movement and disrupt fluid phase connectivity in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, D.; Wojewodzka, U.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    containing liquid-ordered (L-o) lipids. Indeed, values of maximal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the long-range mobility of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, marker of L-o) was similar to 1.5-fold retarded within the focal junctions compared to the surrounding membrane. However, 1......,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI-C-18:0), which specifically partitions to the liquid-disordered (L-d), non-raft phase, was also enriched in focal junctions and its mobility was slightly retarded. Cross-linking of GM(1) by CTB or raft aggregation by methyl...

  20. Enzymatic cell disruption of microalgae biomass in biorefinery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuez, Marie; Mahdy, Ahmed; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; González-Fernández, Cristina; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2015-10-01

    When employing biotechnological processes for the procurement of biofuels and bio-products from microalgae, one of the most critical steps affecting economy and yields is the "cell disruption" stage. Currently, enzymatic cell disruption has delivered effective and cost competitive results when compared to mechanical and chemical cell disruption methods. However, the introduction of enzymes implies additional associated cost within the overall process. In order to reduce this cost, autolysis of microalgae is proposed as alternative enzymatic cell disruption method. This review aims to provide the state of the art of enzymatic cell disruption treatments employed in biorefinery processes and highlights the use of endopeptidases. During the enzymatic processes of microalgae life cycle, some lytic enzymes involved in cell division and programmed cell death have been proven useful in performing cell lysis. In this context, the role of endopeptidases is emphasized. Mirroring these natural events, an alternative cell disruption approach is proposed and described with the potential to induce the autolysis process using intrinsic cell enzymes. Integrating induced autolysis within biofuel production processes offers a promising approach to reduce overall global costs and energetic input associated with those of current cell disruption methods. A number of options for further inquiry are also discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Strategy development for anticipating and handling a disruptive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    The profession of radiology has greatly benefited from the introduction of new imaging technologies throughout its history. Therefore, it would seem reasonable for radiologists to believe that the emergence of a new imaging technology can generally be foreseen with sufficient advance notice to allow the appropriate levels of time, effort, and money to be devoted toward incorporating it into radiology practice. However, in his seminal work, Christiansen characterized a new form of technologic innovation, known as "disruptive technology," whose emergence often heralds the replacement of market leaders in an industry by competitors who are quicker in adopting and deploying the new technology. This article briefly describes the phenomenon of disruptive technology and addresses the challenges that organizations face in dealing with disruptive technology. The article raises 4 questions about the future of radiology: (1) Are health care and radiology vulnerable to disruptive technology? (2) What kinds of change may be in store for the radiology profession? (3) Can the radiology profession prepare itself to recognize and respond to a disruptive innovation among a group of new imaging technologies? and (4) How should a radiology organization decide whether to invest significant resources in a potentially disruptive technology? This article addresses these questions by reviewing key insights from leading "gurus" in the fields of competitive strategy and technology management and applying them to radiology. This illustrates how and why (despite past successes) the radiology profession may still have a blind spot in recognizing and handling disruptive technologies.

  2. Designing reliable supply chain network with disruption risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although supply chains disruptions rarely occur, their negative effects are prolonged and severe. In this paper, we propose a reliable capacitated supply chain network design (RSCND model by considering random disruptions in both distribution centers and suppliers. The proposed model determines the optimal location of distribution centers (DC with the highest reliability, the best plan to assign customers to opened DCs and assigns opened DCs to suitable suppliers with lowest transportation cost. In this study, random disruption occurs at the location, capacity of the distribution centers (DCs and suppliers. It is assumed that a disrupted DC and a disrupted supplier may lose a portion of their capacities, and the rest of the disrupted DC's demand can be supplied by other DCs. In addition, we consider shortage in DCs, which can occur in either normal or disruption conditions and DCs, can support each other in such circumstances. Unlike other studies in the extent of literature, we use new approach to model the reliability of DCs; we consider a range of reliability instead of using binary variables. In order to solve the proposed model for real-world instances, a Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II is applied. Preliminary results of testing the proposed model of this paper on several problems with different sizes provide seem to be promising.

  3. Study of MHD activities in the plasma of SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhongde, Jasraj; Bhandarkar, Manisha; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Kumar, Sameer

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • An account of MHD activity in the plasma of SST-1 • Observation of MHD instabilities with mode m = 2, n = 1 in SST-1 plasma. • MHD instabilities study of characteristic growth time, growth rate of island and island width etc. in SST-1 plasma. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size Tokamak in operation at the Institute for Plasma Research, India. SST-1 has been consistently producing plasma currents in excess of 60 kA, with plasma durations above 400 ms and a central magnetic field of 1.5 T over last few experimental campaigns of 2014. Investigation of these experimental data suggests the presence of MHD activity in the SST-1 plasma. Further analysis clearly explains the behavior of MHD instabilities observed (i.e. tearing modes with m = 2, n = 1), estimating the growth rate and the island width in the SST-1 plasma. Poloidal magnetic field and Toroidal magnetic field fluctuations in SST-1 are observed using Mirnov coils. Onsets of disruptions in connection with MHD activities have been correlated with other diagnostics such as ECE, Density and Hα etc. The observations have been cross compared with the theoretical calculations and are found to be in good agreement.

  4. Endocrine disrupting pesticides: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, R; Plant, J A; Bell, J N B; Voulvoulis, N

    2008-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system, potentially causing disease or deformity in organisms and their offspring. Pesticides are used widely to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens and medicinally to kill parasites. Many are proven or suspected to be EDs. Ancient physiological similarities between different vertebrate groups suggest that disorders observed in wildlife may indicate risks to humans. This makes accurate risk assessment and effective legislation difficult. In this paper, the hazardous properties of pesticides which are known to have ED properties are reviewed in order to assess the implications for risk assessment. As well as data on sources of exposure in the United Kingdom (UK) an assessment of the evidence on the health effects of ED pesticides is also included. In total, 127 have been identified from the literature and their effects and modes of action are listed in this paper. Using the UK as a case study, the types and quantities of pesticides used, and their methods of application are assessed, along with their potential pathways to humans. In the UK reliable data are available only for agricultural use, so non-agricultural routes of pesticide exposure have been poorly quantified. The exposure of people resident in or visiting rural areas could also have been grossly under-estimated. Material links between ED pesticide use and specific illnesses or deformities are complicated by the multifactorial nature of disease, which can be affected by factors such as diet. Despite these difficulties, a large body of evidence has accumulated linking specific conditions to ED pesticides in wildlife and humans. A more precautionary approach to the use of ED pesticides, especially for non-essential purposes is proposed.

  5. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  6. Dexamethasone Chemotherapy Does Not Disrupt Orexin Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, David E.; Krasnow, Stephanie M.; Levasseur, Peter R.; Zhu, Xinxia; Stork, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Steroid-induced sleep disturbance is a common and highly distressing morbidity for children receiving steroid chemotherapy for the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sleep disturbance can negatively impact overall quality of life, neurodevelopment, memory consolidation, and wound healing. Hypothalamic orexin neurons are influential wake-promoting neurons, and disturbances in orexin signaling leads to abnormal sleep behavior. A new class of drug, the orexin receptor antagonists, could be an intriguing option for sleep disorders caused by increased orexinergic output. Our aim was to examine the impact of ALL treatment doses of corticosteroids on the orexin system in rodents and in children undergoing treatment for childhood ALL. Methods We administered repeated injections of dexamethasone to rodents and measured responsive orexin neural activity compared to controls. In children with newly diagnosed standard risk B-cell ALL receiving dexamethasone therapy per Children’s Oncology Group (COG) induction therapy from 2014–2016, we collected pre- and during-steroids matched CSF samples and measured the impact of steroids on CSF orexin concentration. Results In both rodents, all markers orexin signaling, including orexin neural output and orexin receptor expression, were preserved in the setting of dexamethasone. Additionally, we did not detect a difference in pre- and during-dexamethasone CSF orexin concentrations in children receiving dexamethasone. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rodent and human orexin physiology is largely preserved in the setting of high dose dexamethasone. The data obtained in our experimental model fail to demonstrate a causative role for disruption of the orexin pathway in steroid-induced sleep disturbance. PMID:27997622

  7. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, Sergei V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  8. An effect of abrupt current disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Dembovskis, Andis

    2011-01-01

    Every engine, let it internal combustion engine in car or turbine of airplane, needs a high quality fuel igniter. During last decades there have been some minor changes made in ignition systems, like invention of Capacitive Discharge Ignition, Multiple Discharge Ignition, Ignition with Direct Current Discharge, but all based on the same priciple of High Voltage spark path creation. This work contains description, schematics and photographs of a new spark creation approach, providing high robustness through high power, big volume, long duration plasma. The system uses less or the same amount of energy as would CDI ignition, jet providing many times more efficient energy output. The solution is a highly applicable innovation, being able to significantly improve spark robustnes in all current HV spark ignition systems. Despite a simplicity of setup, it is still unclear why the effect persists, thus calling for additional research input.

  9. Density fluctuations associated with the internal disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, F.; Gresillon, D.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.; Truc, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Laviron, C.; Payan, J.; Pecquet, A.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1993-12-31

    Fluctuations specially related to the sawtooth relaxations have been recorded in TORE SUPRA ohmic plasmas with the CO{sub 2} scattering experiment ALTAIR. The temperature and density evolutions are simultaneously analysed to observe the sawtooth behaviour on a fast time scale. These observed fluctuations are perfectly connected with two characteristic phases of the sawtooth crash, lasting about 60 and 100 {mu}s respectively, as it can be seen on the soft X-ray signals or ECE temperature measurements. Frequency, wave number spectra and level of these fluctuations are analyzed for the two different sawtooth phases. Some specific turbulence correlated with the sawtooth crash has been previously reported. Theoretical models have suggested that enhanced turbulence could account for the rapid crash time and fast heat propagation observed on most tokamaks. The aim of this study is to check the validity of these models with a better knowledge of the characteristics of the observed turbulence. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs.

  10. VIEWING URBAN DISRUPTIONS FROM A DECISION INFORMATICS PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. TIEN

    2005-01-01

    Urban infrastructures are the focus of terrorist acts because, quite simply, they produce the most visible impact, if not casualties. While terrorist acts are the most insidious and onerous of all disruptions, it is obvious that there are many similarities to the way one should deal with these willful acts and those caused by natural and accidental incidents that have also resulted in adverse and severe consequences. However, there is one major and critical difference between terrorist acts and the other types of disruptions: the terrorist acts are willful - and therefore also adaptive, if not coordinated. One must counter these acts with the same, if not more sophisticated, willful, adaptive and informed approach. Real-time, information-based decision making - which Tien (2003) has called the decision informatics paradigm - is the approach advanced herein to help make the right decisions at the various stages of a disruption. It is focused on decisions and based on multiple data sources, data fusion and analysis methods, timely information, stochastic decision models and a systems engineering outlook; moreover, it is multidisciplinary, evolutionary and systemic in practice. The approach provides a consistent way to address real-time emergency issues, including those concerned with the preparation for a major disruption, the prediction of such a disruption, the prevention or mitigation of the disruption, the detection of the disruption, the response to the disruption, and the recovery steps that are necessary to adequately, ifnot fully, recuperate from the disruption. The efforts of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security and its academically-based Homeland Security Centers of Excellence are considered within the proposed types, stages and decisions framework.

  11. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  12. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  13. Disruptive technology disorder: A past, present, and future neurologic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Donald F

    2017-07-25

    Based upon an analysis of 6 major historical technological advances over the last 150 years, a new syndrome, disruptive technology disorder (DTD), is introduced. DTD describes the human health ailments that accompany the implementation of disruptive technologies. Elevator sickness, railway spine, and bicycle face are representative examples. Though the underlying causative disruptive technologies may differ, many neurologic symptoms (headache, dizziness, weakness) are common to multiple DTDs. Born of technology-driven societal change, DTDs manifest as a complex interplay between biological and psychological symptoms. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Stellar dynamics and tidal disruption events in galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Tal

    2012-01-01

    The disruption of a star by the tidal field of a massive black hole is the final outcome of a chain of complex dynamical processes in the host galaxy. I introduce the "loss cone problem", and describe the many theoretical and numerical challenges on the path of solving it. I review various dynamical channels by which stars can be supplied to a massive black hole, and the relevant dynamical relaxation / randomization mechanisms. I briefly mention some "exotic" tidal disruption scenarios, and conclude by discussing some new dynamical results that are changing our understanding of dynamics near a massive black hole, and may well be relevant for tidal disruption dynamics.

  15. Plasmodium Infection Is Associated with Impaired Hepatic Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Activity and Disruption of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor/Substrate Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Chertow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO signaling may contribute to pathological activation of the vascular endothelium during severe malaria infection. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH regulates endothelial NO synthesis by maintaining homeostasis between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous NO synthase (NOS inhibitor, and arginine, the NOS substrate. We carried out a community-based case-control study of Gambian children to determine whether ADMA and arginine homeostasis is disrupted during severe or uncomplicated malaria infections. Circulating plasma levels of ADMA and arginine were determined at initial presentation and 28 days later. Plasma ADMA/arginine ratios were elevated in children with acute severe malaria compared to 28-day follow-up values and compared to children with uncomplicated malaria or healthy children (p<0.0001 for each comparison. To test the hypothesis that DDAH1 is inactivated during Plasmodium infection, we examined DDAH1 in a mouse model of severe malaria. Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection inactivated hepatic DDAH1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism as evidenced by stable mRNA transcript number, decreased DDAH1 protein concentration, decreased enzyme activity, elevated tissue ADMA, elevated ADMA/arginine ratio in plasma, and decreased whole blood nitrite concentration. Loss of hepatic DDAH1 activity and disruption of ADMA/arginine homeostasis may contribute to severe malaria pathogenesis by inhibiting NO synthesis.

  16. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  17. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  18. The neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid and the dithiocarbamate fungicide mancozeb disrupt the pituitary-thyroid axis of a wildlife bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Surya Prakash; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid is an important homeostatic regulator of metabolic activities as well as endocrine mechanisms including those of reproduction. Present investigation elucidated the thyroid disrupting potential of a neonicotinoid imidacloprid and a dithiocarbamate mancozeb in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, Red Munia (Amandava amandava) who is vulnerable to these two pesticides through diet (seed grains and small insects). Adult male birds were exposed to 0.5% LD50 mgkg(-1)bwd(-1) of both the pesticides through food for 30days during the preparatory and breeding phases. Weight, volume and histopathology of thyroid gland were distinctly altered. Disruption of thyroid follicles reflected in nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio (N/C) in epithelial and stromal cells, epithelial cell hypertrophy and altered colloid volume. Impairment of thyroid axis was pesticide and phase specific as evident from the plasma levels of thyroid (T4 and T3) and pituitary (TSH) hormones. In preparatory phase, plasma TSH was increased in response to decrease of T4 on mancozeb exposure showing responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to feedback regulation. On imidacloprid exposure, however, plasma levels of both T4 and TSH were decreased indicating non-functioning of negative feedback mechanism. Increased plasma T3 in response to both the pesticides exposure might be due to synthesis from non-thyroidal source(s) in a compensatory response to decrease level of T4. In breeding phase, impairment of HPT axis was more pronounced as plasma T4, T3 and TSH were significantly decreased in response to both mancozeb and imidacloprid. Thus, low dose pesticide exposure could affect the thyroid homeostasis and reproduction.

  19. A Study of Urgency Vehicle Routing Disruption Management Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available If a transit vehicle breaks down on a schedule trip, there are some vehicles in the system need to serve this trip and the former plan must be changed. For solving the urgency vehicle routing problem with disruption that may be vehicle breakdowns or traffic accidents in the logistics distribution system, through the analysis of the problem and the disruption measurement, the mathematics model is given based on the thought of disruption management. For the characteristics of the problem, a Lagrangian relaxation is given to simplify the model, and decompose the problem into two parts. The Lagrangian multiplier is given by subgradient method and the subproblems are solved by saving approach to gain the initial solution. A fast insertion algorithm is given to obtain a feasible solution for the primal problem. The results show that the algorithm designed in this paper performs very well for solving the urgency vehicle routing disruption management problem.

  20. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS AND ALLIGATOR EMBRYOS: A LESSON FROM WILDLIFE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity adversely affect wildlife. A number of these contaminants have been hypothesized to induce non lethal, multigenerational effects by acting as endocrine disrupting agents. One case is that of the alligator...

  1. Simulating Impacts of Disruptions to Liquid Fuels Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects; Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Policy and Decision Analytics; Baker, Arnold B. [ABB Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Rourke, Julia M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-04-01

    This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of events that damage or disrupt liquid fuels infrastructure. The impact of a disruption depends on which components of the infrastructure are damaged, the time required for repairs, and the position of the disrupted components in the fuels supply network. Impacts are estimated for seven stressing events in regions of the United States, which were selected to represent a range of disruption types. For most of these events the analysis is carried out using the National Transportation Fuels Model (NTFM) to simulate the system-level liquid fuels sector response. Results are presented for each event, and a brief cross comparison of event simulation results is provided.

  2. Interpreting debris from satellite disruption in external galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, KV; Sackett, PD; Bullock, JS

    2001-01-01

    We examine the detectability and interpretation of debris trails caused by satellite disruption in external galaxies using semianalytic approximations for the dependence of streamer length, width, and surface brightness on satellite and primary galaxy characteristics. The semianalytic method is test

  3. Cost Consequences of a Port-Related Supply Chain Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shan LOH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Port functionality is a significant and important aspect of cargo transportation. Previous studies have identified a list of port-related supply chain disruption threats and developed a management model that seeks to address these threats. This paper adds value to these related studies by comparing four consequences of an example of these threats: (1 avoidance of disruption, (2 mitigation of disruption, (3 deviation of transportation plan and (4 delays and deviation of transportation plan. The impact of these consequences is simulated in a case study using data from a chemical manufacturer based in Singapore. This paper quantitatively measures the impact of a port-related threat on supply chains and thus highlights the importance of port-related supply chain disruption management.

  4. Towards A Research Agenda on Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    Digital platforms are disruptive IT artifacts, because they facilitate the quick release of innovative platform derivatives from third parties. This study endeavors to unravel the disruptive potential, caused by distinct designs and configurations of digital platforms on market environments. We...... postulate that the disruptive potential of digital platforms is determined by the degree of alignment among the business, technology and platform profiles. Furthermore, we argue that the design and configuration of the aforementioned three elements dictates the extent to which open innovation is permitted....... To shed light on the disruptive potential of digital platforms, we opted for digital payment platforms as our unit of analysis. Through interviews with experts and payment providers, we seek to gain an in-depth appreciation of how contemporary digital payment platforms are designed and configured...

  5. Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy C; Banks, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption (also known as sleep fragmentation) have received less experimental attention. Recently, there has been increasing interest in sleep restriction and disruption as it has been recognized that they have a similar impact on cognitive functioning as a period of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss causes impairments in cognitive performance and simulated driving and induces sleepiness, fatigue and mood changes. This review examines recent research on the effects of sleep deprivation, restriction and disruption on cognition and neurophysiologic functioning in healthy adults, and contrasts the similarities and differences between these three modalities of sleep loss.

  6. Evaluation of microalgae cell disruption by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Jose A; Montalbo-Lomboy, Melissa; Yao, Linxing; Grewell, David; Wang, Tong

    2012-12-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuels because of their capability to produce lipids. Cell disruption is necessary to maximize lipid extraction. Sonication conditions were evaluated for breaking heterotrophic (Schizochytrium limacinum) and autotrophic (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) microalgae cells. Cell disruption was estimated by Nile red-lipids fluorescence quantification in S. limacinum and by the release of intracellular chlorophyll and carotenoids in green microalga C. reinhardtii. In both species, approximately 800 J/10 mL was the energy input necessary to maximize cell disruption, regardless of the cell concentrations studied. Increasing sonication time produced increasing amount of free radicals, quantified by the formation of hydroxyterephthalate. Sonication energy beyond the level needed for cell disruption induced oxidation of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid typically found in marine lipids. Careful control of sonication conditions is necessary to maximize oil extraction at the lowest operational cost and to prevent oil from free radical-induced degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards A Research Agenda on Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    Digital platforms are disruptive IT artifacts, because they facilitate the quick release of innovative platform derivatives from third parties. This study endeavors to unravel the disruptive potential, caused by distinct designs and configurations of digital platforms on market environments. We...... postulate that the disruptive potential of digital platforms is determined by the degree of alignment among the business, technology and platform profiles. Furthermore, we argue that the design and configuration of the aforementioned three elements dictates the extent to which open innovation is permitted....... To shed light on the disruptive potential of digital platforms, we opted for digital payment platforms as our unit of analysis. Through interviews with experts and payment providers, we seek to gain an in-depth appreciation of how contemporary digital payment platforms are designed and configured...

  8. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...... of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition...... for using advanced mathematical models as the basis for planning of resources as aircraft and crew. These methods are now also coming to use in the process of handling disruptions, and robustness of plans has received much interest. Commercial IT-systems supplying decision support for recovery of disrupted...

  9. In situ observation of crystallinity disruption patterns during starch gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Canhui; Wei, Cunxu

    2013-01-30

    Twelve starches were isolated from the tuberous root of sweet potato, the rhizomes of lotus and yam, the tuber of potato, the corm of water chestnut, and the seeds of pea, bean, barley, wheat, lotus, water caltrop, and ginkgo. Their gelatinization processes were in situ viewed using a polarizing microscope in combination with a hot stage. Four patterns of crystallinity disruption during heating were proposed. The crystallinity disruption initially occurred on the proximal surface of the eccentric hilum, on the distal surface of the eccentric hilum, from the central hilum, or on the surface of the central hilum starch granule. The patterns of initial disruption on the distal surface of the eccentric hilum and on the surface of the central hilum starch were reported for the first time. The heterogeneous distribution of amylose in starch granule might partly explain the different patterns of crystallinity disruption and swelling during gelatinization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Communication skills training to address disruptive physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Disruptive behavior among health care providers has been linked to negative patient outcomes. High-stress areas, including the perioperative setting, are especially prone to this behavior. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational communication skills intervention aimed at increasing the perceived self-efficacy of perioperative nurses to address disruptive physician behavior. Seventeen perioperative nurses participated in a two-day communication skills program presented by a certified Crucial Conversations trainer. By using paired t test analysis, I found that there was a statistically significant increase in total mean self-efficacy scores immediately after the intervention and four weeks after the intervention. In addition, four weeks after the intervention, participants reported the ability to address disruptive physician behavior 71% of the time. The results of this study suggest that one intervention strategy to address the serious threat of disruptive physician behavior to patient safety is to educate nurses in communication skills.

  11. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light...

  12. Supply chain disruption assessment based on the newsvendor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisong Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper focuses on supply chain disruption assessment.Design/methodology/approach: Newsvendor ModelFindings: As both cost and income principle will be taken into account in supply chain disruption assessment, we proposed in this paper: (1 the problem of supply chain disruption assessment is the trade-off problem. (2 the generic single period - newsvendor model can be used for capturing the critical point, which in tradition model stands for the demarcation point of profit but in this paper is the least costs considering disruption costs and expected revenues.Research limitations/implications: single period - newsvendor modelPractical implications: we give an example for test the effectiveness of this methodOriginality/value: to research supply chain risk in a new approach, that is: supply chain risk has both cost and profit. So we can assess it with trade-off method

  13. Complex partial seizure, disruptive behaviours and the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex partial seizure, disruptive behaviours and the Nigerian Legal System. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Background: Complex partial seizure is an epileptic seizure which results in ...

  14. When a Few Disruptive Students Challenge an Instructor's Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Paulette D.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how one journalism instructor deals with disruptive students in her reporting, communication history, and ethics courses. Lists reasons for students' disenchantment. Notes that sometimes humor eases tensions. Addresses building respect in the college classroom. (RS)

  15. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medic G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with

  16. Dengue Virus NS1 Disrupts the Endothelial Glycocalyx, Leading to Hyperpermeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Puerta-Guardo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and a major public health problem worldwide. Systemic plasma leakage, leading to hypovolemic shock and potentially fatal complications, is a critical determinant of dengue severity. Recently, we and others described a novel pathogenic effect of secreted dengue virus (DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 in triggering hyperpermeability of human endothelial cells in vitro and systemic vascular leakage in vivo. NS1 was shown to activate toll-like receptor 4 signaling in primary human myeloid cells, leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vascular leakage. However, distinct endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms of NS1-induced hyperpermeability remained to be defined. The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins lining the vascular endothelium that plays a key role in regulating endothelial barrier function. Here, we demonstrate that DENV NS1 disrupts the EGL on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, inducing degradation of sialic acid and shedding of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. This effect is mediated by NS1-induced expression of sialidases and heparanase, respectively. NS1 also activates cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine proteinase, in endothelial cells, which activates heparanase via enzymatic cleavage. Specific inhibitors of sialidases, heparanase, and cathepsin L prevent DENV NS1-induced EGL disruption and endothelial hyperpermeability. All of these effects are specific to NS1 from DENV1-4 and are not induced by NS1 from West Nile virus, a related flavivirus. Together, our data suggest an important role for EGL disruption in DENV NS1-mediated endothelial dysfunction during severe dengue disease.

  17. Dengue Virus NS1 Disrupts the Endothelial Glycocalyx, Leading to Hyperpermeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Glasner, Dustin R.; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and a major public health problem worldwide. Systemic plasma leakage, leading to hypovolemic shock and potentially fatal complications, is a critical determinant of dengue severity. Recently, we and others described a novel pathogenic effect of secreted dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in triggering hyperpermeability of human endothelial cells in vitro and systemic vascular leakage in vivo. NS1 was shown to activate toll-like receptor 4 signaling in primary human myeloid cells, leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vascular leakage. However, distinct endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms of NS1-induced hyperpermeability remained to be defined. The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins lining the vascular endothelium that plays a key role in regulating endothelial barrier function. Here, we demonstrate that DENV NS1 disrupts the EGL on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, inducing degradation of sialic acid and shedding of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. This effect is mediated by NS1-induced expression of sialidases and heparanase, respectively. NS1 also activates cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine proteinase, in endothelial cells, which activates heparanase via enzymatic cleavage. Specific inhibitors of sialidases, heparanase, and cathepsin L prevent DENV NS1-induced EGL disruption and endothelial hyperpermeability. All of these effects are specific to NS1 from DENV1-4 and are not induced by NS1 from West Nile virus, a related flavivirus. Together, our data suggest an important role for EGL disruption in DENV NS1-mediated endothelial dysfunction during severe dengue disease. PMID:27416066

  18. Three-dimensional non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of massive gas injection triggered disruptions in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fil, A.; Nardon, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Orain, F.; Becoulet, M.; Beyer, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Guirlet, R.; Koslowski, H. R.; Lehnen, M.; Morales, J.; Pamela, S.; Passeron, C.; Reux, C.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    2015-06-01

    JOREK 3D non-linear MHD simulations of a D2 Massive Gas Injection (MGI) triggered disruption in JET are presented and compared in detail to experimental data. The MGI creates an overdensity that rapidly expands in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It also causes the growth of magnetic islands ( m / n = 2 / 1 and 3/2 mainly) and seeds the 1/1 internal kink mode. O-points of all island chains (including 1/1) are located in front of the MGI, consistently with experimental observations. A burst of MHD activity and a peak in plasma current take place at the same time as in the experiment. However, the magnitude of these two effects is much smaller than in the experiment. The simulated radiation is also much below the experimental level. As a consequence, the thermal quench is not fully reproduced. Directions for progress are identified. Radiation from impurities is a good candidate.

  19. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, Linda R; Hu, Dong; Panek, Robert; Alfano, Danielle N; Bridwell, Rachel E; Bailey, Kelly M; Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine I; Concel, Vincent J; Hess, Emily M; Van Beek, Matthew; Delekta, Phillip C; Gu, Shufang; Watkins, Simon C; Ting, Adrian T; Gough, Peter J; Foley, Kevin P; Bertin, John; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-09-27

    Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD). Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  20. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda R. Klei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD. Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  1. Disruptive behaviour in the perioperative setting: a contemporary review

    OpenAIRE

    Villafranca, Alexander; Hamlin, Colin; Enns, Stephanie; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Disruptive behaviour, which we define as behaviour that does not show others an adequate level of respect and causes victims or witnesses to feel threatened, is a concern in the operating room. This review summarizes the current literature on disruptive behaviour as it applies to the perioperative domain. Source Searches of MEDLINE®, Scopus™, and Google books identified articles and monographs of interest, with backreferencing used as a supplemental strategy. Principal findings Much o...

  2. A theoretical method for assessing disruptive computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingbo; Li, Pengdeng; Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of disruptive computer viruses in the situation that every node in a network has its own virus-related attributes, a heterogeneous epidemic model is proposed. A criterion for the global stability of the virus-free equilibrium and a criterion for the existence of a unique viral equilibrium are given, respectively. Furthermore, extensive simulation experiments are conducted, and some interesting phenomena are found from the experimental results. On this basis, some policies of suppressing disruptive viruses are recommended.

  3. "Targeted disruption of the epithelial-barrier by Helicobacter pylori"

    OpenAIRE

    Wroblewski Lydia E; Peek Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and induces chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric cancer. Through cell-cell contacts the gastric epithelium forms a barrier to protect underlying tissue from pathogenic bacteria; however, H. pylori have evolved numerous strategies to perturb the integrity of the gastric barrier. In this review, we summarize recent research into the mechanisms through which H. pylori disrupts intercellular junctions and disrupts the gas...

  4. Disruption and adaptation of urban transport networks from flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Pregnolato Maria; Ford Alistair; Dawson Richard

    2016-01-01

    Transport infrastructure networks are increasingly vulnerable to disruption from extreme rainfall events due to increasing surface water runoff from urbanization and changes in climate. Impacts from such disruptions typically extend far beyond the flood footprint, because of the interconnection and spatial extent of modern infrastructure. An integrated flood risk assessment couples high resolution information on depth and velocity from the CityCAT urban flood model with empirical analysis of ...

  5. "Targeted disruption of the epithelial-barrier by Helicobacter pylori"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and induces chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric cancer. Through cell-cell contacts the gastric epithelium forms a barrier to protect underlying tissue from pathogenic bacteria; however, H. pylori have evolved numerous strategies to perturb the integrity of the gastric barrier. In this review, we summarize recent research into the mechanisms through which H. pylori disrupts intercellular junctions and disrupts the gastric epithelial barrier.

  6. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke Soeter; Merel Kindt

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targ...

  7. MOOCs as a disruptive force in online education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Viehland

    Full Text Available MOOCs - massive open online courses - have emerged as the dominant topic in online education in New Zealand and elsewhere. MOOCs have been variously described as a tsunami, a paradigm shift and a disruptive force to both place-based and online tertiary education. This paper offers a comprehensive description of MOOCs and discusses key disruptive aspects of MOOC-based education such as university/student disengagement, low completion rates, peer assessment and business models.

  8. Managing Port-Related Supply Chain Disruptions: A Conceptual Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shan Loh

    2014-04-01

    This paper synthesizes the current literature into a management model that seeks to target operational deficiencies at ports. The management model is operationalized in three tiers, from the top management level to the front-line employees, with characteristics from risk management, business continuity management and quality management theories. The proposed model serves as a universal guide in assisting port management in managing port-related disruptions and seeks to reduce the occurrences of port-related supply chain disruption threats.

  9. Disrupted caring attachments: implications for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    Caring attachments or social supports are the positive psychological and physical contacts and relationships between people. These attachments have been associated with improved health, well-being, and longevity. It is also true that disrupted caring attachments are associated with impaired health and well-being. This paper reviews the general medical and elder medical findings of disrupted caring attachments and negative health outcomes. The implications of these findings for dementia sufferers, caregivers, and long-term care staff are examined.

  10. Academic outcomes in school classes with markedly disruptive pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the degree to which average academic outcomes in secondary school classes are associated with the inclusion of markedly disruptive pupils. Findings are based on two separate studies among pupils in Norwegian secondary schools. The first s tudy i ncluded a r elatively large sample of 2,332 pupils from 105 school classes and used pupil report of disruptive behaviour, perceived peace to learn and grades achieved. A second study, co...

  11. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  12. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  13. Action of the mechanical disruption of the actin network on the gravisensitivity of the root statocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, A.; Jeune, B.; Driss-Ecole, D.; Perbal, G.

    The effects of the mechanical disruption of the thin actin network of statocytes on gravisensitivity have been studied on lentil roots. Seedling roots were first inverted for 7 min (root tip upward) and then placed in the downward (normal) position for 7 min before gravitropic stimulation in the horizontal position. The period of inversion allowed the amyloplasts to move from the distal part to the proximal part of the statocyte, but did not fully sediment. When the roots were returned to the tip down position, the amyloplasts moved toward the distal part, but also did not completely sediment by the time the roots were placed horizontally. Thus, in these roots the amyloplasts could be still moving toward the distal wall after they had been replaced in the normal position and the actin network should not be fully restored. Gravisensitivity was estimated by the analysis of the dose-response curves of vertical and treated (inverted and returned to downward position) roots. The only effect, which has been observed on treated roots, was a delay of graviresponse for about 1 min. Our interpretation of this result is that in vertical roots the amyloplasts can exert tensions in the actin network that are directly transmitted to mechanoreceptors located in the plasma membrane. In roots with a partially disrupted actin network, a delay of 1 min is necessary for the amyloplasts to activate mechanoreceptors.

  14. An Island Coalescence Scenario for Near-Earth Current Disruption in the Magnetotail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhi-Wei; LU Xing-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    A current disruption and dipolarization scenario associated with island coalescences in the near-Earth region is proposed.The thin and elongated current-sheet built up during the growth phase is unstable due to a tearing mode instability that leads to formation of multiple magnetic islands (or magnetic flux ropes in the three dimensional case) in the near-Earth region.The growth rate of the tearing mode should be different in different locations because the rate is in general determined by the external driving force and the local plasma sheet properties.When the rate of the magnetic reconnection in the mid-tail region around 20 RE is much larger than that in other locations,the strong bulk earthward flows resulting from the fast reconnection in the mid-tail drive the earthward convection and the coalescence of the magnetic islands.Consequently,the cross-tail current in the near-Earth region is suddenly disrupted and the geometry of the magnetic field changes from tail-like to dipolar-like in the ideal time scale.This proposed scenario is tested by Hall MHD simulation and is compared with the observations.

  15. Spermicidal efficacy of VRP, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, inducing apoptosis and membrane disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prasanta; Bhoumik, Arpita; Saha, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Ghosh, Jimut K; Dungdung, Sandhya R

    2017-04-14

    Presently available contraceptives are mostly hormonal or detergent in nature with numerous side effects like irritation, lesion, inflammation in vagina, alteration of body homeostasis, etc. Antimicrobial peptides with spermicidal activity but without adverse effects may be suitable alternatives. In the present study, spermicidal activity of a cationic antimicrobial peptide VRP on human spermatozoa has been elucidated. Progressive forward motility of human spermatozoa was instantly stopped after 100 μM VRP treatment and at 350 μM, all kinds of sperm motility ceased within 20 s as assessed by the Sander-Cramer assay. The spermicidal effect was confirmed by eosin-nigrosin assay and HOS test. VRP treatment (100 μM) in human spermatozoa induced both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. TUNEL assay showed VRP treatment significantly disrupted the DNA integrity and changed the mitochondrial membrane permeability as evident from MPTP assay. AFM and SEM results depicted ultra structural changes including disruption of the acrosomal cap and plasma membrane of the head and midpiece region after treatment with 350 μM VRP. MTT assay showed after treatments with 100 and 350 μM of VRP for 24 hr, a substantial amount of Lactobacillus acidophilus (about 90% and 75%, respectively) remained viable. Hence, VRP being a small synthetic peptide with antimicrobial and spermicidal activity but tolerable to normal vaginal microflora, may be a suitable target for elucidating its contraceptive potentiality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The disruptive physician: righteous Maverick or dangerous Pariah?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbar, Ross I S; Taylor, Lisa D; Canady, John W

    2009-01-01

    "Disruptive physician" is a term appearing more frequently in many hospital bylaws. It has significant negative implications that can lead to loss of privileges for plastic surgeons. Exploring the various definitions of disruptive physician reveals palpable differences between those of the Joint Commission and the American Medical Association. These discrepancies expose plastic surgeons to potential harm when actively addressing quality issues in the hospital environment. The disruptive label can be inappropriately leveraged by hospital administrators against plastic surgeons who confront quality issues. Moreover, the term disruptive is open to subjective interpretation. Challenging the disruptive label in court reveals only that the justice system is concerned that the actual process leading to the disruptive charge is followed appropriately as outlined within the organizational bylaws; the courts are not interested in the actual quality issues and generally will not second-guess the judgment of peer review panels or hospital administrators. Plastic surgeons would benefit from familiarizing themselves with these issues. Hospitals should be required to use root cause analysis when dealing with quality issues raised by members of the medical staff. Furthermore, findings from root cause analysis should be privileged from legal discovery in all jurisdictions to permit honest exploration of quality issues. When a conflict does arise, consideration of mediation should be given to resolve disputes.

  17. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  18. Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul J; Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc V

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between emotions, cognitive interference, concentration disruption and performance in youth sport. In study 1, 150 youth sport athletes (Mage = 13.13 years, s = 1.79) completed measures of emotion, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption for their most recently completed competition. In Study 2, 46 female rhythmic gymnasts (Mage = 10.30 years, s = 1.74) completed measures of emotion immediately before competition, and measures of cognitive interference and concentration disruption immediately after competition. Study 1 showed that anxiety and dejection were associated with more interfering thoughts and greater disruptions in concentration, whereas the effects of anger and happiness on interfering thoughts differed relative to the age of participants. Specifically, anger was associated with more interfering thoughts only in younger athletes and happiness was associated with fewer interfering thoughts only in older athletes. Study 2 showed that emotions experienced before competition were not strongly associated with cognitive interference or concentration disruption, but athletes reporting more thoughts of escape in competition were less successful in the competition as measured by objective performance scores. These findings demonstrate that emotions are important for cognitive interference and concentration disruption, and provide some initial evidence that cognitive interference is important for performance in youth sport.

  19. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied.

  20. Ultraviolet and optical observations of tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezari S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tidal disruption events are expected to produce a luminous flare of radiation from fallback accretion of tidally disrupted stellar debris onto the central supermassive black hole. The first convincing candidates for tidal disruption events were discovered in the soft X-rays: large-amplitude, luminous, extremely-soft X-ray flares from inactive galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky survey. However, the sparsely sampled light curves and lack of multiwavelength observations for these candidates make it difficult to directly constrain the parameters of their events (e.g., Eddington ratio, mass of the black hole, type of star disrupted. Here I present a review of the recent progress made in studying tidal disruption events in detail from taking advantage of wide-field, multi-epoch observations of UV and optical surveys (GALEX, SDSS, PTF, Pan-STARRS1 to measure well-sampled light curves, trigger prompt multiwavelength follow-up observations, and measure rates. I conclude with the promising potential of the next generation of optical synoptic surveys, such as LSST, to probe black hole demographics with samples of thousands of tidal disruption events.