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Sample records for plasma disruption

  1. Plasma disruption modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1994-01-01

    Disruptions in tokamak reactors are considered a limiting factor to successful operation and reliable design. The behavior of plasma-facing components during a disruption is critical to the overall integrity of the reactor. Erosion of plasma facing-material (PFM) surfaces due to thermal energy dump during the disruption can severely limit the lifetime of these components and thus diminish the economic feasibility of the reactor. A comprehensive understanding of the interplay of various physical processes during a disruption is essential for determining component lifetime and potentially improving the performance of such components. There are three principal stages in modeling the behavior of PFM during a disruption. Initially, the incident plasma particles will deposit their energy directly on the PFM surface, heating it to a very high temperature where ablation occurs. Models for plasma-material interactions have been developed and used to predict material thermal evolution during the disruption. Within a few microseconds after the start of the disruption, enough material is vaporized to intercept most of the incoming plasma particles. Models for plasma-vapor interactions are necessary to predict vapor cloud expansion and hydrodynamics. Continuous heating of the vapor cloud above the material surface by the incident plasma particles will excite, ionize, and cause vapor atoms to emit thermal radiation. Accurate models for radiation transport in the vapor are essential for calculating the net radiated flux to the material surface which determines the final erosion thickness and consequently component lifetime. A comprehensive model that takes into account various stages of plasma-material interaction has been developed and used to predict erosion rates during reactor disruption, as well during induced disruption in laboratory experiments

  2. Probabilistic analysis of tokamak plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzo, D.L.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution to the heat conduction equations used in modeling component melting and vaporization resulting from plasma disruptions is presented. This solution is then used to propagate uncertainties in the input data characterizing disruptions, namely, energy density and disruption time, to obtain a probabilistic description of the output variables of interest, material melted and vaporized. (orig.)

  3. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  4. Disruption simulation for the EAST plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xingping; Wu Bin

    2007-01-01

    The disruptions due to vertical displacement event for the EAST plasma are simulated in this article by using the TSC program. Meanwhile, the evolutions of the halo current and stress on vacuum vessel are calculated; the disruptions at different initial conditions are compared with each other, and killer pellet injection is simulated for the device fast shutting-down. (authors)

  5. Vaporized wall material/plasma interaction during plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, B.J.; Carroll, M.C.; Jardin, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a new plasma disruption model that has been developed for analyzing the consequences to the limiter/first wall structures. This model accounts for: nonequilibrium surface vaporization for the ablating structure, nonequilibrium ionization of and radiation emitted from the ablated material in the plasma, plasma particle and energy transport, and plasma electromagnetic field evolution during the disruption event. Calculations were performed for a 5 ms disruption on a stainless steel flat limiter as part of a D-shaped first wall. These results indicated that the effectiveness of the ablated wall material to shield the exposed structure is greater than predicted by earlier models, and that the rate of redeposition of the ablated wall material ions is very dramatic. Impurity transport along magnetic field lines, global plasma motion, and radiation transport in an optically thick plasma are important factors that require additional modeling. Experimental measurements are needed to verify these models

  6. Tokamak plasma current disruption infrared control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Ulrickson, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a device for magnetically confining a plasma driven by a plasma current and contained within a toroidal vacuum chamber, the device having an inner toroidal limiter on an inside wall of the vacuum chamber and an arrangement for the rapid prediction and control in real time of a major plasma disruption. The arrangement is described which includes: scanning means sensitive to infrared radiation emanating from within the vacuum chamber, the infrared radiation indicating the temperature along a vertical profile of the inner toroidal limiter. The scanning means is arranged to observe the infrared radiation and to produce in response thereto an electrical scanning output signal representative of a time scan of temperature along the vertical profile; detection means for analyzing the scanning output signal to detect a first peaked temperature excursion occurring along the profile of the inner toroidal limiter, and to produce a detection output signal in repsonse thereto, the detection output signal indicating a real time prediction of a subsequent major plasma disruption; and plasma current reduction means for reducing the plasma current driving the plasma, in response to the detection output signal and in anticipation of a subsequent major plasma disruption

  7. Electrical disruption in toroidal plasma of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, M.; Silva, C.A.B.; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The initial phase of ionization of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated using zero-dimensional model. The model describes the temporal evolution of plasma by spatial medium of particle density and temperature, on whole plasma volume. The energy and particle (electrons and ions) balance equations are considered. The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss involves ionization, Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating converter gives the initial voltage necessary to disruption. (M.C.K.)

  8. An overview on plasma disruption mitigation and avoidance in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Pan Chuanhong; Feng Kaiming

    2002-01-01

    Plasma disruption, which seems to be unavoidable in Tokamak operation, occurs very fast and uncontrolled. In order to keep Tokamak plasma from disruption and mitigate the disruption frequency, the research on Tokamak plasma major disruption constitutes one of the main topics in plasma physics. The phenomena and processes of the precursor, thermal quench, current quench, VDE, halo current and runaway electrons generation during plasma disruption are analyzed in detail and systematically based on the data obtained from current Tokamaks such as TFTR, JET, JT-60U and ASDEX-U, etc. The methods to mitigate and avoid disruption in Tokamak are also highlighted schematically. Therefore, it is helpful and instructive for plasma disruption research in next generation large Tokamak such as ITER-FEAT

  9. Technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.; Kellman, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A workshop on the technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions was held April 3, 1992 in Monterey, California, as a satellite meeting of the 10th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions. The objective was to bring together researchers working on disruption measurements in operating tokamaks, those performing disruption simulation experiments using pulsed plasma gun, electron beam and laser systems, and computational physicists attempting to model the evolution and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions. This is a brief report on the workshop. 4 refs

  10. Abnormal energy deposition on the wall through plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The dissipation of plasma kinetic and magnetic energy during sawtooth oscillations and disruptions in tokamak is analyzed using Kadomtsev's disruption model and the plasma-circuit equations. New simple scalings of several characteristic times are obtained for sawteeth and for thermal and magnetic energy quenches of disruptions. The abnormal energy deposition on the wall during major or minor disruptions, estimated from this analysis, is compared with bolometric measurements in the PDX tokamak. Especially, magnetic energy dissipation during the current termination period is shown to be reduced by the strong coupling of the plasma current with external circuits. These analyses are found to be useful to predict the phenomenological behavior of plasma disruptions in large future tokamaks, and to estimate abnormal heat deposition on the wall during plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  11. Abnormal energy deposition on the wall through plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1984-07-01

    The dissipation of plasma kinetic and magnetic energy during sawtooth oscillstions and disruptions in tokamaks is analyzed using Kadomtsev's disruption model and the plasma-circuit equations. New simple scalings of several characteristic times are obtained for sawteeth and for thermal and magnetic energy quenches of disruptions. The abnormal energy deposition on the wall during major or minor disruptions, estimated from this analysis, is compared with bolometric measurements in the PDX tokamak. Especially, magnetic energy dissipation during current termination period is shown to be reduced by the strong coupling of the plasma current with external circuits. These analyses are found to be useful to predict the phenomenological behavior of plasma disruptions in large future tokamaks, and to estimate abnormal heat deposition on the wall during plasma disruptions. (author)

  12. The influence of plasma motion on disruption generated runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of disruptions is the generation of runaway electrons which can impact plasma facing components and cause damage due to high local energy deposition. This problem becomes more serious as the machine size and plasma current increases. Since large size and high currents are characteristics of proposed future machines, control of runaway generation is an important design consideration. A lumped circuit model for disruption runaway electron generation indicates that control circuitry on strongly influence runaway behavior. A comparison of disruption data from several shots on JET and D3-D with model results, demonstrate the effects of plasma motion on runaway number density and energy. 6 refs., 12 figs

  13. Plasma diffusion in systems with disrupted magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, D.K.; Pogutse, O.P.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma diffusion is analyzed in the case in which the system of magnetic surfaces is disrupted by a stochastic perturbation of the magnetic field. The diffusion coefficient is related to the statistical properties of the field. The statistical characteristics of the field are found when the magnetic surfaces near the separatrix are disrupted by an external perturbation. The diffusion coefficient is evaluated in the region in which the magnetic surfaces are disrupted. In this region the diffusion coefficient is of the Bohm form

  14. Plasma-material interaction under simulated disruption conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.I.; Bakhtin, V.P.; Safronov, V.M.; Toporkov, D.A.; Vasenin, S.G.; Wurz, H.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Sudden evaporation of divertor plate surface under high heat load during tokamak plasma disruption instantaneously produces a vapor shield. The cloud of vaporized material prevents the divertor plates from the bulk of incoming energy flux and thus reduces the further material erosion. Dynamics and effectiveness of the vapor shield are studied experimentally at the 2MK-200 facility under simulated disruption conditions. (orig.)

  15. Modeling plasma/material interactions during a tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1994-10-01

    Disruptions in tokamak reactors are still of serious concern and present a potential obstacle for successful operation and reliable design. Erosion of plasma-facing materials due to thermal energy dump during a disruption can severely limit the lifetime of these components, therefore diminishing the economic feasibility of the reactor. A comprehensive disruption erosion model which takes into account the interplay of major physical processes during plasma-material interaction has been developed. The initial burst of energy delivered to facing-material surfaces from direct impact of plasma particles causes sudden ablation of these materials. As a result, a vapor cloud is formed in front of the incident plasma particles. Shortly thereafter, the plasma particles are stopped in the vapor cloud, heating and ionizing it. The energy transmitted to the material surfaces is then dominated by photon radiation. It is the dynamics and the evolution of this vapor cloud that finally determines the net erosion rate and, consequently, the component lifetime. The model integrates with sufficient detail and in a self-consistent way, material thermal evolution response, plasma-vapor interaction physics, vapor hydrodynamics, and radiation transport in order to realistically simulate the effects of a plasma disruption on plasma-facing components. Candidate materials such as beryllium and carbon have been analyzed. The dependence of the net erosion rate on disruption physics and various parameters was analyzed and is discussed

  16. Effect of disruptions on plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, J.G.; Bourham, M.A.; Tucker, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Erosion of plasma-facing components during disruptions is a limiting factor in the design of large tokamaks like ITER. During a disruption, much of the stored thermal energy of the plasma will be dumped onto divertor plates, resulting in local heat fluxes, which may exceed 100 GW/m 2 over a period of about 0.1--1.0 msec. Melted and/or vaporized material is produced which is redistributed in the divertor region. Simulation of disruption damage is summarized from code results and from experimental exposure of materials to high heat-flux plasmas in plasma guns. In the US several codes have been used to predict both melt/vaporization and heat transfer on surfaces as well as energy and momentum transport in the vapor/plasma shield produced at the surface

  17. Plasma radiation in tokamak disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Safronov, V.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Wuerz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma impact results in sudden evaporation of divertor plate material and produces a plasma cloud which acts as a protective shield. The incoming energy flux is absorbed in the plasma shield and is converted mainly into radiation. Thus the radiative characteristics of the target plasma determine the dissipation of the incoming energy and the heat load at the target. Radiation of target plasma is studied at the two plasma gun facility 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Space- and time-resolved spectroscopy and time-integrated space-resolved calorimetry are employed as diagnostics. Graphite and tungsten samples are exposed to deuterium plasma streams. It is found that the radiative characteristics depend strongly on the target material. Tungsten plasma arises within 1 micros close to the surface and shows continuum radiation only. Expansion of tungsten plasma is restricted. For a graphite target the plasma shield is a mixture of carbon and deuterium. It expands along the magnetic field lines with a velocity of v = (3--4) 10 6 cm/s. The plasma shield is a two zone plasma with a hot low dense corona and a cold dense layer close to the target. The plasma corona emits intense soft x-ray (SXR) line radiation in the frequency range from 300--380 eV mainly from CV ions. It acts as effective dissipation system and converts volumetrically the incoming energy flux into SXR radiation

  18. Erosion of melt layers developed during a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1995-01-01

    Material erosion of plasma-facing components during a tokamak disruption is a serious problem that limits reactor operation and economical reactor lifetime. In particular, metallic low-Z components such as Be will be subjected to severe melting during disruptions and edge localized modes (ELMs). Loss of the developed melt layer will critically shorten the lifetime of these components, severely contaminate the plasma, and seriously inhibit successful and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study mechanisms responsible for melt-layer loss during a disruption are modeled and evaluated. Implications of melt-layer loss on the performance of metallic facing components in the reactor environment are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Erosion of melt layers developed during a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1994-08-01

    Material erosion of plasma-facing components during a tokamak disruption is a serious problem that limits reactor operation and economical reactor lifetime. In particular, metallic low-Z components such as Be will be subjected to severe melting during disruptions and edge localized models (ELMs). Loss of the developed melt layer will critically shorten the lifetime of these components, severely contaminate the plasma, and seriously inhibit successful and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study mechanisms responsible for melt-layer loss during a disruption are modeled and evaluated. Implications of melt-layer loss on the performance of metallic facing components in the reactor environment are discussed

  20. Cracking susceptibility of stainless steel subjected to plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, H.

    1995-01-01

    The similarities and differences in the cracking susceptibility between welding and resolidification after plasma disruption were examined experimentally using a number of primary candidate alloy samples with different chemical compositions. The product of the number density and the average depth of the cracks was measured after simulated disruption, employing a hydrogen ion beam as the heat source, and was compared with the Varestraint test result. An adequate correlation was observed between them, which indicates that the cracking susceptibility during plasma disruption can be well estimated from the welding cracking susceptibility. (orig.)

  1. Anomalous periodic disruptions in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvai, A.; Tegze, M.; Valyi, I.

    1982-09-01

    Anomalously strong, periodic instabilities were observed in the MT-1 tokamak. Characteristics of these instabilities were partly similar to those of internal disruptions, but there were features making them different from the normal relaxational oscillations. Basic characteristics of the phenomenon were studied with the aid of generally used diagnostics. (author)

  2. Interpreting Disruption Prediction Models to Improve Plasma Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    In order for the tokamak to be a feasible design for a fusion reactor, it is necessary to minimize damage to the machine caused by plasma disruptions. Accurately predicting disruptions is a critical capability for triggering any mitigative actions, and a modest amount of attention has been given to efforts that employ machine learning techniques to make these predictions. By monitoring diagnostic signals during a discharge, such predictive models look for signs that the plasma is about to disrupt. Typically these predictive models are interpreted simply to give a `yes' or `no' response as to whether a disruption is approaching. However, it is possible to extract further information from these models to indicate which input signals are more strongly correlated with the plasma approaching a disruption. If highly accurate predictive models can be developed, this information could be used in plasma control schemes to make better decisions about disruption avoidance. This work was supported by a Grant from the 2016-2017 Fulbright U.S. Student Program, administered by the Franco-American Fulbright Commission in France.

  3. Vaporization studies of plasma interactive materials in simulated plasma disruption events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A. IV; Croessmann, C.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1988-03-01

    The melting and vaporization that occur when plasma facing materials are subjected to a plasma disruption will severely limit component lifetime and plasma performance. A series of high heat flux experiments was performed on a group of fusion reactor candidate materials to model material erosion which occurs during plasma disruption events. The Electron Beam Test System was used to simulate single disruption and multiple disruption phenomena. Samples of aluminum, nickel, copper, molybdenum, and 304 stainless steel were subjected to a variety of heat loads, ranging from 100 to 400 msec pulses of 8 to 18 kWcm 2 . It was found that the initial surface temperature of a material strongly influences the vaporization process and that multiple disruptions do not scale linearly with respect to single disruption events. 2 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Neural net prediction of tokamak plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.V.; Lin, Z.; Horton, W.; McCool, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    The computation based on neural net algorithms in predicting minor and major disruptions in TEXT tokamak discharges has been performed. Future values of the fluctuating magnetic signal are predicted based on L past values of the magnetic fluctuation signal, measured by a single Mirnov coil. The time step used (= 0.04ms) corresponds to the experimental data sampling rate. Two kinds of approaches are adopted for the task, the contiguous future prediction and the multi-timescale prediction. Results are shown for comparison. Both networks are trained through the back-propagation algorithm with inertial terms. The degree of this success indicates that the magnetic fluctuations associated with tokamak disruptions may be characterized by a relatively low-dimensional dynamical system

  5. Estimation of post disruption plasma temperature for fast current quench Aditya plasma shots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, S.; Chowdhuri, M.B.; Joisa, Y.S.; Raval, J.V.; Ghosh, J.; Jha, R.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of tokamak current quenches are an important issue for the determination of electromagnetic forces that act on the in-vessel components and vacuum vessel during major disruptions. It is observed that thermal quench is followed by a sharp current decay. Fast current quench disruptive plasma shots were investigated for ADITYA tokamak. The current decay time was determined for the selected shots, which were in the range of 0.8 msec to 2.5 msec. This current decay information was then applied to L/R model, frequently employed for the estimation of the current decay time in tokamak plasmas, considering plasma inductance and plasma resistivity. This methodology was adopted for the estimation of the post disruption plasma temperature using the experimentally observed current decay time for the fast current quench disruptive ADITYA plasma shots. The study reveals that for the identified shots there is a constant increase in the current decay time with the post disruption plasma temperature. The investigations also explore the behavior post disruption plasma temperature and the current decay time as a function of the edge safety factor, Q. Post disruption plasma temperature and the current decay time exhibits a decrease with the increase in the value Q. (author)

  6. The evolution of the plasma current during tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Andersson, F.; Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    In a tokamak disruption, the ohmic plasma current is partly replaced by a current carried by runaway electrons. This process is analysed by combining the equations for runaway electron generation with Maxwell's equations for the evolution of the electric field. This allows a quantitative understanding to be gained of runaway production in present experiments, and extrapolation to be made to ITER. The runaway current typically becomes more peaked on the magnetic axis than the pre-disruption current. In fact, the central current density can rise although the total current falls, which may have implications for post-disruption plasma stability. Furthermore, it is found that the runaway current easily spreads radially in a filament way due to the high sensitivity of the runaway generation efficiency to plasma parameters. (authors)

  7. On modeling of beryllium molten depths in simulated plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsotridis, G.; Rother, H.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma-facing components in tokamak-type fusion reactors are subjected to intense heat loads during plasma disruptions. The influence of high heat fluxes on the depth of heat-affected zones of pure beryllium metal and beryllium containing very low levels of surface active impurities is studied by using a two-dimensional transient computer model that solves the equations of motion and energy. Results are presented for a range of energy densities and disruption times. Under certain conditions, impurities, through their effect on surface tension, create convective flows and hence influence the flow intensities and the resulting depths of the beryllium molten layers during plasma disruptions. The calculated depths of the molten layers are also compared with other mathematical models that are based on the assumption that heat is transported through the material by conduction only. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. A physical model of Mirnov oscillations and plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.C.

    1983-07-01

    A physical model is proposed which accounts for the general behaviour of Mirnov oscillations and plasma disruptions in tokamak devices. The model also accounts for the stability of those devices which operate with edge safety factors less than 1.5. The model is based on the propagation of localized torsional Alfven and ion acoustic wavepackets. These packets remain phase coherent for considerable distances and are guided along helical field lines in toroidal plasmas, leading to the formation of standing waves on those field lines which close on themselves after one or more toroidal revolutions. Standing waves are driven resonantly on the rational surfaces by fluctuations in the poloidal field, causing localized heating and hence filamentation of the plasma current. This model indicates that Mirnov oscillations are produced by standing acoustic waves, while plasma disruptions occur as a result of the formation of MHD unstable current filaments

  9. Heat transfer modelling of first walls subject to plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Makowitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief description of the plasma disruption problem and potential thermal consequences to the first wall is given. Thermal models reviewed include: a) melting of a solid with melt layer in place; b) melting of a solid with complete removal of melt (ablation); c) melting/vaporization of a solid; and d) vaporization of a solid but no phase change affecting the temperature profile

  10. Heat loads on plasma facing components during disruptions on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoux, G.; Riccardo, V.; Fundamenski, W.; Loarte, A.; Huber, A.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, fast measurements of heat loads on the main chamber plasma facing components (about 1 ms time resolution) during disruptions are taken on JET. The timescale of energy deposition during the thermal quench is estimated and compared with the timescale of the core plasma collapse measured with soft x-ray diagnostic. The energy deposition time is 3-8 times longer than the plasma energy collapse during density limit disruptions or radiative limit disruptions. This factor is rather in the range 1.5-4 for vertical displacement events. The heat load profiles measured during the thermal quench show substantial broadening of the power footprint on the upper dump plate. The scrape-off layer power width is increased by a factor of 3 for the density limit disruptions. The far scrape-off layer is characterized by a steeper gradient which could be explained by shadowing of the dump plate by other main chamber plasma facing components such as the outer limiter.

  11. Stability and erosion of melt layers formed during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Melting and vaporization of metallic reactor components such as the first wall and the limiter/divertor may be expected in fusion reactors due to the high energy deposition resulting from plasma instabilities occuring during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. Off-normal operating conditions result from plasma disruptions where the plasma losses confinement and dumps its energy on parts of reactor components. High heat flux may also result during normal operating conditions due to fluctuations in plasma edge conditions. Of particular significance is the stability and erosion of the resulting melt layer which directly impacts the total expected lifetime of the reactor. The loss of the melt layer during the disruption could have a serious impact on the required safe and economic operation of the reactor. A model is developed to describe the behavior of the melt layer during the time evolution of the disruption. The analysis is done parametrically for a range of disruption times, energy densities and various acting forces

  12. Structural responses to plasma disruptions in toroidal shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The induced pressures, stresses and strains in unrestrained axisymmetric toroidal shells are studied to scope the behavior of tokamak first walls during plasma disruptions. The modeling includes a circuit analog representation of the shell to solve for induced currents and pressures, and a separate quasi-static 1-D finite element solution for the mechanical response. This work demonstrates that the stresses in tokamkak first walls due to plasma disruption may be large, but to first order will not cause failure in the bulk structure. However, stress concentrations at structural supports and discontinuities together with resonant effects can result in large enhancements of the stresses, which could contribute to plastic deformation or failure when added to the already large steady state thermal and pressure loading of the first wall

  13. Thermal consequences of plasma disruptions in TFTR and ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.; Ludescher, C.

    1981-01-01

    We studied thermal responses of first walls for TFTR and ETF during plasma disruptions. To model the flux, we assumed the entire kinetic energy is deposited by axisymmetric horizontal displacement of the plasma. The deposition time is a free parameter. In TFTR, the minimum deposition time which does not cause the toroidal limiter to melt is 7 or 14 ms depending on whether or not the limiter is actively cooled. In ETF, the minimum time which does not cause surface melting of the cooling tubes is 80 ms. (author)

  14. Plasma-current structures of plasma focus during the current disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokhin, O.N.; Kalachev, N.V.; Malafeev, Yu.S.; Nikulin, V.Ya; Polukhin, S.N.; Tsybenko, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of the plasma structures arising during the current disruption in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The study was performed using the laser-shadow and interferometry methods together with measurements of current and X-ray radiation. An analysis of the experimental results shows that for the construction of a multi mega-amperes current disruption device, the Filippov type of DPF (in comparison with the Mather type) is to be preferred since the processes occurring in the X-ray regime are much faster than in the pinch regime, and this type of plasma focus is geometrically more suitable for the assembly of such a current disrupter.This disrupter is now under construction, based on the 'Tulip' DPF installation

  15. Recent measurements of electron density profiles of plasmas in PLADIS I, a plasma disruption simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J. III; Sharp, G.; Gahl, J.M. Kuznetsov, V.; Rockett, P.; Hunter, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tokamak disruption simulation experiments are being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) using the PLADIS I plasma gun system. PLADIS I is a high power, high energy coaxial plasma gun configured to produce an intense plasma beam. First wall candidate materials are placed in the beam path to determine their response under disruption relevant energy densities. An optically thick vapor shield plasma has been observed to form above the target surface in PLADIS I. Various diagnostics have been used to determine the characteristics of the incident plasma and the vapor shielding plasma. The cross sectional area of the incident plasma beam is a critical characteristic, as it is used in the calculation of the incident plasma energy density. Recently, a HeNe interferometer in the Mach-Zehnder configuration has been constructed and used to probe the electron density of the incident plasma beam and vapor shield plasma. The object beam of the interferometer is scanned across the plasma beam on successive shots, yielding line integrals of beam density on different chords through the plasma. Data from the interferometer is used to determine the electron density profile of the incident plasma beam as a function of beam radius. This data is then used to calculate the effective beam area. Estimates. of beam area, obtained from other diagnostics such as damage targets, calorimeter arrays and off-axis measurements of surface pressure, will be compared with data from the interferometer to obtain a better estimate of the beam cross sectional area

  16. Effects of plasma disruption events on ITER first wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, A.; Gorenflo, H.; Lodato, A.; Ioki, K.; Raffray, R.

    2000-01-01

    In ITER, plasma disruption events may occur producing large fast thermal transients on plasma facing materials. Particularly important for the integrity of the first wall (FW) are relatively 'long' duration off-normal events such as plasma vertical displacement events (VDE) and runaway electrons (RE). An analytical methodology has been developed to specifically assess the effect of these events on FW plasma facing materials. For the typical energy densities and event duration expected for the primary and baffle FW, some melting and evaporation of the FW armor will occur without the beneficial effect of vapor shielding, and the metallic heat sink may also be damaged due to over-heating. The method is able to calculate the amount of melted and evaporated material, taking into account the evolution of the evaporated and melted layer and to evaluate possible effects of local temporary loss of cooling. The method has been used to analyze the effects of VDE and RE events for ITER, to study recent disruption simulation experiments and to benchmark experimental and analytical results

  17. Physical and metallurgical phenomena during simulations of plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, F.; Cambini, M.; Quataert, D.; Rigon, G.; Schiller, P.

    1988-01-01

    The metallographic analysis executed on austenitic stainless steel specimens subjected to simulated plasma disruptions allows us to present a complete picture of the most important phenomena. (i) The experiments show that for the calculation of melt layer and evaporation it is necessary to take considerable convection in the melt layer into account. (ii) The rapid solidification of the melt layer leads to a change in the crystalline structure and to the formation of cracks. (iii) Alloying elements with a high vapour pressure evaporate preferentially. (iv) The stresses generated during cooling induce in some case phase changes. (v) During neutron irradiation helium is formed in all first wall materials by (n, α) processes. This helium forms bubbles under disruptions. (orig.)

  18. Behaviour of plasma spray coatings under disruption simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, F.; Rigon, G.; Looman, B.

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of metallic and ceramic protective coatings under disruption simulations was studied correlating the damage with their physical and structural parameters. Plasma Spray (PS) and Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) were the techniques used for the production of the coatings. W-5% Re was selected for divertor plates, and TiC, TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , low-Z ceramic materials for the first wall protection on 316 SS, Cu and Al as substrates. An electron beam gun was used to simulate the plasma disruptions. The tests were carried out from 0.6 to 6 MJ/m 2 . The thermal effects were studied by metallographic and EDXA analysis. The damage was observed comparing the degree of protection provided by each coating to discover the minimum thickness necessary to prevent the underlying material from melting. Good protective coatings must have a high melting point, great porosity and low thermal conductivity. Such coatings act as thermal barriers, increasing the surface temperature and radiating back large parts of the energy. (orig.)

  19. Erosion products of ITER divertor materials under plasma disruption simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Kolbasov, B.N.; Korshunov, S.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V. E-mail: martyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Stolyarova, V.G.; Strunnikov, V.M.; Vasiliev, V.I

    2003-09-01

    Candidate ITER divertor armor materials: carbon-fiber-composite and four tungsten grades/alloys as well as mixed re-deposited W+Be and W+C layers were exposed in electrodynamic plasma accelerator MKT which provided a pulsed deuterium plasma flux simulating plasma disruptions with maximum ion energy of 1-2 keV, an energy density of 300 kJ/m{sup 2} per shot and a pulse duration of {approx}60 {mu}s. The number of pulses was from 2 to 10. The resultant erosion products were collected on a basalt filter and Si-collectors and studied in terms of morphology and size distribution using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal erosion products usually occurred in the form of spherical droplets, sometimes flakes. Their size distribution depended on the positioning of the collector. Simultaneously irradiated W, CFC and mixed W+Be targets appeared to have undergone a greater erosion than the same targets irradiated individually. Particles sized from 0.01 to 30 {mu}m were found on collectors and on a molten W-surface. A model of droplet emission and behavior in shielding plasma is provided.

  20. Simulation of Plasma Disruptions for HL-2M with the DINA Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Lei; Duan Xu-Ru; Zheng Guo-Yao; Yan Shi-Lei; Liu Yue-Qiang; Dokuka, V. V.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Lukash, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma disruption is often an unavoidable aspect of tokamak operations. It may cause severe damage to in-vessel components such as the vacuum vessel conductors, the first wall and the divertor target plates. Two types of disruption, the hot-plasma vertical displacement event and the major disruption with a cold-plasma vertical displacement event, are simulated by the DINA code for HL-2M. The time evolutions of the plasma current, the halo current, the magnetic axis, the minor radius, the elongation as well as the electromagnetic force and eddy currents on the vacuum vessel during the thermal quench and the current quench are investigated. By comparing the electromagnetic forces before and after the disruption, we find that the disruption causes great damage to the vacuum vessel conductors. In addition, the hot-plasma vertical displacement event is more dangerous than the major disruption with the cold-plasma vertical displacement event. (paper)

  1. Simulations of Neon Pellets for Plasma Disruption Mitigation in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosviel, Nicolas; Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Numerical studies of the ablation of neon pellets in tokamaks in the plasma disruption mitigation parameter space have been performed using a time-dependent pellet ablation model based on the front tracking code FronTier-MHD. The main features of the model include the explicit tracking of the solid pellet/ablated gas interface, a self-consistent evolving potential distribution in the ablation cloud, JxB forces, atomic processes, and an improved electrical conductivity model. The equation of state model accounts for atomic processes in the ablation cloud as well as deviations from the ideal gas law in the dense, cold layers of neon gas near the pellet surface. Simulations predict processes in the ablation cloud and pellet ablation rates and address the sensitivity of pellet ablation processes to details of physics models, in particular the equation of state.

  2. Linear MHD stability analysis of post-disruption plasmas in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleynikova, K., E-mail: ksenia.aleynikova@gmail.com [EURATOM Association, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany); Huijsmans, G. T. A. [ITER Organization (France); Aleynikov, P. [EURATOM Association, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Most of the plasma current can be replaced by a runaway electron (RE) current during plasma disruptions in ITER. In this case the post-disruption plasma current profile is likely to be more peaked than the pre-disruption profile. The MHD activity of such plasma will affect the runaway electron generation and confinement and the dynamics of the plasma position evolution (Vertical Displacement Event), limiting the timeframe for runaway electrons and disruption mitigation. In the present paper, we evaluate the influence of the possible RE seed current parameters on the onset of the MHD instabilities. By varying the RE seed current profile, we search for subsequent plasma evolutions with the highest and the lowest MHD activity. This information can be applied to a development of desirable ITER disruption scenario.

  3. Studies of the ablated plasma from experimental plasma gun disruption simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P.D.; Hunter, J.A.; Bradley, J.T. III; Gahl, J.M.; Litunovsky, V.N.; Ovchinnokov, I.B.; Ljublin, B.V.; Kuznetsov, B.E.; Titov, V.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, K.; Bakhtin, V.; Toporkov, D.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive simulations of tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense plasma shield. Radiation spectra were recorded in the VUV and in the visible at the Efremov Laboratories on VIKA using graphite targets. The VUV data were recorded with a Sandia Labs transmission grating spectrograph, covering 1-40 nm. Plasma parameters were evaluated with incident plasma energy densities varying from 10-100 MJ/m 2 . A second transmission grating spectrograph was taken to 2MK-200 at TRINITI to study the plasma-material interface in magnetic cusp plasma. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride, and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of similar 1 mm. Time-resolved data with 40-200 ns resolution was also recorded. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface. ((orig.))

  4. Studies of the ablated plasma from experimental plasma gun disruption simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P.D.; Hunter, J.A.; Bradley, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive simulations of Tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense vapor shield. Radiation spectra were recorded in the VUV and in the visible at the Efremov Laboratories on VIKA using graphite targets. The VUV data were recorded with a Sandia Labs transmission grating spectrograph, covering 1--40 nm. Plasma parameters were evaluated with incident plasma energy densities varying from 1--10 kJ/cm 2 . A second transmission grating spectrograph was taken to 2MK-200 at TRINITI to study the plasma-material interface in magnetic cusp plasma. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride, and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of ∼1 mm resolution. Time-resolved data with 40--200 ns resolution was also recorded. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface

  5. Plasma Chamber Restraints in Ignitor and Relevant Disruption Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, M.; Cucchiaro, A.; Capriccioli, A.; Celentano, G.; Rita, C.; Roccella, M.; Macco, B.; Micheli, I.; Ferrari, G.; Orlandi, S.; Coppi, B.

    2000-10-01

    The plasmas chamber (PC) of Ignitor is made of 12 D-shaped toroidal sectors of Inconel 625 welded together by automatic remote equipment. The thickness of the inboard wall is 17 mm while the middle and outboard walls are 26 mm thick. The PC is supported through the ports by the C-Clamp structure of the toroidal magnet. The main function of the PC supports is to resist the vertical and radial electromagnetic loads and to allow for free movement under thermal loads while providing electrical insulation from the C-Clamps and cryostat. The largest estimated loads are due to a Vertical Displacement Event (VDE) disruption that is followed by a thermal quench and then by the current quench. The vertical supports involve a connection of each radial port to the C-Clamp structure by a link system that withstands the calculated loads. The radial supports resist, with high stiffness, the centripetal and centrifugal forces. The end flange of each radial port is connected to the C-Clamp structure by a clamping sleeve device. The clamping sleeves are hydraulically operated to provide locking during discharge. The clamping sleeves of the radial support system have been validated by an appropriate series of tests.

  6. Timescale and magnitude of plasma thermal energy loss before and during disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V.; Loarte, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the thermal energy loss dynamics before and during JET disruptions that occurred between 2002 and 2004 in discharges which reached >4.5 MJ of thermal energy. We observe the slow thermal energy transients with diamagnetic loops and the fast ones with electron cyclotron emission and soft x-ray diagnostics. For most disruption types in JET, the plasma thermal energy at the time of the thermal quench is substantially less than that of the full performance plasma, typically in the range of 10-50% depending on plasma conditions and disruption type. The exceptions to this observation are disruptions in plasmas with a strong internal transport barrier (ITB) and in discharges terminating in a pure vertical displacement event, in which the plasma conserves a very high energy content up to the thermal quench. These disruption types are very sudden, leaving little scope for the combined action of soft plasma landing strategies and intrinsic performance degradation, both requiring >500 ms to be effective, to decrease the available thermal energy. The characteristic time for the loss of energy from the main plasma towards the PFCs in the thermal quench of JET disruptions is in the range 0.05-3.0 ms. The shortest timescales are typical of disruptions caused by excessive pressure peaking in ITB discharges. The available thermal energy fraction and thermal quench duration observed in JET can be processed (with due caution) into estimates for the projected PFC lifetime of the ITER target

  7. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. (author)

  8. Time-dependent analysis of the resistivity of post-disruption tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, M.; Whyte, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of neutrals on plasma resistivity due to electron-neutral collisions is studied with respect to its effect on tokamak disruptions. The resistivity of the tokamak plasma after the thermal quench is critical in determining the current quench rate, the plasma temperature, and runaway electron generation in tokamaks through the electric field, all features which are important for mitigating the damaging effect of disruptions. It is shown that the plasma resistivity during tokamak disruptions is a time-dependent parameter which may vary with disruption time scales due to the increasing fraction of neutrals. However the effect of neutrals on resistivity is found to be small for the expected neutral fraction, mostly due to power balance considerations between radiation and Ohmic heating in the plasma

  9. Forecast of TEXT plasma disruptions using soft X rays as input signal in a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, A.; Oliveira, K.A.; Tajima, T.

    1999-01-01

    A feedforward neural network with two hidden layers is used to forecast major and minor disruptive instabilities in TEXT tokamak discharges. Using the experimental data of soft X ray signals as input data, the neural network is trained with one disruptive plasma discharge, and a different disruptive discharge is used for validation. After being properly trained, the networks, with the same set of weights, are used to forecast disruptions in two other plasma discharges. It is observed that the neural network is able to predict the occurrence of a disruption more than 3 ms in advance. This time interval is almost 3 times longer than the one already obtained previously when a magnetic signal from a Mirnov coil was used to feed the neural networks. Visually no indication of an upcoming disruption is seen from the experimental data this far back from the time of disruption. Finally, by observing the predictive behaviour of the network for the disruptive discharges analysed and comparing the soft X ray data with the corresponding magnetic experimental signal, it is conjectured about where inside the plasma column the disruption first started. (author)

  10. Planned upgrade to the coaxial plasma source facility for high heat flux plasma flows relevant to tokamak disruption simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Mayo, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma disruptions in tokamaks remain serious obstacles to the demonstration of economical fusion power. In disruption simulation experiments, some important effects have not been taken into account. Present disruption simulation experimental data do not include effects of the high magnetic fields expected near the PFCs in a tokamak major disruption. In addition, temporal and spatial scales are much too short in present simulation devices to be of direct relevance to tokamak disruptions. To address some of these inadequacies, an experimental program is planned at North Carolina State University employing an upgrade to the Coaxial Plasma Source (CPS-1) magnetized coaxial plasma gun facility. The advantages of the CPS-1 plasma source over present disruption simulation devices include the ability to irradiate large material samples at extremely high areal energy densities, and the ability to perform these material studies in the presence of a high magnetic field. Other tokamak disruption relevant features of CPS-1U include a high ion temperature, high electron temperature, and long pulse length

  11. MHD instabilities leading to disruption in JT-60U reversed shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, M.; Fujita, T.; Ishii, Y.; Ozeki, T.; Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.

    2005-01-01

    High performance reversed shear discharges with strong internal transport barrier (ITB) and flat pressure profile in the plasma core region disrupt frequently even with low beta. We analyzed MHD instabilities leading to low beta disruption with measuring fluctuations and current profile with MSE measurement. We mainly observed two type of disruptions. One is the disruption without precursor at q surf ∼integer. The other is the disruption with n=1 precursor of γ>10 ms. The poloidal mode number of the n=1 mode is equal to outermost integer of q. The n=1 mode exist from peripheral region to ITB layer or peripheral region and ITB and the phase is 180 degree different between them. To explain these characteristics of disruption, we introduce the simple model such as, disruption occurs when the both MHD instabilities at plasma surface and at safety factor being equal to surface mode are unstable. This simple model can explain almost all observed disruption by two process. One is the surface mode triggered disruption, which occurs when q surf change, corresponding q surface at ITB layer change discretely. The other is the internal mode triggered disruption, which occurs when corresponding q surface become unstable gradually. (author)

  12. Computation of electromagnetic effects in a tokamak due to a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    To model the consequences of a plasma disruption in a tokamak one must combine a code that computes the detailed MHD behavior of the plasma with one that treats the three-dimensional features of the conducting toroidal components around the plasma. The NET (Next European Torus) Team have undertaken a treatment of electromagnetic effects from plasma disruptions using both open loop and closed loop integration of codes. In America, workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory have looked at plasma disruption effects on the ITER blanket using the codes TSC and EDDYNET. Results show how the forces on a blanket segment depend on the number and size of the segments and on the gap between them. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Characteristics of disruptive plasma current decay in the HT-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsushi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Otsuka, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Motions of plasma current channel and time evolutions of eddy current distribution on the vacuum vessel during disruptive plasma current decay were studied experimentally in the Hitachi tokamak HT-2. The plasmas are vertically elongated and circularly shaped plasmas. A disruptive plasma current decay has three phases. During the first phase, a large displacement of the plasma position without plasma current decay is observed. Rapid plasma current decay is observed during the second phase and the decay rate is roughly constant with time. The eddy current distribution is like that due to the shell effect which creates a poloidal field to reduce the plasma displacement. During the third phase, the plasma current decays exponentially. The second phase is observed in slightly elongated and high plasma current (> 20 kA) circularly shaped plasmas. The plasma current decay rates in the second phase depend on the plasma cross sectional shape, but they do not in the third phase. The magnetic axis moves from the plasma area to the vacuum vessel wall between the second and third phases. (author)

  14. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  15. Study of plasma disruptions in jet and its implications on engineering requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanga, A.; Garribba, M.; Hugon, M.; Johnson, M.F.; Loury, C.; Nardone, C.; Noll, P.; Pick, M.; Saibene, G.; Sannazzaro, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with the decay of the plasma current in JET disruptions. It is evident that while in the disruptions in which the plasma is dominated by impurity radiation the decay is fast, in those in which the plasma is reasonably clean the decay of the plasma is slow and can take up to one second. This feature is very attractive because such slow decay, if the plasma position controlled, offers the best chance of harmless conclusion of the discharge following the original MHD instability which generated the disruption. The problem of the radial control is essentially that of providing sufficient voltage capability to the vertical field amplifier and a proper design of the protection tiles on the inner wall, with which the plasma can stay transiently in contact. An alternative strategy, which has been demonstrate din JET, has been to reduce the plasma elongation prior to the disruption, by using a disruption precursor trigger. In this way a reduction of the forces on the vessel by an order of magnitude has been achieved

  16. Radiation in plasma target interaction events typical for ITER tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Safronov, V.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma wall interactions under conditions simulating ITER hard disruptions and ELMs are studied at the plasma gun facilities 2MK-200 CUSP and MK-200 UG at Troitsk. The experimental data for carbon plasma shields are used for validation of the theoretical modeling of the plasma wall interaction. The important features of the non-LTE plasma shield such as temperature and density distribution, its evolution and the conversion efficiency of the energy of the plasma stream into total and soft x-ray radiation from highly ionized evaporated target material and the energy balance are reproduced quite well. Thus a realistic modelling of ITER disruptive plasma wall interaction using the validated models is now possible. 8 refs., 6 figs

  17. Application of neural networks and its prospect. 4. Prediction of major disruptions in tokamak plasmas, analyses of time series data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Ryuji

    2006-01-01

    Disruption prediction of tokamak plasma has been studied by neural network. The disruption prediction performances by neural network are estimated by the prediction success rate, false alarm rate, and time prior to disruption. The current driving type disruption is predicted by time series data, and plasma lifetime, risk of disruption and plasma stability. Some disruptions generated by density limit, impurity mixture, error magnetic field can be predicted 100 % of prediction success rate by the premonitory symptoms. The pressure driving type disruption phenomena generate some hundred micro seconds before, so that the operation limits such as β N limit of DIII-D and density limit of ADITYA were investigated. The false alarm rate was decreased by β N limit training under stable discharge. The pressure driving disruption generated with increasing plasma pressure can be predicted about 90 % by evaluating plasma stability. (S.Y.)

  18. Transport and stability analyses supporting disruption prediction in high beta KSTAR plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J.-H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S.; Berkery, J. W.; Jiang, Y.; Riquezes, J.; Lee, H. H.; Terzolo, L.; Scott, S. D.; Wang, Z.; Glasser, A. H.

    2017-10-01

    KSTAR plasmas have reached high stability parameters in dedicated experiments, with normalized beta βN exceeding 4.3 at relatively low plasma internal inductance li (βN/li>6). Transport and stability analyses have begun on these plasmas to best understand a disruption-free path toward the design target of βN = 5 while aiming to maximize the non-inductive fraction of these plasmas. Initial analysis using the TRANSP code indicates that the non-inductive current fraction in these plasmas has exceeded 50 percent. The advent of KSTAR kinetic equilibrium reconstructions now allows more accurate computation of the MHD stability of these plasmas. Attention is placed on code validation of mode stability using the PEST-3 and resistive DCON codes. Initial evaluation of these analyses for disruption prediction is made using the disruption event characterization and forecasting (DECAF) code. The present global mode kinetic stability model in DECAF developed for low aspect ratio plasmas is evaluated to determine modifications required for successful disruption prediction of KSTAR plasmas. Work supported by U.S. DoE under contract DE-SC0016614.

  19. Electromagnetic loads and structural response of the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] vacuum vessel to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.L.; Listvinsky, G.; Lee, M.Y.; Bailey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the electromagnetic loads produced by a variety of plasma disruptions, and the resulting structural effects on the compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) vacuum vessel (VV), have been performed to help optimize the VV design. A series of stationary and moving plasmas, with disruption rates from 0.7--10.0 MA/ms, have been analyzed using the EMPRES code to compute eddy currents and electromagnetic pressures, and the NASTRAN code to evaluate the structural response of the vacuum vessel. Key factors contributing to the magnitude of EM forces and resulting stresses on the vessel have been found to include disruption rate, and direction and synchronization of plasma motion with the onset of plasma current decay. As a result of these analyses, a number of design changes have been made, and design margins for the present 1.75 meter design have been improved over the original CIT configuration. 1 ref., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Active transfer of poloidal magnetic energy during plasma disruptions in J-TEXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bo; Chen, Zhongyong; Li, Xiaolong; Xu, Wendi; Pan, Yuan; Yu, Kexun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An alternative plasma disruption mitigation method by transferring partial poloidal magnetic energy out of the vacuum vessel has been presented in this paper. • This method can reduced the magnetic energy dissipated inside the vacuum vessel during disruption and mitigated the disruption damage. • This method has been experimentally verified in J-TEXT with an experiment system set up. • According to the experimental results, the magnetic energy dissipated inside the vacuum vessel during disruption can be reduced by 20% or more and the loop voltage can be reduced by 58%. - Abstract: The magnitude of the damaging effects of plasma disruptions on vacuum vessel (VV) components increases with the thermal energy and poloidal magnetic energy dissipated inside the VV. This study focuses on an alternative method, by which partial poloidal magnetic energy is transferred out of the VV. The quantity of the poloidal magnetic energy dissipated inside the VV (W_d_i_s) can be reduced with this method, and the damaging effects can be mitigated. Partial magnetic energy is transferred based on magnetic coupling by a group of energy transfer coils (ETCs) that are coupled with the plasma current. This method, which is called magnetic energy transfer (MET), has been experimentally verified in J-TEXT. W_d_i_s can be reduced by approximately 20%, and the loop voltage can be reduced by 58%. MET is established as a novel, promising, and effective plasma disruption mitigation method.

  1. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions.

  2. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions

  3. A simulated plasma disruption experiment using a magneto-plasma-dynamic arcjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, H.; Sukegawa, T.; Okamoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    If a melt layer is expelled by a strong electromagnetic force from some places during a plasma disruption, the wall thickness is reduced there remarkably. Although this phenomenon is considered as a very important issue, it has not been studied so far because of its difficulty and complexity. In this study, the phenomenon was simulated using a magneto-plasma-dynamic (MPD) arcjet. The MPD arcjet was used as both a heat source and an electric current source. The current flowed radially in a stainless steel test piece installed in a transverse magnetic field. The circumferential electromagnetic force generated a swirl flow in the melt layer, causing a centrifugal force, which thinned the central part of the round region and formed a circular embankment on the fringe. A numerical code was developed which could calculate the melting, the evaporation and the melt layer movement by the centrifugal force and the beam pressure. The calculational results on the melting depth and the thickness reduction in the central part were compared with experiment. (orig.)

  4. Disruption avoidance in the SINP-Tokamak by means of electrode-biasing at the plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Debjyoti [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, WB (India); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Pal, Rabindranath [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, WB (India); Martinell, Julio J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2013-05-15

    Control of plasma disruption by a biased edge electrode is reported in SINP-Tokamak. The features that characterize a plasma disruption are reduced with increasing bias potential. The disruption can be completely suppressed with the concomitant stabilization of observed MHD modes that are allegedly precursors of the disruption. An m = 3/n = 1 tearing mode, which apparently causes disruption can be stabilized when a negative biasing potential is applied near the edge. These changes in the disruptive behavior with edge biasing are hypothesized to be due to changes in the current density profile.

  5. Disruption avoidance in the SINP-Tokamak by means of electrode-biasing at the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Debjyoti; Pal, Rabindranath; Martinell, Julio J.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K.

    2013-01-01

    Control of plasma disruption by a biased edge electrode is reported in SINP-Tokamak. The features that characterize a plasma disruption are reduced with increasing bias potential. The disruption can be completely suppressed with the concomitant stabilization of observed MHD modes that are allegedly precursors of the disruption. An m = 3/n = 1 tearing mode, which apparently causes disruption can be stabilized when a negative biasing potential is applied near the edge. These changes in the disruptive behavior with edge biasing are hypothesized to be due to changes in the current density profile

  6. Axisymmetric MHD simulation of ITB crash and following disruption dynamics of Tokamak plasmas with high bootstrap current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Nahoko; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Yukiharu; Kawano, Yasunori; Ozeki, Takahisa; Tobita, Kenji; Sugihara, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    Axisymmetric MHD simulation using the Tokamak Simulation Code demonstrated detailed disruption dynamics triggered by a crash of internal transport barrier in high bootstrap current, high β, reversed shear plasmas. Self-consistent time-evolutions of ohmic current bootstrap current and induced loop voltage profiles inside the disrupting plasma were shown from a view point of disruption characterization and mitigation. In contrast with positive shear plasmas, a particular feature of high bootstrap current reversed shear plasma disruption was computed to be a significant change of plasma current profile, which is normally caused due to resistive diffusion of the electric field induced by the crash of internal transport barrier in a region wider than the internal transport barrier. Discussion based on the simulation results was made on the fastest record of the plasma current quench observed in JT-60U reversed shear plasma disruptions. (author)

  7. Kinetic and collision process effects on magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshi, Esmaeil [Kyushu Univ., Advanced Energy Engineering Sciences, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Goudarzi, Shervin [AEOI, Plasma Physics Department, Tehran (Iran); Amrollahi, Reza [K-N Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Sato, Kohnosuke [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Oscillations of the parallel and perpendicular neutral fluxes that are observed during pre-disruption stage in recent experiments, show possibility of a structure in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas. This structure oscillates simultaneously with the m=2 mode until the damping of this mode. The perpendicular component of this structure is greater than the parallel one. From other side, there are a good correlation between MHD activity and behavior of charge exchange neutrals, and an enough good correlation between time behavior of charge exchange flux with high energy and OV line radiation in pre-disruption phase. These may witness possibility of a mechanism of losses-excitation of inner transition with help of heavy particles in pre-disruption phase. This mechanism plays an important role in magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase. (author)

  8. Kinetic and collision process effects on magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshi, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, Reza; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2001-01-01

    Oscillations of the parallel and perpendicular neutral fluxes that are observed during pre-disruption stage in recent experiments, show possibility of a structure in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas. This structure oscillates simultaneously with the m=2 mode until the damping of this mode. The perpendicular component of this structure is greater than the parallel one. From other side, there are a good correlation between MHD activity and behavior of charge exchange neutrals, and an enough good correlation between time behavior of charge exchange flux with high energy and OV line radiation in pre-disruption phase. These may witness possibility of a mechanism of losses-excitation of inner transition with help of heavy particles in pre-disruption phase. This mechanism plays an important role in magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase. (author)

  9. Parametric analysis of the thermal effects on the divertor in tokamaks during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, M.L.

    1988-04-01

    Plasma disruptions are an ever present danger to the plasma-facing components in today's tokamak fusion reactors. This threat results from our lack of understanding and limited ability to control this complex phenomenon. In particular, severe energy deposition occurs on the divertor component of the double-null configured tokamak reactor during such disruptions. A hybrid computational model developed to estimate and graphically illustrate global thermal effects of disruptions on the divertor plates is described in detail. The quasi-two-dimensional computer code, TADDPAK (Thermal Analysis Divertor during Disruptions PAcKage), is used to conduct parametric analysis for the TIBER II Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Design. The dependence of these thermal effects on divertor material choice, disruption pulse length, disruption pulse shape, and the characteristic thickness of the plasma scrape-off layer is investigated for this reactor design. Results and conclusions from this analysis are presented. Improvements to this model and issues that require further investigation are discussed. Cursory analysis for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is also presented in the appendix. 75 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Some features of the disruption instability in reversed shear TFTR plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, I.B.; Mirnov, S.V.; McGuire, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The behaviour of MHD perturbations before and during disruptions in TFTR reversed shear plasmas with q min ∼ 2 was analysed. In the q min region, tearing modes, wavelike modes, and mixed tearing plus wavelike modes are followed by disruption. Sometimes a helical snake (helix) appears at the X point of the q min island. The local outward electron energy transport near the X point can be explained by the development of 'positive' magnetic islands (islands with positive current perturbations). It is proposed that the disruption is initiated when the X point of the magnetic islands coincides in one toroidal position near the torus equator. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER generic equatorial port plug designs during three plasma current disruption cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirao, J.; Rodríguez, E.; Ordieres, J.; Cabanas, M.F.; García, C.H. Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electromagnetic transient performance evaluation of the GEPP structure. ► Three different plasma current disruption cases: MD UP LIN36, VDE UP LIN36 and VDE DW LIN36 were analyzed. ► Three DSM-First Wall (FW) designs (horizontal and vertical drawers and monoblock) were compared. - Abstract: Electromagnetic phenomena due to plasma current disruptions are the cause for the main mechanical operation loads over the ITER equatorial level port plug structures. This paper presents a detailed finite element simulation and analysis of the transient electromagnetic effects of three different plasma current disruption cases over three designs of diagnostic shielding module (DSM) structure. The DSMs are contained into and supported by the generic equatorial port plug (GEPP) analyzed structure. The three plasma disruption cases studied were: major disruption upwards linear decay in 36 ms (MD UP LIN36), vertical displacements events, upwards and downwards linear decay in 36 ms (VDE UP LIN36 and VDE DW LIN36). A detailed analysis for GEPP structure and three DSM-first wall (FW) designs (horizontal and vertical drawers and monoblock) is also presented in order to extract the Eddy current distribution on these devices and thus the resultant electromagnetic forces and moments acting on them.

  12. Characterization of plasma current quench during disruptions at HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinxia; Zhang, Yipo; Dong, Yunbo; HL-2A Team

    2017-05-01

    The most essential assumptions of physics for the evaluation of electromagnetic forces on the plasma-facing components due to a disruption-induced eddy current are characteristics of plasma current quenches including the current quench rate or its waveforms. The characteristics of plasma current quenches at HL-2A have been analyzed during spontaneous disruptions. Both linear decay and exponential decay are found in the disruptions with the fastest current quenches. However, there are two stages of current quench in the slow current quench case. The first stage with an exponential decay and the second stage followed by a rapid linear decay. The faster current quench rate corresponds to the faster movement of plasma displacement. The parameter regimes on the current quench time and the current quench rates have been obtained from disruption statistics at HL-2A. There exists no remarkable difference for distributions obtained between the limiter and the divertor configuration. This data from HL-2A provides basic data of the derivation of design criteria for a large-sized machine during the current decay phase of the disruptions.

  13. The Theory of the Kink Mode during the Vertical Plasma Disruption Events in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the locked m/n = 1/1 kink mode during the vertical disruption event when the plasma has an electrical contact with the plasma facing conducting surfaces. It is shown that the kink perturbation can be in equilibrium state even with a stable safety factor q > 1, if the halo currents, excited by the kink mode, can flow through the conducting structure. This suggests a new explanation of the so-called sideway forces on the tokamak in-vessel components during the disruption event.

  14. FAR-TECH's Nanoparticle Plasma Jet System and its Application to Disruptions, Deep Fueling, and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    Hyper-velocity plasma jets have potential applications in tokamaks for disruption mitigation, deep fueling and diagnostics. Pulsed power based solid-state sources and plasma accelerators offer advantages of rapid response and mass delivery at high velocities. Fast response is critical for some disruption mitigation scenario needs, while high velocity is especially important for penetration into tokamak plasma and its confining magnetic field, as in the case of deep fueling. FAR-TECH is developing the capability of producing large-mass hyper-velocity plasma jets. The prototype solid-state source has produced: 1) >8.4 mg of H2 gas only, and 2) >25 mg of H2 and >180 mg of C60 in a H2/C60 gas mixture. Using a coaxial plasma gun coupled to the source, we have successfully demonstrated the acceleration of composite H/C60 plasma jets, with momentum as high as 0.6 g.km/s, and containing an estimated C60 mass of ˜75 mg. We present the status of FAR-TECH's nanoparticle plasma jet system and discuss its application to disruptions, deep fueling, and diagnostics. A new TiH2/C60 solid-state source capable of generating significantly higher quantities of H2 and C60 in <0.5 ms will be discussed.

  15. Analysis of the direction of plasma vertical movement during major disruptions in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, Victor; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Fujieda, Hirobumi

    2005-01-01

    The plasma movement in the upward direction (away from the X-point) after the thermal quench (TQ) of major disruptions in ITER is favourable for the machine design, since the downward movement causes larger electromagnetic (EM) load due to the induced eddy and halo currents. Vertical directions of plasma movement after the TQ in ITER are investigated using the predictive mode of the DINA code. Three dominant parameters in determining the direction of plasma movement are identified: (i) the rate of plasma current quench (plasma temperature after the TQ) (ii) the width of plasma current mixing area just after the TQ (change of the internal plasma inductance l i ) and (iii) the initial vertical position of plasma column before the TQ. It is shown that the reference ITER plasma moves upwards after the TQ, if the electron temperature after the TQ is less than 10 eV and the drop of l i does not exceed 0.2 for the present reference initial vertical position (55.5 cm above the centre of the machine). It is also shown that the operational domain leading to the upward movement is considerably large for disruptions with fast current quench, which could generate quite severe EM load due to the induced eddy current combined with the induced halo current if the movement is downwards

  16. Post-disruptive plasma loss in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; DeLucia, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Pomphrey, N.; Reusch, M.; Kaye, S.; Takahashi, H.

    1986-07-01

    The free-boundary, axisymmetric tokamak simulation code TSC is used to model the transport time scale evolution and positional stability of PBX. A disruptive thermal quench will cause the plasma column to move inward in major radius. It is shown that the plasma can then lose axisymmetric stability, causing it to displace exponentially off the midplane, terminating the discharge. We verify the accuracy of the code by modeling several controlled experiments shots in PBX

  17. MHD mode evolutions prior to minor and major disruptions in SST-1 plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhongde, Jasraj; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Bhandarkar, Manisha

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Observation of different regimes of MHD phenomena in SST-1 plasma. • MHD mode (m/n = 1/1, m/n = 2/1) evolutions prior to minor and major disruptions in SST-1 plasma. • MHD mode characteristics such as mode frequency, mode number, island width etc. in different regimes. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size Tokamak (R{sub 0} = 1.1 m, a = 0.2 m, B{sub T} = 1.5T, Ip ∼ 110 kA) in operation at the Institute for Plasma Research, India. SST-1 uniquely experiments large aspect ratio (∼5.5) plasma in different operation regimes. In these experiments, repeatable characteristic MHD phenomena have been consistently observed. As the large aspect ratio plasma pulse progresses, these MHD phenomena display minor-major disruptions ably indicated in Mirnov oscillations, Mirnov oscillations with saw teeth and locked modes etc. Even though somewhat similar observations have been found in some other machines, these observations are found for the first time in large aspect ratio plasma of SST-1. This paper elaborates the magnetic field perturbations and mode evolutions due to MHD activities from Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal), Soft X-ray diagnostics, ECE diagnostics etc. This work further, for the first time reports quantitatively different regimes of MHD phenomena observed in SST-1 plasma, their details of mode evolutions characteristics as well as the subsequently observed minor, major disruptions supported with the physical explanations. This study will help developing disruption mitigation and avoidance scenarios for having better confinement plasma experiments.

  18. Radiative response on massive noble gas injection for Runaway suppression in disruptive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The most direct way to avoid the formation of a relativistic electron beam under the influence of an electric field in a highly conducting plasma, is to increase the electron density to a value, where the retarding collisional force balances the accelerating one. In a disruptive tokamak plasma, rapid cooling induces a high electric field, which could easily violate the force balance and push electrons into the relativistic regime. Such relativistic electrons, the so-called runaways, accumulate many MeV's and can cause substantial damage when they hit the wall. This thesis is based on the principle of rapidly fueling the plasma for holding the force balance even under the influence of high electric fields typical for disruptions. The method of injecting high amounts of noble gas particles into the plasma from a close distance is put into practice in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion test facility. In the framework of this thesis, a multi-channel photometer system based on 144 AXUV detectors in a toroidal stereo measurement setup was built. It kept its promise to provide new insights into the transport mechanisms in a disruptive plasma under the influence of strong radiative interaction dynamics between injected matter and the hot plasma.

  19. Interplay between intrinsic plasma rotation and magnetic island evolution in disruptive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchi, G.; Severo, J. H. F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Salzedas, F. [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Galvão, R. M. O., E-mail: rgalvao@if.usp.br; Sanada, E. K. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    The behavior of the intrinsic toroidal rotation of the plasma column during the growth and eventual saturation of m/n = 2/1 magnetic islands, triggered by programmed density rise, has been carefully investigated in disruptive discharges in TCABR. The results show that, as the island starts to grow and rotate at a speed larger than that of the plasma column, the angular frequency of the intrinsic toroidal rotation increases and that of the island decreases, following the expectation of synchronization. As the island saturates at a large size, just before a major disruption, the angular speed of the intrinsic rotation decreases quite rapidly, even though the island keeps still rotating at a reduced speed. This decrease of the toroidal rotation is quite reproducible and can be considered as an indicative of disruption.

  20. Observation of disruptions in tokamak plasma under the influence of resonant helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.; Vannucci, A.; Caldas, I.

    1996-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities were investigated in the small tokamak TBR-1 during the application of resonant helical magnetic fields created by external helical windings. Indications were found that the main triggering mechanism of the disruptions was the rapid increase of the m=2/n=1 mode which, apparently after reaching a certain amplitude, interacts with other resistive modes: the internal 1/1 mode in the case of minor disruptions. After the coupling, the growth of the associated islands would create a chaotic field line distribution in the region between the corresponding rational magnetic surfaces which caused the gross particle transport and, finally, destroyed the confinement. In addition, investigations on higher Z eff discharges in which a mixture of helium and hydrogen was used resulted in much more unstable plasmas but apparently did not alter basic characteristics of the disruptions

  1. Synchronous oscillation prior to disruption caused by kink modes in HL-2A tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Hu, D.; Wang, X. G.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Zhong, W. L.; Dong, Y. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Gao, J. M.; Li, J. X.; Yang, Z. C.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A class of evident MHD activities prior to major disruption has been observed during recent radiation induced disruptions of the HL-2A tokamak discharges. It can be named SOD, synchronous oscillations prior to disruption, characterized by synchronous oscillation of electron cyclotron emission (ECE), core soft x-ray, Mirnov coil, and {{D}α} radiation signals at the divertor plate. The SOD activity is mostly observed in a parametric regime where the poloidal beta is low enough before disruption, typically corresponding to those radiation-induced disruptions. It has been found that the m/n = 2/1 mode is dominant during the SODs, and consequently it is the drop of the mode frequency and the final mode locking that lead to thermal quench. The mode frequency before the mode locking corresponds to the toroidal rotation frequency of the edge plasma. It is also found that during SODs, the location of the q = 2 surface is moving outward, and most of the plasma current is enclosed within the surface. This demonstrates that the current channel lies inside the rational surface during SOD, and thus the resistive kink mode is unstable. Further analysis of the electron temperature perturbation structure shows that the plasma is indeed dominated by the resistive kink mode, with kink-like perturbation in the core plasma region. It suggests that it is the nonlinear growth of the m/n = 2/1 resistive kink mode and its higher order harmonics, rather than the spontaneous overlapping of multiple neighboring islands, that ultimately triggered the disruption.

  2. The magnetic vapour shield effect at divertor plates during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, G.; Goel, B.; Hoebel, W.; Wuerz, H.; Landman, I.

    1995-01-01

    Hard disruptions in a TOKAMAK cause a large thermal load on the divertor plates with an instantaneous ablation of a part of the heated material. The produced vapour cloud screens the plasma facing component from the direct interaction with the disrupting plasma (vapour shield effect). In order to quantify the damage to the divertor the magneto-hydrodynamic behaviour of the expanding vapour cloud has been investigated using an extended version of the 1-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code KATACO. Modelling of the magnetic field effects on the expanding plasma takes into account that the magnetic field is oblique to the divertor (1 1/2 dimensional model). The ''Radiation Heat Conduction Approximation'' has been used for describing the radiative energy transport. In this paper results are presented assuming graphite as divertor material, irradiated with a proton beam of an energy density of 12MJ/m 2 and a duration of 100μs. (orig.)

  3. Numerical simulation on current spike behaviour of JT-60U disruptive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, N; Nakamura, Y; Tsutsui, H; Yoshino, R; Kawano, Y; Ozeki, T; Tobita, K; Tsuji-Iio, S; Shimada, R; Jardin, S C

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics and underlying mechanisms for plasma current spikes, which have been frequently observed during the thermal quench of JT-60U disruptions, were investigated through tokamak simulation code simulations including the passive shell effects of the vacuum vessel. Positive shear and reversed shear (PS and RS) plasmas were shown to have various current spike features in the experiments, e.g. an impulsive increase in the plasma current (positive spike) in the majority of thermal quenches, and a sudden decrease (negative spike), that has been excluded from past consideration, as an exception. It was first clarified that the shell effects, which become significant especially at a strong pressure drop due to the thermal quench of high β p plasmas, play an important role in the current spike in accordance with the initial relation of the radial location between the plasma equilibria and the vacuum vessel. As a consequence, a negative current spike may appear at thermal quench when the plasma is positioned further out from the geometric centre of the vacuum vessel. It was also pointed out that a further lowering in the internal inductance, in contradiction to previous interpretation in the past, is a plausible candidate for the mechanism for positive current spikes observed even in RS plasmas. The new interpretation enables us to reason out the whole character of current spikes of JT-60U disruptions

  4. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Y.; Feder, R.; Brooks, A.; Ulrickson, M.; Pitcher, C.S.; Loesser, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disruption loads on ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs are extracted. ► Upward major disruption produces the largest radial moment and radial force on diagnostic first walls and diagnostic shield modules. ► Large eddy currents on supporting rails, keys and water pipes are observed during disruption. -- Abstract: ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the diagnostic first walls (DFWs), diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed

  5. The thermal response of the first wall of a fusion reactor blanket to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippel, H.Th.

    1983-09-01

    Major plasma disruptions in Tokamak power reactors are potentially dangerous because high thermal overloading of the first wall may occur, resulting in melting and evaporation. The present uncertainties of the disruption characteristics, in particular the space and time dependence of the energy deposition, lead to a wide variation in the prospective surface energy loads. The thermal response of a first wall of aluminium, stainless steel and of graphite subjected to disruption energy loads up to 1000 J cm -2 has been analysed including the effects of melting and surface evaporation, vapour recondensation, vapour shielding, and the moving of the surface boundary caused by the evaporation. A special calculation model has been developed for this purpose. The main results are the following: by values of local transient energy depositions over 1500 J cm -2 bare stainless steel walls are damaged severely. Further calculations are needed to estimate the endurance limit of several candidate first wall materials. Applications of coatings on surfaces need special attention. For the reference INTOR disruption (approx. 100 J cm -2 ) evaporation is not significant. The effect of vapour shielding on evaporation has been found to be significant. The effect on melting is less pronounced. In a complete analysis the stability and dynamic behaviour of the melted layer under electromagnetic forces should be included. Also a reliable set of plasma disruption characteristics should be gathered

  6. Numerical simulation of the plasma current quench following a disruptive energy loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.; Miller, J.B.; Rothe, K.E.

    1983-11-01

    The plasma electromagnetic interaction with poloidal field coils and nearby passive conductor loops during the current quench following a disruptive loss of plasma energy is simulated. By solving a differential/algebraic system consisting of a set of circuit equations (including the plasma circuit) coupled to a plasma energy balance equation and an equilibrium condition, the electromagnetic consequences of an abrupt thermal quench are observed. Limiters on the small and large major radium sides of the plasma are assumed to define the plasma cross section. The presence of good conductors near the plasma and a small initial distance (i.e., 5 to 10% of the plasma minor radius) between the plasma edge and an inboard limiter are shown to lead to long current decay times. For a plasma with an initial major radius R/sub o/ = 4.3 m, aspect ratio A = 3.6, and current I/sub P/ = 4.0 MA, introducing nearby passive conductors lengthens the current decay from milliseconds to hundreds of milliseconds

  7. Modeling of thermal effects on TIBER II divertor during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, M.L.; Perkins, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping the disruption power flow from the mid-plane of the TIBER Engineering Test Reactor to its divertor and calculating the resulting thermal effects are accomplished through the modification and coupling of three presently existing computer codes. The resulting computer code TADDPAK (Thermal Analysis Divertor during Disruption PAcKage) provides three-dimensional graphic presentations of time and positional dependent thermal effects on a poloidal cross section of the double-null-divertor configured reactor. These thermal effects include incident heat flux, surface temperature, vaporization rate, total vaporization, and melting depth. The dependence of these thermal effects on material choice, disruption pulse shape, and the characteristic thickness of the plasma scrape-off layer is determined through parametric analysis with TADDPAK. This computer code is designed to be a convenient, rapid, and user-friendly modeling tool which can be easily adapted to most tokamak double-null-divertor reactor designs

  8. Disruption of Alfvénic turbulence by magnetic reconnection in a collisionless plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Alfred; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the disruption scale \\text{D}$ at which sheet-like structures in dynamically aligned Alfvénic turbulence are destroyed by the onset of magnetic reconnection in a low- collisionless plasma. The scaling of \\text{D}$ depends on the order of the statistics being considered, with more intense structures being disrupted at larger scales. The disruption scale for the structures that dominate the energy spectrum is \\text{D}\\sim L\\bot 1/9(de\\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}s)4/9$ , where e$ is the electron inertial scale, s$ is the ion sound scale and \\bot $ is the outer scale of the turbulence. When e$ and s/L\\bot $ are sufficiently small, the scale \\text{D}$ is larger than s$ and there is a break in the energy spectrum at \\text{D}$ , rather than at s$ . We propose that the fluctuations produced by the disruption are circularised flux ropes, which may have already been observed in the solar wind. We predict the relationship between the amplitude and radius of these structures and quantify the importance of the disruption process to the cascade in terms of the filling fraction of undisrupted structures and the fractional reduction of the energy contained in them at the ion sound scale s$ . Both of these fractions depend strongly on e$ , with the disrupted structures becoming more important at lower e$ . Finally, we predict that the energy spectrum between \\text{D}$ and s$ is steeper than \\bot -3$ , when this range exists. Such a steep `transition range' is sometimes observed in short intervals of solar-wind turbulence. The onset of collisionless magnetic reconnection may therefore significantly affect the nature of plasma turbulence around the ion gyroscale.

  9. Tungsten erosion under plasma heat loads typical for ITER type I Elms and disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Byrka, O.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Marchenko, A.K. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Solyakov, D.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Trubchaninov, S.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2005-03-01

    The behavior of pure sintered tungsten under repetitive plasma heat loads of {approx}1 MJ/m{sup 2} (which is relevant to ITER ELMs) and 25 MJ/m{sup 2} (ITER disruptions) is studied with the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The ELM relevant heat loads have resulted in formation of two kinds of crack networks, with typical sizes of 10-20 {mu}m and {approx}1 mm, at the surface. Tungsten preheating to 600 deg. C indicates that fine intergranular cracks are probably caused by thermal stresses during fast resolidification of the melt, whereas large cracks are the result of ductile-to-brittle transition. For several hundreds of ELM-like exposures, causing surface melting, the melt motion does not dominate the profile of the melt spot. The disruption relevant experiments demonstrated that melt motion became the main factor of tungsten damage.

  10. Thermal loads on tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Power loadings experienced by tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and during off-normal events are discussed. A model for power and particle flow in the tokamak boundary layer is presented and model predictions are compared to infrared measurements of component heating. The inclusion of the full three-dimensional geometry of the components and of the magnetic flux surface is very important in the modeling. Experimental measurements show that misalignment of component armour tile surfaces by only a millimeter can lead to significant localized heating. An application to the design of plasma-facing components for future machines is presented. Finally, thermal loads expected during tokamak disruptions are discussed. The primary problems are surface melting and vaporization due to localized intense heating during the disruption thermal quench and volumetric heating of the component armour and structure due to localised impact of runaway electrons. (author)

  11. Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors II: Thermal analysis during plasma disruptions for international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Maki, K.; Okazaki, T.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of a fusion reactor [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity] during plasma disruptions have been analyzed by using a comprehensive safety analysis code for nuclear fusion reactors. The erosion depth due to disruptions for the armor of the first wall depends on the current quench time of disruptions occurring in normal operation. If it is possible to extend the time up to ∼50 ms, the erosion depth is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the erosion depth of the divertor is ∼570 μm for only one disruption, which is determined only by the thermal flux during the thermal quench. This means that the divertor plate should be exchanged after about nine disruptions. Counter-measures are necessary for the divertor to relieve disruption influences. As other scenarios of disruptions, beta-limit disruptions and vertical displacement events were also investigated quantitatively. 13 refs., 5 figs

  12. Calculation of voltages and currents induced in the vacuum vessel of ASDEX by plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, H.

    1978-01-01

    An approximation method is used to analyze the electromagnetic diffusion process induced in the walls of the ASDEX vacuum vessel by plasma disruptions. For this purpose the rotational-symmetric vessel is regarded as N = 82 circular conductors connected in parallel and inductively coupled with one another and with the plasma. The transient currents and voltages occurring in this circuit are calculated with computer programs. From the calculated currents it is possible to determine the time behavior of the distributions of the current density and magnetic force density in the vessel walls. (orig.) [de

  13. Modeling and simulation of melt-layer erosion during a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Belan, V.; Konkashbaev, I.; Nikandrov, L.; Safronov, V.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Litunovsky, V.

    1997-01-01

    Metallic plasma-facing components (PFCs) e.g. beryllium and tungsten, will be subjected to severe melting during plasma instabilities such as disruptions, edge-localized modes and high power excursions. Because of the greater thickness of the resulting melt layers relative to that of the surface vaporization, the potential loss of the developing melt-layer can significantly shorten PFC lifetime, severely contaminate the plasma and potentially prevent successful operation of the tokamak reactor. Mechanisms responsible for melt-layer loss during plasma instabilities are being modeled and evaluated. Of particular importance are hydrodynamic instabilities developed in the liquid layer due to various forces such as those from magnetic fields, plasma impact momentum, vapor recoil and surface tension. Another mechanism found to contribute to melt-layer splashing loss is volume bubble boiling, which can result from overheating of the liquid layer. To benchmark these models, several new experiments were designed and performed in different laboratory devices for this work; the SPLASH codes) are generally in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of in-reactor disruption conditions, which do not exist in simulation experiments, on melt-layer erosion is discussed. (orig.)

  14. 3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)

  15. 3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)

  16. Mechanisms of disruptions caused by noble gas injection into tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, D.Kh.; Yurchenko, E.I.; Lukash, V.E.; Baronova, E.O.; Pozdnyakov, Yu.I.; Rozhansky, V.A.; Senichenkov, I.Yu.; Veselova, I.Yu.; Schneider, R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas injection for disruption mitigation in DIII-D is simulated. The simulation of the first two stages of the disruption is performed: the first one is the neutral gas jet penetration through the background plasmas, and the second one is the instability growth. In order to simulate the first stage, the MHD pellet code LLP with improved radiation model for noble gas is used. Plasma cooling at this stage is provided by the energy exchange with the jet. The opacity effects in radiation losses are found to be important in the energy balance calculations. The magnetic surfaces in contact with the jet are cooled significantly; however, the temperature as well as the electric conductivity, remains high. The cooling front propagates towards the plasma centre. It has been shown that the cooling front is accompanied by strongly localized 'shark fin-like' perturbation in toroidal current density profile. The simplified cylindrical model shows that the cooling front is able to produce the internal kink-like mode with growth rate significantly higher than the tearing mode. The unstable kink perturbation obtained is non-resonant for any magnetic surface, both inside the plasma column, and in the vacuum space outside the separatrix. The mode disturbs mainly the core region. The growth time of the 'shark fin-like' mode is higher than the Alfven time by a factor of 10-100 for DIII-D parameters

  17. Vacuum UV spectroscopy of armor erosion from plasma gun disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P.D.; Gahl, J.M.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, K.; Bakhtin, V.; Toporkov, D.; Ovchinnokov, I.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive simulations of tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense vapor shield. Two transmission grating vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrographs were designed and utilized to study the plasma-material interface in plasma gun simulation experiments. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of ca. 0.7mm resolution on VIKA at Efremov and on 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Time-resolved data with 40-200ns resolution were then recorded along with the same spatial resolution on 2MK-200. The VIKA plasma gun directly illuminated a target with a high-intensity plasma pulse of 2-100MJm -2 with low-energy ions of ca. 100eV. The 2MK-200 plasma gun illuminated the target via a magnetic cusp that permitted only deuterium to pass with energies of ca. 1keV, but which produced a fairly low intensity of 2MJm -2 . Power densities on target ranged from 10 7 to 10 8 Wcm -2 . Emitted spectra were recorded from 15 to 450A over a distance from 0 to 7cm above the armor target surface. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface. This apparently constituted the absorption region, which confirmed past computer simulations. Spectra indicated both the species and ionization level that were being ablated from the target, demonstrating impurity content, and showing plasma ablation velocity. Graphite samples clearly showed CV lines as well as impurity lines from O V and O VI. The BN tiles produced textbook examples of BIV and BV, and extensive NIV, V and VI lines. These are being compared with radiation-hydrodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  18. Forcast of TEXT plasma disruptions using soft X-rays as input signal in a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, A.; Oliveira, K.A.; Tajima, T.

    1998-02-01

    A feed-forward neural network with two hidden layers is used in this work to forecast major and minor disruptive instabilities in TEXT discharges. Using soft X-ray signals as input data, the neural net is trained with one disruptive plasma pulse, and a different disruptive discharge is used for validation. After being properly trained the networks, with the same set of weights. is then used to forecast disruptions in two others different plasma pulses. It is observed that the neural net is able to predict the incoming of a disruption more than 3 ms in advance. This time interval is almost three times longer than the one already obtained previously when magnetic signal from a Mirnov coil was used to feed the neural networks with. To our own eye we fail to see any indication of an upcoming disruption from the experimental data this far back from the time of disruption. Finally, from what we observe in the predictive behavior of our network, speculations are made whether the disruption triggering mechanism would be associated to an increase of the m = 2 magnetic island, that disturbs the central part of the plasma column afterwards or, in face of the results from this work, the initial perturbation would have occurred first in the central part of the plasma column, within the q = 1 magnetic surface, and then the m = 2 MHD mode would be destabilized afterwards

  19. Experimental simulation and numerical modeling of vapor shield formation and divertor material erosion for ITER typical plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Bakhtin, V.P.; Konkashbaev, I.; Landman, I.; Safronov, V.M.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The high divertor heat load during a tokamak plasma disruption results in sudden evaporation of a thin layer of divertor plate material, which acts as vapor shield and protects the target from further excessive evaporation. Formation and effectiveness of the vapor shield are theoretically modeled and are experimentally analyzed at the 2MK-200 facility under conditions simulating the thermal quench phase of ITER tokamak plasma disruptions. ((orig.))

  20. Plasma profile evolution during disruption mitigation via massive gas injection on MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A. J.; Gibson, K. J.; Chapman, I. T.; Harrison, J. R.; Kirk, A.; Lisgo, S. W.; Lehnen, M.; Martin, R.; Scannell, R.; Cullen, A.; the MAST Team

    2012-06-01

    Massive gas injection (MGI) is one means of ameliorating disruptions in future devices such as ITER, where the stored energy in the plasma is an order of magnitude larger than in present-day devices. The penetration of the injected impurities during MGI in MAST is diagnosed using a combination of high-speed (20 kHz) visible imaging and high spatial (1 cm) and temporal (0.1 ms) resolution Thomson scattering (TS) measurements of the plasma temperature and density. It is seen that the rational surfaces, in particular q = 2, are the critical surfaces for disruption mitigation. The TS data shows the build-up of density on rational surfaces in the edge cooling period of the mitigation, leading to the collapse of the plasma in a thermal quench. The TS data are confirmed by the visible imaging, which shows filamentary structures present at the start of the thermal quench. The filamentary structures have a topology which matches that of a q = 2 field line in MAST, suggesting that they are located on the q = 2 surface. Linearized magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis using the TS profiles suggests that the large density build-up on the rational surfaces drives modes within the plasma which lead to the thermal quench. The presence of such modes is seen experimentally in the form of magnetic fluctuations on Mirnov coils and the growth of an n = 1 toroidal mode in the period prior to the thermal quench. These results support the observations of other machines that the 2/1 mode is the likely trigger for the thermal quench in a mitigated disruption and suggests that the mitigation process in spherical tokamaks is similar to that in conventional aspect ratio devices.

  1. Plasma profile evolution during disruption mitigation via massive gas injection on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.J.; Chapman, I.T.; Harrison, J.R.; Kirk, A.; Martin, R.; Scannell, R.; Cullen, A.; Gibson, K.J.; Lisgo, S.W.; Lehnen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Massive gas injection (MGI) is one means of ameliorating disruptions in future devices such as ITER, where the stored energy in the plasma is an order of magnitude larger than in present-day devices. The penetration of the injected impurities during MGI in MAST is diagnosed using a combination of high-speed (20 kHz) visible imaging and high spatial (1 cm) and temporal (0.1 ms) resolution Thomson scattering (TS) measurements of the plasma temperature and density. It is seen that the rational surfaces, in particular q = 2, are the critical surfaces for disruption mitigation. The TS data shows the build-up of density on rational surfaces in the edge cooling period of the mitigation, leading to the collapse of the plasma in a thermal quench. The TS data are confirmed by the visible imaging, which shows filamentary structures present at the start of the thermal quench. The filamentary structures have a topology which matches that of a q = 2 field line in MAST, suggesting that they are located on the q = 2 surface. Linearized magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis using the TS profiles suggests that the large density build-up on the rational surfaces drives modes within the plasma which lead to the thermal quench. The presence of such modes is seen experimentally in the form of magnetic fluctuations on Mirnov coils and the growth of an n = 1 toroidal mode in the period prior to the thermal quench. These results support the observations of other machines that the 2/1 mode is the likely trigger for the thermal quench in a mitigated disruption and suggests that the mitigation process in spherical tokamaks is similar to that in conventional aspect ratio devices. (paper)

  2. Current density distribution during disruptions and sawteeth in a simple model of plasma current in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovskii, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The processes that are likely to accompany discharge disruptions and sawteeth in a tokamak are considered in a simple plasma current model. The redistribution of the current density in plasma is supposed to be primarily governed by the onset of the MHD-instability-driven turbulent plasma mixing in a finite region of the current column. For different disruption conditions, the variation in the total plasma current (the appearance of a characteristic spike) is also calculated. It is found that the numerical shape and amplitude of the total current spikes during disruptions approximately coincide with those measured in some tokamak experiments. Under the assumptions adopted in the model, the physical mechanism for the formation of the spikes is determined. The mechanism is attributed to the diffusion of the negative current density at the column edge into the zero-conductivity region. The numerical current density distributions in the plasma during the sawteeth differ from the literature data.

  3. Prediction for disruption erosion of ITER plasma facing components; a comparison of experimental and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Akiba, M.; Seki, M.; Hassanein, A.; Tanchuk, V.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is given for the prediction for disruption erosion in the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). At first, a description is given of the relation between plasma operating paramters and system dimensions to the predictions of loading parameters of Plasma Facing Components (PFC) in off-normal events. Numerical results from ITER parties on the prediction of disruption erosion are compared for a few typical cases and discussed. Apart from some differences in the codes, the observed discrepancies can be ascribed to different input data of material properties and boundary conditions. Some physical models for vapour shielding and their effects on numerical results are mentioned. Experimental results from ITER parties, obtained with electron and laser beams, are also compared. Erosion rates for the candidate ITER PFC materials are shown to depend very strongly on the energy deposition parameters, which are based on plasma physics considerations, and on the assumed material loss mechanisms. Lifetimes estimates for divertor plate and first wall armour are given for carbon, tungsten and beryllium, based on the erosion in the thermal quench phase. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of the plasma current quench during disruptions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, S.P.; Menard, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)) is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change

  5. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  6. First Production of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Study of Disruption Mitigation for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2012-10-01

    Unique fast response and large mass-velocity delivery of nanoparticle plasma jets (NPPJs) provide a novel application for ITER disruption mitigation, runaway electrons diagnostics and deep fueling. NPPJs carry a much larger mass than usual gases. An electromagnetic plasma gun provides a very high injection velocity (many km/s). NPPJ has much higher ram pressure than any standard gas injection method and penetrates the tokamak confining magnetic field. Assimilation is enhanced due to the NP large surface-to-volume ratio. Radially expanding NPPJs help achieving toroidal uniformity of radiation power. FAR-TECH's NPPJ system was successfully tested: a coaxial plasma gun prototype (˜35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge injector produced a hyper-velocity (>4 km/s), high-density (>10^23 m-3), C60 plasma jet in ˜0.5 ms, with ˜1-2 ms overall response-delivery time. We present the TiH2/C60 cartridge injector output characterization (˜180 mg of sublimated C60 gas) and first production results of a high momentum C60 plasma jet (˜0.6 g.km/s).

  7. Surface currents associated with external kink modes in tokamak plasmas during a major disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2017-10-01

    The surface current on the plasma-vacuum interface during a disruption event involving kink instability can play an important role in driving current into the vacuum vessel. However, there have been disagreements over the nature or even the sign of the surface current in recent theoretical calculations based on idealized step-function background plasma profiles. We revisit such calculations by replacing step-function profiles with more realistic profiles characterized by a strong but finite gradient along the radial direction. It is shown that the resulting surface current is no longer a delta-function current density, but a finite and smooth current density profile with an internal structure, concentrated within the region with a strong plasma pressure gradient. Moreover, this current density profile has peaks of both signs, unlike the delta-function case with a sign opposite to, or the same as the plasma current. We show analytically and numerically that such current density can be separated into two parts, with one of them, called the convective current density, describing the transport of the background plasma density by the displacement, and the other part that remains, called the residual current density. It is argued that consideration of both types of current density is important and can resolve past controversies.

  8. Disruption simulation experiments in a pulsed plasma accelerator - energy absorption and damage evolution on plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Barabash, V.; Gervash, A.; Linke, J.; Lu, L.P.; Ovchinnikov, I.; Roedig, M.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma accelerators are used as test beds for disruption simulation experiments on plasma facing materials, because the incident energy fluxes and the discharge duration are of similar order as those expected during disruptions in ITER. The VIKA facility was used for the testing of materials under incident energies up to 5 kJ/cm 2 . Different carbon materials, SiC, stainless steel, TZM and tungsten have been tested. From the experimental results a scaling of the ablation with incident energy density was derived. The resulting ablation depth on carbon materials is roughly 2 μm per kJcm -2 of incident energy density. For metals this ablation is much higher due to the partial loss of the melt layer from splashing. For stainless steel an ablation depth of 9.5 μm per kJcm -2 was determined. The result of a linear scaling of the ablation depth with incident energy density is consistent with a previous calorimetric study. (orig.)

  9. Structural response of a Tokamak first wall under electromagnetic forces caused by a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.R.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Antonacci, P.; Vitali, R.

    1987-01-01

    The modern computerized techniques of CAD/FEM analysis are extensively applied for the numerical simulation of the electromagnetic-mechanical coupling induced in the last design configuration of NET first wall during a plasma disruption event. A picture of the impact of the electromagnetic forces on the structural behaviour of the outboard DN first wall is presented an an improvement of the FW structural section is proposed. In any case, additional investigations will be performed during the long process of structural behaviour optimization of the first wall reactor components

  10. Control, pressure perturbations, displacements, and disruptions in highly elongated tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hofmann, F.; Tonetti, G.; Jardin, S.C.; Noll, P.

    1989-06-01

    The control and evolution of highly elongated tokamak plasmas with large growth rates are simulated with the axisymmetric, resistive MHD code TSC in the geometry of the TCV tokamak. Pressure perturbations such as sawteeth and externally programmed displacements create initial velocity perturbations which may be stabilized by low power, rapid response coils inside the passively stabilizing vacuum vessel, together with slower shaping coils outside the vessel. Vertical disruption induced voltages and forces on the rapid coils and vessel are investigated, and a model is proposed for an additional vertical force due to poloidal currents. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs

  11. Electromagnetic effects on the NET first wall caused by a plasma disruption event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.R.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1987-01-01

    During the event of a major plasma disruption, the structural components of the NET fusion reactor, such as the First Wall (FW), are subjected to strong electromagnetic transients arising from the interaction of the induced eddy currents with the large magnetic field which confines and equilibrates the plasma ring. Finite element structural analyses (static, vibration, transient dynamic) have been performed to examine stresses, deformations and reactions, generated by the electromagnetic loads, in the modular blanket-enveloping box outboard FW segment. Considering the last three engineering design variations of the outboard FW module, an improvement is obtained for the new Double Null FW configuration because of the drastic reduction of electromagnetic effects and induced stresses, mainly due to increased segmentation of the internal components

  12. Thermal shock fracture of graphite armor plate under the heat load of plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Ohmori, Junji

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on the thermal shock brittle fracture of graphite plates were performed. Thermal loading which simulated a plasma disruption was produced by an electron beam facility. Pre-cracks produced on the surface propagated to the inside of the specimen even if the thermal stress on the surface was compressive. Two mechanisms are possible to produce tensile stress around the crack tip under thermal shock conditions. Temperature, thermal stress, and the stress intensity factor for the specimen were analyzed based on the finite element method for various heating conditions. The trend of experimental results under the asymmetric heating agrees qualitatively with the analytical results. This phenomenon is important for the design of plasma facing components made of graphite. Establishment of a lifetime prediction procedure including fatigue, fatigue crack growth, and brittle fracture is needed for graphite armors. (orig.)

  13. Electromagnetic analysis on Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM during plasma major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be installed at the #18 equatorial port of the Vaccum Vessel in order to test the feasibility of the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant in the ITER TBM Program. Since ITER tokamak contains Vaccum Vessel and set of electromagnetic coils, the TBM as well as other components is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. By the electromagnetic (EM) fast transient events such as major disruption (MD), vertical displacement event (VDE) or magnet fast discharge (MFD) occurred in tokamak system, the eddy current can be induced eventually in the conducting components. As a result, the magnetic field and induced eddy current produce extremely huge EM load (force and moment) on the TBM. Therefore, EM load calculation is one of the most important analyses for optimized design of TBM. In this study, a 20-degree sector model for tokamak system including central solenoid (CS) coil, poloidal field (PF) coil, toroidal field (TF) coil, vaccum vessel, shield blankets and TBM set (TBM, TBM key, TBM shield, TBM frame) is prepared for analysis by ANSYS-EMAG tool. Concerning the installation location of the TBM, a major disruption scenario is particularly applied for fast transient analysis. The final goal of this study is to evaluate the EM load on HCCR TBM during plasma major disruption.

  14. Electromagnetic analysis on Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM during plasma major disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be installed at the #18 equatorial port of the Vaccum Vessel in order to test the feasibility of the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant in the ITER TBM Program. Since ITER tokamak contains Vaccum Vessel and set of electromagnetic coils, the TBM as well as other components is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. By the electromagnetic (EM) fast transient events such as major disruption (MD), vertical displacement event (VDE) or magnet fast discharge (MFD) occurred in tokamak system, the eddy current can be induced eventually in the conducting components. As a result, the magnetic field and induced eddy current produce extremely huge EM load (force and moment) on the TBM. Therefore, EM load calculation is one of the most important analyses for optimized design of TBM. In this study, a 20-degree sector model for tokamak system including central solenoid (CS) coil, poloidal field (PF) coil, toroidal field (TF) coil, vaccum vessel, shield blankets and TBM set (TBM, TBM key, TBM shield, TBM frame) is prepared for analysis by ANSYS-EMAG tool. Concerning the installation location of the TBM, a major disruption scenario is particularly applied for fast transient analysis. The final goal of this study is to evaluate the EM load on HCCR TBM during plasma major disruption.

  15. Forecast of TEXT plasma disruptions using soft X-rays as input signal in a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, A.; Oliveira, K.A.; Tajima, T.; Tajima, Y.J.

    2001-01-01

    A feed-forward neural network is used to forecast major and minor disruptions in TEXT tokamak discharges. Using the experimental data of soft X-ray signals as input data, the neural net is trained with one disruptive plasma discharge, while a different disruptive discharge is used for validation. After proper training, the net works with the same set of weights, it is then used to forecast disruptions in two other different plasma discharges. It is observed that the neural net is capable of predicting the onset of a disruption up to 3.12 ms in advance. From what we observe in the predictive behavior of our network, speculations are made whether the disruption triggering mechanism is associated with an increase in the m=2 magnetic island, that disturbs the central part of the plasma column afterwards, or the initial perturbation has first occurred in the central part of the plasma column and then the m=2 MHD mode is destabilized. (author)

  16. Lifetime evaluation of plasma-facing materials during a tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1995-09-01

    Erosion losses of plasma-facing materials in a tokamak reactor during major disruptions, giant ELMS, and large power excursions are serious concerns that influence component survivability and overall lifetime. Two different mechanisms lead to material erosion during these events: surface vaporization and loss of the melt layer. Hydrodynamics and radiation transport in the rapidly developed vapor-cloud region above the exposed area are found to control and determine the net erosion thickness from surface vaporization. A comprehensive self-consistent kinetic model has been developed in which the time-dependent optical properties and the radiation field of the vapor cloud are calculated in order to correctly estimate the radiation flux at the divertor surface. The developed melt layer of metallic divertor materials will, however, be free to move and can be eroded away due to various forces. , Physical mechanisms that affect surface vaporization and cause melt layer erosion are integrated in a comprehensive model. It is found that for metallic components such as beryllium and tungsten, lifetime due to these abnormal events will be controlled and dominated by the evolution and hydrodynamics of the melt layer during the disruption. The dependence of divertor plate lifetime on various aspects of plasma/material interaction physics is discussed

  17. Multi-wavelength imaging of solar plasma. High-beta disruption model of solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Kiyoto

    2007-01-01

    Solar atmosphere is filled with plasma and magnetic field. Activities in the atmosphere are due to plasma instabilities in the magnetic field. To understand the physical mechanisms of activities / instabilities, it is necessary to know the physical conditions of magnetized plasma, such as temperature, density, magnetic field, and their spatial structures and temporal developments. Multi-wavelength imaging is essential for this purpose. Imaging observations of the Sun at microwave, X-ray, EUV and optical ranges are routinely going on. Due to free exchange of original data among solar physics and related field communities, we can easily combine images covering wide range of spectrum. Even under such circumstances, we still do not understand the cause of activities in the solar atmosphere well. The current standard model of solar activities is based on magnetic reconnection: release of stored magnetic energy by reconnection is the cause of solar activities on the Sun such as solar flares. However, recent X-ray, EUV and microwave observations with high spatial and temporal resolution show that dense plasma is involved in activities from the beginning. Based on these observations, I propose a high-beta model of solar activities, which is very similar to high-beta disruptions in magnetically confined fusion experiments. (author)

  18. Runaway electrons in disruptions and perturbed magnetic topologies of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fusion represents a valuable perspective for a safe and reliable energy supply from the middle of the 21st century on. Currently, the tokamak is the most advanced principle of confining a man-made fusion plasma. The operation of future, reactor sized tokamaks like ITER faces a crucial difficulty in the generation of runaway electrons. The runaway of electrons is a free fall acceleration into the relativistic regime which is known in various kinds of plasmas including astrophysical ones, thunderbolts and fusion plasmas. The tokamak disruption instability can include the conversion of a substantial part of the plasma current into a runaway electron current. When the high energetic runaways are lost, they can strike the plasma facing components at localised spots. Due to their high energies up to a few tens of MeV, the runaways carry the potential to reduce the lifetimes of wall components and even to destroy sensitive, i.e. actively cooled parts. The research for effective ways to suppress the generation of runaway electrons is hampered by the lack of a complete understanding of the physics of the runaways in disruptions. As it is practically impossible to use standard electron detectors in the challenging environment of a tokamak, the experimental knowledge about runaways is limited and it relies on rather indirect techniques of measurement. The main diagnostics used for this PhD work are three reciprocating probes which measure the runaway electrons directly at the plasma edge of the tokamak TEXTOR. A calorimetric probe and a material probe which exploits the signature that a runaway beam impact leaves in the probe were developed in the course of the PhD work. Novel observations of the burst-like runaway electron losses in tokamak disruptions are reported. The runaway bursts are temporally resolved and first-time measurements of the corresponding runaway energy spectra are presented. A characteristic shape and typical burst to burst variations of the

  19. Experimental simulation and analysis of off-normal heat loads accompanying plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Bakker, J.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.

    1990-12-01

    The plasma disruption heat load is simulated experimentally using a pulsed laser beam with high energy density and short pulse duration (0.2-20 mm) covering a certain range of ITER design values. The present status of the laser heat flux test facility and new experimental tools are described. Spatial and time resolved profiles of the laser beam are given. Experimental results are presented including the variation of angle of incidence of the laser beam relative to the material surface. The nature and effects of the induced vapour plume are discussed. Materials studied are relevant to the ITER design. Experimental results are compared with numerical calculations. Some implications for the design of First Wall and Divertor of ITER are addressed. (author). 13 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Electromagneto-mechanical coupling analysis of a test module in J-TEXT Tokamak during plasma disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Haijie; Yuan, Zhensheng; Yuan, Hongwei; Pei, Cuixiang [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Chen, Zhenmao, E-mail: chenzm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yang, Jinhong; Wang, Weihua [Institute of Applied Physics of AOA, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the dynamic response during plasma disruption of a test blanket module in vacuum vessel (VV) of the Joint TEXT (J-TEXT), which is an experimental Tokamak device with iron core, was simulated by applying a program developed by authors on the ANSYS platform using its parametric design language (APDL). The moving coordinate method as well as the load transfer and sequential coupling strategy were adopted to cope with the electromagneto-mechanical coupling effect. To establish the numerical model, the influence of the iron core on the eddy current and electromagnetic (EM) force during disruption was numerically investigated at first and the influence was found not significant. Together with the geometrical features of the J-TEXT Tokamak structure, 180° sector models without magnetic core were finally established for the EM field and the structural response simulations. To obtain the source plasma current, the plasma current evolution during disruption was simulated by using the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC). With the numerical models and the source plasma current, the dynamic response of both the VV structure and the test module were calculated. The numerical results show that the maximum stress of the test module is in safe range, and the magnetic damping effect can weaken vibration of the test module. In addition, simulation without considering the coupling effect was carried out, which shows that the influence of coupling effect is not significant for the peak stress of the J-TEXT disruption problem.

  1. Effect-Directed Analysis to Explore the Polar Bear Exposome: the Identification of Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Compounds in Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; van Velzen, M.J.M.; Brandsma, S.H.; Lie, E.; Loken, K.; de Boer, J.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Compounds with transthyretin (TTR)-binding potency in the blood plasma of polar bear cubs were identified with effect-directed analysis (EDA). This approach contributes to the understanding of the thyroid disrupting exposome of polar bears. The selection of these samples for in-depth EDA was based

  2. Influence of implanted helium on nickel resistance under simulation of plasma flux disruption in nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadin, B.A.; Pol'skij, V.I.; Yakushin, V.L.; Markin, A.V.; Tserevitinov, S.S.; Vasil'ev, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Investigation results are presented of radiation erosion of constructive materials of the first wall of a thermonuclear reactor. The erosion is conditioned by successive repeated action of pulse processes, imitating plasma disruption, and helium ion fluxes at 40 keV and 2 x 10 21 -10 22 m -2 fluence. As imitating processes are used fluxes of deuterium high-temperature plasma. It is shown that preliminary action by high-temperature plasma leads to substantial suppression of radiation erosion, included by subsequent ion irradiation

  3. Expected energy fluxes onto ITER Plasma Facing Components during disruption thermal quenches from multi-machine data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loarte, A.; Andrew, P.; Matthews, G.F.; Paley, J.; Riccardo, V.; Counsell, G.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, C.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Pautasso, G.; Federici, G.; Finken, K.H.; Maddaluno, G.; Whyte, D.

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the power flux characteristics during the thermal quench of plasma disruptions among various tokamak experiments has been carried out and conclusions for ITER have been drawn. It is generally observed that the energy of the plasma at the thermal quench is much smaller than that of a full performance plasma. The timescales for power fluxes onto PFCs during the thermal quench, as determined by IR measurements, are found to scale with device size but not to correlate with pre-disruptive plasma characteristics. The profiles of the thermal quench power fluxes are very broad for diverted discharges, typically a factor of 5-10 broader than that measured during 'normal' plasma operation, while for limiter discharges this broadening is absent. The combination of all the above factors is used to derive the expected range of power fluxes on the ITER divertor target during the thermal quench. The new extrapolation derived in this paper indicates that the average disruption in ITER will deposit an energy flux approximately one order of magnitude lower than previously thought. The evaluation of the ITER divertor lifetime with these revised specifications is carried out. (author)

  4. Low edge safety factor operation and passive disruption avoidance in current carrying plasmas by the addition of stellarator rotational transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, M. D.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Massidda, S.; Maurer, D. A.; Roberds, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    Low edge safety factor operation at a value less than two ( q (a )=1 /ι̷tot(a )routine on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid device with the addition of sufficient external rotational transform. Presently, the operational space of this current carrying stellarator extends down to q (a )=1.2 without significant n = 1 kink mode activity after the initial plasma current rise phase of the discharge. The disruption dynamics of these low edge safety factor plasmas depend upon the fraction of helical field rotational transform from external stellarator coils to that generated by the plasma current. We observe that with approximately 10% of the total rotational transform supplied by the stellarator coils, low edge q disruptions are passively suppressed and avoided even though q(a) disrupt, the instability precursors measured and implicated as the cause are internal tearing modes with poloidal, m, and toroidal, n, helical mode numbers of m /n =3 /2 and 4/3 observed on external magnetic sensors and m /n =1 /1 activity observed on core soft x-ray emissivity measurements. Even though the edge safety factor passes through and becomes much less than q(a) disruption phenomenology observed.

  5. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, N. S.; Putrik, A. B.; Linke, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Kuprianov, I. B.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Ivanov, B. V.; Sergeecheva, Ya. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Kovalenko, D. V.; Barsuk, V. A.; Danilina, N. A.; Bazylev, B. N.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2015-08-01

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic-martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, "corrugated" surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2-2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  6. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, N.S., E-mail: klimov@triniti.ru [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Putrik, A.B. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Kuprianov, I.B. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Spitsyn, A.V. [NRC «Kurchatov Institute», Akademika Kurchatova pl., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, B.V.; Sergeecheva, Ya.V.; Lesina, I.G. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Danilina, N.A. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Bazylev, B.N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Giniyatulin, R.N. [Efremov Institute, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld., Metallostroy, Saint-Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic–martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, “corrugated” surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2–2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  7. Physics of the interaction between runaway electrons and the background plasma of the current quench in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reux, Cedric

    2017-10-01

    Runaway electrons are created during disruptions of tokamak plasmas. They can be accelerated in the form of a multi-MA beam at energies up to several 10's of MeV. Prevention or suppression of runaway electrons during disruptions will be essential to ensure a reliable operation of future tokamaks such as ITER. Recent experiments showed that the suppression of an already accelerated beam with massive gas injection was unsuccessful at JET, conversely to smaller tokamaks. This was attributed to a dense, cold background plasma (up to several 1020 m-3 accompanying the runaway beam. The present contribution reports on the latest experimental results obtained at JET showing that some mitigation efficiency can be restored by changing the features of the background plasma. The density, temperature, position of the plasma and the energy of runaways were characterized using a combined analysis of interferometry, soft X-rays, bolometry, magnetics and hard X-rays. It showed that lower density background plasmas were obtained using smaller amounts of gas to trigger the disruption, leading to an improved penetration of the mitigation gas. Based on the observations, a physical model of the creation of the background plasma and its subsequent evolution is proposed. The plasma characteristics during later stages of the disruption are indeed dependent on the way it was initially created. The sustainment of the plasma during the runaway beam phase is then addressed by making a power balance between ohmic heating, power transfer from runaway electrons, radiation and atomic processes. Finally, a model of the interaction of the plasma with the mitigation gas is proposed to explain why massive gas injection of runaway beams works only in specific situations. This aims at pointing out which parameters bear the most importance if this mitigation scheme is to be used on larger devices like ITER. Acknowledgement: This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium

  8. Disruption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.

    1982-07-01

    Calculations of disruption time and energy dissipation have been obtained by simulating the plasma as an electrical conducting loop that varies in resistivity, current density, major radius. The calculations provide results which are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is believed that this approach allows engineering designs for disruptions to be completed in large tokamaks such as INTOR or FED

  9. Progress in Development of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Diagnostic of Runaway Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction and Disruption Mitigation Study for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    We produced a C60 nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) with uniquely fast response-to-delivery time (~ 1 - 2 ms) and unprecedentedly high momentum (~ 0 . 6 g .km/s). The C60 NPPJ was obtained by using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge producing ~180 mg of C60 molecular gas by sublimation and by electromagnetic acceleration of the C60 plasma in a coaxial gun (~35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) with the output of a high-density (>1023 m-3) hyper-velocity (>4 km/s) plasma jet. The ~ 75 mg C60/C plasma jet has the potential to rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to significantly increase electron density (to ne ~ 2 . 4 ×1021 m-3, i.e. ~ 60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value, ne 0 ~ 4 ×1019 m-3), and to modify the 'critical electric field' and the runaway electrons (REs) collisional drag during different phases of REs dynamics. The C60 NPPJ, as a novel injection technique, allows RE beam-plasma interaction diagnostic by quantitative spectroscopy of C ions visible/UV line intensity. The system is scalable to ~ 1 - 2 g C60/C plasma jet output and technology is adaptable to ITER acceptable materials (BN and Be) for disruption mitigation. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  10. Modeling of thermal effects on TIBER II [Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor] divertor during plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, M.L.; Perkins, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping the disruption power flow from the mid-plane of the TIBER Engineering Test Reactor to its divertor and calculating the resulting thermal effects are accomplished through the modification and coupling of three presently existing computer codes. The resulting computer code TADDPAK (Thermal Analysis Divertor during Disruption PAcKage) provides three-dimensional graphic presentations of time and positional dependent thermal effects on a poloidal cross section of the double-null-divertor configured reactor. These thermal effects include incident heat flux, surface temperature, vaporization rate, total vaporization, and melting depth. The dependence of these thermal effects on material choice, disruption pulse shape, and the characteristic thickness of the plasma scrape-off layer is determined through parametric analysis with TADDPAK. This computer code is designed to be a convenient, rapid, and user-friendly modeling tool which can be easily adapted to most tokamak double-null-divertor reactor designs. 14 refs

  11. Simulating the effects of plasma disruption with a 1 MA current pulse in a coaxial test fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    A test fixture for simulating plasma disruptions, comprising two coaxial cylinders, has been designed for use with Argonne's electromagnetic test facility FELIX. A pulsed power supply drives a half cycle sine wave current of 10 0 A through the test fixture generating fields of -1 . The coaxial structure is 140 cm long, has an outer cylinder with an OD of 78 cm and an inner cylinder with an OD of 8.3 cm. It is surrounded by the FELIX solenoid field of 1 T. This proposed upgrade of the FELIX facility should be useful for testing the effect of plasma disruption on First Wall-Blanket-Shield (FWBS) structures; a future upgrade of the solenoid field to 4 T will allow to simulate reactor conditions even better

  12. Simulating the effects of plasma disruption with A 1 MA current pulse in a coaxial test fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    A test fixture for simulating plasma disruptions, comprising two coaxial cylinders, has been designed for use with Argonne's electromagnetic test facility FELIX. A pulsed power supply drives a half cycle sine wave current of 10 0 A through the test fixture generating fields of -1 . The coaxial structure is 140 cm long, has an outer cylinder with an OD of 78 cm and an inner cylinder with an OD of 8.3 cm. It is surrounded by the FELIX solenoid field of 1 T. This proposed upgrade of the FELIX facility should be useful for testing the effect of plasma disruption on First Wall-Blanket-Shield (FWBS) structures; a future upgrade of the solenoid field to 4 T will allow to simulate reactor conditions even better

  13. Numerical modeling and experimental simulation of vapor shield formation and divertor material erosion for ITER typical plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Bakhin, V.P.; Goel, B.; Hoebel, W.; Konkashbaev, I.; Landman, I.; Piazza, G.; Safronov, V.M.; Sherbakov, A.R.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The high divertor heat load during a tokamak plasma disruption results in sudden evaporation of a thin layer of divertor plate material, which acts as vapor shield and protects the target from further excessive evaporation. Formation and effectiveness of the vapor shield are theoretically modeled and experimentally investigated at the 2MK-200 facility under conditions simulating the thermal quench phase of ITER tokamak plasma disruptions. In the optical wavelength range C II, C III, C IV emission lines for graphite, Cu I, Cu II lines for copper and continuum radiation for tungsten samples are observed in the target plasma. The plasma expands along the magnetic field lines with velocities of (4±1)x10 6 cm/s for graphite and 10 5 cm/s for copper. Modeling was done with a radiation hydrodynamics code in one-dimensional planar geometry. The multifrequency radiation transport is treated in flux limited diffusion and in forward reverse transport approximation. In these first modeling studies the overall shielding efficiency for carbon and tungsten defined as ratio of the incident energy and the vaporization energy for power densities of 10 MW/cm 2 exceeds a factor of 30. The vapor shield is established within 2 μs, the power fraction to the target after 10 μs is below 3% and reaches in the stationary state after about 20 μs a value of around 1.5%. ((orig.))

  14. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  16. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning [Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Wu, Liming, E-mail: wlm@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Shusen, E-mail: shusenzheng@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  17. Final Report: Safety of Plasma-Facing Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m 2 over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER

  18. Calculation of the electromagnetic forces on the ASDEX upgrade vacuum vessel on disruption of the plasma current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, H.

    1986-01-01

    This study investigates the magnetic field diffusion through the vacuum vessel of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak that occurs on sudden disruption of the plasma current. Eddy currents are thereby produced in the vessel wall. Their time behaviour and distribution are determined. Furthermore, the vessel is permeated by various magnetic fields which, together with the eddy currents, exert magnetic forces in the vessel wall. These are also calculated. These numerical analyses are performed for two of the modes of operation envisaged for ASDEX Upgrade: the so-called limiter and single-null magnetic field configurations. (orig.)

  19. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, J.; Pan, M. H.; Chin, H. F.

    2012-01-01

    small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT...... synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein...... membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment to the endoplasmic reticulum and perhaps other intracellular compartments as well. -Garbarino, J., M. Pan, H.F. Chin, F.W. Lund, F.R. Maxfield, and J.L. Breslow. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma...

  20. Simulation and real-time replacement of missing plasma signals for disruption prediction: an implementation with APODIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattá, G A; Vega, J; Murari, A

    2014-01-01

    So far, the best results for real-time disruption prediction on the Joint European Torus (JET) have been achieved with the Advanced Predictor of Disruptions (APODIS). APODIS is a data-driven system whose latest version has been implemented in JET's real time-data network. It has been designed for the real-time analysis of features (mean and frequency values) corresponding to seven plasma signals in order to foresee upcoming disruptions. In this article, non-linear regression techniques are applied to create (off-line) signal models. The models are able to generate (in real-time) ‘synthetic’ signals. Therefore, these ‘synthetic’ signals can be used to replace the original ones in cases where they are in error or missing. APODIS has been tested under these conditions, emulating real-time operation. The simulation results demonstrate that once a signal in error is replaced by the generated ‘synthetic’ one, APODIS performance is considerably improved. The development of the regression models and the implications of the results are detailed and discussed in this paper. (paper)

  1. Radiation transport effects in divertor plasmas generated during a tokamak reactor disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.R.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Wang, P.

    1994-01-01

    Vaporization of material from tokamak divertors during disruptions is a critical issue for tokamak reactors from ITER to commercial power plants. Radiation transport from the vaporized material onto the remaining divertor surface plays an important role in the total mass loss to the divertor. Radiation transport in such a vapor is very difficult to calculate in full detail, and this paper quantifies the sensitivity of the divertor mass loss to uncertainties in the radiation transport. Specifically, the paper presents the results of computer simulations of the vaporization of a graphite coated divertor during a tokamak disruption with ITER CDA parameters. The results show that a factor of 100 change in the radiation conductivity changes the mass loss by more than a factor of two

  2. Lifetime evaluation of first wall and divertor plate by crack analyses during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Junji; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Masao; Iida, Hiromasa

    1988-05-01

    The first wall and divertor armor in fusion devices are subjected to high heat and particle fluxes. In particular, disruption heating is an intense thermal shock which may cause melting or vaporization of the armor surfaces. The behavior of the armor materials is one of the major factors limiting the lifetime of these components. Generally the surface temperature of armor due to disruption gets so high that the surface may become cracked. However, even if only the surface of the armor is cracked, the function of the armor will not be lost as long as the damage is limited to within a small depth of the surface. In this study, the lifetime of the armor is evaluated by two stages: crack initiation life and crack propagation life which are related to the fatigue life and the energy release rate, respectively. Materials are graphite and C/C composite (carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite) for the first wall, and tungsten for the dinertor. For disruption conditions of Fusion Experimental Reactor, the fatigue life and the energy release rates are calculated by thermal, and stress analyses. Results show that crack initiation is expected after only a few disruptions, and the energy release rate as a function of the crack length comes up to the maximum value at a small crack length, and decreases with increasing of the crack length. This decreasing means that a crack propagation rate reduces. An unstable fracture does not occur if the maximum energy release rate does not exceed the critical energy release rate which can be obtained from the fracture toughness. (author)

  3. Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Successful probing of runaway electrons (REs) requires fast (1 - 2 ms) high-speed injection of enough mass able to penetrate through tokamak toroidal B-field (2 - 5 T) over 1 - 2 m distance with large assimilation fraction in core plasma. A nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) from a plasma gun is a unique combination of millisecond trigger-to-delivery response and mass-velocity of 100 mg at several km/s for deep direct injection into current channel of rapidly ( 1 ms) cooling post-TQ core plasma. After C60 NPPJ test bed demonstration we started to work on ITER-compatible boron nitride (BN) NPPJ. Once injected into plasma, BN NP undergoes ablative sublimation, thermally decomposes into B and N, and releases abundant B and N high-charge ions along plasma-traversing path and into the core. We present basic characteristics of our BN NPPJ concept and first results from B and N ions on Zeff > 1 effect on REs dynamics by using a self-consistent model for RE current density. Simulation results of BNQ+ NPPJ penetration through tokamak B-field to RE beam location performed with Hybrid Electro-Magnetic code (HEM-2D) are also presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE SBIR Grant.

  4. Basolateral cholesterol depletion alters Aquaporin-2 post-translational modifications and disrupts apical plasma membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Fuglsang, Cecilia Hvitfeldt; Pedersen, Cecilie Nøhr; Fenton, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Apical plasma membrane accumulation of the water channel Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in kidney collecting duct principal cells is critical for body water homeostasis. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of AQP2 is important for regulating AQP2 trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cholesterol in regulation of AQP2 PTM and in apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Cholesterol depletion from the basolateral plasma membrane of a collecting duct cell line (mpkCCD14) using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) increased AQP2 ubiquitylation. Forskolin, cAMP or dDAVP-mediated AQP2 phosphorylation at Ser269 (pS269-AQP2) was prevented by cholesterol depletion from the basolateral membrane. None of these effects on pS269-AQP2 were observed when cholesterol was depleted from the apical side of cells, or when MBCD was applied subsequent to dDAVP stimulation. Basolateral, but not apical, MBCD application prevented cAMP-induced apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. These studies indicate that manipulation of the cholesterol content of the basolateral plasma membrane interferes with AQP2 PTM and subsequently regulated apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D eddy-current distribution in a tokamak first wall during a plasma disruption using 'TRIFOU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussecourte, P.; Bossavit, A.; Verite, J.C.; Crutzen, Y.R.

    1989-01-01

    In fusion reactor studies there is a lack of knowledge concerning the electromagnetic-type of phenomena generated by a plasma disruption event (rapid quenching of the plasma current). The induced eddy current distribution in space and time in the passive conducting structural components surrounding the plasma ring needs to be accurately investigated. TRIFOU is a full 3D eddy-current computer program based on a mixed FEM and BIEM technique, using the magnetic field, h, as a state variable, It has already been used in various areas of interest including static or rotating machines, non-destructive testing, induction heating, and research devices such as tokamaks. It can take into account various geometries and a wide range of physical situations (time dependency, physical properties, etc.). The present application is related to the eddy-current situation arising from a strong electromagnetic transient generated in the NET (Next European Torus) first wall segment. With respect to previous numerical simulations, the general 3D approach for the current density shows different eddy current circulations in the front/side shells and in the stiff back plate. The results obtained by TRIFOU are illustrated by means of advanced computer graphic displays and an animation movie. (orig.)

  6. Plasma disruption forces: a program for the HP 9845 and 9872 B plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, M.H.

    1982-11-01

    A computer program is described for the calculation of currents, forces, torques, and voltages in the conducting first wall and limiter of a tokamak reactor experiencing a plasma quench. Instructions are given for running the program on a HP 9845 B desk-top computer with a 9872 B plotter. The first wall and limiter have been modelled by 44 coaxial loops. The inductance matrix among the loops is calculated, and the currents in them are calculated step-by-step over time, driven by the flux from the decaying plasma current and subject to the field from the plasma, from the poloidal field coils, and from all current loops. An insulating break in the limiter or first wall can be modelled by imposing a back voltage which causes all the currents in the limiter or first wall to sum to zero. This potential is related to the voltage between segments of a segmented limiter or first wall

  7. Hydrodynamic effects of eroded materials on response of plasma-facing component during a tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of plasma confinement causes surface and structural damage to plasma-facing materials (PFMs) and remains a major obstacle for tokamak reactors. The deposited plasma energy results in surface erosion and structural failure. The surface erosion consists of vaporization, spallation, and liquid splatter of metallic materials, while the structural damage includes large temperature increases in structural materials and at the interfaces between surface coatings and structural members. Comprehensive models (contained in the HEIGHTS computer simulation package) are being used self-consistently to evaluate material damage. Splashing mechanisms occur as a result of volume bubble boiling and liquid hydrodynamic instabilities and brittle destruction mechanisms of nonmelting materials. The effect of macroscopic erosion on total mass losses and lifetime is evaluated. The macroscopic erosion products may further protect PFMs from severe erosion (via the droplet-shielding effect) in a manner similar to that of the vapor shielding concept

  8. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (q a ) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the q a value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench

  9. Evaluation of electromagnetic loads on various design options of the ITER diagnostic upper port plug during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Sunil; Ku, Duck Young; Oh, Dong-Keun; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, Duck-Hoi; Cheon, Mun-Seong; Seon, Chang Rae; Lee, Hyeon Gon; Pitcher, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) loads due to eddy current and halo current during plasma disruptions are evaluated for the ITER diagnostic upper port plug. To reduce strong EM loads acting on the port plug fixed to the vacuum vessel like a cantilever beam, three design options have been considered: removal of the diagnostic first wall, slitting of the diagnostic shield module and recess of the port plug. The main focus of the present study is to examine the efficacy of these options in terms of EM loads on the upper port plug. It is found that making slits is more effective than removing the first wall. It is also shown that the upper port plug needs to be recessed to reduce the EM load induced by halo current.

  10. Simulation of the scrape-off layer plasma during a disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.; Crotinger, J.A.; Porter, G.D.; Smith, G.R.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the scrape-off layer (SOL) during a disruption in the DIII-D tokamak is modeled using the 2-D UEDGE transport code. The focus is on the thermal quench phase when most of the energy content of the discharge is rapidly transported across the magnetic separatrix where it then flows to material surfaces or is radiated. Comparisons between the simulation and an experiment on the DIII-D tokamak are made with the heat flux to the divertor plate, and temperature and density profiles at the SOL midplane. The temporal response of the separate electron and ion heat-flux components to the divertor plate is calculated. The sensitivity of the solution to assumptions of electron heat-flux models and impurity radiation is investigated

  11. Electron temperature and density relaxations during internal disruptions in TFR Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriques, L.; Sand, F.

    1977-01-01

    Several diagnostics (soft X-ray, Thompson scattering, high frequency waves, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy) have been used on TFR Tokamak plasmas in order to show that the soft X-ray relaxations are mainly due to electron temperature relaxations, with only small variations of the electron density. Values of ΔTsub(eo)/Tsub(eo) up to 17% and of Δnsub(eo)/nsub(eo) of a few % or less have been measured. (author)

  12. Electron temperature and density relaxations during internal disruptions in TFR Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Several diagnostics (soft X-ray, Thomson scattering, high frequency waves, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy) have been used on TFR Tokamak plasmas in order to show that the soft X-ray relaxations are mainly due to electron temperature relaxations, with only small variations of the electron density. Values of ΔTsub(e0)/Tsub(e0) up to 17% and of Δnsub(e0)/nsub(e0) of a few % or less have been measured

  13. Structural safety assessment of a tokamak-type fusion facility for a through crack to cause cooling water leakage and plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    A tokamak-type fusion machine has inherent safety associated with plasma shutdown. A small water leak can cause a plasma disruption although there is another possibility to terminate plasma without disruption. This plasma disruption will induce electromagnetic (EM) forces acting in the vacuum vessel (VV). From a radiological safety viewpoint, the VV is designed to form a physical barrier that encloses tritium and activated dust. If the VV can sustain an unstable fracture by EM forces from a through crack to cause the small leak, the structural safety will be assured and the inherent safety will be demonstrated. Therefore, a systematic approach to assure the structural safety is developed. A new analytical model to evaluate the through crack and leak rate of cooling water is proposed, with verification by experimental leak measurements. Based on the analysis, the critical crack length to terminate plasma is evaluated as about 2mm. On the other hand, the critical crack length for unstable fracture is obtained as about 400 mm. It is concluded that EM forces induced by the small leak to terminate plasma will not cause unstable fracture of the VV; thus the inherent safety is demonstrated. (author)

  14. Transient snakes in an ohmic plasma associated with a minor disruption in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Songtao; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Kaiyun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2014-05-15

    A transient burst (∼2 ms, an order of the fast-particle slowdown timescale) of a spontaneous snake is observed for the first time in a HT-7 heavy impurity ohmic plasma. The features of the low-Z impurity snake are presented. The flatten electron profile due to the heavy impurity reveals the formation of a large magnetic island. The foot of the impurity accumulation is consistent with the location of the transient snake. The strong frequency-chirping behaviors and the spatial structures of the snake are also presented.

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding disruptions in tokamaksa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Galkin, Sergei A.; Gerasimov, Sergei N.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes progress achieved since 2007 in understanding disruptions in tokamaks, when the effect of plasma current sharing with the wall was introduced into theory. As a result, the toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current measurements during vertical disruption event (VDE) on the Joint European Torus was explained. A new kind of plasma equilibria and mode coupling was introduced into theory, which can explain the duration of the external kink 1/1 mode during VDE. The paper presents first results of numerical simulations using a free boundary plasma model, relevant to disruptions.

  17. Effect-directed analysis to explore the polar bear exposome: identification of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eszter; van Velzen, Martin; Brandsma, Sicco H; Lie, Elisabeth; Løken, Katharina; de Boer, Jacob; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Aars, Jon; Hamers, Timo; Lamoree, Marja H

    2013-08-06

    Compounds with transthyretin (TTR)-binding potency in the blood plasma of polar bear cubs were identified with effect-directed analysis (EDA). This approach contributes to the understanding of the thyroid disrupting exposome of polar bears. The selection of these samples for in-depth EDA was based on the difference between the observed TTR-binding potency on the one hand and the calculated potency (based on known concentrations of TTR-binding compounds and their relative potencies) on the other. A library-based identification was applied to the liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) data by screening for matches between compound lists and the LC-ToF-MS data regarding accurate mass and isotope pattern. Then, isotope cluster analysis (ICA) was applied to the LC-ToF-MS data allowing specific screening for halogen isotope patterns. The presence of linear and branched nonylphenol (NP) was observed for the first time in polar bears. Furthermore, the presence of one di- and two monohydroxylated octachlorinated biphenyls (octaCBs) was revealed in the extracts. Linear and branched NP, 4'-OH-CB201 and 4,4'-OH-CB202 could be successfully confirmed with respect to their retention time in the analytical system. In addition, branched NP, mono- and dihydroxylated-octaCBs showed TTR-binding potencies and could explain another 32 ± 2% of the total measured activities in the extracts.

  18. Coupling of electromagnetics and structural/fluid dynamics - application to the dual coolant blanket subjected to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.

    1996-01-01

    Some aspects concerning the coupling of quasi-stationary electromagnetics and the dynamics of structure and fluid are investigated. The necessary equations are given in a dimensionless form. The dimensionless parameters in these equations are used to evaluate the importance of the different coupling effects. A finite element formulation of the eddy-current damping in solid structures is developed. With this formulation, an existing finite element method (FEM) structural dynamics code is extended and coupled to an FEM eddy-current code. With this program system, the influence of the eddy-current damping on the dynamic loading of the dual coolant blanket during a centered plasma disruption is determined. The analysis proves that only in loosely fixed or soft structures will eddy-current damping considerably reduce the resulting stresses. Additionally, the dynamic behavior of the liquid metal in the blankets' poloidal channels is described with a simple two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic approach. The analysis of the dimensionless parameters shows that for small-scale experiments, which are designed to model the coupled electromagnetic and structural/fluid dynamic effects in such a blanket, the same magnetic fields must be applied as in the real fusion device. This will be the easiest way to design experiments that produce transferable results. 10 refs., 7 figs

  19. Extremely fast vertical displacement event induced by a plasma βp collapse in high βp tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Yoshino, Ryuji; Pomphrey, N.; Jardin, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    In a vertically elongated (κ ∼ 1.5), high β p (β p ∼ 1.7) tokamak with a resistive shell, extremely fast vertical displacement events (VDE's) induced by a model of strong β p collapse were found through computer simulations using the Tokamak Simulation Code. Although the plasma current quench, which had been shown to be the prime cause of VDE's in a relatively low β p tokamak (β p ∼ 0.2), was not observed during the VDE evolution, the observed growth rate of VDE's was almost five times (γ ∼ 655 sec -1 ) faster than the growth rate of the usual positional instability (γ ∼ 149 sec -1 ). The essential mechanism of the β p collapse-induced VDE was clarified to be the significant destabilization of positional instability due to a large and sudden degradation of the decay n-index in addition to a reduction of the stability index n s . It is pointed out that the shell-geometry characterizes the VDE dynamics, and that the VDE rate depends strongly both on the magnitude of the β p collapse and the n-index of the equilibria just before the β p collapse occurs. A new guide line for designing the fusion reactor is proposed with considering the impact of disruptions. (author)

  20. Elastic-plastic cyclic deformation of the TEXTOR 94 modified liner under conditions of heating and plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, F.H.; Czymek, G.; Giesen, B.; Bondarchuk, E.; Doinikov, N.; Kozhukhovskaja, N.; Panin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present liner of the TEXTOR 94 tokamak installed inside the vacuum vessel represents the thin toroidal shell that is rested on the vessel inner surface. In order to integrate the dynamic ergodic divertor into the tokamak the liner design has been drastically changed. The 120 deg. sector of the liner shell facing the ergodic coils system is removed and some additional holes in the liner are provisioned. This demands a new liner supporting system allowing for the liner thermal expansion and taking the electromagnetic load occurring in the liner during plasma disruption. The cyclic elasto-plastic deformations of the liner caused by the electromagnetic forces and temperature rise have been studied. It is shown that the local plastic deformations occur in the liner elements after the first heating and electromagnetic loading. The most thermal stresses take place in the reinforcing structures around the holes because of the thermal expansion difference of the inconel shell and the steel reinforcements. These stresses are coupled with the bending stress due to the electromagnetic loading. Subsequent repetitive loading does not lead to any significant increment of the plastic deformation. After the materials' hardening the structure cyclically works mostly in the elastic range

  1. Analysis of mechanical effects caused by plasma disruptions in the European breeder out of tube solid breeder blanket design with MANET as structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Ruatto, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we deal with some aspects related to the mechanical behaviour of the European breeder out of tube solid breeder blanket for the DEMO reactor during plasma disruptions. The first aspect regards the properties of the martensitic steel MANET which has been chosen as structural material. MANET is a magnetic material and its fracture toughness properties degrade considerably under irradiation. These two features have been taken into account in the calculation of magentic forces and in the assessment of conditions of unstable crack propagation respectively. As second aspect, a comparison between an electrically segmented and a continuous blanket design has been performed. The analysis reveals lower mechanical stresses for the second design during the DEMO reference disruption and in case of faster disruptions. (orig.)

  2. Multidisciplinary approach to non-surgical management of inguinal disruption in a professional hockey player treated with platelet-rich plasma, manual therapy and exercise: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Eric; MacIntyre, Ian G; Galea, Anthony M

    2015-12-01

    To present the clinical management of inguinal disruption in a professional hockey player and highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management. A professional hockey player with recurrent groin pain presented to the clinic after an acute exacerbation of pain while playing hockey. The patient received a clinical diagnosis of inguinal disruption. Imaging revealed a tear in the rectus abdominis. Management included two platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to the injured tissue, and subsequent manual therapy and exercise. The patient returned to his prior level of performance in 3.5 weeks. This case demonstrated the importance of a multidisciplinary team and the need for advanced imaging in athletes with groin pain. Research quality concerning the non-surgical management of inguinal disruption remains low. This case adds evidence that PRP, with the addition of manual therapy and exercise may serve as a relatively quick and effective non-surgical management strategy.

  3. Peculiarity of deuterium ions interaction with tungsten surface in the condition imitating combination of normal operation with plasma disruption in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I. E-mail: martyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Vasiliev, V.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Danelyan, L.S.; Khirpunov, B.I.; Korshunov, S.N.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Petrov, V.B.; Strunnikov, V.N.; Stolyarova, V.G.; Zatekin, V.V.; Litnovsky, A.M

    2001-03-01

    Tungsten is a candidate material for the ITER divertor. For the simulation of ITER normal operation conditions in combination with plasma disruptions samples of various types of tungsten were exposed to both steady-state and high power pulsed deuterium plasmas. Tungsten samples were first exposed in a steady-state plasma with an ion current density {approx}10{sup 21} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} up to a dose of 10{sup 25} m{sup -2} at a temperature of 770 K. The energy of deuterium ions was 150 eV. The additional exposure of the samples to 10 pulses of deuterium plasma was performed in the electrodynamical plasma accelerator with an energy flux 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} per pulse. Samples of four types of tungsten (W-1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, W-13I, monocrystalline W(1 1 1) and W-10%Re) were investigated. The least destruction of the surface was observed for W(1 1 1). The concentration of retained deuterium in tungsten decreased from 2.5x10{sup 19} m{sup -2} to 1.07x10{sup 19} m{sup -2} (for W(1 1 1)) as a result of the additional pulsed plasma irradiation. Investigation of the tungsten erosion products after the high power pulsed plasma shots was also carried out.

  4. Disruption prediction at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, F.

    1998-12-01

    The sudden loss of the plasma magnetic confinement, known as disruption, is one of the major issue in a nuclear fusion machine as JET (Joint European Torus). Disruptions pose very serious problems to the safety of the machine. The energy stored in the plasma is released to the machine structure in few milliseconds resulting in forces that at JET reach several Mega Newtons. The problem is even more severe in the nuclear fusion power station where the forces are in the order of one hundred Mega Newtons. The events that occur during a disruption are still not well understood even if some mechanisms that can lead to a disruption have been identified and can be used to predict them. Unfortunately it is always a combination of these events that generates a disruption and therefore it is not possible to use simple algorithms to predict it. This thesis analyses the possibility of using neural network algorithms to predict plasma disruptions in real time. This involves the determination of plasma parameters every few milliseconds. A plasma boundary reconstruction algorithm, XLOC, has been developed in collaboration with Dr. D. O'Brien and Dr. J. Ellis capable of determining the plasma wall/distance every 2 milliseconds. The XLOC output has been used to develop a multilayer perceptron network to determine plasma parameters as l i and q ψ with which a machine operational space has been experimentally defined. If the limits of this operational space are breached the disruption probability increases considerably. Another approach for prediction disruptions is to use neural network classification methods to define the JET operational space. Two methods have been studied. The first method uses a multilayer perceptron network with softmax activation function for the output layer. This method can be used for classifying the input patterns in various classes. In this case the plasma input patterns have been divided between disrupting and safe patterns, giving the possibility of

  5. Internal disruption in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    A review of results of experimental and theoretical investigations of internal disruption in tokamaks is given. Specific features of various types of saw-tooth oscillations are described and their classification is performed. Theoretical models of the process of development of internal disruption instability are discussed. Effect of internal disruption on parameters of plasma, confined in tokamak, is considered. Scalings of period and amplitude of saw-tooth oscillations, as well as version radius are presented. Different methods for stabilizing instability of internal disruption are described

  6. Internal disruptions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the phenomenon of internal disruptions in tokamaks are reviewed. A classification scheme is introduced and the features of different types of sawtooth oscillations are described. A theoretical model for the development of the internal disruption instability is discussed. The effect of internal disruptions on the parameters of plasma confined in tokamaks is discussed. Scaling laws for the period and amplitude of sawtooth oscillations, as well as for the inversion radius, are presented. Different methods of stabilizing the internal disruption instability are described

  7. Analysis of mechanical effects caused by plasma disruptions in the European BOT solid breeder blanket design with MANET as structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Ruatto, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Nuclear Center is developing, through design and experimental work, a BOT (Breeder Out of Tube) Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket for a DEMO application. One of the crucial problems in the blanket design is to demonstrate the capability of the structure to withstand the mechanical effects of a major plasma disruption as extrapolated to DEMO from the experience of present machines. In this paper the results of the assessment work are presented; the acceptability of the design is discussed on the basis of a stress analysis of the structure under combined thermal and electromagnetic loads. The martensitic steel MANET has been chosen as structural material, because it is able to withstand the high neutron fluence in Demo (70 dpa) without appreciably swelling and has good thermal-mechanical properties - lower thermal expansion and higher strength - in comparison to AISI 316L steel. As far as it concerns the mechanical effects of plasma disruptions, MANET presents two important features which have been carefully investigated in the assessment: the magnetic properties of the material and the degradation of the fracture toughness behavior under irradiation

  8. Understanding the Effect of Gas Dynamics in Plasma Gun Performance for Simulating Fusion Wall Response to Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Will; Underwood, Thomas; Righetti, Fabio; Cappelli, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the suitability of a pulsed coaxial plasma accelerator to simulate the interaction of edge-localized modes with plasma first wall materials is investigated. Experimental measurements derived from a suite of diagnostics are presented that focus on both the properties of the plasma flow and the manner in which such jets couple with material interfaces. Specific emphasis is placed on quantifying the variation in these properties using tungsten tokens exposed to the plasma plume as the gun volume is progressively filled with more neutral gas. These results are mapped to the operational dynamics of the gun via a time-resolved Schlieren cinematic visualization of the density gradient within the flow. Resulting videos indicate the existence of two distinct modes with vastly different characteristic timescales, spatial evolution, and plasma properties. Time resolved quantification of the associated plasma heat flux for both modes, including a range spanning 150 MW m-2 - 10 GW m-2, is presented using both a fast thermocouple gauge and an IR camera. Both diagnostics in conjunction with a heat transfer model provide an accurate description of the energy transfer dynamics and operational characteristics of plasma guns. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program.

  9. Disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.; Gill, R.D.; Hugon, M.

    1989-01-01

    In JET, both high density and low-q operation are limited by disruptions. The density limit disruptions are caused initially by impurity radiation. This causes a contraction of the plasma temperature profile and leads to an MHD unstable configuration. There is evidence of magnetic island formation resulting in minor disruptions. After several minor disruptions, a major disruption with a rapid energy quench occurs. This event takes place in two stages. In the first stage there is a loss of energy from the central region. In the second stage there is a more rapid drop to a very low temperature, apparently due to a dramatic increase in impurity radiation. The final current decay takes place in the resulting cold plasma. During the growth of the MHD instability the initially rotating mode is brought to rest. This mode locking is believed to be due to an electromagnetic interaction with the vacuum vessel and external magnetic field asymmetries. The low-q disruptions are remarkable for the precision with which they occur at q ψ = 2. These disruptions do not have extended precursors or minor disruptions. The instability grows and locks rapidly. The energy quench and current decay are generally similar to those of the density limit. (author). 43 refs, 35 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Evaluation of plasma disruption simulating short pulse laser irradiation experiments on boronated graphites and CFCs [carbon fibre composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.; Kraaij, G.J.

    1992-12-01

    New experimental and numerical results from disruption heat flux simulations in the millisecond range with laser beams are discussed. For a number of graphites, boronated graphites and carbon fibre composites, the effective enthalpy of ablation is determined as 30 ± 3 MJ/kg, using laser pulses of about -.3 ms. The numerical results predict the experimental results rather well. No effect of boron doping on the ablation enthalpy is found. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H

    2003-03-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion.

  12. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion

  13. Behavior of divertor and first wall armour materials at plasma heat fluxes relevant to ITER ELMs and disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Kovalenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main results of numerous experiments carried out over the past 10 years at QSPA-T and QSPA-Be plasma guns in support of ITER. Special targets made of pure W, W-1%La2O3 and two types of Be (TGP-56FW and S65-C were tested under the series of repeated plasma stream and photonic flux impact. Maximum heat load on the target surface was up to 2.5MJ/m2 in the case of plasma testing and was equal to 0.5MJ/m2 in the case of photonic flux testing. Pulse waveform was rectangular with tpulse= 0.5ms. It was found that the main erosion mechanisms of W and Be under plasma stream impact are the melt layer movement, the ejection of droplets and the cracks formation. As a result of repeated photonic fluxes a regular, “corrugated” structure are eventually formed on the Be target surface. Study of erosion products of W formed under plasma stream impact on the W target has shown that the D/W atomic ratio in the deposited W films during pulsed events may be the same or even higher than that for stationary processes.

  14. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges/Possibility of an internal transport barrier producing under dominating electron transport in the T-10 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    'Studies of the Disruption Prevention by ECRH at Plasma Current Rise Stage in Limiter Discharges' - Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼ 120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. 'Possibility of an Internal Transport Barrier Producing under Dominating Electron Transport in the T-10 Tokamak' - The reversed shear experiments were carried out on T-10 at the HF power up to 1MW. The reversed shear in the core was produced by on-axis ECCD in direction opposite to the plasma current. There are no obvious signs of Internal Transport Barriers formation under condition when high-k turbulence determines the electron transport. (author)

  15. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  16. Disruption of Splenic Lymphoid Tissue and Plasmacytosis in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Changes in Homing and Survival of Plasma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselli Silva-O'Hare

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Dogs are the main urban reservoir of this parasite and the disease presents similar characteristics in both humans and dogs. In this paper, we investigated the potential pathways involved in plasma cell replacement of normal cell populations in the spleen, with respect to disease severity in dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. To this end, canine spleen samples were grouped into three categories: TYPE1SC- (non-infected dogs or without active infection with organized white pulp, TYPE1SC+ (infected dogs with organized white pulp or TYPE3SC+ (infected animals with disorganized white pulp. We analyzed the distribution of different plasma cell isotypes (IgA, IgG and IgM in the spleen. The expression of cytokines and chemokines involved in plasma cell homing and survival were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia were also evaluated. The proportion of animals with moderate or intense plasmacytosis was higher in the TYPE3SC+ group than in the other groups (Fisher test, P<0.05. This was mainly due to a higher density of IgG+ plasma cells in the red pulp of this group. The albumin/globulin ratio was lower in the TYPE3SC+ animals than in the TYPE1SC- or TYPE1SC+ animals, which evidences VL-associated dysproteinemia. Interestingly, TYPE3SC+ animals showed increased expression of the BAFF and APRIL cytokines, as well as chemokine CXCL12. Aberrant expression of BAFF, APRIL and CXCL12, together with amplified extrafollicular B cell activation, lead to plasma cell homing and the extended survival of these cells in the splenic red pulp compartment. These changes in the distribution of immunocompetent cells in the spleen may contribute to the progression of VL, and impair the spleen's ability to protect against blood borne pathogens.

  17. Disruption of Splenic Lymphoid Tissue and Plasmacytosis in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Changes in Homing and Survival of Plasma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-O'Hare, Joselli; de Oliveira, Isabela Silva; Klevorn, Thaís; Almeida, Valter A; Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Atta, Ajax M; de Freitas, Luiz Antonio R; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Dogs are the main urban reservoir of this parasite and the disease presents similar characteristics in both humans and dogs. In this paper, we investigated the potential pathways involved in plasma cell replacement of normal cell populations in the spleen, with respect to disease severity in dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. To this end, canine spleen samples were grouped into three categories: TYPE1SC- (non-infected dogs or without active infection with organized white pulp), TYPE1SC+ (infected dogs with organized white pulp) or TYPE3SC+ (infected animals with disorganized white pulp). We analyzed the distribution of different plasma cell isotypes (IgA, IgG and IgM) in the spleen. The expression of cytokines and chemokines involved in plasma cell homing and survival were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia were also evaluated. The proportion of animals with moderate or intense plasmacytosis was higher in the TYPE3SC+ group than in the other groups (Fisher test, Pspleen may contribute to the progression of VL, and impair the spleen's ability to protect against blood borne pathogens.

  18. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Jeanne; Pan, Meihui; Chin, Harvey F; Lund, Frederik W; Maxfield, Frederick R; Breslow, Jan L

    2012-12-01

    STARD4, a member of the evolutionarily conserved START gene family, has been implicated in the nonvesicular intracellular transport of cholesterol. However, the direction of transport and the membranes with which this protein interacts are not clear. We present studies of STARD4 function using small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels were increased and decreased, respectively. We also observed a decrease in NPC1 protein expression, suggesting the induction of compensatory pathways to maintain cholesterol balance. These data indicate a role for STARD4 in nonvesicular transport of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment to the endoplasmic reticulum and perhaps other intracellular compartments as well.

  19. Investigating Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Stine Schmieg; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    This book shares knowledge collected from 2015 and onward within the Consortium for Digital Disruption anchored at Aalborg University (www.dd.aau.dk). Evidenced by this publication, the field of disruptive innovation research has gone through several stages of operationalizing the theory. In recent...... years, researchers are increasingly looking back towards the origins of the theory in attempts to cure it from its most obvious flaws. This is especially true for the use of the theory in making predictions about future disruptions. In order to continue to develop a valuable theory of disruption, we...... find it useful to first review what the theory of disruptive innovation initially was, how it has developed, and where we are now. A cross section of disruptive innovation literature has been reviewed in order to form a general foundation from which we might better understand the changing world...

  20. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...

  1. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  2. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2006-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and α-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1α and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis

  3. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    det digitale domæne ud over det niveau, der kendetegner den nuværende debat, så præsenteres der ny viden om digital disruption. Som noget nyt udlægges Clayton Christens teori om disruptiv innovation med et særligt fokus på små organisationers mulighed for eksponentiel vækst. Specielt udfoldes...... forholdet mellem disruption og den stadig accelererende digitale udvikling i konturerne til ny teoridannelse om digital disruption. Bogens undertitel ”faretruende og fascinerende forandringer” peger på, at der er behov for en nuanceret debat om digital disruption i modsætning til den tone, der er slået an i...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...

  4. Disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janos, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Batha, S.H.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Levinton, F.; Mansfield, D.; Meade, D.; Medley, S.S.; Monticello, D.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Post, D.E.; Schivell, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Goeler, S. von; Wilfrid, E.; Wong, K.L.; Yamada, M.; Young, K.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.; Drake, J.F.; Kleva, R.G.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-03-01

    For a successful reactor, it will be useful to predict the occurrence of disruptions and to understand disruption effects including how a plasma disrupts onto the wall and how reproducibly it does so. Studies of disruptions on TFTR at both high-β pol and high-density have shown that, in both types, a fast growing m/n=1/1 mode plays an important role. In highdensity disruptions, a newly observed fast m/n = 1/1 mode occurs early in the thermal decay phase. For the first time in TFTR q-profile measurements just prior to disruptions have been made. Experimental studies of heat deposition patterns on the first wall of TFTR due to disruptions have provided information on MHD phenomena prior to or during the disruption, how the energy is released to the wall, and the reproducibility of the heat loads from disruptions. This information is important in the design of future devices such as ITER. Several new processes of runaway electron generation are theoretically suggested and their application to TFTR and ITER is considered, together with a preliminary assessment of x-ray data from runaways generated during disruptions

  5. Politisk disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på.......Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på....

  6. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  7. β limit disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Janos, A.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Manickam, J.; Mynick, H.; Nazikian, R.; Taylor, G.

    1994-11-01

    A disruptive β limit (β = plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) is observed in high performance plasmas in TFTR. The MHD character of these disruptions differs substantially from the disruptions in high density plasmas (density limit disruptions) on TFTR. The high β disruptions can occur with less than a milliseconds warning in the form of a fast growing precursor. The precursor appears to be an external kink or internal (m,n)=(1,1) kink strongly coupled through finite β effects and toroidal terms to higher m components. It does not have the open-quote cold bubble close-quote structure found in density limit disruptions. There is also no evidence for a change in the internal inductance, i.e., a major reconnection of the flux, at the time of the thermal quench

  8. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay

  9. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  10. Statistical analysis of disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, P.C.; Johnson, M.F.; Segui, I.

    2009-01-01

    The disruption rate (the percentage of discharges that disrupt) in JET was found to drop steadily over the years. Recent campaigns (2005-2007) show a yearly averaged disruption rate of only 6% while from 1991 to 1995 this was often higher than 20%. Besides the disruption rate, the so-called disruptivity, or the likelihood of a disruption depending on the plasma parameters, has been determined. The disruptivity of plasmas was found to be significantly higher close to the three main operational boundaries for tokamaks; the low-q, high density and β-limit. The frequency at which JET operated close to the density-limit increased six fold over the last decade; however, only a small reduction in disruptivity was found. Similarly the disruptivity close to the low-q and β-limit was found to be unchanged. The most significant reduction in disruptivity was found far from the operational boundaries, leading to the conclusion that the improved disruption rate is due to a better technical capability of operating JET, instead of safer operations close to the physics limits. The statistics showed that a simple protection system was able to mitigate the forces of a large fraction of disruptions, although it has proved to be at present more difficult to ameliorate the heat flux.

  11. Density turbulence and disruption phenomena in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waidmann, G.; Kuang, G.; Jadoul, M.

    1992-01-01

    Disruptive processes are observed in tokamak plasmas not only at the operating limits (density limit or q-limit) but can be found under a variety of experimental conditions. Large forces are exerted then on vessel components and support structures. The sudden release of stored plasma energy presents a serious erosion problem for the first wall already in the next generation of large tokamak machines. Strong energy losses from the plasma and an influx of impurities are already present in minor plasma disruptions which do not immediately lead to a plasma current termination. The rapid loss of energy confinement was investigated within the framework of a systematic study on plasma disruption phenomena in TEXTOR. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  12. JET and COMPASS asymmetrical disruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimov, S.N.; Abreu, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Drozdov, V.; Dvornova, A.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Kruezi, U.; Li, X.; Markovič, Tomáš; Pánek, Radomír; Rubinacci, G.; Tsalas, M.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2015), s. 113006-113006 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * asymmetrical disruption * JET * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  13. Overvoltage protection for magnetic system during disruption in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Li, Xiaolong; He, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongyong; Yu, Kexun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the way to limit the plasma disruption overvoltage by using the MOVs. • An overvoltage model of plasma disruption is introduced. • The overvoltage protection scheme has been verified by disruption experiments. • The overvoltage during plasma disruption can be limited to 330 V. - Abstract: During a plasma disruption the magnetic flux in the tokamak changes rapidly, which in most cases will cause high-voltage surges among the magnetic systems and may bring severe damage to the components if there is no overvoltage protection. This paper investigates the way to limit the plasma disruption overvoltage and absorb the energy with the use of metal oxide varistors (MOVs). An overvoltage model of plasma disruption is introduced which can be used for the simulation of plasma disruption and the analysis of the overvoltage. The effectiveness of the overvoltage protection system is validated with disruption experiments. It shows that by optimizing the varistors voltage, the overvoltage during plasma disruption can be limited to an ideal low value. Now the overvoltage protection system has been deployed in J-TEXT tokamak and serves well for daily experiments.

  14. Criteria for initiation of tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopcraft, K.I.; Turner, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The process by which a tokamak plasma evolves from an equilibrium state containing a saturated magnetic island to one which is disruptively unstable is discussed and illustrated by numerical simulation of a resistive magnetoplasma. Those elements which are required to initiate a disruption are delineated

  15. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D.; Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures

  16. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  17. Disruption mitigation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Sourd, F.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    During disruptions, the plasma energy is lost on the first wall within 1 ms, forces up to hundred tons are applied to the structures and kA of electrons are accelerated up to 50 MeV (runaway electrons). Already sources of concern in present day tokamaks, extrapolation to ITER shows the necessity of mitigation procedures, to avoid serious damages to in-vessel components. Massive gas injection was proposed, and encouraging tests have been done on Textor and DIII-D. Similar experiments where performed on Tore Supra, with the goal to validate their effect on runaway electrons, observed during the majority of disruptions. 0.1 mole of helium was injected within 5 ms in ohmic plasmas, up to 1.2 MA, either stable, or in a pre-disruptive phase (argon puffing). Beneficial effects where obtained: reduction of the current fall rate and eddy currents, total disappearance of runaway electrons and easy recovery for the next pulse, without noticeable helium pollution of following plasmas. Analysis of the 4 ms period between injection and disruption indicates that to reach these goals, one need to inject enough helium to keep it only partially ionised. It correspond to 0.1 g for Tore Supra, and extrapolate to hundred's of grams for ITER. (author)

  18. Disruption mitigation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Sourd, F.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    During disruptions, the plasma energy is lost on the first wall within 1 ms, forces up to hundred tons are applied to the structures and kA of electrons are accelerated up to 50 MeV (runaway electrons). Already sources of concern in present day tokamaks, extrapolation to ITER shows the necessity of mitigation procedures, to avoid serious damages to in-vessel components. Massive gas injection was proposed, and encouraging tests have been done on Textor and DIII-D. Similar experiments where performed on Tore Supra, with the goal to validate their effect on runaway electrons, observed during the majority of disruptions. 0.1 mole of helium was injected within 5 ms in ohmic plasmas, up to 1.2 MA, either stable, or in a pre-disruptive phase (argon puffing). Beneficial effects where obtained: reduction of the current fall rate and eddy currents, total disappearance of runaway electrons and easy recovery for the next pulse, without noticeable helium pollution of following plasmas. Analysis of the 4 ms period between injection and disruption indicates that to reach these goals, one need to inject enough helium to keep it only partially ionised. It corresponds to 0.1 g for Tore Supra, and extrapolate to hundreds of grams for ITER. (authors)

  19. Sideways wall force produced during tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.; Jardin, S.

    2013-07-01

    A critical issue for ITER is to evaluate the forces produced on the surrounding conducting structures during plasma disruptions. We calculate the non-axisymmetric ‘sideways’ wall force Fx, produced in disruptions. Simulations were carried out of disruptions produced by destabilization of n = 1 modes by a vertical displacement event (VDE). The force depends strongly on γτwall, where γ is the mode growth rate and τwall is the wall penetration time, and is largest for γτwall = constant, which depends on initial conditions. Simulations of disruptions caused by a model of massive gas injection were also performed. It was found that the wall force increases approximately offset linearly with the displacement from the magnetic axis produced by a VDE. These results are also obtained with an analytical model. Disruptions are accompanied by toroidal variation of the plasma current Iφ. This is caused by toroidal variation of the halo current, as verified computationally and analytically.

  20. Runaway electron generation in tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Andersson, F.; Fueloep, T.; Smith, H.; Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2005-01-01

    The time evolution of the plasma current during a tokamak disruption is calculated by solving the equations for runaway electron production simultaneously with the induction equation for the toroidal electric field. The resistive diffusion time in a post-disruption plasma is typically comparable to the runaway avalanche growth time. Accordingly, the toroidal electric field induced after the thermal quench of a disruption diffuses radially through the plasma at the same time as it accelerates runaway electrons, which in turn back-react on the electric field. When these processes are accounted for in a self-consistent way, it is found that (1) the efficiency and time scale of runaway generation agrees with JET experiments; (2) the runaway current profile typically becomes more peaked than the pre-disruption current profile; and (3) can easily become radially filamented. It is also shown that higher runaway electron generation is expected if the thermal quench is sufficiently fast. (author)

  1. Disruption Physics and Mitigation on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of the DIII-D tokamak toward the understanding and control of disruptions are reviewed. Disruptions are found to be deterministic, and the underlying causes of disruption can therefore be predicted and avoided. With sufficiently rapid detection, possible damage from disruptions can be mitigated using an understanding of disruption phenomenology and plasma physics. Regimes of high β are readily available in DIII-D and provide access to relatively high energy density disruptions, despite DIII-D's moderate magnetic field and size. DIII-D, with all-graphite wall armor and wall conditioning between discharges, has proven highly resilient to the deleterious effects that disruptions can have on plasma operations. Simultaneously, exploitation and adaptation of DIII-D's extensive core and edge plasma diagnostic set have allowed for unique plasma measurements during disruptions. These measurements have tied into the development of several physical models used to understand aspects of disruptions, such as magnetohydrodynamic growth at the disruption onset, radiation energy balance through the thermal quench, and halo currents during the current quench. Based on this fundamental understanding, DIII-D has developed techniques to mitigate the harmful effects of disruptions by radiative dissipation of the plasma energy and extrapolated these techniques for possible use on larger devices like ITER

  2. Disruption characteristics in PDX with limiter and divertor discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, P.; McGuire, K.

    1986-09-01

    A comparison has been made between the characteristics of disruptions with limiter and divertor configurations in PDX. A large data base on disruptions has been collected over four years of machine operation, and a total of 15,000 discharges are contained in the data file. It was found that divertor discharges have less disruptions during ramp up and flattop of the plasma current. However, for divertor discharges a large number of fast, low current disruptions take place during the current ramp down. These disruptions are probably caused by the deformation of the plasma shape

  3. MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present physics understandings of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamak plasmas, the threshold conditions for onset of MHD instability, and the resulting operational limits on attainable plasma pressure (beta limit) and density (density limit), and the consequences of plasma disruption and disruption related effects are reviewed and assessed in the context of their application to a future DT burning reactor prototype tokamak experiment such as ITER. The principal considerations covered within the MHD stability and beta limit assessments are (i) magnetostatic equilibrium, ideal MHD stability and the resulting ideal MHD beta limit; (ii) sawtooth oscillations and the coupling of sawtooth activity to other types of MHD instability; (iii) neoclassical island resistive tearing modes and the corresponding limits on beta and energy confinement; (iv) wall stabilization of ideal MHD instabilities and resistive wall instabilities; (v) mode locking effects of non-axisymmetric error fields; (vi) edge localized MHD instabilities (ELMs, etc.); and (vii) MHD instabilities and beta/pressure gradient limits in plasmas with actively modified current and magnetic shear profiles. The principal considerations covered within the density limit assessments are (i) empirical density limits; (ii) edge power balance/radiative density limits in ohmic and L-mode plasmas; and (iii) edge parameter related density limits in H-mode plasmas. The principal considerations covered in the disruption assessments are (i) disruption causes, frequency and MHD instability onset; (ii) disruption thermal and current quench characteristics; (iii) vertical instabilities (VDEs), both before and after disruption, and plasma and in-vessel halo currents; (iv) after disruption runaway electron formation, confinement and loss; (v) fast plasma shutdown (rapid externally initiated dissipation of plasma thermal and magnetic energies); (vi) means for disruption avoidance and disruption effect mitigation; and

  4. Engineering aspects of disruption current decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-11-01

    Engineering features associated with the configuration of a tokamak can affect the amount of energy that produces melting and damage to the limiters or internal wall surfaces as the result of a major disruption. During the current decay period of a major thermal disruption, the energy that can damage a wall or limiter comes from the external magnetic field. By providing a good conducting torus near the plasma and increasing the plasma circuit resistance, this magnetic energy (transferred by way of the plasma circuit) can be minimized. This report addresses engineering design features to reduce the energy deposited on the inner torus surface that produces melting of the structures

  5. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  6. A model for disruption generated runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.; Campbell, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of disruptions in tokamaks is the generation of runaway electrons which can impact plasma facing components and cause damage, owing to high local energy deposition. This problem becomes more serious as the machine size and plasma current increase. Since large size and high currents are characteristics of proposed future machines, control of runaway generation is an important design consideration. A lumped circuit model for disruption runaway electron generation indicates that impurity concentration and type, as well as plasma motion, can strongly influence runaway behaviour. A comparison of disruption data from several runs on JET and DIII-D with model results demonstrate the effects of impurities, and plasma motion, on runaway number density and energy. The model is also applied to the calculation of runaway currents for ITER. (author). 16 refs, 13 figs

  7. Differential effect of T-type voltage-gated calcium channel disruption on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Henrik; Cardel, Majken

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav) play an essential role in regulation of renal blood flow and GFR. Because T-type Cavs are differentially expressed in pre- and postglomerular vessels it was hypothesized that they impact renal blood flow and GFR differentially. The question was addressed by use...... of two T-type Cav knock-out mice strains. Continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate, and para-aminohippurate clearance (renal plasma flow) and inulin clearance (GFR) were performed in conscious, chronically catheterized, wild type and Cav 3.1-/- and Cav 3.2-/- mice. Contractility of afferent...... and efferent arterioles was determined in isolated perfused blood vessels. Efferent arterioles from Cav 3.2-/- mice constricted significantly more in response to a depolarization compared to Wt mice. GFR was increased in Cav 3.2-/- mice with no significant changes in renal plasma flow, heart rate and blood...

  8. Comprehensive model for disruption erosion in a reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive disruption erosion model which takes into account the interplay of major physical processes during plasma-material interaction has been developed. The model integrates with sufficient detail and in a self-consistent way, material thermal evolution response, plasma-vapor interaction physics, vapor hydrodynamics and radiation transport in order to realistically simulate the effects of a plasma disruption on plasma-facing components. Candidate materials such as beryllium and carbon have been analyzed. The dependence of the net erosion rate on disruption physics and various parameters was analyzed and is discussed. ((orig.))

  9. Integrated disruption avoidance and mitigation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jayhyun; Woo, M.H.; Han, H.; In, Y.; Bak, J.G.; Eidietis, N.W.

    2014-01-01

    The final target of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) aims advanced tokamak operation at plasma current 2 MA and toroidal field 3.5 T. In order to safely achieve the target, disruption counter-measures are unavoidable when considering the disruption risks, inevitably accompanied with high performance discharges, such as electro-magnetic load on conducting structures, collisional damage by run-away electrons, and thermal load on plasma facing components (PFCs). In this reason, the establishment of integrated disruption mitigation system (DMS) has been started for routine mega-ampere class operations of KSTAR since 2013 campaign. The DMS mainly consists of the disruption prediction and its avoidance/mitigation in company with logical/technical integration of them. We present the details of KSTAR DMS and the related experimental results in this article. (author)

  10. Automatic location of disruption times in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Vega, J.; Murari, A.

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors).

  11. Automatic location of disruption times in JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R; Vega, J; Murari, A

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors).

  12. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Modeling SOL evolution during disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.; Cohen, R.H.; Crotinger, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present the status of our models and transport simulations of the 2-D evolution of the scrape-off layer (SOL) during tokamak disruptions. This evolution is important for several reasons: It determines how the power from the core plasma is distributed on material surfaces, how impurities from those surfaces or from gas injection migrate back to the core region, and what are the properties of the SOL for carrying halo currents. We simulate this plasma in a time-dependent fashion using the SOL transport code UEDGE. This code models the SOL plasma using fluid equations of plasma density, parallel momentum (along the magnetic field), electron energy, ion energy, and neutral gas density. A multispecies model is used to follow the density of different charge-states of impurities. The parallel transport is classical but with kinetic modifications; these are presently treated by flux limits, but we have initiated more sophisticated models giving the correct long-mean-free path limit. The cross-field transport is anomalous, and one of the results of this work is to determine reasonable values to characterize disruptions. Our primary focus is on the initial thermal quench phase when most of the core energy is lost, but the total current is maintained. The impact of edge currents on the MHD equilibrium will be discussed

  14. Energy flow during disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J.I.; Andrew, P.; Cowley, S.C.; Fundamenski, W.; Huber, A.

    2005-01-01

    Disruptions place severe limitations on the materials selected for plasma facing components in fusion devices. In a disruption, the plasma stored thermal and magnetic energy is dissipated leading to predicted power loadings in the current quench of up to 10 MW m -2 in JET. In the thermal quench very high power loads of up to 10 G Wm -2 would be expected if all the power flowed to the steady state strike points, however this is not observed. In this paper the energy balance associated with both events is investigated. The magnetic energy is found to balance well with radiated energy. Circumstantial evidence for limiter interaction during the thermal quench of plasmas in divertor configuration is presented and a possible mechanism for limiter interaction in disruptions resulting from the collapse of an internal transport barrier is discussed

  15. Disruption modeling in support of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, I.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma current disruptions and Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) are one of the major concerns in any tokamak as they lead to large electromagnetic forces to tokamak first wall components and vacuum vessel. Their occurrence also means disruption to steady state operations of tokamaks. Thus future fusion reactors like ITER must ensure that disruptions and VDEs are minimized. However, since there is still finite probability of their occurrence, one must be able to characterize disruptions and VDEs and able to predict, for example, the plasma current quench time and halo current amplitude, which mainly determine the magnitude of the electromagnetic forces. There is a concerted effort globally to understand and predict plasma and halo current evolution during disruption in tokamaks through MHD simulations. Even though Disruption and VDEs are often 3D MHD perturbations in nature, presently they are mostly simulated using 2D axisymmetric MHD codes like the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) and DINA. These codes are also extensively benchmarked against experimental data in present day tokamaks to improve these models and their ability to predict these events in ITER. More detailed 3D models like M3D are only recently being developed, but they are yet to be benchmarked against experiments, as also they are massively computationally exhaustive

  16. Periodic disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    1988-11-01

    Disruptive instabilities are common phenomena in toroidal devices, especially in tokamaks. Three types can be distinguished: internal, minor and major disruptions. Periodic minor disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak were measured systematically with values of the limiter safety factor between 4 and 10. The density limit as a function of plasma current and horizontal displacement was investigated. Precursor oscillations always appear before the instability with increasing amplitude but can be observed at the density limit with quasi-stationary amplitude. Phase correlation between precursor oscillations were measured with Mirnov coils and x-ray detectors, and they show good agreement with a simple magnetic island model. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 6 figs

  17. Current disruption in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Attempts at raising the density or the plasma current in a tokamak above certain critical values generally result in termination of the discharge by a disruption. This sudden end of the plasma current and plasma confinement is accompanied by large induced voltages and currents in the outer structures which, in large tokamaks, can only be handled with considerable effort, and which will probably only be tolerable in reactors as rare accidents. Because of its crucial importance for the construction and operation of tokamaks, this phenomenon and its theoretical interpretation were the subject of a three-day symposium organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik at Garching from February 14 to 16. (orig./HT)

  18. Development of disruption thermal analysis code DREAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Kobayahsi, Takeshi [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Seki, Masahiro

    1989-07-01

    When a plasma disruption takes place in a tokamak type fusion reactor, plasma facing componenets such as first wall and divertor/limiter are subjected to a intensse heat load in a short duration. At the surface of the wall, temperature rapidly rises, and melting and evaporation occurs. It causes reduction of wall thickness and crack initiation/propagation. As lifetime of the components is significantly affected by them, the transient analysis in consideration of phase changes and radiation heat loss in required in the design of these components. This paper describes the computer code DREAM, developed to perform the disruption thermal analysis, taking phase changes and radiation into account. (author).

  19. Development of disruption thermal analysis code DREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Kobayahsi, Takeshi; Seki, Masahiro.

    1989-01-01

    When a plasma disruption takes place in a tokamak type fusion reactor, plasma facing componenets such as first wall and divertor/limiter are subjected to a intensse heat load in a short duration. At the surface of the wall, temperature rapidly rises, and melting and evaporation occurs. It causes reduction of wall thickness and crack initiation/propagation. As lifetime of the components is significantly affected by them, the transient analysis in consideration of phase changes and radiation heat loss in required in the design of these components. This paper describes the computer code DREAM, developed to perform the disruption thermal analysis, taking phase changes and radiation into account. (author)

  20. Sideways Force Produced During Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Jardin, S.; Sugiyama, L.

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous studies [1] of vertical displacement events (VDE) which can produce disruptions. The emphasis is on the non axisymmetric ``sideways'' wall force Fx. Simulations are performed using the M3D [2] code. A VDE expels magnetic flux through the resistive wall until the last closed flux surface has q VDE is presented. The wall force depends strongly on γτw, where γ is the mode growth rate and τw is the wall resistive penetration time. The force Fx is largest when γτw is a constant of order unity, which depends on the initial conditions. For large values of γτw, the wall force asymptotes to a relatively smaller value, well below the critical value ITER is designed to withstand. The principle of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection is to cause a disruption with large γτw. [4pt] [1] H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau,Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010) [2] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999).

  1. Analytic modeling of axisymmetric disruption halo currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Currents which can flow in plasma facing components during disruptions pose a challenge to the design of next generation tokamaks. Induced toroidal eddy currents and both induced and conducted poloidal ''halo'' currents can produce design-limiting electromagnetic loads. While induction of toroidal and poloidal currents in passive structures is a well-understood phenomenon, the driving terms and scalings for poloidal currents flowing on open field lines during disruptions are less well established. A model of halo current evolution is presented in which the current is induced in the halo by decay of the plasma current and change in enclosed toroidal flux while being convected into the halo from the core by plasma motion. Fundamental physical processes and scalings are described in a simplified analytic version of the model. The peak axisymmetric halo current is found to depend on halo and core plasma characteristics during the current quench, including machine and plasma dimensions, resistivities, safety factor, and vertical stability growth rate. Two extreme regimes in poloidal halo current amplitude are identified depending on the minimum halo safety factor reached during the disruption. A 'type I' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor that remains relatively high (typically 2 - 3, comparable to the predisruption safety factor), and a relatively low poloidal halo current. A 'type II' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor comparable to unity and a relatively high poloidal halo current. Model predictions for these two regimes are found to agree well with halo current measurements from vertical displacement event disruptions in DIII-D [T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, D. R. Baker, G. L. Jackson, R. J. La Haye, M. A. Mahdavi, R. Prater, T. C. Simonen, and A. D. Turnbull, open-quotes Results from the DIII-D Scientific Research Program,close quotes in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998, to be published in

  2. Heat load material studies: Simulated tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahl, J.M.; McDonald, J.M.; Zakharov, A.; Tserevitinov, S.; Barabash, V.; Guseva, M.

    1991-01-01

    It is clear that an improved understanding of the effects of tokamak disruptions on plasma facing component materials is needed for the ITER program. very large energy fluxes are predicted to be deposited in ITER and could be very damaging to the machine. During 1991, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of New Mexico conducted cooperative tokamak disruption simulation experiments at several Soviet facilities. These facilities were located at the Efremov Institute in Leningrad, the Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute (Troisk and Moscow) and the Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Soviet Adademy of Sciences in Moscow. Erosion of graphite from plasma stream impact is seen to be much less than that observed with laser or electron beams with similar energy fluxes. This, along with other data obtained, seem to suggest that the ''vapor shielding'' effect is a very important phenomenon in the study of graphite erosion during tokamak disruption

  3. Operational limits and disruptions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunematsu, T; Mizoguchi, T; Yoshino, R [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Borrass, K; Engelmann, F; Pacher, G; Pacher, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). NET Design Team; Cohen, S; Post, D [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.; Hogan, J; Uckan, N A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Krasheninnikov, S; Mukhovatov, V; Parail, V

    1990-12-15

    Detailed knowledge of the operational limits for beta, q and the plasma density will be required for successful and flexible operation of ITER. In this paper, the present data base and guidelines on operational limits and disruptions in the ITER design are presented. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Disruption generated secondary runaway electrons in present day tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, I.M.; Jaspers, R.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions in present day tokamaks (JET, JT-60U, TEXTOR) was made. It was shown that even for tokamaks with the plasma current I approx 100 kA the secondary generation may dominate the runaway production during disruptions. In the same time in tokamaks with I approx 1 MA the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions may be suppressed

  5. Disruption, vertical displacement event and halo current characterization for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.; Fujisawa, N.; Ortolani, S.; Putvinski, S.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics, in ITER, of plasma disruptions, vertical displacement events (VDEs) and the conversion of plasma current to runaway electron current in a disruption are presented. In addition to the well known potential of disruptions to produce rapid thermal energy and plasma current quenches and theoretical predictions that show the likelihood of ∼ 50% runaway conversion, an assessment of VDE and halo current characteristics in vertically elongated tokamaks shows that disruptions in ITER will result in VDEs with peak in-vessel halo currents of up to 50% of the predisruption plasma current and with toroidal peaking factors (peak/average current density) of up to 4:1. However, the assessment also shows an inverse correlation between the halo current magnitude and the toroidal peaking factor; hence, ITER VDEs can be expected to have a product of normalized halo current magnitude times toroidal peaking factor of ≤ 75%. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Dissipation of magnetic energy during disruptive current termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The magnetic coupling during a disruption between the plasma and the various coil systems on the PDX tokamak has been modeled. Using measured coil currents, the model indicates that dissipation of magnetic energy in the plasma equal to 75 % of the energy stored in the poloidal field of the plasma current does occur and that coupling between the plasma and the coil systems can reduce such dissipation. In the case of PDX ohmic discharges, bolometric measurements of radiation and charge exchange, integrated over a disruption, account for 90 % of the calculated energy dissipation. (author)

  7. Disruptive instabilities in the TBR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, A.

    1987-01-01

    The disruptive instabilities in the TBR-1 tokamak of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of the Institute of Physics-USP were investigated by using surface-barrier detectors and Mirnov magnetic coils, measuring soft X-ray emited by the plasma and poloidal magnetic fluctuations, respectively. Minor and major disruptions, as well sawteeth oscillations, were identified at the TBR-1 discharges, and their main characteristics were studied. Comparing the measured period of the internal disruptions (sawteeth) with the ones expected from scaling laws, good agreements is reached. The measured sawteeth crashes agree with the values expected from the Kadomtsev's model. External helical fields (CHR), corresponding to m/n=2/1 helicity were produced in order to inhibit or criate disruptive instabilities. A strong weakening of the mhd activity, present in the TBR-1 discharges, was clearly detected. The soft X-ray detection system, projected and constructed for this work, was used to obtain the electron temperatures of regions close to the center of the plasma column (T(r=0) ∼ 205 eV and T(r ± 3,8) ∼ 85 eV), using the absorbing foils method. Using the Spitzer formula, Z sub (eff) values were also obtained. (author) [pt

  8. Disruption problematics in segmented blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.; Fantechi, S.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1994-01-01

    In Tokamaks, the hostile operating environment originated by plasma disruption events requires that the first wall/blanket/shield components sustain the large induced electromagnetic (EM) forces without significant structural deformation and within allowable material stresses. As a consequence there is a need to improve the safety features of the blanket design concepts satisfying the disruption problematics and to formulate guidelines on the required internal reinforcements of the blanket components. The present paper describes the recent investigations on blanket reinforcement systems needed in order to optimize the first-wall/blanket/shield structural design for next step and commercial fusion reactors in the context of ITER, DEMO and SEAFP activities

  9. Disruptions in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses major and minor disruptions in Tokamaks. A number of models and numerical simulations of disruptions based on resistive MHD are reviewed. A discussion is given of how disruptive current profiles are correlated with the experimentally known operational limits in density and current. It is argued that the q a =2 limit is connected with stabilization of the m=2/n=1 tearing mode for a approx.< 2.7 by resistive walls and mode rotation. Experimental and theoretical observations indicate that major disruptions usually occur in at least two phases, first a 'predisruption', or loss of confinement in the region 1 < q < 2, leaving the q approx.= 1 region almost unaffected, followed by a final disruption of the central part, interpreted here as a toroidal n = 1 external kink mode. (author)

  10. Neural-net disruption predictor in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, R.

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of major disruptions caused by the density limit, the plasma current ramp-down with high internal inductance l i , the low density locked mode and the β-limit has been investigated in JT-60U. The concept of 'stability level', newly proposed in this paper to predict the occurrence of a major disruption, is calculated from nine input parameters every 2 ms by the neural network and the start of a major disruption is predicted when the stability level decreases to a certain level, the 'alarm level'. The neural network is trained in two steps. It is first trained with 12 disruptive and six non-disruptive shots (total of 8011 data points). Second, the target output data for 12 disruptive shots are modified and the network is trained again with additional data points generated by the operator. The 'neural-net disruption predictor' obtained has been tested for 300 disruptive shots (128 945 data points) and 1008 non-disruptive shots (982 800 data points) selected from nine years of operation (1991-1999) of JT-60U. Major disruptions except for those caused by the -limit have been predicted with a prediction success rate of 97-98% at 10 ms prior to the disruption and higher than 90% at 30 ms prior to the disruption while the false alarm rate is 2.1% for non-disruptive shots. This prediction performance has been confirmed for 120 disruptive shots (56 163 data points), caused by the density limit, as well as 1032 non-disruptive shots (1004 611 data points) in the last four years of operation (1999-2002) of JT-60U. A careful selection of the input parameters supplied to the network and the newly developed two-step training of the network have reduced the false alarm rate resulting in a considerable improvement of the prediction success rate. (author)

  11. Disruption Studies in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Neyatani, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Tokuda, S.; Tamai, H.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive studies on the physics of disruptions and developments of avoidance/mitigation methods of disruption-related phenomena have being carried out in JT-60U. The characteristics of the disruption sequence were well understood from the observation of the relationship between the heat pulse onto divertor plates during thermal quench and the impurity influx into the plasma, which determined the speed of the following current quench. A fast shutdown was first demonstrated by injecting impurity ice pellets to the plasma and intensively reducing the heat flux on first wall. The halo current and its toroidal asymmetry were precisely measured, and the halo current database was made for ITER in a wide parameter range. It was found that TPF x I h /I p0 was 0.52 at the maximum in a large tokamak like the JT-60U, whereas the higher factor of 0.75 had been observed in medium-sized tokamaks such as Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX-Upgrade. The vertical displacement event (VDE) at the start of the current quench was carefully investigated, and the neutral point where the VDE hardly occurs was discovered. MHD simulations clarified the onset mechanisms of the VDE, in which the eddy current effect of the up-down asymmetric resistive shell was essential. The real-time Z j measurement was improved for avoiding VDEs during slow current quench, and plasma-wall interaction was avoided by a well-optimized plasma equilibrium control. Magnetic fluctuations that were spontaneously generated at the disruption and/or enhanced by the externally applied helical field have been shown to avoid the generation of runaway electrons. Numerical analysis clarified an adequate rate of collisionless loss of runaway electrons in turbulent magnetic fields, which was consistent with the avoidance of runaway electron generation by magnetic fluctuations observed in JT-60U. Once generated, runaway electrons were suppressed when the safety factor at the plasma surface was reduced to 3 or 2

  12. Application of the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to developing a machine-portable disruption predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew; Tang, William; Feibush, Eliot

    2016-10-01

    Plasma disruptions pose a major threat to the operation of tokamaks which confine a large amount of stored energy. In order to effectively mitigate this damage it is necessary to predict an oncoming disruption with sufficient warning time to take mitigative action. Machine learning approaches to this problem have shown promise but require further developments to address (1) the need for machine-portable predictors and (2) the availability of multi-dimensional signal inputs. Here we demonstrate progress in these two areas by applying the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to data from JET and NSTX, and discuss topics of focus for ongoing work in support of ITER. The author is also supported under the Fulbright U.S. Student Program as a graduate student in the department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  13. Comparison of Advanced Machine Learning Tools for Disruption Prediction and Disruption Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Odstrčil, Michal; Murari, A.; Mlynář, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2013), s. 1751-1759 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Learning Machines * Support Vector Machines * Neural Network * ASDEX Upgrade * JET * Disruption mitigation * Tokamaks * ITER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.950, year: 2013

  14. An assessment of disruption erosion in ITER environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of divertor materials during a major disruption in ITER is very important for the successful and reliable operation of the reactor. Erosion of material surfaces due to the thermal energy dump can severely limit the lifetime of the plasma facing components therefore degrading reactor economic feasibility. A comprehensive numerical model recently developed is used in this analysis in which all major physical processes taking place during plasma-material interactions are included. Models to account for material thermal evolution, plasma-vapor interaction physics, and models for hydrodynamic radiation transport in the developed vapor cloud are implemented in a self-consistent manner to realistically assess the disruption damage. The extent of the self-protection from the developed vapor cloud in front of the incoming plasma particles is critically important in determining the overall disruption lifetime. The aim of this study is to estimate the divertor lifetime for a range of reactor conditions. Candidate materials such as beryllium and graphite are both considered in this analysis. The dependence of the divertor disruption lifetime on the characteristics of plasma-vapor interaction zone for incident plasma ions and electrons is analyzed and discussed. The effect of uncertainties in reactor disruption conditions on the overall divertor erosion lifetime is also analyzed

  15. Runaway electron beam generation and mitigation during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Boboc, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coffey, I.; Decker, J.; Drewelow, P.; Devaux, S.; de Vries, P.C.; Fil, A.; Gerasimov, S.; Giacomelli, L.; Jachmich, S.; Khilkevitch, E.M.; Kiptily, V.; Koslowski, R.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Lupelli, I.; Lomas, P. J.; Manzanares, A.; Martin De Aguilera, A.; Matthews, G.F.; Mlynář, Jan; Nardon, E.; Nilsson, E.; Perez von Thun, C.; Riccardo, V.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Shevelev, A.E.; Sips, G.; Sozzi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 9 (2015), 093013-093013 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : runaway electrons * disruptions * tokamak * JET * massive gas injection * disruption mitigation * runaway background plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/55/9/093013

  16. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  17. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  18. Digital disruption ?syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR). We observed this transformation and propose several digital disruption "syndromes" to assist with understanding and management during digital transformation: digital deceleration, digital transparency, digital hypervigilance, data discordance, digital churn and post-digital 'depression'. These 'syndromes' are defined and discussed in detail. Successful management of this temporary digital disruption is important to ensure a successful transition to a digital platform. What is known about this topic? Digital disruption is defined as the changes facilitated by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking. Increasing numbers of Australian hospitals are implementing digital solutions to replace traditional paper-based systems for patient care in order to create opportunities for improved care and efficiencies. Such large scale change has the potential to create transient disruption to workflows and staff. Managing this temporary disruption effectively is an important factor in the successful implementation of an EMR. What does this paper add? A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a successful rapid roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR) to become Australia's largest digital hospital over a 3-week period. We observed and assisted with the management of several cultural, behavioural and

  19. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    . However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...... to influence from individual strategic interests on the outcomes. More generally, this points to the need for understanding the two-way influence of sources, rather than viewing external search as one-way knowledge accessing....

  20. Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyusnin, V.V.; Riccardo, V.; Jaspers, R.; Alper, B.; Kiptily, V.G.; Mlynar, J.; Popovichev, S.; Luna, E. de La; Andersson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive analysis of disruptions in JET has helped advance the understanding of trends of disruption-generated runaway electrons. Tomographic reconstruction of the soft x-ray emission has made possible a detailed observation of the magnetic flux geometry evolution during disruptions. With the aid of soft and hard x-ray diagnostics runaway electrons have been detected at the very beginning of disruptions. A study of runaway electron parameters has shown that an approximate upper bound for the conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaways is about 60% over a wide range of plasma currents in JET. Runaway generation has been simulated with a test particle model in order to verify the results of experimental data analysis and to obtain the background for extrapolation of the existing results onto larger devices such as ITER. It was found that close agreement between the modelling results and experimental data could be achieved if in the calculations the post-disruption plasma electron temperature was assumed equal to 10 eV and if the plasma column geometry evolution is taken into account in calculations. The experimental trends and numerical simulations show that runaway electrons are a critical issue for ITER and, therefore, the development of mitigation methods, which suppress runaway generation, is an essential task

  1. The study of heat flux for disruption on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhendong; Fang, Jianan; Luo, Jiarong; Cui, Zhixue; Gong, Xianzu; Gan, Kaifu; Zhao, Hailin; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Meiwen

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the plasma is one of the most dangerous instabilities in tokamak. During the disruption, most of the plasma thermal energy is lost, which causes damages to the plasma facing components. Infrared (IR) camera is an effective tool to detect the temperature distribution on the first wall, and the energy deposited on the first wall can be calculated from the surface temperature profile measured by the IR camera. This paper concentrates on the characteristics of heat flux distribution onto the first wall under different disruptions, including the minor disruption and the vertical displacement events (VDE) disruption. Several minor disruptions have been observed before the major disruption under the high plasma density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. During the minor disruption, the heat fluxes are mainly deposited on the upper/lower divertors. The magnetic configuration prior to the minor disruption is a lower single null with the radial distance between the two separatrices in the outer midplane dR_s_e_p = −2 cm, while it changes to upper single null (dR_s_e_p = 1.4 cm) during the minor disruption. As for the VDE disruption, the spatial distribution of heat flux exhibits strong toroidal and radial nonuniformity, and the maximum heat flux received on the dome plate can be up to 11 MW/m"2.

  2. The study of heat flux for disruption on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhendong; Fang, Jianan; Gong, Xianzu; Gan, Kaifu; Luo, Jiarong; Zhao, Hailin; Cui, Zhixue; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Meiwen

    2016-05-01

    Disruption of the plasma is one of the most dangerous instabilities in tokamak. During the disruption, most of the plasma thermal energy is lost, which causes damages to the plasma facing components. Infrared (IR) camera is an effective tool to detect the temperature distribution on the first wall, and the energy deposited on the first wall can be calculated from the surface temperature profile measured by the IR camera. This paper concentrates on the characteristics of heat flux distribution onto the first wall under different disruptions, including the minor disruption and the vertical displacement events (VDE) disruption. Several minor disruptions have been observed before the major disruption under the high plasma density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. During the minor disruption, the heat fluxes are mainly deposited on the upper/lower divertors. The magnetic configuration prior to the minor disruption is a lower single null with the radial distance between the two separatrices in the outer midplane dRsep = -2 cm, while it changes to upper single null (dRsep = 1.4 cm) during the minor disruption. As for the VDE disruption, the spatial distribution of heat flux exhibits strong toroidal and radial nonuniformity, and the maximum heat flux received on the dome plate can be up to 11 MW/m2.

  3. Runaway electrons beams in ITER disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    In agreement with the initial projections, the potential generation of runaway beams in disruptions of ITER discharges was performed. This analysis was based on the best-available present projections of plasma parameters existing in large-tokamak disruptions. Using these parameters, the potential contributions from various basic mechanisms for the generation of runway electrons were estimated. The envisioned mechanisms included (i) the well-known Dreicer process (assuming an evaporation of the runways from the thermal distribution), (ii) the seeding of runaway beams resulting from the potential presence of trapped high-temperature electrons from the original discharge still remaining in the disruption plasma at time of reclosure of the magnetic surfaces, and (iii) the generation of runaway beams through avalanche exponentiation of low-level seed runaways resulting via close collisions of existing runaways with cold plasma electrons. Finally, the prospective behavior of the any generated runaway beams -- in particular during their decay -- as well as their potential avoidance and/or damage controlled extraction through the use of magnetic perturbation fields also was considered in some detail

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of density-limit disruptions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleva, R.G.; Drake, J.F.; Denton, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which demonstrate that density limit disruptions can be triggered by edge radiation which destabilizes a q = 1 kink followed by a q = 2 tearing mode. A bubble of cold plasma is injected from the edge into the center by the q = 1 kink. The q = 2 mode then broadens the current profile and throws the hot plasma to the wall. The MHD simulations presented are the first to successfully reproduce several key features of density limit disruptions including (1) the rapid drop in the central temperature, (2) the rapid expansion of the current profile, (3) the m = 1 cold bubble which is seen to be injected from the edge into the center during density limit disruptions on JET, and (4) disruptions in sawtoothing discharges. (author)

  5. The disruption management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  6. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  7. Sustainable Disruption Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar

    The world we live in is globalized. Goods are seldom made in the place where they are used or consumed, and we do increasingly travel to other countries for either business or pleasure. In our everyday lives we rely on well-functioning global transportations systems to continue the standard...... in the same way, when operation is disrupted. Never the less, we may recall that the Suez Canal was closed due to riots in Egypt, that the fuel price was impacted by threats of closing of the Strait of Hormuz, and we do from time to time hear about acts of piracy outside the coast of Somalia. All...... papers combining disruption management and flight planning through an integrated optimization approach. An additional contribution of the thesis is to show how flexible flight speeds can be used to improve recovery from disruptions, while at the same time allowing an airline to trade off fuel costs...

  8. Total magnetic reconnection during a tokamak major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The safety factor within a tokamak plasma has been measured during a major disruption. During the disruption, the central safety factor jumps from below one to above one, while the total current is unchanged. This implies that total reconnection has occurred. This observation is in contract to the absence of total reconnection observed during a sawtooth oscillation in the same device. 11 refs., 6 figs

  9. Disruption avoidance by means of electron cyclotron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, B; Granucci, G; Nowak, S; Lazzaro, E; Maraschek, M; Giannone, L; Gude, A; Igochine, V; McDermott, R; Poli, E; Reich, M; Sommer, F; Stober, J; Suttrop, W; Treutterer, W; Zohm, H

    2011-01-01

    Disruptions are very challenging to ITER operation as they may cause damage to plasma facing components due to direct plasma heating, forces on structural components due to halo and eddy currents and the production of runaway electrons. Electron cyclotron (EC) waves have been demonstrated as a tool for disruption avoidance by a large set of recent experiments performed in ASDEX Upgrade and FTU using various disruption types, plasma operating scenarios and power deposition locations. The technique is based on the stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (mainly m/n = 2/1) through the localized injection of EC power on the resonant surface. This paper presents new results obtained in ASDEX Upgrade regarding stable operation above the Greenwald density achieved after avoidance of density limit disruptions by means of ECRH and suitable density feedback control (L-mode ohmic plasmas, I p = 0.6 MA, B t = 2.5 T) and NTM-driven disruptions at high-β limit delayed/avoided by means of both co-current drive (co-ECCD) and pure heating (ECRH) with power ≤1.7 MW (H-mode NBI-heated plasmas, P NBI ∼ 7.5 MW, I p = 1 MA, B t = 2.1 T, q 95 ∼ 3.6). The localized perpendicular injection of ECRH/ECCD onto a resonant surface leads to the delay and/or complete avoidance of disruptions. The experiments indicate the existence of a power threshold for mode stabilization to occur. An analysis of the MHD mode evolution using the generalized Rutherford equation coupled to the frequency and phase evolution equations shows that control of the modes is due to EC heating close to the resonant surface. The ECRH contribution (Δ' H term) is larger than the co-ECCD one in the initial and more important phase when the discharge is 'saved'. Future research and developments of the disruption avoidance technique are also discussed.

  10. Disruption mitigation studies on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, A.J., E-mail: at546@york.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gibson, K.J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Harrison, J.R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Kirk, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lisgo, S.W. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, St. Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Lehnen, M. [Institute for Energy Research - Plasma Physics, FZJ, Association EURATOM/FZJ, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Martin, R.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; Cullen, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    Disruptions pose a significant challenge in future devices where the increased stored energy can lead to unacceptably large transient heat loads on plasma facing components (PFCs). One means of mitigating disruptions is that of massive gas injection (MGI), which produces a radiative collapse of the plasma discharge through the injection of impurity gases. The MAST disruption mitigation system is capable of injecting up to 1.95 bar litres into the MAST vacuum vessel over a timescale of 1-2 ms, corresponding to a particle inventory of 5 x 10{sup 22}, around 100 times the plasma particle inventory. High speed infrared thermography, offering full divertor coverage, has shown a 60-70% reduction in divertor power loads during mitigation. A combination of high temporal (0.2 ms) and spatial resolution (1 cm) Thomson scattering and soft X-ray camera array data show evidence for a cooling front associated with the inward propagation of the injected impurities.

  11. Electromagnetic study on HCCR TBM for ITER major disruption scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Youngmin; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Muyoung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed in Korea in order to experiment a breeding blanket module in ITER. This TBM will verify the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency in reactor and the extraction of high-grade heat suitable for electricity generation. Since various loads such as seismic load, electromagnetic (EM) load and heat load significantly affect the soundness of the TBM, a variety of analyses were carried out for design optimization. The EM load is particularly one of main design drivers because large amount of magnetic energy in the plasma are transferred to in-vessel components including the TBM during plasma disruption. Because the TBM is located in equatorial port, major disruption (MD) among various plasma disruption scenarios causes the largest EM loads on the TBM.

  12. Electromagnetic study on HCCR TBM for ITER major disruption scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Youngmin; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Muyoung

    2014-01-01

    Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed in Korea in order to experiment a breeding blanket module in ITER. This TBM will verify the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency in reactor and the extraction of high-grade heat suitable for electricity generation. Since various loads such as seismic load, electromagnetic (EM) load and heat load significantly affect the soundness of the TBM, a variety of analyses were carried out for design optimization. The EM load is particularly one of main design drivers because large amount of magnetic energy in the plasma are transferred to in-vessel components including the TBM during plasma disruption. Because the TBM is located in equatorial port, major disruption (MD) among various plasma disruption scenarios causes the largest EM loads on the TBM

  13. Real-time disruption handling at ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehetbauer, Th.; Pautasso, G.; Tichmann, C.; Egorov, S.; Lorenz, A.; Mertens, V.; Neu, G.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.

    2001-01-01

    A neural network for prediction of disruptions has been developed at ASDEX Upgrade with the goal to mitigate or avoid these. The novel idea is to compute the remaining time-to-disruption to indicate the stability level of the discharge. The neural network has been specified, trained and then implemented within the real-time plasma control system. The current version of the system terminates the discharge with an impurity pellet when the computed time-to-disruption falls below a threshold of 80 ms. Routine operation shows that disruptions are recognized reliably. Vessel currents and forces are considerably reduced. The system will be enhanced to avoid disruptions with a soft landing initiated in time

  14. Toroidal current asymmetry in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current I ϕ. It was found that the toroidal current asymmetry was proportional to the vertical current moment asymmetry with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was observed that greater displacement leads to greater measured I ϕ asymmetry. Here, it is shown that this is essentially a kinematic effect produced by a VDE interacting with three dimensional MHD perturbations. The relation of toroidal current asymmetry and vertical current moment is calculated analytically and is verified by numerical simulations. It is shown analytically that the toroidal variation of the toroidal plasma current is accompanied by an equal and opposite variation of the toroidal current flowing in a thin wall surrounding the plasma. These currents are connected by 3D halo current, which is π/2 radians out of phase with the n = 1 toroidal current variations.

  15. The influence of a conducting wall on disruptions in HBT-EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kombargi, R.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of long wavelength magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disruptive instabilities have been studied in a tokamak device with segmented and movable conducting walls. Coupling between the wall and the plasma was varied by systematically adjusting the radial position, b, of the conducting plates relative to the plasma surface of minor radius a. By pre-selecting the total plasma current ramp rate (dI p /dt), disruptive instabilities driven either by large edge currents or high plasma pressure were studied. Specifically, three types of disruptions caused by both external (to the plasma) and internal instabilities were obtained by changing the plasma-wall separation (b/a) and the temporal evolution of the total plasma current. The properties of these disruptions were examined using a variety of magnetic pickup coils and arrays of soft x-ray detectors. Experiments demonstrated that rapidly developing, low-n kink instabilities were suppressed if the conducting wall was positioned sufficiently near the plasma (b/a p /dt > 0) was maintained. Conducting wall stabilization of fast growing external instabilities was observed in discharges with high edge current and in plasmas with β-values near the ideal MED stability boundary. When the conducting wall was near the plasma surface and as the current profile evolved in time (dI p /dt < 0), slowly growing internal instabilities would also lead to disruptions. Disruption mechanisms for plasmas with b/a=1.52 and b/a=1.07 were compared. Differences in the precursor modes, the speed of the thermal collapse and the chronological sequence of events were found. In summary, the disruptions with an external character were eliminated when the conducting wall was moved from b/a=1.52 to b/a<1.2. Internal disruptions could not be averted even with b/a=1.07

  16. Statistical analysis of JET disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanga, A.; Johnson, M.F.

    1991-07-01

    In the operation of JET and of any tokamak many discharges are terminated by a major disruption. The disruptive termination of a discharge is usually an unwanted event which may cause damage to the structure of the vessel. In a reactor disruptions are potentially a very serious problem, hence the importance of studying them and devising methods to avoid disruptions. Statistical information has been collected about the disruptions which have occurred at JET over a long span of operations. The analysis is focused on the operational aspects of the disruptions rather than on the underlining physics. (Author)

  17. Beryllium and graphite performance in ITER during a disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Ehst, D.A.; Gahl, J.

    1993-09-01

    Plasma disruptions are considered one of the most limiting factors for successful operation of magnetic fusion reactors. During a disruption, a sharp, rapid release of energy strikes components such as the divertor or limiter plates. Severe surface erosion and melting of these components may then occur. The amount of material eroded from both ablation and melting is important to the reactor design and component lifetime. The anticipated performance of both beryllium and graphite as plasma-facing materials during such abnormal events is analyzed and compared. Recent experimental data obtained with both plasma guns and electron beams are carefully evaluated and compared to results of analytical modeling, including vapor shielding effect. Initial results from plasma gun experiments indicate that the Be erosion rate is about five times larger than that for a graphite material under the same disruption conditions. Key differences between simulation experiments and reactor disruption on the net erosion rate, and consequently on the lifetime of the divertor plate, are discussed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of Be over graphite as a divertor plasma-facing material are discussed

  18. Beryllium and graphite performance in ITER during a disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Ehst, D.A.; Gahl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma disruptions are considered one of the most limiting factors for successful operation of magnetic fusion reactors. During a disruption, a sharp, rapid release of energy strikes components such as the divertor or limiter plates. Severe surface erosion and melting of these components may then occur. The amount of material eroded from both ablation and melting is important to the reactor design and component lifetime. The anticipated performance of both beryllium and graphite as plasma-facing materials during such abnormal events is analyzed and compared. Recent experimental data obtained with both plasma guns and electron beams are carefully evaluated and compared to results of analytical modeling, including vapor shielding effect. Initial results from plasma gun experiments indicate that the Be erosion rate is about five times larger than that for a graphite material under the same disruption conditions. Key differences between simulation experiments and reactor disruption on the net erosion rate, and consequently on the lifetime of the divertor plate, are discussed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of Be over graphite as a divertor plasma-facing material are discussed. ((orig.))

  19. VDE/disruption EM analysis for ITER in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, N.; Ioki, K.; Ilio, F.; Kodama, T.; Chiocchio, S.; Williamson, D.; Roccella, M.; Barabaschi, P.; Sayer, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of EM analyses for ITER in-vessel components, such as blanket modules, backplate and divertor modules. In the ITER design the following two disruption scenarios are taken into account: centered or radial disruption, and vertical displacement event (VDE). Eddy currents and forces due to plasma disruption were calculated using the 3D shell element code EDDYCUFF and the 3D solid element code EMAS. The plasma motion and current decay used in the EM analysis was supplied by 2-D axisymmetric plasma equilibrium codes, TSC and MAXFEA. (authors)

  20. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kricka, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home test...

  1. Disrupting the Industry with Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2016-01-01

    or two ago. This is significantly disrupting the industry in several market sectors. This paper describes the components of the playware and embodied artificial intelligence research that has led to disruption in the industrial robotics sector, and which points to the next disruption of the health care...

  2. Wound Disruption Following Colorectal Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative wound disruption is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify the risk factors and outcomes of wound disruption following colorectal resection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to examine the clinical data of patients who underwent colorectal resection from 2005 to 2013. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of wound disruption. We sampled a total of 164,297 patients who underwent colorectal resection. Of these, 2073 (1.3 %) had wound disruption. Patients with wound disruption had significantly higher mortality (5.1 vs. 1.9 %, AOR: 1.46, P = 0.01). The highest risk of wound disruption was seen in patients with wound infection (4.8 vs. 0.9 %, AOR: 4.11, P disruption such as chronic steroid use (AOR: 1.71, P disruption compared to open surgery (AOR: 0.61, P disruption occurs in 1.3 % of colorectal resections, and it correlates with mortality of patients. Wound infection is the strongest predictor of wound disruption. Chronic steroid use, obesity, severe COPD, prolonged operation, non-elective admission, and serum albumin level are strongly associated with wound disruption. Utilization of the laparoscopic approach may decrease the risk of wound disruption when possible.

  3. Computational model of surface ablation from tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.; Hassanein, A.

    1993-10-01

    Energy transfer to material surfaces is dominated by photon radiation through low temperature plasma vapors if tokamak disruptions are due to low kinetic energy particles ( < 100 eV). Simple models of radiation transport are derived and incorporated into a fast-running computer routine to model this process. The results of simulations are in fair agreement with plasma gun erosion tests on several metal targets

  4. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Brezinsek, S.; Decker, J.; Devaux, S.; de Vries, P.; Fil, A.; Gerasimov, S.; Lupelli, I.; Jachmich, S.; Khilkevitch, E.M.; Kiptily, V.; Koslowski, R.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Manzanares, A.; Mlynář, Jan; Nardon, E.; Nilsson, E.; Riccardo, V.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Shevelev, A.E.; Sozzi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 143-149 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * JET * runaway electrons * disruptions * ILW Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514006850

  5. Plasma effects on subcellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Daeyeon; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

  6. Mitigation and prediction of disruption on the HL-2A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Zhen, Zheng; Ying, Qiu; Peng, Zhang; Yuan, Huang; Zheng-Ying, Cui; Ping, Sun; Qing-Wei, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Injection of high-Z impurities into plasma has been proved to be able to reduce the localized thermal load and mechanical forces on the in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel, caused by disruptions in Tokamaks. An advanced prediction and mitigation system of disruption is implemented in HL-2A to safely shut down plasmas by using the laser ablation of high-Z impurities with a perturbation real-time measuring and processing system. The injection is usually triggered by the amplitude and frequency of the MHD perturbation field which is detected with a Mirnov coil and leads to the onset of a mitigated disruption within a few milliseconds. It could be a simple and potential approach to significantly reducing the plasma thermal energy and magnetic energy before a disruption, thereby achieving safe plasma termination. The plasma response to impurity injection, a mechanism for improving plasma thermal and current quench in major disruptions, the design of the disruption prediction warner, and an evaluation of the mitigation success rate are discussed in the present paper. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  7. Surface heat loads during major disruptions in INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal energy contained in the INTOR plasma is assumed to be about 200 MJ. In a major plasma disruption this energy is dumped into parts of the first wall in a time short compared to the energy confinement time. To estimate the surface heat load due to this energy dump, two major parameters are not sufficiently well known at present: the disruption time and the affected first wall surface area. To get a certain idea of the heat loads to be expected, we have employed the model of conserved flux tubes which are successively scraped-off at the first wall. The results reveal that even for a homogeneous deposition in the toroidal direction the heat load is too high for some parts of the first wall. Since, however, the presumptions are very uncertain to date, experiments will have to be set up to study the energy deposition during disruptions. (author)

  8. Disruptive Space Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 "The Innovator’s Dilemma" by Clayton M. Christensen became a popular book in the small satellite and launch vehicle communities. But like the weather, every one talks about “Disruptive Technology” but few do anything about it. In the ‘70s and ‘80s, people were looking for “Paradigm Shifts,” and since the resurrection of Donald Rumsfeld, a recent watchword has been “Transformational Technology.” But today’s buzzword is now “Responsive Space Systems.”

  9. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  10. Disruption-induced poloidal currents in the tokamak wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Induction effects during disruptions and rapid transient events in tokamaks. • Plasma-wall electromagnetic interaction. • Flux-conserving evolution of plasma equilibrium. • Poloidal current induced in the vacuum vessel wall in a tokamak. • Complete analytical derivations and estimates. - Abstract: The poloidal current induced in the tokamak wall during fast transient events is analytically evaluated. The analysis is based on the electromagnetic relations coupled with plasma equilibrium equations. The derived formulas describe the consequences of both thermal and current quenches. In the final form, they give explicit dependence of the wall current on the plasma pressure and current. A comparison with numerical results of Villone et al. [F. Villone, G. Ramogida, G. Rubinacci, Fusion Eng. Des. 93, 57 (2015)] for IGNITOR is performed. Our analysis confirms the importance of the effects described there. The estimates show that the disruption-induced poloidal currents in the wall should be necessarily taken into account in the studies of disruptions and disruption mitigation in ITER.

  11. Disruption-induced poloidal currents in the tokamak wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D., E-mail: Pustovitov_VD@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Pl. Kurchatova 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Induction effects during disruptions and rapid transient events in tokamaks. • Plasma-wall electromagnetic interaction. • Flux-conserving evolution of plasma equilibrium. • Poloidal current induced in the vacuum vessel wall in a tokamak. • Complete analytical derivations and estimates. - Abstract: The poloidal current induced in the tokamak wall during fast transient events is analytically evaluated. The analysis is based on the electromagnetic relations coupled with plasma equilibrium equations. The derived formulas describe the consequences of both thermal and current quenches. In the final form, they give explicit dependence of the wall current on the plasma pressure and current. A comparison with numerical results of Villone et al. [F. Villone, G. Ramogida, G. Rubinacci, Fusion Eng. Des. 93, 57 (2015)] for IGNITOR is performed. Our analysis confirms the importance of the effects described there. The estimates show that the disruption-induced poloidal currents in the wall should be necessarily taken into account in the studies of disruptions and disruption mitigation in ITER.

  12. Edge plasma physical investigations of tokamak plasmas in CRIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.; Ignacz, P.; Koltai, L.; Paszti, F.; Petravich, G.; Szigeti, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the measurements performed in the field of thermonuclear high temperature plasma physics in CRIP (Hungary) are summarized. In the field of the edge plasma physics solid probes were used to test the external zone of plasma edges, and atom beams and balls were used to investigate both the external and internal zones. The plasma density distribution was measured by laser blow-off technics, using Na atoms, which are evaporated by laser pulses. The excitation of Na atom ball by tokamak plasma gives information on the status of the plasma edge. The toroidal asymmetry of particle transport in tokamak plasma was measured by erosion probes. The evaporated and transported impurities were collected on an other part of the plasma edge and were analyzed by SIMS and Rutherford backscattering. The interactions in plasma near the limiter were investigated by a special limiter with implemented probes. Recycling and charge exchange processes were measured. Disruption phenomena of tokamak plasma were analyzed and a special kind of disruptions, 'soft disruptions' and the related preliminary perturbations were discovered. (D.Gy.) 10 figs

  13. Study of runaway current generation following disruptions in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z Y; Kim, W C; Yu, Y W; England, A C; Yoo, J W; Hahn, S H; Yoon, S W; Lee, K D; Oh, Y K; Kwak, J G; Kwon, M

    2013-01-01

    The high fraction of runaway current conversion following disruptions has an important effect on the first wall for next-generation tokamaks. Because of the potentially severe consequences of a large full current runaway beam on the first wall in an unmitigated disruption, runaway suppression is given a high priority. The behavior of runaway currents both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 massive gas injection (MGI) shutdown experiments is investigated in the KSTAR tokamak. The experiments in KSTAR show that the toroidal magnetic field threshold, B T >2 T, for runaway generation is not absolute. A high fraction of runaway current conversion following spontaneous disruptions is observed at a much lower toroidal magnetic field of B T = 1.3 T. A dedicated fast valve for high-pressure gas injection with 39.7 bar is developed for the study of disruptions. A study of runaway current parameters shows that the conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway current can reach over 80% both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 MGI shutdown experiments in KSTAR. (paper)

  14. Radiation asymmetries during the thermal quench of massive gas injection disruptions in JET

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehnen, M.; Gerasimov, S.N.; Jachmich, S.; Koslowski, H.R.; Kruezi, U.; Matthews, G.F.; Mlynář, Jan; Reux, C.; de Vries, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2015), s. 123027-123027 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : disruptions * disruption mitigation * heat loads * massive gas injection * radiation asymmetry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  15. Divertor layer during the thermal phase of the disruption in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkashbaev, I.K.

    1993-01-01

    Physical processes in the tokamak divertor with a poloidal field during plasma disruption are considered. It is shown that the processes differ qualitatively from the processes in a stationary mode. During the disruption the energy flux is increased by 10 4 times

  16. Experiments to Measure Hydrogen Release from Graphite Walls During Disruptions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E.M.; Pablant, N.A.; Rudakov, D.L.; Boedo, J.A.; Brooks, N.H.; Jernigan, Thomas C.; Pigarov, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopy and wall the bake-out measurements are performed in the DIII-D tokamak to estimate the amount of hydrogen stored in and released from the walls during disruptions. Both naturally occurring disruptions and disruptions induced by massive gas injection (MGI) are investigated. The measurements indicate that both types of disruptions cause a net release of order 10(21) hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms from the graphite walls. This is comparable to the pre-disruptions plasma particle inventory, so the released hydrogen is important for accurate modeling of disruptions. However, the amount of hydrogen released is small compared to the total saturated wall inventory of order 10(22)-10(23), So it appears that many disruptions are necessary to provide full pump-out of the vessel walls. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Fuel retention and recovery in natural and MGI disruptions on KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.W.; Hong, S.H.; Yoon, S.W.; Kim, K.P.; Kim, W.C.; Seo, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Fuel retention and recovery are studied during natural and Massive Gas Injection (MGI) induced disruptions in KSTAR with full graphite wall. The amount of released particles in natural disruptions in 15 s after the discharge is ∼5–10 times higher than that of non-disruption shots, but the difference is only ∼ 2 MGI induced disruptions depends on magnetic field (B t ) and MGI amount. The MGI disruption under a low B t and a medium MGI amount shows shorter thermal quench (TQ) and current quench (CQ), thereby higher fuel recovery. High B t plasma requires higher MGI amount for both disruption mitigation and fuel recovery. A high recovery of 4.2 × 10 22 D (∼0.78 monolayers) is obtained by MGI disruption in KSTAR 2011

  18. A study of disruptive instabilities in the PLT tokamak using X-ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Goeler, S. von; Stodiek, W.

    1978-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities in PLT have been analysed by using an array of surface barrier X-ray detectors viewing the plasma cross-section along 20 chords. A wide variety of phenomena has been observed. A system of classification has been attempted, based upon: (1) the severity of the disruption, (2) the dominant precursor oscillations, and (3) the location of the onset of the disruption. Minor disruptions, in which the disruption does not appear at the location of the island of the precursor oscillation, have been observed, sometimes accompanied by seemingly independent higher-frequency oscillations of different helicity localized near the point of the disruption. Major disruptions exhibit flatter central q-profiles, slowing of the oscillations, asymmetry with respect to the centre of the discharge, and a correlation with high-Z impurity radiation. (author)

  19. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disruptions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Taylor, P.; Kellman, A.; LaHaye, R.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the results of a statistical analysis of the DIII-D disruption data base, and on an examination of a selected subset of the shots to determine the likely causes of disruptions. The statistical analysis focuses on the dependence of the disruption rate on key dimensionless parameters. We find that the disruption frequency is high at modest values of the parameters, and that it can be relatively low at operational limits. For example, the disruption frequency in an ITER relevant regime (β N /l i ∼ 2, 3 G > 0.6, where n G is the Greenwald limit) is approximately 23%. For this range of q, the disruption frequency rises only modestly to about 35% at the β limit, consistent with previous observations of a soft β limit for this q regime. For the range 6 95 G G < .9) in all q regimes we have studied. The location of the minimum moves to higher density with increasing q

  1. Characterization of axisymmetric disruption dynamics toward VDE avoidance in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Granetz, R.S.; Pautasso, G.; Gruber, O.; Jardin, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments and axisymmetric MHD simulations on tokamak disruptions have explicated the underlying mechanisms of Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and a diversity of disruption dynamics. First, the neutral point, which is known as an advantageous vertical plasma position to avoiding VDEs during the plasma current quench, is shown to be fairly insensitive to plasma shape and current profile parameters. Secondly, a rapid flattening of the plasma current profile frequently seen at thermal quench is newly clarified to play a substantial role in dragging a single null-diverted plasma vertically towards the divertor. As a consequence, the occurrence of downward-going VDEs predominates over the upward-going ones in bottom diverted discharges. This dragging effect is absent in up-down symmetric limiter discharges. These simulation results are consistent with experiments. Together with the attractive force that arises from passive shell currents and essentially vanishes at the neutral point, the dragging effect explains many details of the VDE dynamics over the whole period of the disruptive termination. (author)

  2. Hiro and Evans currents in Vertical Disruption Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Xujing Li Team; Sergei Galkin Team

    2014-10-01

    The notion of Tokamak Magneto-Hydrodynamics (TMHD), which explicitly reflects the anisotropy of a high temperature tokamak plasma is introduced. The set of TMHD equations is formulated for simulations of macroscopic plasma dynamics and disruptions in tokamaks. Free from the Courant restriction on the time step, this set of equations is appropriate for high performance plasmas and does not require any extension of the MHD plasma model. At the same time, TMHD requires the use of magnetic field aligned numerical grids. The TMHD model was used for creation of theory of the Wall Touching Kink and Vertical Modes (WTKM and WTVM), prediction of Hiro and Evans currents, design of an innovative diagnostics for Hiro current measurements, installed on EAST device. While Hiro currents have explained the toroidal asymmetry in the plasma current measurements in JET disruptions, the Evans currents explain the tile current measurements in tokamaks. The recently developed Vertical Disruption Code (VDE) have demonstrated 5 regimes of VDE and confirmed the generation of both Hiro and Evans currents. The results challenge the 24 years long misinterpretation of the tile currents in tokamaks as ``halo'' currents, which were a product of misuse of equilibrium reconstruction for VDE. This work is supported by US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH1146.

  3. Turbulence associated with the sawtooth internal disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoletti, J.; Laviron, C.; Olivain, J.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1989-05-01

    Specific turbulence associated with the sawtooth internal disruption has been observed on TFR tokamak plasmas by analyzing density fluctuations with CO 2 laser light scattering. The time localization is clearly connected with the successive phases of the relaxation process. Some specific turbulence appears in relation to the kink motion, but the main burst corresponds to the collapse phase. We concentrate our study on this strong burst and show first its frequency and wave number spectral properties and the corresponding pseudo dispersion relation. The specific turbulence is spatially localized. It is within the interior of the q = 1 surface and extends approximately 120 0 azimuthally. Taking into account the twisting of the central plasma during the turbulent kink phase, this location agrees with the azimuthal position of the ''sooner and faster'' outgoing heat flux. The power level of this turbulence is two orders of magnitude larger than the local quasi-stationary turbulence. These observations are in fair agreement with the predictions of the sawtooth disruption model previously proposed by Andreoletti. The observed specific turbulence shows several similarities with the so called ''magnetodrift turbulence'' described in the model

  4. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  5. Disrupted Refugee Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Ditte Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Fleeing civil war involves managing life threatening events and multiple disruptions of everyday life. The theoretical potentials of analysing the recreation of everyday family life among Syrian refugees in Denmark is explored based on conceptualizations that emphasize the collective agency...... of family members in social historical contexts. Studying the multiple perspectives of family members shows how social support conceptualized as care practises is conflictual in the changing everyday family practices that are transformed by policy. The purpose of studying how families manage to flee civil...... war and struggle to recreate an everyday life in exile is to contribute with contextualization and expansion of mainstream understandings of family life, suffering, and resilience in refugee family trajectories in multiple contexts....

  6. Disruptive Technology: An Uncertain Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-21

    Technology that overturns market -- Military - Technology that causes a fundamental change in force structure, basing, and capability balance * Disruptive Technologies may arise from systems or enabling technology.

  7. Major disruption process in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-11-01

    The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)

  8. The ergodic divertor a way to prevent major disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, J.C.; Poutchy, L.; Mohamed-Benkadda, M.S.; Edery, D.; Joffrin, E.; Lecoustey, P.; Pecquet, A.L.; Samain, A.; Talvard, M.

    1991-01-01

    The disruptions are one of the major obstacles to present day tokamaks extrapolation to fusion reactors. We have recently proposed a piloting discharge strategy on TORE SUPRA to prevent density limit disruptions. This strategy is based on the use of the Ergodic Divertor (ED). We have observed that the ED stabilizes the m=2 n=1 tearing mode and that in deuterium discharges limited by the outboard limiter it induces a fast decrease of the plasma density. The piloting strategy is taken in three steps: 1) the approach of the density limit is detected by a threshold on the MHD activity amplitude; 2) the gas puff is switched off; 3) the ED is turned on. Then the m=2 n=1 tearing mode is stabilized the density decreases and the disruption is avoided. This strategy has already been successully tested on about 20 specific deuterium shots with 2.5< q(a)<4.5 in which the density limit is approached by ramping up the density with gas puffing. In this paper, experimental data are reported and analyzed. First, the principle of the ED and the density limit disruption phenomenology are briefly recalled. Then the ED effect on plasma density, radiated power and MHD activity are analyzed, and the piloting strategy to prevent density limit disruptions is discussed

  9. Rat Tumor Response to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plasma 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels, and Tumor Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley D. McPhail

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using Ktrans and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC as response biomarkers. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the plasma concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA following treatment to provide an index of increased vessel permeability and vascular damage. Finally, tumor necrosis was assessed by grading hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections cut from the same tumors investigated by MRI. Both tumor Ktrans and IAUGC were significantly reduced 24 hours posttreatment with 350 mg/kg DMXAA only, with no evidence of dose response. HPLC demonstrated a significant increase in plasma 5-HIAA 24 hours posttreatment with 200 and 350 mg/kg DMXAA. Histologic analysis revealed some evidence of tumor necrosis following treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg DMXAA, reaching significance with 350 mg/kg DMXAA. The absence of any reduction in Ktrans or IAUGC following treatment with 200 mg/kg, despite a significant increase in 5-HIAA, raises concerns about the utility of established DCE-MRI biomarkers to assess tumor response to DMXAA.

  10. Contribution of ASDEX Upgrade to disruption studies for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Reiter, B.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Kardaun, O.; Maraschek, M.; Mlynek, A.; Schneider, W.; Zhang, Y.; Khayrutdinov, K.K.; Lukash, V.E.; Nakamura, Y.; Sias, G.; Sugihara, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the most recent contributions of ASDEX Upgrade to ITER in the field of disruption studies. (1) The ITER specifications for the halo current magnitude are based on data collected from several tokamaks and summarized in the plot of the toroidal peaking factor versus the maximum halo current fraction. Even if the maximum halo current in ASDEX Upgrade reaches 50% of the plasma current, the duration of this maximum lasts a fraction of a ms. (2) Long-lasting asymmetries of the halo current are rare and do not give rise to a large asymmetric component of the mechanical forces on the machine. Differently from JET, these asymmetries are neither locked nor exhibit a stationary harmonic structure. (3) Recent work on disruption prediction has concentrated on the search for a simple function of the most relevant plasma parameters, which is able to discriminate between the safe and pre-disruption phases of a discharge. For this purpose, the disruptions of the last four years have been classified into groups and then discriminant analysis is used to select the most significant variables and to derive the discriminant function. (4) The attainment of the critical density for the collisional suppression of the runaway electrons seems to be technically and physically possible on our medium size tokamak. The CO 2 interferometer and the AXUV diagnostic provide information on the highly 3D impurity transport process during the whole plasma quench.

  11. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clément, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  12. Disrupting Ethnography through Rhizoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Masny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates principles of ethnography in education proposed by Mills and Morton: raw tellings, analytic pattern, vignette and empathy. This article adopts a position that is uncomfortable, unconventional and interesting. It involves a deterritorialization/ rupture of ethnography in education in order to reterritorialize a different concept: rhizoanalysis, a way to position theory and data that is multilayered, complex and messy. Rhizoanalysis, the main focus of this article is not a method. It is an approach to research conditioned by a reality in which Deleuze and Guattari disrupt representation, interpretation and subjectivity. In this article, Multiple Literacies Theory, a theoretical and practical framework, becomes a lens to examine a rhizomatic study of a Korean family recently arrived to Australia and attending English as a second language classes. Observations and interviews recorded the daily lives of the family. The vignettes were selected by reading data intensively and immanently through a process of palpation, an innovative approach to educational research. Rhizoanalysis proposes to abandon the given and invent different ways of thinking about and doing research and what might happen when reading data differently, intensively and immanently, through Multiple Literacies Theory. Rhizoanalysis, a game-changer in the way research can be conducted, affords a different lens to tackle issues in education through research.

  13. Characterization of axisymmetric disruption dynamics toward VDE avoidance in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Disruption experiments on Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX-Upgrade tokamaks and axisymmetric MHD simulations using the TSC have explicated the underlying mechanisms of Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and a diversity of disruption dynamics. First, the neutral point, which is known as an initial vertical plasma position advantageous to VDE avoidance, is shown to be fairly insensitive to plasma shape and current profile parameters, while the VDE rate significantly depends on those parameters. Secondly, it is clarified that a rapid flattening of the plasma current profile frequently seen at the thermal quench drags a single null-diverted, up-down asymmetric plasma vertically toward divertor, whereas the dragging effect is absent in up-down symmetric limiter discharges. As a consequence, the occurrence of downward-going VDEs predominates over the upward-going ones in bottom-diverted discharges, being consistent with experiments in ASDEX-Upgrade. Together with the attractive force that arises from passive shell currents induced by the current quench and vanishes at the neutral point, the dragging effect explains many details of the VDE dynamics over the whole period of disruptive termination. (author)

  14. Summary report for ITER Task - T226B: Evaluation of ITER disruption erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1995-02-01

    The behavior of divertor materials during a major disruption in a tokamak reactor is very important to successful and reliable operation of the device. Erosion of material surfaces due to a thermal energy dump can severely limit the lifetimes of plasma-facing components and thus diminish the reactor's economic feasibility. A comprehensive numerical model has been developed and used in this analysis, which includes all major physical processes taking place during plasma/material interactions. Models to account for material thermal evolution, plasma/vapor interaction physics, and models for hydrodynamic radiation transport in the developed vapor cloud above the exposed surface are implemented in a self-consistent manner to realistically assess disruption damage. The extent of self-protection from the developed vapor cloud in front of the incoming plasma particles is critically important in determining the overall disruption lifetime. Models to study detailed effects of the strong magnetic field on the behavior of the vapor cloud and on the net erosion rate have also been developed and analyzed. Candidate materials such as beryllium and carbon are considered in this analysis. The dependence of divertor disruption lifetime on disruption physics and reactor conditions is analyzed and discussed. In addition, material erosion from melting of plasma-facing components during a tokamak disruption is also a serious problem that limits reactor operation and economical reactor lifetime. In particular, metallic low-Z components such as Be will be subjected to severe melting during disruptions and edge localized modes (ELMs). Loss of the developed melt layer will critically shorten the lifetime of these components, severely contaminate the plasma, and seriously inhibit successful and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study mechanisms responsible for melt-layer loss during a disruption are also modeled and evaluated

  15. Thigmotaxis Mediates Trail Odour Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E; Sik Roh, Hyun; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Manning, Lee-Anne M; Harper, Aimee R; Suckling, David M

    2017-05-10

    Disruption of foraging using oversupply of ant trail pheromones is a novel pest management application under investigation. It presents an opportunity to investigate the interaction of sensory modalities by removal of one of the modes. Superficially similar to sex pheromone-based mating disruption in moths, ant trail pheromone disruption lacks an equivalent mechanistic understanding of how the ants respond to an oversupply of their trail pheromone. Since significant compromise of one sensory modality essential for trail following (chemotaxis) has been demonstrated, we hypothesised that other sensory modalities such as thigmotaxis could act to reduce the impact on olfactory disruption of foraging behaviour. To test this, we provided a physical stimulus of thread to aid trailing by Argentine ants otherwise under disruptive pheromone concentrations. Trail following success was higher using a physical cue. While trail integrity reduced under continuous over-supply of trail pheromone delivered directly on the thread, provision of a physical cue in the form of thread slightly improved trail following and mediated trail disruption from high concentrations upwind. Our results indicate that ants are able to use physical structures to reduce but not eliminate the effects of trail pheromone disruption.

  16. Sleep disruption in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Schleimer, Robert P; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease of the upper airways and paranasal sinuses with a marked decline in quality of life (QOL). CRS patients suffer from sleep disruption at a significantly higher proportion (60 to 75%) than in the general population (8-18 %). Sleep disruption in CRS causes decreased QOL and is linked to poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive function and depression. Areas covered: A systematic PubMed/Medline search was done to assess the results of studies that have investigated sleep and sleep disturbances in CRS. Expert commentary: These studies reported sleep disruption in most CRS patients. The main risk factors for sleep disruption in CRS include allergic rhinitis, smoking, and high SNOT-22 total scores. The literature is inconsistent with regard to the prevalence of sleep-related disordered breathing (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea) in CRS patients. Although nasal obstruction is linked to sleep disruption, the extent of sleep disruption in CRS seems to expand beyond that expected from physical blockage of the upper airways alone. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disruption in CRS, and its detrimental effects on QOL, the literature contains a paucity of studies that have investigated the mechanisms underlying this major problem in CRS.

  17. When Disruptive Approaches Meet Disruptive Technologies: Learning at a Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Chere Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research on constructivism in learning and selection of learning strategies. Suggests linking constructivism with instructional technologies for continuing medical education in order to "disrupt" reactive, habitual ways of learning and encourage active engagement. (SK)

  18. Statistical study of TCV disruptivity and H-mode accessibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Y.; Deschenaux, C.; Lister, J.B.; Pochelon, A.

    1997-01-01

    Optimising tokamak operation consists of finding a path, in a multidimensional parameter space, which leads to the desired plasma characteristics and avoids hazards regions. Typically the desirable regions are the domain where an L-mode to H-mode transition can occur, and then, in the H-mode, where ELMs and the required high density< y can be maintained. The regions to avoid are those with a high rate of disruptivity. On TCV, learning the safe and successful paths is achieved empirically. This will no longer be possible in a machine like ITER, since only a small percentage of disrupted discharges will be tolerable. An a priori knowledge of the hazardous regions in ITER is therefore mandatory. This paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the occurrence of disruptions in TCV. (author) 4 figs

  19. Characteristics of low-q disruptions in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Jahns, G.L.; Morris, A.W.

    1988-06-01

    The results of this study indicate that even within the relatively narrow low-q/sub /psi// operating space, there is a continuum in the characteristics of the low-q/sub /psi// disruptions with a primary dependence on the value of . While the ideal external kink instability may give rise to the growing oscillations that lead up to the ultimate disruption, the instabilities are weighted towards the edge only at the lowest-q/sub /psi// (≤ 3) and highest . At even slightly higher q/sub /psi//, the oscillations are also seen, at the same frequency, in the interior of the plasma. The results further indicate that effects outside the scope of ideal MHD theory may play a significant role in low-q/sub /psi// disruptions. 34 refs., 19 figs

  20. Symposium on disruptive instabilities at Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The phenomenon of disruptive instabilities was investigated with a special care at the IPP at Garching. After lectures and panel sessions it appears suitable, to subdivide the disruptive phenomena into four classes: 1. The internal disruption (the socalled saw-tooth oscillators). 2. the socalled reconnection disruptions. 3. The large disruptions. 4. The small disruptions. The four appearance forms of the phenomena are briefly explained. (GG) [de

  1. User's manual for DSTAR MOD1: A comprehensive tokamak disruption code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, B.J.; Jardin, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code, DSTAR, has recently been developed to quantify the surface erosion and induced forces that can occur during major tokamak plasma disruptions. The DSTAR code development effort has been accomplished by coupling a recently developed free boundary tokamak plasma transport computational model with other models developed to predict impurity transport and radiation, and the electromagnetic and thermal dynamic response of vacuum vessel components. The combined model, DSTAR, is a unique tool for predicting the consequences of tokamak disruptions. This informal report discusses the sequence of events of a resistive disruption, models developed to predict plasma transport and electromagnetic field evolution, the growth of the stochastic region of the plasma, the transport and nonequilibrium ionization/emitted radiation of the ablated vacuum vessel material, the vacuum vessel thermal and magnetic response, and user input and code output

  2. A Network Disruption Modeling Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leinart, James

    1998-01-01

    Given that network disruption has been identified as a military objective and C2-attack has been identified as the mechanism to accomplish this objective, a target set must be acquired and priorities...

  3. Gas jet disruption mitigation studies on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granetz, R.; Whyte, D.G.; Izzo, V.A.; Biewer, T.; Reinke, M.L.; Terry, J.; Bader, A.; Bakhtiari, M.; Jernigan, T.; Wurden, G.

    2006-01-01

    Damaging effects of disruptions are a major concern for Alcator C-Mod, ITER and future tokamak reactors. High-pressure noble gas jet injection is a mitigation technique which potentially satisfies the operational requirements of fast response time and reliability, while still being benign to subsequent discharges. Disruption mitigation experiments using an optimized gas jet injection system are being carried out on Alcator C-Mod to study the physics of gas jet penetration into high pressure plasmas, as well as the ability of the gas jet impurities to convert plasma energy into radiation on timescales consistent with C-Mod's fast quench times, and to reduce halo currents given C-Mod's high-current density. The dependence of impurity penetration and effectiveness on noble gas species (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) is also being studied. It is found that the high-pressure neutral gas jet does not penetrate deeply into the C-Mod plasma, and yet prompt core thermal quenches are observed on all gas jet shots. 3D MHD modelling of the disruption physics with NIMROD shows that edge cooling of the plasma triggers fast growing tearing modes which rapidly produce a stochastic region in the core of the plasma and loss of thermal energy. This may explain the apparent effectiveness of the gas jet in C-Mod despite its limited penetration. The higher-Z gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) also proved effective at reducing halo currents and decreasing thermal deposition to the divertor surfaces. In addition, noble gas jet injection proved to be benign for plasma operation with C-Mod's metal (Mo) wall, actually improving the reliability of the startup in the following discharge

  4. Current disruptions in the near-earth neutral sheet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.T.Y.; Anderson, B.J.; Takahashi, K.; Zanetti, L.J.; McEntire, R.W.; Potemra, T.A.; Lopez, R.E.; Klumpar, D.M.; Greene, E.M.; Strangeway, R.

    1992-01-01

    Observations from the Charge Composition Explorer in 1985 and 1986 revealed fifteen current disruption events in which the magnetic field fluctuations were large and their onsets coincided well with ground onsets of substorm expansion or intensification. Over the disruption interval, the local magnetic field can change by as much as a factor of ∼7. In general, the stronger the current buildup and the closer the neutral sheet, the larger the resultant field change. There is also a tendency for a larger subsequent enhancement in the AE index with a stronger current buildup prior to current disruption. For events with good pitch angle coverage and extended observation in the neutral sheet region the authors find that the particle pressure increases toward the disruption onset and decreases afterward. Just prior to disruption, either the total particle pressure is isotropic, or the perpendicular component (P perpendicular ) dominates the parallel component (P parallel ), the plasma beta is seen to be as high as ∼70, and the observed plasma pressure gradient at the neutral sheet is large along the tail axis. The deduced local current density associated with pressure gradient is ∼27-80 n/Am 2 and is ∼85-105 mA/m when integrated over the sheet thickness. They infer from these results that just prior to the onset of current disruption, (1) an extremely thin current sheet requiring P parallel > P perpendicular for stress balance does not develop at these distances, (2) the thermal ion orbits are in the chaotic or Speiser regime while the thermal electrons are in the adiabatic regime and, in one case, exhibit peaked fluxes perpendicular to the magnetic field, thus implying no electron orbit chaotization to possibly initiate ion tearing instability, and (3) the neutral sheet is in the unstable regime specified by the cross-field current instability

  5. DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: AN EXPANDED VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    JAMES M. UTTERBACK; HAPPY J. ACEE

    2005-01-01

    The term "disruptive technology" as coined by Christensen (1997, The Innovator's Dilemma; How New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard Business School Press) refers to a new technology having lower cost and performance measured by traditional criteria, but having higher ancillary performance. Christensen finds that disruptive technologies may enter and expand emerging market niches, improving with time and ultimately attacking established products in their traditional markets. This...

  6. Behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshi, E.; Amrollahy, R.; Bortnikov, A.V.; Brevnov, N.N.; Gott, Yu.V.; Shurygin, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks. The current disruptions are caused by either an MHD instability or the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column. Experiments were conducted at a fixed value of the safety factor at the plasma boundary (q a ≅ 2.3). Experimental data show that, during a disruption caused by an MHD instability, hard X-ray emission is suppressed by this instability if the amplitude of the magnetic field fluctuations exceeds a certain level. If the disruption is caused by the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column, then hard X-ray emission is observed at the instant of disruption. The experimental results show that the physical processes resulting in the generation and suppression of runaway electron beams are almost identical in large and small tokamaks

  7. Improvements in disruption prediction at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aledda, R., E-mail: raffaele.aledda@diee.unica.it; Cannas, B., E-mail: cannas@diee.unica.it; Fanni, A., E-mail: fanni@diee.unica.it; Pau, A., E-mail: alessandro.pau@diee.unica.it; Sias, G., E-mail: giuliana.sias@diee.unica.it

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A disruption prediction system for AUG, based on a logistic model, is designed. • The length of the disruptive phase is set for each disruption in the training set. • The model is tested on dataset different from that used during the training phase. • The generalization capability and the aging of the model have been tested. • The predictor performance is compared with the locked mode detector. - Abstract: In large-scale tokamaks disruptions have the potential to create serious damage to the facility. Hence disruptions must be avoided, but, when a disruption is unavoidable, minimizing its severity is mandatory. A reliable detection of a disruptive event is required to trigger proper mitigation actions. To this purpose machine learning methods have been widely studied to design disruption prediction systems at ASDEX Upgrade. The training phase of the proposed approaches is based on the availability of disrupted and non-disrupted discharges. In literature disruptive configurations were assumed appearing into the last 45 ms of each disruption. Even if the achieved results in terms of correct predictions were good, it has to be highlighted that the choice of such a fixed temporal window might have limited the prediction performance. In fact, it generates confusing information in cases of disruptions with disruptive phase different from 45 ms. The assessment of a specific disruptive phase for each disruptive discharge represents a relevant issue in understanding the disruptive events. In this paper, the Mahalanobis distance is applied to define a specific disruptive phase for each disruption, and a logistic regressor has been trained as disruption predictor. The results show that enhancements on the achieved performance on disruption prediction are possible by defining a specific disruptive phase for each disruption.

  8. Improvements in disruption prediction at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aledda, R.; Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Pau, A.; Sias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A disruption prediction system for AUG, based on a logistic model, is designed. • The length of the disruptive phase is set for each disruption in the training set. • The model is tested on dataset different from that used during the training phase. • The generalization capability and the aging of the model have been tested. • The predictor performance is compared with the locked mode detector. - Abstract: In large-scale tokamaks disruptions have the potential to create serious damage to the facility. Hence disruptions must be avoided, but, when a disruption is unavoidable, minimizing its severity is mandatory. A reliable detection of a disruptive event is required to trigger proper mitigation actions. To this purpose machine learning methods have been widely studied to design disruption prediction systems at ASDEX Upgrade. The training phase of the proposed approaches is based on the availability of disrupted and non-disrupted discharges. In literature disruptive configurations were assumed appearing into the last 45 ms of each disruption. Even if the achieved results in terms of correct predictions were good, it has to be highlighted that the choice of such a fixed temporal window might have limited the prediction performance. In fact, it generates confusing information in cases of disruptions with disruptive phase different from 45 ms. The assessment of a specific disruptive phase for each disruptive discharge represents a relevant issue in understanding the disruptive events. In this paper, the Mahalanobis distance is applied to define a specific disruptive phase for each disruption, and a logistic regressor has been trained as disruption predictor. The results show that enhancements on the achieved performance on disruption prediction are possible by defining a specific disruptive phase for each disruption.

  9. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Jesús; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; López, Juan M.; Murari, Andrea; Ramírez, Jesús M.; Moreno, Raúl; Ruiz, Mariano; Alves, Diogo; Felton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%

  10. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, Sebastián [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); López, Juan M. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM/ENEA per la Fusione, Padua (Italy); Ramírez, Jesús M. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Raúl [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Mariano [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Alves, Diogo [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear – Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Felton, Robert [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%.

  11. Major disruptions, inverse cascades, and the Strauss equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1982-01-01

    Current-carrying plasmas in a strong dc magnetic field are subject to violent disruptions above certain thresholds. At present difficult to verify, explanations are typically sought in terms of tearing modes. An alternative explanation is in terms of inverse magnetic helicity cascades, generated from a variety of possible sources of small-scale MHD turbulence. Strongly anisotropic MHD plasmas may be described by the Strauss equations. Indications of turbulent inverse cascade behavior for the Strauss equations are sought, in parallel with earlier examples from MHD and fluid mechanics

  12. Plasma Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-10-04

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a

  13. Heterodyne ECE diagnostic in the mode detection and disruption avoidance at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Finken, K.H.; Larue, H.; Udintsev, V.S.; TEXTOR - team

    2003-01-01

    Disruptions cause major concerns for the operation of tokamaks. During disruption large forces act on the tokamak vessel and its interior parts. The huge amount of plasma energy deposited on the first wall components within one millisecond causes serious damage. Therefore disruptions should be avoided. One way to avoid disruptions is the operation of a tokamak in a regime which is easy to handle from the control point of view. However, the operation in the advanced scenarios or improved confinement modes is very complicated and even small deviation in one of the control parameters can cause a disruption. In this cases a method should be available to detect the disruption in advance and mitigate or even better avoid the energy quench by appropriate means. At TEXTOR we developed a method to detect the disruption precursor. The module is integrated in the plasma control system. The detection method was tested at TEXTOR for (i) combination with tangential neutral beam injection to increase the toroidal rotation profile and to tear apart the m = 2 disruption precursor by a steep rotation gradient across the island (ii) gas puff experiments with He used to mitigate the disruption effects specially to suppress the generation of the runaway electrons. The paper demonstrates the possibility to detect disruptions precursors and to avoid disruptions using two ECE-channels out of the standard electron temperature diagnostic. The system demonstrated its reliability during the last month of TEXTOR operation. The injection of co- as well as counter neutral beam to avoid the disruption was successful tested and a detailed analysis of the mode development is presented. The measured rotation profiles show the development of a step in the toroidal velocity in the vicinity of the q = 2 surface which prevents the plasma from a disruption. Furthermore detailed analysis of the frequency development of the m = 2 mode could explain the observed sudden increase in the mode frequency

  14. DSTAR: A comprehensive tokamak resistive disruption model for vacuum vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, B.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code, DSTAR, has recently been developed to quantify the surface erosion and induced forces than can occur during major tokamak plasma disruptions. A disruption analysis has been performed for the TFCX fusion device. The limiters and inboard first wall were assumed to be clad with beryllium. Disruption simulations were performed with and without these structures present, to determine their electromagnetic influence. The results with structure show that the ablated wall material is transported poloidally, as well as radially, in the plasma causing the outermost regions of the plasma to cool. The plasma moves downward and deforms while maintaining contact with the lower limiter. This motion maintains the peak impurity radiant source directly above the exposed surface. For the disruption simulation without the vacuum vessel included, the plasma moves radially along the lower limiter until it contacts the inboard wall, causing ablation of this surface as well. The conclusion is drawn that disruption simulations that do not include both the thermal and electromagnetic response of the vaccum vessel will not result in an accurate prediction. (orig.)

  15. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  16. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  17. Disruption studies on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Egorov, S.; Finken, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Disruptions generate large thermal and mechanical stresses on the tokamak components and are occasionally responsible for damages to the machine. For a future reactor disruptions have a significant impact on the design since all loading conditions must be analyzed in accordance with stricter design criteria (due to safety or difficult maintenance). Therefore the uncertainties affecting the predicted stresses must be reduced as much as possible with a more comprehensive set of measurements and analyses in this generation of experimental machines, and avoidance/predictive methods must be developed further. Disruption studies on ASDEX Upgrade are focused on these subjects, namely on: (1) understanding the physical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon in order to learn to avoid it or to predict its occurrence and to mitigate its effects; (2) analyzing the effects of disruptions on the machine to determine the functional dependence of the thermal and mechanical loads upon the discharge parameters. This allows, firstly, to dimension or reinforce the machine components to withstand these loads and, secondly, to extrapolate them to tokamaks still in the design phase; (3) learning to mitigate the consequence of disruptions, i.e. thermal loads, mechanical forces and runaways with injection of impurity pellets or gas. This paper is focused on most recent results concerning points, i.e. on the analysis of the degree of asymmetry of the forces and on the use of impurity puff for mitigation

  18. Disruption studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.

    2002-01-01

    Disruption generate large thermal and mechanical stresses on the tokamak components. For a future reactor disruptions have a significant impact on the design since all loading conditions must be analyzed in accordance with stricter design criteria (due to safety or difficult maintenance). Therefore the uncertainties affecting the predicted stresses must be reduced as much as possible with a more comprehensive set of measurements and analyses in this generation of experimental machines, and avoidance/ predictive methods must be developed further. The study of disruptions on ASDEX Upgrade is focused on these subjects, namely on: (1) understanding the physical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon and learning to avoid it or to predict its occurrence (with neural networks, for example) and to mitigate its effects; (2) analyzing the effects of disruptions on the machine to determine the functional dependence of the thermal and mechanical loads upon the discharge parameters. This allows to dimension or reinforce the machine components to withstand these loads and to extrapolate them to tokamaks still in the design phase; (3) learning to mitigate the consequence of disruptions. (author)

  19. Experimental modelling of plasma-graphite surface interaction in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, Yu.V.; Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Danelyan, L.S.; Neumoin, V.E.; Petrov, V.B.; Khripunov, B.I.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Stativkina, O.V.; Stolyarova, V.G. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, V.I.; Strunnikov, V.M. [TRINITI, Troizk (Russian Federation)

    1998-10-01

    The investigation of graphite erosion under normal operation ITER regime and disruption was performed by means of exposure of RGT graphite samples in a stationary deuterium plasma to a dose of 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} and subsequent irradiation by power (250 MW/cm{sup 2}) pulse deuterium plasma flow imitating disruption. The stationary plasma exposure was carried out in the installation LENTA with the energy of deuterium ions being 200 eV at target temperatures of 770 C and 1150 C. The preliminary exposure in stationary plasma at temperature of physical sputtering does not essentially change the erosion due to a disruption, whereas exposure at the temperature of radiation enhanced sublimation dramatically increases the erosion due to disruption. In the latter case, the depth of erosion due to a disruption is determined by the depth of a layer with decreased strength. (orig.) 9 refs.

  20. Disruptive instabilities in the discharges of the TBR-1 small Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, A.; Nascimento, I.C.; Caldas, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    Minor and major disruptions as well as sawteeth oscillations (internal disruptions) were identified in the small Tokamak TBR-1, and their main characteristics were investigated. The coupling of a growing m=2 resistive mode with an m=1 perturbation seems to be the basic process for the development of a major disruption, while the minor disruption could be associated with the growth of a stochastic region of the plasma between the q=2 and q=3 islands. Measured sawteeth periods were compared with those predicted by scaling laws and good agreement was found. The time necessary for the sawteeth crashes also agrees with the values expected from KADOMTSEV's model. However, there are some sawteeth oscillations, corresponding to conditions of higher plasma Z eff , which showed longer crashes and could not be explained by this model. (author)

  1. TAD disruption as oncogenic driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Anne-Laure; Dekker, Job

    2016-02-01

    Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) are conserved during evolution and play roles in guiding and constraining long-range regulation of gene expression. Disruption of TAD boundaries results in aberrant gene expression by exposing genes to inappropriate regulatory elements. Recent studies have shown that TAD disruption is often found in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis through two mechanisms. One mechanism locally disrupts domains by deleting or mutating a TAD boundary leading to fusion of the two adjacent TADs. The other mechanism involves genomic rearrangements that break up TADs and creates new ones without directly affecting TAD boundaries. Understanding the mechanisms by which TADs form and control long-range chromatin interactions will therefore not only provide insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in general, but will also reveal how genomic rearrangements and mutations in cancer genomes can lead to misregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge in air: liposome characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Asimakoulas, L.; Katsafadou, M.; Pachis, K.; Kostazos, N.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing interest of the plasma community in the application of atmospheric-pressure cold plasmas to bio-specimen treatment has led to the creation of the emerging field of plasma biomedicine. Accordingly, plasma setups based on dielectric-barrier discharges have already been widely tested for the inactivation of various cells. Most of these systems refer to the plasma jet concept where noble gases penetrate atmospheric air and are subjected to the influence of high electric fields, thus forming guided streamers. Following the original works of our group where liposomal membranes were proposed as models for studying the interaction between plasma jets and cells, we present herein a study on liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge running in atmospheric air. Liposomal membranes of various lipid compositions, lamellarities, and sizes are treated at different times. It is shown that the dielectric-barrier discharge of low mean power leads to efficient liposomal membrane disruption. The latter is achieved in a controllable manner and depends on liposome properties. Additionally, it is clearly demonstrated that liposomal membrane disruption takes place even after plasma extinction, i.e. during post-treatment, resembling thus an ‘apoptosis’ effect, which is well known today mainly for cell membranes. Thus, the adoption of the present concept would be beneficial for tailoring studies on plasma-treated cell-mimics. Finally, the liposome treatment is discussed with respect to possible physicochemical mechanisms and potential discharge modification due to the various compositions of the liquid electrode.

  3. Characteristics of low-q disruptions in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Morris, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    At low q ψ (2.3 ψ t > well below the first stability regime boundary (approx. = 2.5 μ o I p /aB t ), follows the crash of the precursor mode either immediately or with a delay of several milliseconds, with the immediate disruptions primarily occurring in the discharges with t > close to the first regime limit. The highest t > discharges also exhibit the fastest growth times and the highest level of edge MHD activity. Associated with the precursor mode crash is a loss of up to 30% of the plasma energy; thus, for non-zero delay shots, it is the crash and not the actual disruption that is the t > limiting process. The delay period is interpreted as a period during which a locked mode, consisting of several toroidal components of comparable amplitude, grows. Because of the energy loss associated with the crash, the plasma goes vertically unstable during the delay period. The results of this study indicate that even within the relatively narrow low-q ψ operating space, there is a continuum in the characteristics of the low-q ψ disruptions with a primary dependence on the value of t >. While the ideal external kink instability may give rise to the growing oscillations that lead up to the ultimate disruption, the instabilities are weighted towards the edge only at the lowest q ψ ( t >. The results of this study indicate that effects outside the scope of ideal MHD theory may play a significant role in low-q ψ disruptions. (author). 34 refs, 17 figs

  4. Prediction of density limit disruptions on the J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S Y; Chen, Z Y; Huang, D W; Tong, R H; Yan, W; Wei, Y N; Ma, T K; Zhang, M; Zhuang, G

    2016-01-01

    Disruption mitigation is essential for the next generation of tokamaks. The prediction of plasma disruption is the key to disruption mitigation. A neural network combining eight input signals has been developed to predict the density limit disruptions on the J-TEXT tokamak. An optimized training method has been proposed which has improved the prediction performance. The network obtained has been tested on 64 disruption shots and 205 non-disruption shots. A successful alarm rate of 82.8% with a false alarm rate of 12.3% can be achieved at 4.8 ms prior to the current spike of the disruption. It indicates that more physical parameters than the current physical scaling should be considered for predicting the density limit. It was also found that the critical density for disruption can be predicted several tens of milliseconds in advance in most cases. Furthermore, if the network is used for real-time density feedback control, more than 95% of the density limit disruptions can be avoided by setting a proper threshold. (paper)

  5. Hybrid neural network for density limit disruption prediction and avoidance on J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Hu, F. R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zhao, X. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Shi, P.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhou, Y. N.; Wei, Y. N.; Pan, Y.; J-TEXT team

    2018-05-01

    Increasing the plasma density is one of the key methods in achieving an efficient fusion reaction. High-density operation is one of the hot topics in tokamak plasmas. Density limit disruptions remain an important issue for safe operation. An effective density limit disruption prediction and avoidance system is the key to avoid density limit disruptions for long pulse steady state operations. An artificial neural network has been developed for the prediction of density limit disruptions on the J-TEXT tokamak. The neural network has been improved from a simple multi-layer design to a hybrid two-stage structure. The first stage is a custom network which uses time series diagnostics as inputs to predict plasma density, and the second stage is a three-layer feedforward neural network to predict the probability of density limit disruptions. It is found that hybrid neural network structure, combined with radiation profile information as an input can significantly improve the prediction performance, especially the average warning time ({{T}warn} ). In particular, the {{T}warn} is eight times better than that in previous work (Wang et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 055014) (from 5 ms to 40 ms). The success rate for density limit disruptive shots is above 90%, while, the false alarm rate for other shots is below 10%. Based on the density limit disruption prediction system and the real-time density feedback control system, the on-line density limit disruption avoidance system has been implemented on the J-TEXT tokamak.

  6. Disruption Neutral Point Experiment on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granetz, R. S.; Nakamura, Y.

    2000-10-01

    Disruptions of single-null elongated plasmas generally result in loss of vertical position control, leading to a current quench occurring at the top or bottom of the machine, with all the attendant problems of halo and eddy currents flowing in divertor structures. On JT-60U, it has been found that if the plasma is operated with its magnetic axis at a particular height, called the neutral point, the initial vertical drift after a thermal quench is significantly slower than usual, and sometimes can even be arrested, thereby avoiding a current quench in the divertor region entirely. In an ongoing collaboration between MIT and JAERI, the neutral point concept is being tested in Alcator C-Mod, which has a significantly higher plasma elongation than JT-60U (1.65 vs 1.3). Calculations using TSC predict a neutral point at z~=+1 cm above the midplane (a=22 cm). The existence of a neutral point has now been experimentally confirmed, albeit at a height of z=+2.7 cm. The plasma has remained vertically stable for up to 9 ms after the disruption thermal quench, which in principle, is long enough for the PF control system to respond, if programmed appropriately. In addition, the physics of the neutral point stability on C-Mod appears to be somewhat different than that on JT-60U.

  7. Energy flux to the TEXTOR limiters during disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, K.H.; Baek, W.Y.; Dippel, K.H.; Boedo, J.A.; Gray, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Rapidly changing heat fluxes deposited on the limiter blades are observed during disruptions by infrared (IR) scanners. These scanners are a suitable tool for the analysis of these heat fluxes because they provide both spatial and temporal information with sufficient resolution. Several new features of the power flux to the plasma facing surfaces during a disruption have been found. The disruptive heat flux occurs on three different time-scales. The fastest ones are for heat bursts with a duration of ≤0.1 ms; several of these bursts form a thermal quench of about one millisecond duration, and some of these thermal quenches are found to occur during the current decay phase. Power flux densities of the order of 50 MW/m 2 have been observed during a burst. The spatial extent of the area on which this power is deposited during a burst is larger than or equal to the size of half an ALT-II blade, i.e. about 1 m in the toroidal direction. Simultaneous measurements with two cameras show that the correlation length of a single burst is smaller than half the toroidal circumference, probably of the order of half a blade or a full blade length. This is consistent with plasma islands of low mode number. The typical heat deposition patterns at the limiter blades for normal discharges are preserved during a disruption. The magnetic structure near the plasma surface can therefore not be destroyed completely during the thermal quench. The power flux follows the field lines. However, the power e-folding length is about a factor of two to three times larger than under normal discharge conditions. (author). 27 refs, 9 figs

  8. Axisymmetric disruption dynamics including current profile changes in the ASDEX-Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Pautasso, G.; Gruber, O.; Jardin, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Axisymmetric MHD simulations have revealed a new driving mechanism that governs the vertical displacement event (VDE) dynamics in tokamak disruptions. A rapid flattening of the plasma current profile during the disruption plays a substantial role in dragging a single null-diverted plasma vertically towards the divertor. As a consequence, the occurrence of downward-going VDEs predominates over the upward-going ones in bottom-diverted discharges. This dragging effect, due to an abrupt change in the current profile, is absent in up-down symmetric limiter discharges. These simulation results are consistent with experiments in ASDEX-Upgrade. Together with the attractive force that arises from passive shell currents induced by the plasma current quench, the dragging effect explains many details of the VDE dynamics over the whole period of the disruptive termination. (author)

  9. Criteria and algorithms for constructing reliable databases for statistical analysis of disruptions at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Pautasso, G.; Sias, G.; Sonato, P.

    2009-01-01

    The present understanding of disruption physics has not gone so far as to provide a mathematical model describing the onset of this instability. A disruption prediction system, based on a statistical analysis of the diagnostic signals recorded during the experiments, would allow estimating the probability of a disruption to take place. A crucial point for a good design of such a prediction system is the appropriateness of the data set. This paper reports the details of the database built to train a disruption predictor based on neural networks for ASDEX Upgrade. The criteria of pulses selection, the analyses performed on plasma parameters and the implemented pre-processing algorithms, are described. As an example of application, a short description of the disruption predictor is reported.

  10. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  11. Disruptive Pupils and Teacher Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Teachers have identified a number of stress situations in their work with disruptive children: insecurity due to student unpredictability, doubting their effectiveness, frustrated attempts at communication with other professionals, and feelings of isolation and limited social relationships (expressed by residential workers). (CT)

  12. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  13. Will blockchain disrupt your business?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmeiss, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Blockchain has been praised to be “the technology most likely to change the next decade of business”. The disruptive power of the blockchain technology is yet limited, says HIIG-researcher Jessica Schmeiss. Beyond the hype, there a opportunities for companies to make their current business models more cost-effective and more efficient.

  14. Supply disruption cost for power network planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoelle, G.H.

    1992-09-01

    A description is given of the method of approach to calculate the total annual socio-economic cost of power supply disruption and non-supplied energy, included the utilities' cost for planning. The total socio-economic supply disruption cost is the sum of the customers' disruption cost and the utilities' cost for failure and disruption. The mean weighted disruption cost for Norway for one hour disruption is NOK 19 per kWh. The customers' annual disruption cost is calculated with basis in the specific disruption cost referred to heavy load (January) and dimensioning maximum loads. The loads are reduced by factors taking into account the time variations of the failure frequency, duration, the loads and the disruption cost. 6 refs

  15. Survey of disruption causes at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, P.C.; Johnson, M.F.; Alper, B.; Hender, T.C.; Riccardo, V.; Buratti, P.; Koslowski, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    A survey has been carried out into the causes of all 2309 disruptions over the last decade of JET operations. The aim of this survey was to obtain a complete picture of all possible disruption causes, in order to devise better strategies to prevent or mitigate their impact. The analysis allows the effort to avoid or prevent JET disruptions to be more efficient and effective. As expected, a highly complex pattern of chain of events that led to disruptions emerged. It was found that the majority of disruptions had a technical root cause, for example due to control errors, or operator mistakes. These bring a random, non-physics, factor into the occurrence of disruptions and the disruption rate or disruptivity of a scenario may depend more on technical performance than on physics stability issues. The main root cause of JET disruptions was nevertheless due to neo-classical tearing modes that locked, closely followed in second place by disruptions due to human error. The development of more robust operational scenarios has reduced the JET disruption rate over the last decade from about 15% to below 4%. A fraction of all disruptions was caused by very fast, precursorless unpredictable events. The occurrence of these disruptions may set a lower limit of 0.4% to the disruption rate of JET. If one considers on top of that human error and all unforeseen failures of heating or control systems this lower limit may rise to 1.0% or 1.6%, respectively.

  16. Prevention of the current-quench phase of a major disruption in a tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D Tokamak Simulation Code written by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was joined to a 3-D eddy-current code, which models periodic torus sectors. The combined system was found to be an efficient and accurate method for modeling the plasma/eddy current interaction during a major disruption. For modeling large highly compartmentalized structures, artificially increasing the self-inductance and limiting the mutual inductance of current elements were necessary to enhance numerical stability. Even with these modifications, a slowly growing instability made the results unreliable after 58 ms. This model was used to demonstrate prevention of the current quench phase of a major disruption in INTOR. The average plasma temperature was reduced to 150 eV over 3 ms. The (outboard) breeding blanket structure was constructed of CuBeNi and was electrically connected between torus sectors. Disruption recovery coils were provided inboard of the inboard shield (linking the toroidal field coils). It was necessary to supply to these coils a total of 500 MW for 0.6 s and to reheat the plasma to full beta in 6 s. The calculation shows a method of recovery from the most severe disruption probable. Determining the severity of the disruption from which recovery would be cost effective is beyond the scope of this study

  17. Integrated models for plasma/material interaction during loss of plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive computer package, High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS), has been developed to evaluate the damage incurred on plasma-facing materials during loss of plasma confinement. The HEIGHTS package consists of several integrated computer models that follow the start of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the energy deposited. The package includes new models to study turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL and predicts the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. A brief description of the HEIGHTS package and its capabilities are given in this work with emphasis on turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL during disruptions

  18. Measurements of plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Ascasibar, E.; Navarro, A.P.; Ochando, M.A.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, J.; Team, TJ-I.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the experimental measurements of plasma position in TJ-I tokamak by using small magnetic probes. The basis of method has been described in our previous work (1) in which the plasma current is considered as a filament current. The observed relations between the disruptive instabilities and plasma displacements are also show here. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, Gerardo R.; Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Meulenberg, Eline; Albertus, Faywell; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Irth, Hubertus; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two inhibition assays using the main thyroid hormone transport proteins, T4 binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR), in combination with a T4-coated biosensor chip were optimized and automated for screening chemical libraries. The transport protein-based biosensor assays were rapid, high throughput and bioeffect-related. A library of 62 chemicals including the natural hormones, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and metabolites, halogenated bisphenol A (BPA), halogenated phenols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other potential environmentally relevant chemicals was tested with the two assays. We discovered ten new active compounds with moderate to high affinity for TBG with the TBG assay. Strikingly, the most potent binding was observed with hydroxylated metabolites of the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) BDE 47, BDE 49 and BDE 99, that are commonly found in human plasma. The TTR assay confirmed the activity of previously identified hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs, halogenated BPA and genistein. These results show that the hydroxylated metabolites of the ubiquitous PBDEs not only target the T4 transport at the TTR level, but also, and to a great extent, at the TBG level where most of the T4 in humans is circulating. The optimized SPR biosensor-based transport protein assay is a suitable method for high throughput screening of large libraries for potential thyroid hormone disrupting compounds

  20. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Gerardo R; Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Meulenberg, Eline; Albertus, Faywell; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Irth, Hubertus; Murk, Albertinka J

    2008-10-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two inhibition assays using the main thyroid hormone transport proteins, T4 binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR), in combination with a T4-coated biosensor chip were optimized and automated for screening chemical libraries. The transport protein-based biosensor assays were rapid, high throughput and bioeffect-related. A library of 62 chemicals including the natural hormones, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and metabolites, halogenated bisphenol A (BPA), halogenated phenols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other potential environmentally relevant chemicals was tested with the two assays. We discovered ten new active compounds with moderate to high affinity for TBG with the TBG assay. Strikingly, the most potent binding was observed with hydroxylated metabolites of the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) BDE 47, BDE 49 and BDE 99, that are commonly found in human plasma. The TTR assay confirmed the activity of previously identified hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs, halogenated BPA and genistein. These results show that the hydroxylated metabolites of the ubiquitous PBDEs not only target the T4 transport at the TTR level, but also, and to a great extent, at the TBG level where most of the T4 in humans is circulating. The optimized SPR biosensor-based transport protein assay is a suitable method for high throughput screening of large libraries for potential thyroid hormone disrupting compounds.

  1. Cationic nanoparticles induce nanoscale disruption in living cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiumei; Hessler, Jessica A; Putchakayala, Krishna; Panama, Brian K; Khan, Damian P; Hong, Seungpyo; Mullen, Douglas G; Dimaggio, Stassi C; Som, Abhigyan; Tew, Gregory N; Lopatin, Anatoli N; Baker, James R; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Orr, Bradford G

    2009-08-13

    It has long been recognized that cationic nanoparticles induce cell membrane permeability. Recently, it has been found that cationic nanoparticles induce the formation and/or growth of nanoscale holes in supported lipid bilayers. In this paper, we show that noncytotoxic concentrations of cationic nanoparticles induce 30-2000 pA currents in 293A (human embryonic kidney) and KB (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells, consistent with a nanoscale defect such as a single hole or group of holes in the cell membrane ranging from 1 to 350 nm(2) in total area. Other forms of nanoscale defects, including the nanoparticle porating agents adsorbing onto or intercalating into the lipid bilayer, are also consistent; although the size of the defect must increase to account for any reduction in ion conduction, as compared to a water channel. An individual defect forming event takes 1-100 ms, while membrane resealing may occur over tens of seconds. Patch-clamp data provide direct evidence for the formation of nanoscale defects in living cell membranes. The cationic polymer data are compared and contrasted with patch-clamp data obtained for an amphiphilic phenylene ethynylene antimicrobial oligomer (AMO-3), a small molecule that is proposed to make well-defined 3.4 nm holes in lipid bilayers. Here, we observe data that are consistent with AMO-3 making approximately 3 nm holes in living cell membranes.

  2. Severe blood-brain barrier disruption and surrounding tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Friedman, Beth; Cheng, Qun; Tsai, Phil; Schim, Erica; Kleinfeld, David; Lyden, Patrick D

    2009-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier opening during ischemia follows a biphasic time course, may be partially reversible, and allows plasma constituents to enter brain and possibly damage cells. In contrast, severe vascular disruption after ischemia is unlikely to be reversible and allows even further extravasation of potentially harmful plasma constituents. We sought to use simple fluorescent tracers to allow wide-scale visualization of severely damaged vessels and determine whether such vascular disruption colocalized with regions of severe parenchymal injury. Severe vascular disruption and ischemic injury was produced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (2 MDa) was injected intravenously before occlusion. After perfusion-fixation, brain sections were processed for ultrastructure or fluorescence imaging. We identified early evidence of tissue damage with Fluoro-Jade staining of dying cells. With increasing ischemia duration, greater quantities of high molecular weight dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate invaded and marked ischemic regions in a characteristic pattern, appearing first in the medial striatum, spreading to the lateral striatum, and finally involving cortex; maximal injury was seen in the mid-parietal areas, consistent with the known ischemic zone in this model. The regional distribution of the severe vascular disruption correlated with the distribution of 24-hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride pallor (r=0.75; P<0.05) and the cell death marker Fluoro-Jade (r=0.86; P<0.05). Ultrastructural examination showed significantly increased areas of swollen astrocytic foot process and swollen mitochondria in regions of high compared to low leakage, and compared to contralateral homologous regions (ANOVA P<0.01). Dextran extravasation into the basement membrane and surrounding tissue increased significantly from 2 to 8 hours of

  3. Structured Literature Review of digital disruption literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesti, Helle; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Digital disruption is a term/phenomenon frequently appearing in innovation management literature. However, no academic consensus exists as to what it entails; conceptual nor theoretical. We use the SLR-method (Structured Literature Review) to investigate digital disruption literature. A SLR......-study conducted in 2017 revealed some useful information on how disruption and digital disruption literature has developed over a specific period. However, this study was less representative of papers addressing digital disruption; which is the in-depth subject of this paper. To accommodate this, we intend...... to conduct a similar SLR-study assembling a body literature having digital disruption as the only common denominator...

  4. A data bank of disruptive discharges in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludescher, C.; Lackner, K.; Schneider, F.

    1994-03-01

    The compilation of data banks relating to plasma disruptions is important for the design of next-step devices and tokamak reactors, as a means of establishing safe operation regimes and assessing the residual risk from such events. ASDEX has an operational history of 33509 plasma shots covering an exceptionally wide range of machine conditions: Divertor/limiter configurations; Ohmic, NBI, ICRH and LH heating; carbonization, boronization wall-conditioning, gas-puff and pellet refuelling. We have compiled a data base of the Disruptive Operationl Regimes in ASDEX (DORA), which contains the relevant information for all ASDEX-discharges and is available on tape and readable by different data bank systems for further evaluation. We first describe the criteria applied to recognize and classify disruptions and the information about them stored in the file. In a second part we use the DORA file for some sample applications of physical or engineering interest. In an appendix we give the data and format information necessary to read the DORA file. (orig.)

  5. Current disruption and its spreading in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg; Dorfman, Seth; Ji, Hantao; Surjalal Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent magnetic reconnection experiments (MRX) [Dorfman et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 233 (2013)] have disclosed current disruption in the absence of an externally imposed guide field. During current disruption in MRX, both the current density and the total observed out-of-reconnection-plane current drop simultaneous with a rise in out-of-reconnection-plane electric field. Here, we show that current disruption is an intrinsic property of the dynamic formation of an X-point configuration of magnetic field in magnetic reconnection, independent of the model used for plasma description and of the dimensionality (2D or 3D) of reconnection. An analytic expression for the current drop is derived from Ampere's Law. Its predictions are verified by 2D and 3D electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) simulations. Three dimensional EMHD simulations show that the current disruption due to localized magnetic reconnection spreads along the direction of the electron drift velocity with a speed which depends on the wave number of the perturbation. The implications of these results for MRX are discussed

  6. Simulations of ITER disruption and VDE scenarios with TSC and comparison with DINA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, I.

    2008-01-01

    Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and plasma current disruptions pose one of the major concerns for the lifetime of in-vessel components in ITER, as well as for machine robustness, as large electromagnetic and thermal loads will induced at such events. Hence, accurate modelling of such events is crucial for estimating disruption induced forces. In the past, ITER disruption modelling has been carried out for ITER using the DINA code. However, since predictive simulations of such events depend on a large number of model assumptions, there exists chances of large error bars on the model predictions. As such it is imperative to validate the code results with other models. Towards this objective, we have carried out the VDE and Disruption simulations using the TSC code and the results are compared with the earlier DINA predictions. A detailed electromagnetic model of the ITER vessel, blankets and the first wall components has been created in TSC. In both VDE and disruption cases, the initial plasma is taken as ITER reference scenario 2 end of burn (EOB) specifications with I p = 15 MA, B t = 5 .3 T, e > 8.8 keV, e > = 1.1 x 10 20 m -3 . The plasma current disruption is initiated by dropping the plasma β in 1 msec, so that after the β crash e > = 6 eV, following which the plasma position control is switched off, resulting in a plasma current quench in about 65 msec. On the other hand, in the VDE case, the plasma control is switched off which results in either upward or downward VDE depending on the initial position of the plasma current centroid. In this case the plasma current remains close to 15 MA for a much longer time, about 700 msec in the simulations till the edge safety factor (q) becomes less than 1.5, following which the β is crashed resulting in plasma current quench. Significant differences exist in the DINA and TSC models, for example, even though the plasma current quench rate predicted by the models matches well in till the halo currents start flowing

  7. Development of a Fast Valve for Disruption Mitigation and its Preliminary Application to EAST and HT-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Huidong; Zhang Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    In large tokamaks, disruption of high current plasma would damage plasma facing component surfaces (PFCs) or other inner components due to high heat load, electromagnetic force load and runaway electrons. It would also influence the subsequent plasma discharge due to production of impurities during disruptions. So the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions is essential for the next generation of tokamaks, such as ITER. Massive gas injection (MGI) is a promising method of disruption mitigation. A new fast valve has been developed successfully on EAST. The valve can be opened in 0.5 ms, and the duration of open state is largely dependent on the gas pressure and capacitor voltage. The throughput of the valve can be adjusted from 0 mbar·L to 700 mbar·L by changing the capacitor voltage and gas pressure. The response time and throughput of the fast valve can meet the requirement of disruption mitigation on EAST. In the last round campaign of EAST and HT-7 in 2010, the fast valve has operated successfully. He and Ar was used for the disruption mitigation on HT-7. By injecting the proper amount of gas, the current quench rate could be slowed down, and the impurities radiation would be greatly improved. In elongated plasmas of EAST discharges, the experimental data is opposite to that which is expected. (magnetically confined plasma)

  8. Investigation of erosion mechanisms and erosion products in divertor armour materials under conditions relevant to elms and mitigated disruptions in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.M.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Klimov, N.S.; Kovalenko, D.V.; Moskaleva, A.A.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Landman, I.S.; Poznyak, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten were irradiated by intense plasma streams at plasma gun facilities MK-200UG and QSPA-T. The targets were tested by plasma loads relevant to Edge Localised Modes (ELM) and mitigated disruptions in ITER. Onset condition of material erosion and properties of erosion products have been studied

  9. Disruptive technologies and transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Disruptive technologies refer to innovations that, at first, may be considered unproven, lacking refinement, relatively unknown, or even impractical, but ultimately they supplant existing technologies and/or applications. In general, disruptive techn...

  10. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  11. The internal disruption as hard Magnetohydrodynamic limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity in large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, J. [Department of Physics, Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Large helical device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes 1/2 and 1/3 in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. The aim of the present research is to study the hard MHD limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity, not observed yet in LHD operation, and to predict its effects on the device performance. Previous investigations pointed out this system relaxation can be an internal disruption [J. Varela et al., 'Internal disruptions and sawtooth like activity in LHD,' 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (2011), P5.077]. In the present work, we simulate an internal disruption; we study the equilibria properties before and after the disruptive process, its effects on the plasma confinement efficiency during each disruptive phase, the relation between the n/m = 1/2 hard MHD events and the soft MHD events, and how to avoid or reduce their adverse effects. The simulation conclusions point out that the large stochastic region in the middle plasma strongly deforms and tears the flux surfaces when the pressure gradient increases above the hard MHD limit. If the instability reaches the inner plasma, the iota profiles will be perturbed near the plasma core and three magnetic islands can appear near the magnetic axis. If the instability is strong enough to link the stochastic regions in the middle plasma (around the half minor radius {rho}) and the plasma core ({rho}<0.25), an internal disruption is driven.

  12. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  13. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation.

  14. A cross-tokamak neural network disruption predictor for the JET and ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, C. G.; Pautasso, G.; Tichmann, C.; Buttery, R. J.; Hender, T. C.; EFDA Contributors, JET; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2005-05-01

    First results are reported on the prediction of disruptions in one tokamak, based on neural networks trained on another tokamak. The studies use data from the JET and ASDEX Upgrade devices, with a neural network trained on just seven normalized plasma parameters. In this way, a simple single layer perceptron network trained solely on JET correctly anticipated 67% of disruptions on ASDEX Upgrade in advance of 0.01 s before the disruption. The converse test led to a 69% success rate in advance of 0.04 s before the disruption in JET. Only one overall time scaling parameter is allowed between the devices, which can be introduced from theoretical arguments. Disruption prediction performance based on such networks trained and tested on the same device shows even higher success rates (JET, 86%; ASDEX Upgrade, 90%), despite the small number of inputs used and simplicity of the network. It is found that while performance for networks trained and tested on the same device can be improved with more complex networks and many adjustable weights, for cross-machine testing the best approach is a simple single layer perceptron. This offers the basis of a potentially useful technique for large future devices such as ITER, which with further development might help to reduce disruption frequency and minimize the need for a large disruption campaign to train disruption avoidance systems.

  15. A cross-tokamak neural network disruption predictor for the JET and ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, C.G.; Buttery, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Pautasso, G.; Tichmann, C.

    2005-01-01

    First results are reported on the prediction of disruptions in one tokamak, based on neural networks trained on another tokamak. The studies use data from the JET and ASDEX Upgrade devices, with a neural network trained on just seven normalized plasma parameters. In this way, a simple single layer perceptron network trained solely on JET correctly anticipated 67% of disruptions on ASDEX Upgrade in advance of 0.01 s before the disruption. The converse test led to a 69% success rate in advance of 0.04 s before the disruption in JET. Only one overall time scaling parameter is allowed between the devices, which can be introduced from theoretical arguments. Disruption prediction performance based on such networks trained and tested on the same device shows even higher success rates (JET, 86%; ASDEX Upgrade, 90%), despite the small number of inputs used and simplicity of the network. It is found that while performance for networks trained and tested on the same device can be improved with more complex networks and many adjustable weights, for cross-machine testing the best approach is a simple single layer perceptron. This offers the basis of a potentially useful technique for large future devices such as ITER, which with further development might help to reduce disruption frequency and minimize the need for a large disruption campaign to train disruption avoidance systems

  16. Simulations of tokamak disruptions including self-consistent temperature evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of tokamaks have been carried out, including self-consistent temperature evolution with a highly anisotropic thermal conductivity. The simulations extend over the transport time-scale and address the question of how disruptive current profiles arise at low-q or high-density operation. Sharply defined disruptive events are triggered by the m/n=2/1 resistive tearing mode, which is mainly affected by local current gradients near the q=2 surface. If the global current gradient between q=2 and q=1 is sufficiently steep, the m=2 mode starts a shock which accelerates towards the q=1 surface, leaving stochastic fields, a flattened temperature profile and turbulent plasma behind it. For slightly weaker global current gradients, a shock may form, but it will dissipate before reaching q=1 and may lead to repetitive minidisruptions which flatten the temperature profile in a region inside the q=2 surface. (author)

  17. Disruptive technologies - widening the scope -

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhlig, Klaus; Wiemken, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    The term „disruptive technologies” was introduced 1997 by Clayton Christensen in the context of innovations in the business world based upon technological developments. It was meant to sharpen the view for new technologies which can „disrupt” the economic context of a business. Since then it inspired other communities like so many terms in English (or American) language. One of these is the domain of international Research & Technology (R&T) cooperation and technological forecasting for publi...

  18. Disruptive technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flavin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of “disruptive” innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and used by students and staff. Instead, other technologies not owned or controlled by HEIs are widely used to support learning and teaching. According to Christensen's theory of Disruptive Innovation, these disruptive technologies are not designed explicitly to support learning and teaching in higher education, but have educational potential. This study uses Activity Theory and Expansive Learning to analyse data regarding the impact of disruptive technologies. The data were obtained through a questionnaire survey about awareness and use of technologies, and through observation and interviews, exploring participants’ actual practice. The survey answers tended to endorse Disruptive Innovation theory, with participants establishing meanings for technologies through their use of them, rather than in keeping with a designer's intentions. Observation revealed that learners use a narrow range of technologies to support learning, but with a tendency to use resources other than those supplied by their HEIs. Interviews showed that participants use simple and convenient technologies to support their learning and teaching. This study identifies a contradiction between learning technologies made available by HEIs, and technologies used in practice. There is no evidence to suggest that a wide range of technologies is being used to support learning and teaching. Instead, a small range of technologies is being used for a wide range of tasks. Students and lecturers are not dependent on their HEIs to support learning and teaching. Instead, they self-select technologies, with use weighted towards established brands. The

  19. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Main, Katharina M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many studies of thyroid-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals have been published. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid disruption of the developing organism may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Chemicals may exert ...... thyroid-disrupting effects, and there is emerging evidence that also phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals may have thyroid disrupting properties....

  20. Neural-net predictor for beta limit disruptions in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of major disruptions occurring at the β -limit for tokamak plasmas with a normal magnetic shear in JT-60U was conducted using neural networks. Since no clear precursors are generally observed a few tens of milliseconds before the β -limit disruption, a sub-neural network is trained to output the value of the β N limit every 2 ms. The target β N limit is artificially set by the operator in the first step to train a network with non-disruptive shots as well as disruptive shots, and then in the second step the target limit is modified using the β N limit output from the trained network. The adjusted target greatly improves the consistency between the input data and the output. This training, the 'self-teaching method', has greatly reduced the false alarm rate triggered for non-disruptive shots. To improve the prediction performance further, the difference between the output β N limit and the measured β N , and 11 parameters, are inputted to the main neural network to calculate the 'stability level'. The occurrence of a major disruption is predicted when the stability level decreases to the 'alarm level'. Major disruptions at the β -limit have been predicted by the main network with a prediction success rate of 80% at 10 ms prior to the disruption while the false alarm rate is lower than 4% for non-disruptive shots. This 80% value is much higher than that obtained for a network trained with a fixed target β N limit set to be the maximum β N observed at the start of a major disruption, lower than 10%. A prediction success rate of 90% with a false alarm rate of 12% at 10 ms prior to the disruption has also been obtained. This 12% value is about half of that obtained for a network trained with a fixed target β N limit

  1. US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, R.T. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yamashina, T. [ed.] [Hokkadio Univ. (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition.

  2. US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.; Yamashina, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition

  3. Disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Yang, S.-J.S.; Singh, P.; Prajogo, D.; O'Neill, P.; Rahman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Research on conditions and causal mechanisms that influence disruptive innovation has been relatively unexplored in the extant research in disruptive innovation. By re-conceptualizing disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process at product, firm and industry levels, this paper draws on

  4. 3rd Annual Disruptive Technology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-07

    Panel -- The Warfighter’s Perspective The Impact of Disruptive Technologies on Joint Warfighting MG Michael Vane, USA, Vice Director for Force...Structure, Resources & Assessment, Joint Staff, J-8 Panel -- Perspectives of Change: Identifying the Emerging Commercial Disruptive Technologies Decision...Mark Lucas, Board Member OSGeo, RadiantBlue Technologies Panel -- The Search for Disruptive Technologies - a “Blue Force” Multiplier Advanced

  5. Disruption and Distinctiveness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    "Disruption"--while an evocative word triggering feelings of anxiety and perhaps even fear--also signals renewal and growth. The Higher Education (HE) sector in England has experienced some profound disruption over the years, and yet has emerged stronger and renewed in many ways. The impact of recent disruptive forces, from fees to the…

  6. Routine Responses to Disruption of Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    "Organisational routines" is a widely studied research area. However, there is a dearth of research on disruption of routines. The few studies on disruption of routines discussed problem-solving activities that are carried out in response to disruption. In contrast, this study develops a theory of "solution routines" that are a…

  7. Scientific basis and engineering design to accommodate disruption and halo current loads for the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.M.; Bozek, A.S.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Humphreys, D.A.; Luxon, J.L.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Plasma disruptions and halo current events apply sudden impulsive forces to the interior structures and vacuum vessel walls of tokamaks. These forces arise when induced toroidal currents and attached poloidal halo currents in plasma facing components interact with the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields respectively. Increasing understanding of plasma disruptions and halo current events has been developed from experiments on DIII-D and other machines. Although the understanding has improved, these events must be planned for in system design because there is no assurance that these events can be eliminated in the operation of tokamaks. Increased understanding has allowed an improved focus of engineering designs.

  8. Scientific basis and engineering design to accommodate disruption and halo current loads for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.; Bozek, A.S.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Humphreys, D.A.; Luxon, J.L.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Plasma disruptions and halo current events apply sudden impulsive forces to the interior structures and vacuum vessel walls of tokamaks. These forces arise when induced toroidal currents and attached poloidal halo currents in plasma facing components interact with the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields respectively. Increasing understanding of plasma disruptions and halo current events has been developed from experiments on DIII-D and other machines. Although the understanding has improved, these events must be planned for in system design because there is no assurance that these events can be eliminated in the operation of tokamaks. Increased understanding has allowed an improved focus of engineering designs

  9. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  10. Characterization of plasma current quench at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V; Barabaschi, P; Sugihara, M

    2005-01-01

    Eddy currents generated during the fastest disruption current decays represent the most severe design condition for medium and small size in-vessel components of most tokamaks. Best-fit linear and instantaneous plasma current quench rates have been extracted for a set of recent JET disruptions. Contrary to expectations, the current quench rate spectrum of high and low thermal energy disruptions is not substantially different. For most of the disruptions with the highest instantaneous current quench rate an exponential fit of the early phase of the current decay provides a more accurate estimate of the maximum current decay velocity. However, this fit is only suitable to model the fastest events, for which the current quench is dominated by radiation losses rather than the plasma motion

  11. Dynamic stabilization of disruption precursors in tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maoquan, Wang; Jianshan, Mao; Yuan, Pan [Academia Sinica, Hefei, AH (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    1994-12-01

    A method for dynamic stabilization of the disruption precursors in tokamak is proposed, that is a controlled ac current induced and added to the equilibrium current. The ac currents applied can be a sine alternative current with a relevant frequency, or a pulsed current with a suitable pulsed width {tau} and or a discontinuous pulsed current whose width {tau} is very shorter than the intervals between pulses, and or a `sawtooth` pulsed current with the time of ramp phase of the sawtooth is very much shorter than the sawtooth descending time, the ratio of them can be {<=}10{sup -3}. The physical model of the ac current drive is analyzed in detail. The suppression role of the ac current on the MHD perturbations was analyzed in theory and proved numerically. It is indicated that the ac current can make the discontinuous derivative, {Delta}`, more favorable for the tearing mode stabilities, and so, as long as the parameters of the applied ac currents are selected suitably, the MHD perturbations can be suppressed effectively, the perturbations will be in the zero-growing state, the profile of the plasma current and temperature remain in the initial states and not variate basically, the tokamak be in the stabilized operation state. (8 figs.).

  12. Development of an ITER prototype disruption mitigation valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czymek, G., E-mail: g.czymek@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D52425 Jülich (Germany); Giesen, B., E-mail: ingenieurbuero.giesen@gmx.de [IBG, Sibertstr. 22, D-52525 Heinsberg (Germany); Charl, A.; Panin, A.; Hiller, A.; Nicolai, D.; Neubauer, O.; Koslowski, H.R.; Sandri, N. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An ITER-DMV prototype for 100 bar, D = 80 mm, opening time 3.5 ms, is ready for fabrication. • The vacuum part is sealed against the working gas by stainless steel bellows for 110 bar. • The conical Laval gas outlet allows maximal mass flow rate. • The eddy current drive turn ratio was optimized for low tilting moment. • Polyimide is used for the head sealing, the decelerator and for the bearing of the guide tube. - Abstract: Disruptions in tokamaks seem to be unavoidable. Consequences of disruptions are (i) high heat loads on plasma-facing components, (ii) large forces on the vacuum vessel, and (iii) the generation of runaway electron beams. In ITER, the thermal energy of the plasma needs to be evenly distributed on the first wall in order to prevent melting, forces from vertical displacement events have to be minimized, and the generation of runaway electrons suppressed. Massive gas injection using fast valves is a concept for disruption mitigation which is presently being explored in many tokamaks. Fast disruption mitigation valves based on an electromagnetic eddy current drive have been developed in Jülich since the 1990s and models of various sizes have been built and are in operation in the TEXTOR, MAST, and JET tokamaks. A disruption mitigation valve for ITER is of necessity larger with an estimated injected gas volume of ∼20 kPa m{sup 3}[7] for runaway electron suppression and all materials used have to be resistant to much higher levels of neutron and gamma radiation than in existing tokamaks. During the last 5 years, the concept for an ITER prototype disruption mitigation valve has been developed up to the stage that a fully functional valve could be built and tested. Special emphasis was given to the development and functional testing of some critical items: (i) the injection chamber seal, (ii) the piston seal, (iii) the eddy current drive, and (iv) a braking mechanism to avoid too fast closure of the valve, which could damage

  13. Electromagnetic analysis of transient disruption forces on the ITER shield modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulski, J.D.; Coats, R.S.; Pasik, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are potential abnormal operating environments where the disruption of the plasma currents inside a tokamak induce eddy currents in the shield modules. These currents interact with the large magnetic fields to produce forces in the modules which could potentially cause mechanical failure in the modules and vacuum vessel. For this reason the design and qualification of the ITER shield modules requires appropriate high-fidelity electromagnetic simulations that capture the physics of these situations. These simulations need to include an accurate representation of the disruption currents as well as an accurate electromagnetic model of the shield modules. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the electromagnetic analysis that has been completed using the OPERA-3D product to characterize the forces on the shield modules allocated to the US. We first describe the electromagnetic model of the system which consists of the disruption currents and the shield modules attached to the vacuum vessel. The disruption currents are represented in OPERA-3D using superposition of a large number of solenoids with independent time variation to account for the spatial and temporal variation of the plasma current and position. In addition, the simplified electromagnetic model of the shield modules will be described and discussed. Once the modeling has been described the simulation results are presented. The force computation are also presented and the results discussed. These forces are then used by a mechanical analysis program to compute stresses and torques on a module during the disruption of the plasma currents. (orig.)

  14. Study of runaway electron generation process during major disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyusnin, V.V.; Riccardo, V.; Alper, B.; Kiptily, V.G.; Popovichev, S.; Helander, P.; Jaspers, R.; Mlynar, J.; Luna, E. de La; Andersson, F.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of a large number of JET disruptions has provided further data on the trends of the disruption induced runaway process in large tokamaks. The role of primary runaway electrons generated at the thermal quench has been examined to assess their influence on secondary avalanching, which is recognized as a main source of large runaway currents created during disruptions. The tomographic reconstruction of the soft X-ray emission during the thermal quench has made possible the observation of the magnetic flux geometry evolution and the locating of the most probable zones for generation and confinement of the primary runaway electrons. Runaway currents have been found to increase with toroidal magnetic field and pre-disruption plasma current values. The average conversion efficiency is approximately 40-45% at a wide range of plasma currents. This agrees well with results of numerical simulations, which predict similar conversion rates at an assumed post-disruption plasma electron temperature of 10 eV. The experimental trends and numerical simulations show that runaway electrons might be an issue for ITER and therefore it remains prudent to develop mitigation methods, which suppress runaway generation. (author)

  15. Application of HTSC coils for mitigation of VDE during a major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Uchimoto, T.; Miya, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The authors proposed the new method to control plasma position passively with use of high Tc superconducting coils (HTSCs). HTSCs are robust against the thermal disturbance, so that they can be installed in the vicinity of plasmas. In this study, we examine that the VDEs during disruptions can be mitigated or not by using HTSC coils as a stabilizer. Shape and profile of plasmas will change considerably during a disruption, so that the linearized model cannot be applied to this problem. Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) is employed to evaluate the stabilizing effect of HTSC during a major disruption. The configuration of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is taken as an example for numerical analyses. The result of simulations using linear model agreed with that of TSC computation. The results of the simulation show that VDEs during disruptions are mitigated due to the stabilizing effect of HTSC. The vertical instability growth rate is improved if HTSC coils are installed on the backplate. The electromagnetic forces on HTSCs during a disruption were also estimated. A design to accommodate these forces is possible without any difficulty. (author)

  16. From Digital Disruption to Business Model Scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Thomsen, Peter Poulsen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the terms disruption, digital disruption, business models and business model scalability. It illustrates how managers should be using these terms for the benefit of their business by developing business models capable of achieving exponentially increasing returns to scale...... will seldom lead to business model scalability capable of competing with digital disruption(s)....... as a response to digital disruption. A series of case studies illustrate that besides frequent existing messages in the business literature relating to the importance of creating agile businesses, both in growing and declining economies, as well as hard to copy value propositions or value propositions that take...

  17. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: zychen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Chen, Z.P., E-mail: zpchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2012-05-14

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2} due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2}.

  18. Viewgraphs presented at the ASDEX/DOE workshop on disruptions in divertor tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granetz, R.; Gruber, O.; Zohm, H. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The emphasis of this year`s ASDEX/DOE workshop was on disruptions in diverted tokamaks. The meeting was held here at MIT on 14--15 March. It is particularly appropriate that MIT hosted the workshop this year, since Alcator C-Mod had just recently completed its very first run campaign, and disruptions are one of the key areas of research in our program. There were a total of 14 speakers, with participants from IPP (Garching), CRPP (Lausanne), Culham, General Atomics, PPPL, Sandia, ORNL, the ITER JCT, and MIT. The subjects addressed included statistical analysis of disruption probabilities in ASDEX, modelling of the vertical axisymmetric plasma motion in DIII-D, impact of disruptions on the design of the ITER divertors, modelling of runaway electrons, and TSC calculations of disruption-induced currents and forces in TPX, etc. One item of particular interest to us was the experimental correlation of halo current magnitude with plasma current on ASDEX-Upgrade. The data indicates at least a linear, and possibly even a quadractic dependence. This has important implications for Alcator C-Mod, since it would predict halo currents of order 1 MA or more at full performance. At the conclusion of the talks, an informal discussion of disruption databases was held, primarily for the purpose of helping us develop a useful one for C-Mod.

  19. Viewgraphs presented at the ASDEX/DOE workshop on disruptions in divertor tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granetz, R.; Gruber, O.; Zohm, H.

    1994-01-01

    The emphasis of this year's ASDEX/DOE workshop was on disruptions in diverted tokamaks. The meeting was held here at MIT on 14--15 March. It is particularly appropriate that MIT hosted the workshop this year, since Alcator C-Mod had just recently completed its very first run campaign, and disruptions are one of the key areas of research in our program. There were a total of 14 speakers, with participants from IPP (Garching), CRPP (Lausanne), Culham, General Atomics, PPPL, Sandia, ORNL, the ITER JCT, and MIT. The subjects addressed included statistical analysis of disruption probabilities in ASDEX, modelling of the vertical axisymmetric plasma motion in DIII-D, impact of disruptions on the design of the ITER divertors, modelling of runaway electrons, and TSC calculations of disruption-induced currents and forces in TPX, etc. One item of particular interest to us was the experimental correlation of halo current magnitude with plasma current on ASDEX-Upgrade. The data indicates at least a linear, and possibly even a quadractic dependence. This has important implications for Alcator C-Mod, since it would predict halo currents of order 1 MA or more at full performance. At the conclusion of the talks, an informal discussion of disruption databases was held, primarily for the purpose of helping us develop a useful one for C-Mod

  20. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.Y.; Chen, Z.P.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G.

    2012-01-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 .

  1. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  2. Electron beam disruption simulation of first wall material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quataert, D.; Brossa, F.; Moretto, P.; Rigon, G.

    1984-01-01

    The destructive effect of plasma disruptions on first wall material and limiters has been predicted and models have been made to study their behaviour under intensive pulsed energy deposition. The results presented here give a full description of qualitative and semi-quantitative results obtained for several materials (Mo, stainless steel, Cu, Al, Inconel, etc.) under various experimental conditions. Examples are given of specific defects such as: evaporation, melting, void and crack formation and recrystallization of the underlying material. Methods for the evaluation of deposited energy and beam dimensions are also presented. (author)

  3. Energy deposition on the FTU poloidal limiter during disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotti, M.; Franzoni, G.; Maddaluno, G.

    1994-01-01

    The first results of the program for the characterization of the thermal flux on the FTU poloidal limiter during disruptions are presented. Data on power fluxes are obtained by using an infrared detector and a set of thermocouples. Two peaks in the limiter thermal load, corresponding to the thermal (up to 500 MW/m2) and magnetic quenches, are well resolved by the infrared detector allowing the time correlation with other first diagnostic measurements. The dependence on the main plasma parameters of the intensity and time evolution of the thermal flux to the limiter is discussed

  4. Critical issues and experimental examination on sawtooth and disruption physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Tsuji, S.

    1992-06-01

    The catastrophic phenomena which are associated with the major disruption and sawtooth contain three key processes: (1) Sudden acceleration of the growth of the helical deformation, (2) Central electron temperature crash, and (3) Rearrangement of the plasma current. Based on the theoretical model that the magnetic stochasticity plays a key role in these processes, the critical issues and possible experimental tests are proposed. Present experimental observations would be sufficient to study the detailed sequences and causes. Though models may not be complete the comparison with experiments improves understandings. (author)

  5. Towards a Disruptive Digital Platform Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    that digital platforms leverage on three strategic design elements (i.e., business, architecture, and technology design) to create supportive conditions for facilitating disruption. To shed light on disruptive digital platforms, I opted for payment platforms as my empirical context and unit of analysis......Digital platforms are layered modular information technology architectures that support disruption. Digital platforms are particularly disruptive, as they facilitate the quick release of digital innovations that may replace established innovations. Yet, despite their support for disruption, we have...... not fully understood how such digital platforms can be strategically designed and configured to facilitate disruption. To that end, this thesis endeavors to unravel disruptive digital platforms from the supply perspective that are grounded on strategic digital platform design elements. I suggest...

  6. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  7. On the magnitude and distribution of halo currents during disruptions on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G F; Martin, R; Pinfold, T; Taylor, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent results from MAST in which all halo current paths are monitored suggest that, during disruptions, the plasma responsible for the generation of halo current acts more as a voltage source than a current source. As a result the resistance of the current path along which the halo current must flow has a profound impact on the magnitude of the current. This may provide opportunities for directing the current away from sensitive components in future devices such as ITER. Analysis of data from over 3800 disruptions shows that the halo currents on MAST are relatively benign, having a peak value less than 25% of the pre-disruption plasma current with a rather symmetric distribution near the centre column (average toroidal peaking factor ∼1.1). The low peaking factor favourably reduces the tilting/bending forces in the region of the centre column, which has limited space for bulky supports

  8. Professional Disruption in Health Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    How do professions respond to fast-moving technological changes? Disruptive innovations overturn expectations about how markets function and develop, and they often raise moral, legal and scientific concerns among professionals. Sudden technological changes can result in a state of professional...... recent revision to the Tobacco Products Directive. Medical and public health professionals that control tobacco issues were challenged by a coalition of e-cigarette industry representatives, e-cigarette users, and liberal politicians. The challengers drew on the contending norm of harm reduction...

  9. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  10. A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation code for design of position and shape control on tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko; Senda, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation (TSPS) code has been developed for investigating the position and shape control on tokamak plasmas. The analyses of three-dimensional eddy currents on the conducting components around the plasma and the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium are taken into account in this code. The code can analyze the plasma position and shape control during the minor disruption in which the deformation of plasma is not negligible. Using the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) parameters, some examples of calculations are shown in this paper. (author)

  11. Ion heating at the disruptive instability in the LT-3 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.G.; Hutchinson, I.H.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the ion temperature and the toroidal current density and electric field during the disruptive instability in LT-3 are presented. Rapid ion heating and strong current inhibition have been observed. Fluctuation measurements suggest that these effects may be attributable to the excitation of ion cyclotron drift waves in the plasma

  12. Acceleration mechanism of vertical displacement event and its amelioration in tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Yoshino, Ryuji; Pomphrey, N.; Jardin, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Vertical displacement events (VDEs), which are frequently observed in disruptive discharges of elongated tokamaks, are investigated using the Tokamak Simulation Code. We show that disruption events such as a sudden plasma pressure drop (β p collapse) and the subsequent plasma current quench (I p quench) can accelerate VDEs due to the adverse destabilizing effect of the resistive shell, which has previously been thought to stabilize VDEs. In a tokamak with a surrounding shell which is asymmetric with respect to the geometric midplane, the I p quench also causes an additional VDE acceleration due to the vertical imbalance of the attractive force. While the shell-geometry characterizes the VDE dynamics, the growth rate of VDEs depends strongly on the magnitude of the β p collapse, the speed of the I p quench and the n-index of the plasma equilibrium just before the disruption. An amelioration of I p quench-induced VDEs was experimentally established in the JT-60U tokamak by optimizing the vertical location of the plasma just prior to the disruption. The JT-60U vacuum vessel is shown to be suitable for preventing the β p collapse-induced VDE. (author)

  13. Plasma-Wall Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J; Chen, J L [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, H Y [Tri Alpha Energy (United States); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); McCracken, G M [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    The problem of impurities in fusion plasmas has been recognized since the beginning of the fusion programme. Early experiments in glass vacuum vessels released gas from the wall to such an extent that the radiation from the impurities prevented the plasma from being heated above about 50 eV. The radiative power loss is principally due to line radiation from partially stripped ions, which is particularly a problem during the plasma startup phase. Another problem is fuel dilution, which arises because impurity atoms produce many electrons and, for a given plasma pressure, these electrons take the place of fuel particles. Impurities can also lead to disruptions, as a result of edge cooling and consequent current profile modification. The fractional impurity level which radiates 10% of the total thermonuclear power for a 10 keV plasma is 50% for helium, 7% for carbon, and less than 0.1% for molybdenum. Clearly, impurities of low atomic number are a much less serious problem than those of high atomic number. (author)

  14. Fuzzy-neural approaches to the prediction of disruptions in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morabito, F.C.; Versaci, M.; Pautasso, G.; Tichmann, C.

    2001-01-01

    Disruption is a sudden loss of magnetic confinement that can cause damage to the machine walls and support structures. For this reason, it is of practical interest to be able to detect the onset of such an event early. A novel technique is presented of early prediction of plasma disruption in tokamak reactors which uses neural networks and 'fuzzy' inference. The studies carried out in the work make use of an experimental database of disruptive shots made available by the ASDEX Upgrade Team. The main result of the work is that, in the limit of the available database, it is possible to predict the onset of the disruptive event sufficiently in advance in order to put the control system into action. The proposed system is a modular scheme that exploits a decomposition of the original database carried out in a proper way. (author)

  15. Suppression of Runaway Electrons by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in TEXTOR Disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnen, M.; Bozhenkov, S. A.; Abdullaev, S. S.; TEXTOR Team,; Jakubowski, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of runaway electrons in the international fusion experiment ITER disruptions can lead to severe damage at plasma facing components. Massive gas injection might inhibit the generation process, but the amount of gas needed can affect, e.g., vacuum systems. Alternatively, magnetic perturbations can suppress runaway generation by increasing the loss rate. In TEXTOR disruptions runaway losses were enhanced by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n=1 and n=2. The disruptions are initiated by fast injection of about 3x10 21 argon atoms, which leads to a reliable generation of runaway electrons. At sufficiently high perturbation levels a reduction of the runaway current, a shortening of the current plateau, and the suppression of high energetic runaways are observed. These findings indicate the suppression of the runaway avalanche during disruptions

  16. Disruption Mitigation System Developments and Design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Barbier, Charlotte N. [ORNL; Bull, Nora D. [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fisher, Paul W. [ORNL; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Wilgen, John B. [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S. [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A. [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R. [ORNL; Smith, Stephen Fulton [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    A disruption mitigation system (DMS) is under design for ITER to inject sufficient material deeply into the plasma for rapid plasma thermal shutdown and collisional suppression of any resulting runaway electrons. Progress on the development and design of both a shattered pellet injector (SPI) that produces large solid cryogenic pellets to provide reliable deep penetration of material and a fast opening high flow rate gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) is presented. Cryogenic pellets of deuterium and neon up to 25 mm in size have been formed and accelerated with a prototype injector and a full scale prototype MGI valve is now in testing. Implications of the design with respect to response time and reliability at the proposed injector locations on ITER are discussed.

  17. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  18. Detection of tokamak plasma positrons using annihilation photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guanying, Yu; Liu, Jian; Xie, Jinlin [University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Li, Jiangang, E-mail: j_li@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A design for detection of tokamak plasma positrons is given. • Identify the main obstacle toward experimental confirmation of fusion plasma positrons. • Signal to noise ratio in a plasma disruption is estimated. • Unique potential applications of fusion plasma positrons are discussed. - Abstract: A massive amount of positrons (plasma positrons), produced by the collision between runaway electrons and nuclei during fusion plasma disruption, was first predicted theoretically in 2003. To help confirm this prediction, we report here the design of an experimental system to detect tokamak plasma positrons. Because a substantial amount of positrons (material positrons) are produced when runaway electrons impact plasma-facing materials, we proposed maximizing the ratio of plasma to material positrons by inserting a thin carbon target at the plasma edge as a plasma positron bombing target and producing a plasma disruption scenario triggered by massive gas injection. Meanwhile, the coincidence detection of positron annihilation photons was used to filter out the noise of annihilation photons from locations other than the carbon target and that of bremsstrahlung photons near 511 keV. According to our simulation, the overall signal-to-noise ratio should be more than 10:1.

  19. Monitoring-induced disruption in skilled typewriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kristy M; Logan, Gordon D

    2013-10-01

    It is often disruptive to attend to the details of one's expert performance. The current work presents four experiments that utilized a monitor to report protocol to evaluate the sufficiency of three accounts of monitoring-induced disruption. The inhibition hypothesis states that disruption results from costs associated with preparing to withhold inappropriate responses. The dual-task hypothesis states that disruption results from maintaining monitored information in working memory. The implicit-explicit hypothesis states that disruption results from explicitly monitoring details of performance that are normally implicit. The findings suggest that all three hypotheses are sufficient to produce disruption, but inhibition and dual-task costs are not necessary. Experiment 1 showed that monitoring to report was disruptive even when there was no requirement to inhibit. Experiment 2 showed that maintaining information in working memory caused some disruption but much less than monitoring to report. Experiment 4 showed that monitoring to inhibit was more disruptive than monitoring to report, suggesting that monitoring is more disruptive when it is combined with other task requirements, such as inhibition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Unbiased and non-supervised learning methods for disruption prediction at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Vega, J.; Ratta, G.A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Johnson, M.F.; Hong, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of predicting the occurrence of disruptions is going to increase significantly in the next generation of tokamak devices. The expected energy content of ITER plasmas, for example, is such that disruptions could have a significant detrimental impact on various parts of the device, ranging from erosion of plasma facing components to structural damage. Early detection of disruptions is therefore needed with evermore increasing urgency. In this paper, the results of a series of methods to predict disruptions at JET are reported. The main objective of the investigation consists of trying to determine how early before a disruption it is possible to perform acceptable predictions on the basis of the raw data, keeping to a minimum the number of 'ad hoc' hypotheses. Therefore, the chosen learning techniques have the common characteristic of requiring a minimum number of assumptions. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) is a supervised but, on the other hand, a completely unbiased and nonlinear method, since it simply constructs the best classification tree by working directly on the input data. A series of unsupervised techniques, mainly K-means and hierarchical, have also been tested, to investigate to what extent they can autonomously distinguish between disruptive and non-disruptive groups of discharges. All these independent methods indicate that, in general, prediction with a success rate above 80% can be achieved not earlier than 180 ms before the disruption. The agreement between various completely independent methods increases the confidence in the results, which are also confirmed by a visual inspection of the data performed with pseudo Grand Tour algorithms.

  1. A prediction tool for real-time application in the disruption protection system at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Sonato, P.; Zedda, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    A disruption prediction system, based on neural networks, is presented in this paper. The system is ideally suitable for on-line application in the disruption avoidance and/or mitigation scheme at the JET tokamak. A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) predictor module has been trained on nine plasma diagnostic signals extracted from 86 disruptive pulses, selected from four years of JET experiments in the pulse range 47830-57346 (from 1999 to 2002). The disruption class of the disruptive pulses is available. In particular, the selected pulses belong to four classes (density limit/high radiated power, internal transport barrier, mode lock and h-mode/l-mode). A self-organizing map has been used to select the samples of the pulses to train the MLP predictor module and to determine its target, increasing the prediction capability of the system. The prediction performance has been tested over 86 disruptive and 102 non-disruptive pulses. The test has been performed presenting to the network all the samples of each pulse sampled every 20 ms. The missed alarm rate and the false alarm rate of the predictor, up to 100 ms prior to the disruption time, are 23% and 1%, respectively. Recent plasma configurations might present features different from those observed in the experiments used in the training set. This 'novelty' can lead to incorrect behaviour of the predictor. To improve the robustness and reliability of the system, a novelty detection module has been integrated in the prediction system, increasing the system performance and resulting in a missed alarm rate reduced to 7% and a false alarm rate reduced to 0%

  2. Cationic peptide exposure enhances pulsed-electric-field-mediated membrane disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen M; Aiken, Erik J; Beres, Kaytlyn A; Hahn, Adam R; Kamin, Samantha J; Hagness, Susan C; Booske, John H; Murphy, William L

    2014-01-01

    The use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to irreversibly electroporate cells is a promising approach for destroying undesirable cells. This approach may gain enhanced applicability if the intensity of the PEF required to electrically disrupt cell membranes can be reduced via exposure to a molecular deliverable. This will be particularly impactful if that reduced PEF minimally influences cells that are not exposed to the deliverable. We hypothesized that the introduction of charged molecules to the cell surfaces would create regions of enhanced transmembrane electric potential in the vicinity of each charged molecule, thereby lowering the PEF intensity required to disrupt the plasma membranes. This study will therefore examine if exposure to cationic peptides can enhance a PEF's ability to disrupt plasma membranes. We exposed leukemia cells to 40 μs PEFs in media containing varying concentrations of a cationic peptide, polyarginine. We observed the internalization of a membrane integrity indicator, propidium iodide (PI), in real time. Based on an individual cell's PI fluorescence versus time signature, we were able to determine the relative degree of membrane disruption. When using 1-2 kV/cm, exposure to >50 μg/ml of polyarginine resulted in immediate and high levels of PI uptake, indicating severe membrane disruption, whereas in the absence of peptide, cells predominantly exhibited signatures indicative of no membrane disruption. Additionally, PI entered cells through the anode-facing membrane when exposed to cationic peptide, which was theoretically expected. Exposure to cationic peptides reduced the PEF intensity required to induce rapid and irreversible membrane disruption. Critically, peptide exposure reduced the PEF intensities required to elicit irreversible membrane disruption at normally sub-electroporation intensities. We believe that these cationic peptides, when coupled with current advancements in cell targeting techniques will be useful tools in

  3. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  4. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D J; Clement, S; Gottardi, N; Gowers, C; Harbour, P; Loarte, A; Horton, L; Lingertat, J; Lowry, C G; Saibene, G; Stamp, M; Stork, D [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  6. Plasma scram in ITER L-mode ignited plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar Colome, J.; Johner, J.; Ane, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The security of ITER will depend on the capability of the system in rapidly extinguishing the 1.5 GW of nominal fusion power without disruption. The local RLW transport model is used to simulate such a Plasma Scram. The conditions for a passively secure operation point in steady-state are discussed in terms of particle exhaust. The time scales of the process should determine the power supplies of both equilibrium coils and central solenoid. (authors). 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The Effects of Disruption on Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Anders

    2017-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in Disruption these days even though the concept itself is still under formation. Disruption can be traced back to the idea of disruptive technological change and the late 1990s but has reemerged in the public eye in current years under guises such as Big Data......, Digitalization, Globalization and much more. Furthermore, the effects of disruption are now being felt by organizations and industries all over the world. In this paper, we will try to outline and illustrate some of those effects using the case-study of an international, Danish, SME. The case company has been...... forced to face some challenges caused by disruption and in the process of doing so has changed its strategy process significantly towards a more learning based approach to strategic management. Keywords: disruption; case- study; SME; strategy process....

  8. High-resolution disruption halo current measurements using Langmuir probes in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Berg, A.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.

    2018-01-01

    Halo currents generated during disruptions on Alcator C-Mod have been measured with Langmuir ‘rail’ probes. These rail probes are embedded in a lower outboard divertor module in a closely-spaced vertical (poloidal) array. The dense array provides detailed resolution of the spatial dependence (~1 cm spacing) of the halo current distribution in the plasma scrape-off region with high time resolution (400 kHz digitization rate). As the plasma limits on the outboard divertor plate, the contact point is clearly discernible in the halo current data (as an inversion of current) and moves vertically down the divertor plate on many disruptions. These data are consistent with filament reconstructions of the plasma boundary, from which the edge safety factor of the disrupting plasma can be calculated. Additionally, the halo current ‘footprint’ on the divertor plate is obtained and related to the halo flux width. The voltage driving halo current and the effective resistance of the plasma region through which the halo current flows to reach the probes are also investigated. Estimations of the sheath resistance and halo region resistivity and temperature are given. This information could prove useful for modeling halo current dynamics.

  9. Two-dimensional disruption thermal analysis code DREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Seki, Masahiro.

    1988-08-01

    When a plasma disruption takes place in a tokamak type fusion reactor, plasma facing components such as first wall and divertor/limiter are subjected to an intense heat load with very high heat flux and short duration. At the surface of the wall, temperature rapidly rises, and melting and evaporation occurs, it causes reduction of wall thickness and crack initiation/propagation. As lifetime of the components is significantly affected by them, the transient analysis in consideration of phase changes (melting/evaporation) and radiation heat loss is required in the design of these components. This paper describes the computer code DREAM developed to perform the two-dimensional transient thermal analysis that takes phase changes and radiation into account. The input and output of the code and a sample analysis on a disruption simulation experiment are also reported. The user's input manual is added as an appendix. The profiles and time variations of temperature, and melting and evaporated thicknesses of the material subjected to intense heat load can be obtained, using this computer code. This code also gives the temperature data for elastoplastic analysis with FEM structural analysis codes (ADINA, MARC, etc.) to evaluate the thermal stress and crack propagation behavior within the wall materials. (author)

  10. Local and integral disruption forces on the tokamak wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.; Kiramov, D. I.

    2018-04-01

    The disruption-induced forces on the tokamak wall are evaluated analytically within the standard large-aspect-ratio model that implies axisymmetry, circular plasma and wall, and absence of halo currents. Additionally, the ideal-wall reaction is assumed. The disruptions are modelled as rapid changes in the plasma pressure (thermal quench (TQ)) and net current (current quench (CQ)). The force distribution over the poloidal angle is found as a function of these inputs. The derived formulas allow comparison of the TQ- and CQ-produced forces calculated differently, with and without account of the poloidal current induced in the wall. The latter variant represents the inherent property of the codes treating the wall as a set of toroidal filaments. It is proved here that such a simplification leads to unacceptably large errors in the simulated forces for both TQs and CQs. It is also shown that the TQ part of the force must prevail over that due to CQ in the high-β scenarios developed for JT-60SA and ITER.

  11. Multistage Logistic Network Optimization under Disruption Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Getting over disruptions risk has been a challenging issue for many companies under the globalization that will link to potential external source such as demand uncertainties, natural disasters, and terrorist attacks. The disruption is an unexpected event that disturbs normal flows of products and materials within a supply chain. The disruption at one members of supply chain will propagate the offers and finally affect significant impacts on the entire chain. If we look back...

  12. Characteristics of post-disruption runaway electrons with impurity pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Yasunori; Nakano, Tomohide; Isayama, Akihiko; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hirotaka; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Ide, Shunsuke; Kondoh, Takashi; Hatae, Takaki

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of post-disruption runaway electrons with impurity pellet injection were investigated for the first time using the JT-60U tokamak device. A clear deposition of impurity neon ice pellets was observed in a post-disruption runaway plasma. The pellet ablation was attributed to the energy deposition of relativistic runaway electrons in the pellet. A high normalized electron density was stably obtained with n e bar /n GW ∼2.2. Effects of prompt exhaust of runaway electrons and reduction of runaway plasma current without large amplitude MHD activities were found. One possible explanation for the basic behavior of runaway plasma current is that it follows the balance of avalanche generation of runaway electrons and slowing down predicted by the Andersson-Helander model, including the combined effect of collisional pitch angle scattering and synchrotron radiation. Our results suggested that the impurity pellet injection reduced the energy of runaway electrons in a stepwise manner. (author)

  13. Toroidal current asymmetry and boundary conditions in disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Henry

    2014-10-01

    It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current. The toroidal current asymmetry ΔIϕ is proportional to the vertical current moment ΔMIZ , with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was claimed that this could only be explained by Hiro current. It is shown that instead it is essentially a kinematic effect produced by the VDE displacement of a 3D magnetic perturbation. This is verified by M3D simulations. The simulation results do not require penetration of plasma into the boundary, as in the Hiro current model. It is shown that the normal velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field vanishes at the wall, in the small Larmor radius limit of electromagnetic sheath boundary conditions. Plasma is absorbed into the wall only via the parallel velocity, which is small, penetrates only an infinitesimal distance into the wall, and does not affect forces exerted by the plasma on the wall. Supported by USDOE and ITER.

  14. CATASTROPHIC DISRUPTION OF COMET ISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA GSFC, MS 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Coulson, Iain M. [Joint Astronomy Center, 660 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sekanina, Zdenek [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kracht, Rainer, E-mail: keane@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ostlandring 53, D-25335 Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2016-11-10

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 μ m dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31–0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 ( r {sub h} = 0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60″ (>10{sup 5} km) in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 μ m image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing ∼5.2 × 10{sup 10} kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  15. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 microns dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (rh?=?0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60? (greater than 10(exp 5) km in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 microns image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing approximately 5.2?×?10(exp 10) kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  16. Incumbent response to disruptive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    in relation to disruptive change. In relation to technical change the case company has successfully in transferred its technology from one generation to the next during more than 20 years. In relation to business model change the case company has been proactive but not successful in major business model......This article presents a preliminary analysis of a retrospective longitudinal case study of an incumbent, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera AB, with focus on its responses to technical and business model change. Findings nuance the general understanding of Telco’s as passive actors...... changes, however successful in minor business model adaptions. An implication hereof is that the business model concept as such has low predictive power in explaining success and failure and is in the need of an operationalization. In addition, the article discusses the relationship between technological...

  17. Dense Z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlachter, J.S.; Hammel, J.E.; Scudder, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Early researchers recogniZed the desirable features of the linear Z-pinch configuration as a magnetic fusion scheme. In particular, a Z-pinch reactor might not require auxiliary heating or external field coils, and could constitute an uncomplicated, high plasma β geometry. The simple Z pinch, however, exhibited gross MHD instabilities that disrupted the plasma, and the linear Z pinch was abandoned in favor of more stable configurations. Recent advances in pulsed-power technology and an appreciation of the dynamic behavior of an ohmically heated Z pinch have led to a reexamination of the Z pinch as a workable fusion concept

  18. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  19. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Espinosa

    Full Text Available Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  20. Progress in the prediction of disruptions in ASDEX-Upgrade via neural and fuzzy-neural techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, M.; Morabito, F.C.; Tichmann, C.; Pautasso, G.

    2001-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of predicting the onset of a disruption on the basis of some known precursors possibly announcing the event. The availability in real time of a large set of diagnostic signals allows us to collectively interpret the data in order to decide whether we are near a disruption or during a normal operation scenario. As a relevant experimental example, a database of disruptive discharges in ASDEX-Upgrade has been analysed in this work. Both Neural Networks (NN's) and Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) have been investigated as suitable tools to cope with the prediction problem. The experimental database has been exploited aiming to gain information about the mechanisms which drive the plasma column to a disruption. The proposed processor will operate by implementing a classification of the shot type, and outputting a real number that indicates the time left before the disruption will effectively take place (ttd). (author)

  1. MHD phenomena in a neutral beam heated high beta, low qa disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Kim, J.S.; Lao, L.; Snider, R.T.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    A neutral beam heated, β maximizing discharge at low q a in Doublet III ending in disruption is studied and correlated with theoretical models. This discharge achieved MHD β-values close to the theoretical Troyon-Sykes-Wesson limit in its evolution. The MHD phenomena of this discharge are analysed. The sequence of events leading to the high β disruptions is hypothesized as follows: the current and pressure profiles are broadened continuously by neutral beam injection. A last sawtooth internal disruption initiates an (m/n = 2/1) island through current profile steepening around the q=2 surface. The loss of plasma through stochastic field lines slows the island rotation and enhances its interaction with the limiter. The resultant enhanced island growth through island cooling or profile change enlarged the edge stochastic region. The overlapping of the edge stochastic region with the sawtooth mixing region precipitated the pressure disruption. Thus, in our hypothetical model for this discharge, β increase by neutral beam heating does not directly cause the disruption but ushers the plasma indirectly towards it through the profile broadening process and contributes to the destabilization of the 1/1 and 2/1 tearing modes. (author). 26 refs, 12 figs

  2. Numerical investigation of disruption characteristics for the snowflake divertor configuration in HL-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Duan, X. R.; Zheng, G. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Pan, Y. D.; Yan, S. L.; Dokuka, V. N.; Lukash, V. E.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    Cold and hot vertical displacement events (VDEs) are frequently related to the disruption of vertically-elongated tokamaks. The weak poloidal magnetic field around the null-points of a snowflake divertor configuration may influence the vertical displacement process. In this paper, the major disruption with a cold VDE and the vertical disruption in the HL-2M tokamak are investigated by the DINA code. In order to better illustrate the effect from the weak poloidal field, a double-null snowflake configuration is compared with the standard divertor (SD) configuration under the same plasma parameters. Computational results show that the weak poloidal magnetic field can be partly beneficial for mitigating the vertical instability of the plasma under small perturbations. For major disruption, the peak poloidal halo current fraction is almost the same between the snowflake and the SD configurations. However, this fraction becomes much larger for the snowflake in the event of a hot VDE. Furthermore, during the disruption for a snowflake configuration, the distribution of electromagnetic force on a vacuum vessel gets more non-uniform during the current quench.

  3. Numerical investigation of disruption characteristics for the snowflake divertor configuration in HL-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, L; Duan, X R; Zheng, G Y; Liu, Y Q; Pan, Y D; Yan, S L; Dokuka, V N; Khayrutdinov, R R; Lukash, V E

    2016-01-01

    Cold and hot vertical displacement events (VDEs) are frequently related to the disruption of vertically-elongated tokamaks. The weak poloidal magnetic field around the null-points of a snowflake divertor configuration may influence the vertical displacement process. In this paper, the major disruption with a cold VDE and the vertical disruption in the HL-2M tokamak are investigated by the DINA code. In order to better illustrate the effect from the weak poloidal field, a double-null snowflake configuration is compared with the standard divertor (SD) configuration under the same plasma parameters. Computational results show that the weak poloidal magnetic field can be partly beneficial for mitigating the vertical instability of the plasma under small perturbations. For major disruption, the peak poloidal halo current fraction is almost the same between the snowflake and the SD configurations. However, this fraction becomes much larger for the snowflake in the event of a hot VDE. Furthermore, during the disruption for a snowflake configuration, the distribution of electromagnetic force on a vacuum vessel gets more non-uniform during the current quench. (paper)

  4. Gas jet disruption mitigation studies on Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granetz, R.S.; Hollmann, E.M.; Whyte, D.G.; Izzo, V.A.; Antar, G.Y.; Bader, A.; Bakhtiari, M.; Biewer, T.; Boedo, J.A.; Evans, T.E.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Jernigan, T.C.; Gray, D.S.; Groth, M.; Humphreys, D.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Moyer, R.A.; Parks, P.B.; Reinke, M.L.; Rudakov, D.L.; Strait, E.J.; Terry, J.L.; Wesley, J.; West, W.P.; Wurden, G.; Yu, J.

    2007-01-01

    High-pressure noble gas jet injection is a mitigation technique which potentially satisfies the requirements of fast response time and reliability, without degrading subsequent discharges. Previously reported gas jet experiments on DIII-D showed good success at reducing deleterious disruption effects. In this paper, results of recent gas jet disruption mitigation experiments on Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D are reported. Jointly, these experiments have greatly improved the understanding of gas jet dynamics and the processes involved in mitigating disruption effects. In both machines, the sequence of events following gas injection is observed to be quite similar: the jet neutrals stop near the plasma edge, the edge temperature collapses and large MHD modes are quickly destabilized, mixing the hot plasma core with the edge impurity ions and radiating away the plasma thermal energy. High radiated power fractions are achieved, thus reducing the conducted heat loads to the chamber walls and divertor. A significant (2 x or more) reduction in halo current is also observed. Runaway electron generation is small or absent. These similar results in two quite different tokamaks are encouraging for the applicability of this disruption mitigation technique to ITER

  5. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  6. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  7. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  8. Thermal deposition analysis during disruptions on DIII-D using infrared scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; Lasnier, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    The DIII-D tokamak generates plasma discharges with currents up to 3 MA and auxiliary input power up to 20 MW from neutral beams and 4 MW from radio frequency systems. In a disruption, a rapid loss of the plasma current and internal thermal energy occurs and the energy is deposited onto the torus graphite wall. Quantifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of the heat deposition is important for engineering and physics-related issues, particularly for designing future machines such as ITER. Using infrared scanners with a time resolution of 120 micros, measurements of the heat deposition onto the all-graphite walls of DIII-D during two types of disruptions have been made. Each scanner contains a single point detector sensitive to 8--12 microm radiation, allowing surface temperatures from 20 C to 2,000 C to be measured. A zinc selenide window that transmits in the infrared is used as the vacuum window. Views of the upper and lower divertor regions and the centerpost provide good coverage of the first wall for single and double null divertor discharges. During disruptions, the thermal energy is not deposited evenly onto the inner surface of the tokamak, but is deposited primarily in the divertor region when operating diverted discharges. Analysis of the heat deposition during a radiative collapse disruption of a 1.5 MA discharge revealed power densities of 300--350 MW/m 2 in the divertor region. During the thermal quench of the disruption, the energy deposited onto the divertor region was more than 70% of the stored thermal energy in the discharge prior to the disruption. The spatial distribution and temporal behavior of power deposition during high β disruptions will also be presented

  9. Network Formation under the Threat of Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis are focused on the impact the presence of a network disruptor has on network formation models. In particular, we build two theoretical models to study the effect of network disruption on network formation and test the effect network disruption has on equilibrium selection

  10. Inventory strategies to manage supply disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atan, Z.; Snyder, L.V.; Gurnani, H.; Mehrotra, H.; Ray, S.

    2012-01-01

    Disruptions in supply chains occur routinely—both large ones, due to natural disasters, labor strikes, or terrorist attacks, and small ones, due to machine breakdowns, supplier stockouts, or quality problems (to name a few examples). Companies whose supply processes are affected by disruptions may

  11. Simulation of a major tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Monticello, D.A.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1977-08-01

    It is known that the internal tokamak disruption leads to a current profile which is flattened inside the surface where the safety factor equals unity. It is shown that such a profile can lead to m = 2 magnetic islands which grow to fill a substantial part of the tokamak cross section in a time consistent with the observations of the major disruption

  12. Disruptive technologies and networking in telecom industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Hartington, Simon

    in the telecommunication industry and finds significant similarities between the industry development and the literature on disruptive technology, which finds that incumbent companies are not able to react in a successful way when disruptions occur in their industry. By studying how the telecommunication industry...

  13. Disrupted Sleep: From Molecules to Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.; Cirelli, C.; Dijk, D.J.; Van Cauter, E.; Schwartz, S.; Chee, M.W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and experimental studies of

  14. Disrupted Sleep : From Molecules to Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Someren, Eus J W; Cirelli, Chiara; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Van Cauter, Eve; Schwartz, Sophie; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and

  15. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  16. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  17. Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital platforms are disruptive information technology (IT) artifacts that erode conventional business logic associated with traditional market structures. This paper presents a framework for examining the disruptive potential of digital platforms whereby we postulate that the strategic interplay...... digital platforms purposely decouple platform layers, to foster open innovation and accelerate market disruption. This paper therefore represents a first concrete step aimed at unravelling the disruptive potential of digital platforms....... of governance regimes and platform layers is deterministic of whether disruptive derivatives are permitted to flourish. This framework has been employed in a comparative case study between centralized (i.e., PayPal) and decentralized (i.e., Coinkite) digital payment platforms to illustrate its applicability...

  18. High speed cine film studies of plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, D.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions. Several workers have filmed discharges in tokamaks including ASDEX, DITE, DIVA, ISX, JFT2, TFR and PLT. These films are discussed and examples given of the observed phenomena which include plasma limiter interactions, diverted discharges, disruptions, magnetic islands and moving glowing objects often known as 'UFOs'. Examples of plasma structures in ASDEX and DITE not previously published are also given. The paper also reports experiments in DITE to determine the origin of UFOs. (orig.)

  19. Time correlation between plasma behaviour and soft x-ray emission in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi; Tagaya, Yutaka; Shimoda, Katsuji; Okabe, Yushiro; Yamamoto, Toshikazu

    1986-01-01

    Soft X-rays emitted from a plasma focus are investigated experimentally. In contrast to single-pulsive burst of neutron, hard X-rays, ion- and electron beams, the soft X-rays are observed from the collapse phase to the decay phase of the plasma column, and have typically three successive peaks in its signal. Each peak corresponds to the maximum compression, the disruption and the decay phase of plasma column. It is revealed that the first and the second peaks are radiated by plasma itself, whereas the third peak is caused by emission from the inner electrode face. (author)

  20. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  1. The major tokamak distruption in cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong Sik; Choi, Eun Ha; Choi, Duk In

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of the major disruption in tokamak plasma which involves the nonlinear interaction of tearing models is numerically studied in two and three dimensional formulations. In this study, it is found that in the two dimensional case with a flattened current density profile the magnetic islands of the m=2; n=1 mode do not saturate nonlinearly and but strongly interact with the limiter. Thus it is suggested that the helical perturbation of the m=2;n=1 mode plays the dominant role in the major disruption. We also show that the m=2;n=1 mode nonlinearly destablizes other tearing modes, especially the m=3;n=2 mode, from the nonlinear coupling of different helicities as also shown in other studies. The plasma extends across the plasma cross section, and the plasma core shifts inward along the major radius during the major disruption. The numerical result for the major disruption time measured using the nonlinear 3-D procedure for the initial value problem with PLT parameters is about 450 μsec which agrees reasonably well with the experimental value of 500 μsec. (Author)

  2. Effects of ELMs and disruptions on ITER divertor armour materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, N.; Giniyatulin, R.; Klimov, N.; Landman, I.; Podkovyrov, V.; Safronov, V.; Loarte, A.; Merola, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the response of plasma facing components manufactured with tungsten (macro-brush) and CFC to energy loads characteristic of Type I ELMs and disruptions in ITER, in experiments conducted (under an EU/RF collaboration) in two plasma guns (QSPA and MK-200UG) at the TRINITI institute. Targets were exposed to a series of repetitive pulses in QSPA with heat loads in a range of 1-2 MJ/m 2 lasting 0.5 ms. Moderate tungsten erosion, of less than 0.2 μm per pulse, was found for loads of ∼1.5 MJ/m 2 , consistent with ELM erosion being determined by tungsten evaporation and not by melt layer displacement. At energy densities of ∼1.8 MJ/m 2 a sharp growth of tungsten erosion was measured together with intense droplet ejection. MK-200UG experiments were focused on studying mainly vapor plasma production and impurity transport during ELMs. The conditions for removal of thin metal deposits from a carbon substrate were characterized

  3. Effects of ELMs and disruptions on ITER divertor armour materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, G.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, N.; Giniyatulin, R.; Klimov, N.; Landman, I.; Podkovyrov, V.; Safronov, V.; Loarte, A.; Merola, M.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the response of plasma facing components manufactured with tungsten (macro-brush) and CFC to energy loads characteristic of Type I ELMs and disruptions in ITER, in experiments conducted (under an EU/RF collaboration) in two plasma guns (QSPA and MK-200UG) at the TRINITI institute. Targets were exposed to a series of repetitive pulses in QSPA with heat loads in a range of 1-2 MJ/m 2 lasting 0.5 ms. Moderate tungsten erosion, of less than 0.2 μm per pulse, was found for loads of ˜1.5 MJ/m 2, consistent with ELM erosion being determined by tungsten evaporation and not by melt layer displacement. At energy densities of ˜1.8 MJ/m 2 a sharp growth of tungsten erosion was measured together with intense droplet ejection. MK-200UG experiments were focused on studying mainly vapor plasma production and impurity transport during ELMs. The conditions for removal of thin metal deposits from a carbon substrate were characterized.

  4. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  5. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  6. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  7. Plasma shut-down with fast impurity puff on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Fuchs, C.J.; Gruber, O.; Maggi, C.F.; Maraschek, M.; Puetterich, T.; Rohde, V.; Wittmann, C.; Wolfrum, E.; Cierpka, P.; Beck, M.

    2007-01-01

    The massive injection of impurity gas into a plasma has been proved to reduce forces and localized thermal loads caused by disruptions in tokamaks. This mitigation system is routinely used on ASDEX Upgrade to shut down plasmas with a locked mode. The plasma response to impurity injection and the mechanism of reduction of the mechanical forces is discussed in the paper

  8. Erosion products in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Barsuk, V.; Kurkin, S.; Mironova, E.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, I.; Werle, H.; Wuerz, H.

    1998-01-01

    Erosion of divertor materials under tokamak disruption event presents a serious problem of ITER technology. Erosion restricts the divertor lifetime and leads to production of redeposited layers of the material retaining large amount of tritium, which is a major safety issue for future fusion reactor. Since ITER disruptive heat loads are not achievable in existing tokamaks, material erosion is studied in special simulation experiments. Till now the simulation experiments have focused mainly on investigation of shielding effect and measurement of erosion rate. In the present work the properties of eroded and redeposited graphite are studied under condition typical for hard ITER disruption. (author)

  9. Disruptions and Their Mitigation in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, K.H.; Jaspers, R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Savtchkov, A.; Lehnen, M.; Waidmann, G.

    2005-01-01

    Disruptions remain a major concern for tokamak devices, particularly for large machines. The critical issues are the induced (halo) currents and the resulting forces, the excessive heating of exposed surfaces by the instantaneous power release, and the possible occurrence of highly energetic runaway electrons. The key topics of the investigations on TEXTOR in the recent years concerned (a) the power deposition pattern recorded by a fast infrared scanner, (b) the runaway generation measured by synchrotron radiation in the infrared spectral region, (c) method development for 'healing' discharges that are going to disrupt, and (d) massive gas puffing for mitigating the adverse effects of disruptions

  10. Visual in-pile fuel disruption experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, G.L.; Ostensen, R.W.; Young, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    In a loss-of-flow (LOF) accident in an LMFBR, the mode of disruption of fuel may determine the probability of a subsequent energetic excursion. To investigate these phenomena, in-pile disruption of fission-heated irradiated fuel pellets was recorded by high speed cinematography. Instead of fuel frothing or dust-cloud breakup (as used in the SAS code) massive and very rapid fuel swelling, not predicted by analytical models, occurred. These tests support massive fuel swelling as the initial mode of fuel disruption in a LOF accident. (author)

  11. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  12. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  13. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  14. Comprehensive physical models and simulation package for plasma/material interactions during plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called high energy interaction with general heterogeneous target systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Comprehensive physical models and simulation package for plasma/material interactions during plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1998-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCS) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor-cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed

  16. Atmospheric pressure microwave plasma system with ring waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liang; Zhang Guixin; Zhu Zhijie; Luo Chengmu

    2007-01-01

    Some scientists used waveguide as the cavity to produce a plasma jet, while large volume microwave plasma was relatively hard to get in atmospheric pressure. However, a few research institutes have already developed devices to generate large volume of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, such as CYRANNUS and SLAN series, which can be widely applied. In this paper, present a microwave plasma system with ring waveguide to excite large volume of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, plot curves on theoretical disruption electric field of some working gases, emulate the cavity through software, measure the power density to validate and show the appearance of microwave plasma. At present, large volume of argon and helium plasma have already been generated steadily by atmospheric pressure microwave plasma system. This research can build a theoretical basis of microwave plasma excitation under atmospheric pressure and will be useful in study of the device. (authors)

  17. Glaciological parameters of disruptive event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, C.

    1979-01-01

    The following disruptive events caused by ice sheets are considered: continental glaciation, erosion, loading and subsidence, deep ground water recharge, flood erosion, isostatic rebound rates, melting, and periodicity of ice ages

  18. Disruptive Innovation in Chinese and Indian Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    markets, has made these emerging economies fertile ground for developing and applying disruptive innovations. A novel mix of key attributes distinctive from those of established technologies or business models, disruptive innovations are typically inferior, yet affordable and "good-enough" products...... or services, which originate in lower-end market segments, but later move up to compete with those provided by incumbent firms. This book sheds new light on disruptive innovations both from and for the bottom of the pyramid in China and India, from the point of view of local entrepreneurs and international...... firms seeking to operate their businesses there. It covers both the theoretical and practical implications of disruptive innovation using conceptual frameworks alongside detailed case studies, whilst also providing a comparison of conditions and strategic options in India and China. Further, unlike...

  19. Disruption mitigation studies in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Evans, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the discharge behavior, thermal loads, halo currents, and runaway electrons have been obtained in disruptions on the DIII-D tokamak. These experiments have also evaluated techniques to mitigate the disruptions while minimizing runaway electron production. Experiments injecting cryogenic impurity killer pellets of neon and argon and massive amounts of helium gas have successfully reduced these disruption effects. The halo current generation, scaling, and mitigation are understood and are in good agreement with predictions of a semianalytic model. Results from killer pellet injection have been used to benchmark theoretical models of the pellet ablation and energy loss. Runaway electrons are often generated by the pellets and new runaway generation mechanisms, modifications of the standard Dreicer process, have been found to explain the runaways. Experiments with the massive helium gas puff have also effectively mitigated disruptions without the formation of runaway electrons that can occur with killer pellets

  20. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; Reus, M.A. de; Collin, G; Snijders, T.M.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Stam, C.J.; Heuvel, M.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions

  1. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  2. The Logic of Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    Digital platforms are disruptive IT artifacts, because they facilitate the quick release of innovative platform derivatives from third parties (e.g., apps). This study endeavours to unravel the disruptive potential, caused by distinct designs and configurations of digital platforms on market...... environments. We postulate that the disruptive potential of digital platforms is determined by the degree of alignment among the business, technology and platform profiles. Furthermore, we argue that the design and configuration of the aforementioned three elements dictates the extent to which open innovation...... is permitted. To shed light on the disruptive potential of digital platforms, we opted for payment platforms as our unit of analysis. Through interviews with experts and payment providers, we seek to gain an in-depth appreciation of how contemporary digital payment platforms are designed and configured...

  3. A new Disruption Mitigation System for deuterium–tritium operation at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruezi, Uron, E-mail: uron.kruezi@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Jachmich, Stefan [Laboratory for Plasma Physic, ERM/KMS, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Koslowski, Hans Rudolf [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-4, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Lehnen, Michael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS90046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Brezinsek, Sebastijan [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-4, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Matthews, Guy [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Disruption Mitigation System based on massive gas injections has been designed. • The DMS has been installed at the JET-tokamak for routine machine protection. • The DMS is capable of a throughput of up to 4.6 kPa m{sup 3}. • The new DMS is compatible with the deuterium–tritium operation at JET. - Abstract: Disruptions, the fast accidental losses of plasma current and stored energy in tokamaks, represent a significant risk to the mechanical structure as well as the plasma facing components of reactor-scale fusion facilities like ITER. At JET, the tokamak experiment closest to ITER in terms of operating parameters and size, massive gas injection has been established as a disruption mitigation method. As a “last resort” measure it reduces thermal and electromagnetic loads during disruptions which can potentially have a serious impact on the beryllium and tungsten plasma-facing materials of the main chamber and divertor. For the planned deuterium–tritium experiments, a new Disruption Mitigation System (DMS) has been designed and installed and is presented in this article. The new DMS at JET consists of an all metal gate valve compatible with gas injections, a fast high pressure eddy current driven valve, a high voltage power supply and a gas handling system providing six supply lines for pure and mixed noble and flammable gases (Ar, Ne, Kr, D{sub 2}, etc.). The valve throughput varies with the injection pressure and gas type (efficiency – injected/charged gas 50–97%); the maximum injected amount of gas is approximately 4.6 kPa m{sup 3} (at maximum system pressure of 5.0 MPa).

  4. A new Disruption Mitigation System for deuterium–tritium operation at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruezi, Uron; Jachmich, Stefan; Koslowski, Hans Rudolf; Lehnen, Michael; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Matthews, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Disruption Mitigation System based on massive gas injections has been designed. • The DMS has been installed at the JET-tokamak for routine machine protection. • The DMS is capable of a throughput of up to 4.6 kPa m"3. • The new DMS is compatible with the deuterium–tritium operation at JET. - Abstract: Disruptions, the fast accidental losses of plasma current and stored energy in tokamaks, represent a significant risk to the mechanical structure as well as the plasma facing components of reactor-scale fusion facilities like ITER. At JET, the tokamak experiment closest to ITER in terms of operating parameters and size, massive gas injection has been established as a disruption mitigation method. As a “last resort” measure it reduces thermal and electromagnetic loads during disruptions which can potentially have a serious impact on the beryllium and tungsten plasma-facing materials of the main chamber and divertor. For the planned deuterium–tritium experiments, a new Disruption Mitigation System (DMS) has been designed and installed and is presented in this article. The new DMS at JET consists of an all metal gate valve compatible with gas injections, a fast high pressure eddy current driven valve, a high voltage power supply and a gas handling system providing six supply lines for pure and mixed noble and flammable gases (Ar, Ne, Kr, D_2, etc.). The valve throughput varies with the injection pressure and gas type (efficiency – injected/charged gas 50–97%); the maximum injected amount of gas is approximately 4.6 kPa m"3 (at maximum system pressure of 5.0 MPa).

  5. Resonant Tidal Disruption in Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Kevin P.; Ingalls, Brian

    1997-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the rate of angular momentum relaxation in nearly-Keplerian star clusters is greatly increased by a process termed resonant relaxation (Rauch & Tremaine 1996), who also argued that tidal disruption of stars in galactic nuclei containing massive black holes could be noticeably enhanced by this process. We describe here the results of numerical simulations of resonant tidal disruption which quantitatively test the predictions made by Rauch & Tremaine. The simulat...

  6. BUSINESS MODEL PATTERNS FOR DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    BENJAMIN AMSHOFF; CHRISTIAN DÜLME; JULIAN ECHTERFELD; JÜRGEN GAUSEMEIER

    2015-01-01

    Companies nowadays face a myriad of business opportunities as a direct consequence of manifold disruptive technology developments. As a basic characteristic, disruptive technologies lead to a severe shift in value-creation networks giving rise to new market segments. One of the key challenges is to anticipate the business logics within these nascent and formerly unknown markets. Business model patterns promise to tackle this challenge. They can be interpreted as proven business model elements...

  7. Study of the radiated energy loss during massive gas injection mitigated disruptions on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y. M.; Hao, Z. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wang, L.; Xu, P.; Xu, L. Q.; Zhuang, H. D.; EAST Team

    2015-08-01

    The MGI mitigated disruption experiments were carried out on EAST with a new fast gas controlling valve in 2012. Different amounts of noble gas He or mixed gas of 99% He + 1% Ar are injected into plasma in current flat-top phase and current ramp-down phase separately. The initial results of MGI experiments are described. The MGI system and the radiation measurement system are briefly introduced. The characteristics of radiation distribution and radiation energy loss are analyzed. About 50% of the stored thermal energy Wdia is dissipated by radiation during the entire disruption process and the impurities of C and Li from the PFC play important roles to radiative energy loss. The amount of the gas can affect the pre-TQ phase. Strong poloidal asymmetry of radiation begins to appear in the CQ phase, which is possibly caused by the plasma configuration changes as a result of VDE. No toroidal radiation asymmetry is observed presently.

  8. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Brezinsek, S.; Decker, J.; Devaux, S.; Vries, P. de; Fil, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams

  9. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reux, C., E-mail: cedric.reux@cea.fr [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Plyusnin, V. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Alper, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Bazylev, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Nord, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Belonohy, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie-und Klimaforschung-Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Decker, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Devaux, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vries, P. de [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Fil, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams.

  10. ITER vacuum vessel dynamic stress analysis of a disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, B.W.; Conner, D.L.; Strickler, D.J.; Williamson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic stress analysis of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor vacuum vessel loaded by disruption forces was performed. The deformation and stress results showed strong inertial effects when compared to static analyses. Maximum stress predicted dynamically was 300 MPa, but stress shown by static analysis from loads at the same point in time reached only 80 MPa. The analysis also provided a reaction load history in the vessel's supports which is essential in evaluating support design. The disruption forces were estimated by assuming a 25-MA plasma current decaying at 1 MA/ms while moving vertically. In addition to forces developed within the vessel, vertical loadings from the first wall/strong back assemblies and the divertor were applied to the vessel at their attachment points. The first 50 natural modes were also determined. The first mode's frequency was 6.0 Hz, and its shape is characterized by vertical displacement of the vessel inner leg. The predicted deformation of the vessel appeared similar to its first mode shape combined with radial contraction. Kinetic energy history from the analysis also correlated with the first mode frequency

  11. BINARY DISRUPTION BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: HYPERVELOCITY STARS, S STARS, AND TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R., E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We examine whether disrupted binary stars can fuel black hole growth. In this mechanism, tidal disruption produces a single hypervelocity star (HVS) ejected at high velocity and a former companion star bound to the black hole. After a cluster of bound stars forms, orbital diffusion allows the black hole to accrete stars by tidal disruption at a rate comparable to the capture rate. In the Milky Way, HVSs and the S star cluster imply similar rates of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for binary disruption. These rates are consistent with estimates for the tidal disruption rate in nearby galaxies and imply significant black hole growth from disrupted binaries on 10 Gyr timescales.

  12. Materials effects and design implications of disruptions and off-normal events in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Federici, G.; Konkashbaev, I.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Litunovsky, V.

    1997-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials during abnormal plasma behavior such as hard disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) is considered a serious life-limiting concern for these components. The PFCs in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), such as the divertor, limiter, and parts of the first wall, will be subjected to high energy deposition during these plasma instabilities. High erosion losses on material surfaces, high temperature rise in structural materials (particularly at the bonding interface), and high heat flux levels and possible burnout of the coolant tubes are critical constraints that severely limit component lifetime and therefore degrade reactor performance, safety, and economics. Recently developed computer models and simulation experiments are being used to evaluate various damage to PFCs during the abnormal events. The design implications of plasma-facing and nearby components are discussed, and recommendations are made to mitigate the effects of these events

  13. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ...... metabolising system using liver S9 mixtures or hepatic rat microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, to be able to detect effects and predict mixture effects. In addition, a new hypothesis have emerge concerning a potential role of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and the development of obesity and obesity related diseases. AIM: This PhD project aimed to gain more information regarding...

  14. Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.; Finken, K. H.; Willi, O.; Lehnen, M.; Xu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the total runaway electron energy are carried out using a reciprocating probe during induced TEXTOR disruptions. A comparison with the energy inferred from runaway energy spectra, which are measured with a scintillator probe, is used as an independent check of the results. A typical runaway current of 100 kA at TEXTOR contains 30 to 35 kJ of runaway energy. The dependencies of the runaway energy on the runaway current, the radial probe position, the toroidal magnetic field and the predisruptive plasma current are studied. The conversion efficiency of the magnetic plasma energy into runaway energy is calculated to be up to 26%.

  15. Scaling of the MHD perturbation amplitude required to trigger a disruption and predictions for ITER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Vries, P.C.; Pautasso, G.; Nardon, E.; Cahyna, Pavel; Gerasimov, S.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Huijsmans, G.T.A.; Lehnen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Markovič, Tomáš; Snipes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 026007. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : disruptions * locked modes * MHD instabilities * ITER * COMPASS tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/56/2/026007/meta

  16. Comparison between 3D eddy current patterns in tokamak in-vessel components generated by disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakellaris, J.; Crutzen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    During plasma disruption events in Tokamaks, a large amount of magnetic energy is associated to the transfer of plasma current into eddy currents in the passive structures. In the ITER program two design concepts have been proposed. One approach (ITER CDA design) is based on copper stabilization loops (i.e., twin loops) attached to box-shaped blanket segments, electrically and mechanically separated along the toroidal direction. For another design concept (ITER EDA design) based on lower plasma elongation there is no need for specific stabilization loops. The passive stabilization is obtained by toroidally continuous components (i.e., the plasma facing wall of the blanket segments allows a continuity along the toroidal direction). Consequently, toroidal currents flow, when electromagnetic transients occur. Electromagnetic loads appear in the blanket structures in case of plasma disruptions and/or vertical displacement events either for the ITER CDA design concept or for the ITER EDA design concept. In this paper the influence of the in-vessel design configuration concepts--insulated segments or electrically continuous structures--in terms of magnetic shielding and electric insulation on the magnitude and the flow pattern of the eddy currents is investigated. This investigation will allow a performance evaluation of the two proposed design concepts

  17. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  18. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Synergetic Effects of Runaway and Disruption Induced by VDE on the First Wall Damage in HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Li Xu; Yuan Guoliang; Zhang Yipo

    2012-01-01

    The plasma facing component in HL-2A has been damaged seriously after disruption, and for this reason its operation is suspended for maintenance. The experimental phenomena and plasma configurations, calculated by the current filament code (CF-code) using the plasma parameters measured by diagnostics and the signals of the magnetic probes, confirm that the first wall is damaged by the synergetic effects of runaway electrons and disruption induced by a vertical displacement event (VDE). When the plasma column is displaced upward/downward, the strong runaway electrons normally hit the baffle plate of the MP 3 or MP 1 coil in the upper and lower divertor during the disruption, causing the baffle plates to be holed and wrinkled by the energetic runaway current, and water (for cooling or heating the baffle plates) to leak into the vacuum vessel. Another disastrous consequence is that bellows underlying the baffle plate and outside the coil of MP 3 for connecting two segments of the jacket casing pipe are punctured by arcing. The arc may be part of the halo current that forms a complete circuit. The experimental phenomena are indirect but compelling evidence for the existence of a halo current during the disruption and VDE, though the halo current has not been measured by the diagnostics in the HL-2A tokamak.

  20. Synergetic Effects of Runaway and Disruption Induced by VDE on the First Wall Damage in HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianying; Yang, Jinwei; Li, Xu; Yuan, Guoliang; Zhang, Yipo

    2012-03-01

    The plasma facing component in HL-2A has been damaged seriously after disruption, and for this reason its operation is suspended for maintenance. The experimental phenomena and plasma configurations, calculated by the current filament code (CF-code) using the plasma parameters measured by diagnostics and the signals of the magnetic probes, confirm that the first wall is damaged by the synergetic effects of runaway electrons and disruption induced by a vertical displacement event (VDE). When the plasma column is displaced upward/downward, the strong runaway electrons normally hit the baffle plate of the MP3 or MP1 coil in the upper and lower divertor during the disruption, causing the baffle plates to be holed and wrinkled by the energetic runaway current, and water (for cooling or heating the baffle plates) to leak into the vacuum vessel. Another disastrous consequence is that bellows underlying the baffle plate and outside the coil of MP3 for connecting two segments of the jacket casing pipe are punctured by arcing. The arc may be part of the halo current that forms a complete circuit. The experimental phenomena are indirect but compelling evidence for the existence of a halo current during the disruption and VDE, though the halo current has not been measured by the diagnostics in the HL-2A tokamak.

  1. Disruption of the blood-brain interface in neonatal rat neocortex induces a transient expression of metallothionein in reactive astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Moos, T

    1995-01-01

    rats were subjected to a localized freeze lesion of the neocortex of the right temporal cortex. This lesion results in a disrupted blood-brain interface, leading to extravasation of plasma proteins. From 16 h, reactive astrocytosis, defined as an increase in the number and size of cells expressing GFAP...

  2. The scrape-off layer of a tokamak during the thermal phase of disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkashbaev, I.K.

    1993-01-01

    The physical processes taking place in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with a poloidal diverter during disruption are considered. It is shown that the physical processes in the scrape-off layer during disruption differ qualitatively from those in steady state. The main difference is that the plasma parameters in the scrape-off layer changes so as to facilitate transport along the field lines to the diverter plates, increasing the energy flux through the separatrix to disruption by a factor of 10 4 . It is found that for this the plasma in the scrape-off layer must already be hot and collisionless. During the transit time hot ions from the tokamak reach the diverter plates with essentially no energy loss. Because the electron velocity is large, an oppositely directed flux the wall plasma can be treated as infinite, i.e., electron recycling occurs. The energy lost to the scrape-off layer by anomalous thermal conductivity (diffusion) is transferred through turbulence to this cold electron stream by means of the two-stream instability. The mean electron energy ≅ 1 keV is substantially greater than that is steady state, T e ≅ 50 eV. Thus, an ion flux with E i ≅ 10 keV and a collisionless gas with T e ≅ 1 keV interact with the diverter plates. 3 refs., 4 figs

  3. Heat flux to the limiter during disruptions and neutral beam injection in Doublet-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; DeGrassie, J.; Taylor, T.S.; Hopkins, G.; Meyer, C.; Petrie, T.W.; Kahn, C.L.; Ejima, S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat flux to the Doublet-III primary limiter has been monitored during plasma disruptions and during neutral beam injection. The surface temperature of the movable TiC-coated graphite limiter was measured with an Inframetrics thermal imaging system and a suitably filtered silicon photodiode spot detector. In addition, the floating electric potential of the limiter with respect to the vacuum vessel was measured. The heat pulse duration to the limiter was measured by the spot detector with a time response of x approx.= 10 μs and these times were correlated with the plasma parameters. In limiter discharges, 20% of the plasma kinetic stored energy goes to the limiter during disruptions. The power balance during disruptions is also discussed. During neutral beam injection, the limiter is not heated uniformly; the ion drift side receives much more thermal flux than the electron drift side. The fraction of beam power going to the limiter is as high as approx.= 35% in normal limiter discharges. (orig.)

  4. Disruption Warning Database Development and Exploratory Machine Learning Studies on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Kevin; Rea, Cristina; Granetz, Robert

    2017-10-01

    A database of about 1800 shots from the 2015 campaign on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is assembled, including disruptive and non-disruptive discharges. The database consists of 40 relevant plasma parameters with data taken from 160k time slices. In order to investigate the possibility of developing a robust disruption prediction algorithm that is tokamak-independent, we focused machine learning studies on a subset of dimensionless parameters such as βp, n /nG , etc. The Random Forests machine learning algorithm provides insight on the available data set by ranking the relative importance of the input features. Its application on the C-Mod database, however, reveals that virtually no one parameter has more importance than any other, and that its classification algorithm has a low rate of successfully predicted samples, as well as poor false positive and false negative rates. Comparing the analysis of this algorithm on the C-Mod database with its application to a similar database on DIII-D, we conclude that disruption prediction may not be feasible on C-Mod. This conclusion is supported by empirical observations that most C-Mod disruptions are caused by radiative collapse due to molybdenum from the first wall, which happens on just a 1-2ms timescale. Supported by the US Dept. of Energy under DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  6. Helicobacter pylori Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that H. pylori also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major H. pylori virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with H. pylori wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. H. pylori disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to H. pylori exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that H. pylori activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  7. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  8. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  9. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  11. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  12. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  13. First disruption studies and simulations in view of the development of the DEMO Physics Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramogida, G., E-mail: giuseppe.ramogida@enea.it [ENEA for EUROfusion, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Maddaluno, G. [ENEA for EUROfusion, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Villone, F. [University of Cassino Consorzio CREATE, Cassino (Italy); Albanese, R. [University Federico II Consorzio CREATE, Naples (Italy); Barbato, L. [University of Cassino Consorzio CREATE, Cassino (Italy); Crisanti, F. [ENEA for EUROfusion, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Mastrostefano, S. [University of Cassino Consorzio CREATE, Cassino (Italy); Mazzuca, R. [ENEA for EUROfusion, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Palmaccio, R. [University of Cassino Consorzio CREATE, Cassino (Italy); Rubinacci, G.; Ventre, S. [University Federico II Consorzio CREATE, Naples (Italy); Wenninger, R. [IPP, Garching (Germany); EFDA, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The prediction of disruption features and loads is essential in the design of DEMO. • Different disruptions need to be simulated to evaluate the EM and thermal loads. • Extrapolation of the thermal quench duration to DEMO gives values from 0.8 to 1.1 ms. • Extrapolation of the current quench duration to DEMO gives values from 47 to 107 ms. • First CarMa0NL simulations points out the effect of large 3D conductive structures. - Abstract: In the development of the DEMO Physics Basis an important role is played by the prediction of the plasma disruption features and by the evaluation of the electro-magnetic (EM) and thermal loads associated with these events. Indeed, the kind and number of foreseen plasma disruptions drive the development of the DEMO operation scenarios and the design of vessel and in-vessel components. To characterize a plausible macroscopic plasma dynamics during these events, we will carry out an extrapolation from present-day machines of the main parameters characterizing the disruptions: thermal and current quench time, evolution of plasma current, β and l{sub i}, safety factor limits, halo current fraction and width, radiated heat fraction. In particular, we will focus on extrapolations for the thermal and current quench characteristic times, due to their importance for the subsequent simulations aimed at the evaluation of the EM and thermal loads. The different options for DEMO design will be taken into account and the possible range of variation of the parameters will be estimated. The 2D axysimmetric MAXFEA and the 3D CarMa0NL codes will be used to evaluate the effects of the induced currents and the EM loads during a disruptive event and to analyze the various design options obtained by the PROCESS code. The results of these simulations, modeled as worst expected events, will be used as input for the system level analysis and design of the vessel and relevant in-vessel components. First simulations with CarMa0NL code

  14. Endocrine Disrupting Contaminants—Beyond the Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of endocrine disruption have largely been associated with wildlife and driven by observations documenting estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions. These actions, in response to exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of various environmental contaminants, have now been established in numerous vertebrate species. However, many potential mechanisms and endocrine actions have not been studied. For example, the DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] metabolite, p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] is known to disrupt prostaglandin synthesis in the uterus of birds, providing part of the explanation for DDT-induced egg shell thinning. Few studies have examined prostaglandin synthesis as a target for endocrine disruption, yet these hormones are active in reproduction, immune responses, and cardiovascular physiology. Future studies must broaden the basic science approach to endocrine disruption, thereby expanding the mechanisms and endocrine end points examined. This goal should be accomplished even if the primary influence and funding continue to emphasize a narrower approach based on regulatory needs. Without this broader approach, research into endocrine disruption will become dominated by a narrow dogma, focusing on a few end points and mechanisms. PMID:16818240

  15. Effect of music on mealtime disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jeff; Carson, Derek; Lindsay, Bill

    People with learning disabilities can disrupt mealtimes with non-cooperative, aggressive and self-injurious behaviours that challenge other people to tolerate and manage them. These behaviours appear to arise because the proximity of other people, and the heightened activity and noise of a dining room, causes anxiety and agitation. To examine how delivering calming background music via headphones affected anxiety-driven behaviours that disrupted mealtimes. A sample of 30 adults with mild, moderate or severe learning disabilities were videotaped during mealtimes on two consecutive days. On the first day, half the group ate without any calming music while the other half sat opposite them wearing earphones and listening to calming music. On the second day, the non-music and music groups swapped around. Of the participants who tolerated the earphones, only three showed disruptive behaviour; all three had been sitting at the table waiting for their food. With so few examples, meaningful inferential analysis was not possible. However, there were signs that calming music had a positive effect on disruptive mealtime behaviours. It eliminated physical harm, complaining and verbal repetition in one person, and stopped another from shouting/swearing. It also reduced the incidence of shouting/swearing, restlessness and vocalising. Calming music and reduced waiting at tables for food may reduce disruptive behaviours.

  16. Disruptive Intelligence - How to gather Information to deal with disruptive innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.; Solberg Søilen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive innovations are innovations that have the capacity to transform a whole business into one with products that are more accessible and affordable (cf. Christensen et al. 2009). As Christensen et al. argue no business is immune to such disruptive innovations. If these authors are right, it

  17. Drift wave transport and origin of the disruption phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselberg, G.; Rogister, A.

    1983-02-01

    Nonlinear ion Landau damping of drift waves yields a splitting of the spectrum into a long and a short wavelength branch. The latter contributes most (> 90%) of the transport and permits to explain the observed relaxation of Tokamak plasma profiles to a weakly unstable state, in the occurence with regard to the dissipative trapped electron mode. The fluxes indeed increase much more rapidly than the linear growth rates. This result and surprising coincidences between the linear theory and empirical laws concerning the high density limit lead us to propose that the slow rise of the sawtooth pulsations of the core occurs whilst the transport in the surrounding layer is insufficient to evacuate the power deposited. The sudden relaxation takes place once the released heat pulses are capable - much as in collisionless shock waves - of exciting the trapped electron mode to a sufficient level to ensure adequate transport. The model explains many experimental features associated with these sawteeth as well as with the related plasma disruptions: contraction of the current channel, high density limit (both the scaling and the order of magnitude are predicted), etc. ... (orig.)

  18. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  19. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  20. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016