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Sample records for plasma coagulation compared

  1. Coagulation profile of liquid-state plasma.

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    Gosselin, Robert C; Marshall, Carol; Dwyre, Denis M; Gresens, Chris; Davis, Diana; Scherer, Lynette; Taylor, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    Use of liquid plasma (LP) has been reported as early as the mid 1930s. Unlike fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), LP is maintained at 1 to 6°C for up to 40 days after collection and processing. Despite its approved use by the US Food and Drug Administration, the coagulation profile of LP is incompletely described. In this study we evaluate the coagulation profile of LP stored up to 30 days. LP was prepared by removing plasma from nonleukoreduced whole blood within 24 hours of collection. Three LP units from each ABO group were collected and stored at 1 to 6°C. Plasma aliquots were obtained at Postcollection Days 1 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 and then stored at -70°C. Each aliquot was tested for prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. There was a significant decrease in Factor (F)V, FVII, FVIII, von Willebrand factor (VWF), protein S (PS) activity, and endogenous thrombin potential on Day 15 compared with Day 1. No significant difference was observed for PS antigen, D-dimer, or thrombin-antithrombin complex. At least 50% activity of all measured factors was noted on Day 15, compared to Day 1. Considerable heterogeneity was observed between the different blood groups for FVII, FVIII, and VWF. These data demonstrate that LP maintains at least 50% of factor activity and thrombin-generating capacity up to 15 days of refrigerated storage. It may be more appropriate to limit LP storage and supplement with FFP when used for management of massively bleeding patients. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Coagulation of dust particles in a plasma

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    Horanyi, M.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic charge of small dust grains in a plasma in which the temperature varies in time is discussed, pointing out that secondary electron emission might introduce charge separation. If the sign of the charge on small grains is opposite to that on big ones, enhanced coagulation can occur which will affect the size distribution of grains in a plasma. Two scenarios where this process might be relevant are considered: a hot plasma environment with temperature fluctuations and a cold plasma environment with transient heating events. The importance of the enhanced coagulation is uncertain, because the plasma parameters in grain-producing environments such as a molecular cloud or a protoplanetary disk are not known. It is possible, however, that this process is the most efficient mechanism for the growth of grains in the size range of 0.1-500 microns.

  3. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

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    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  4. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

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    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  5. Argon plasma coagulation for treatment of hemorrhagic radiation gastroduodenitis

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    Maekawa, Shu-Ji; Aoyama, Nobuo; Shirasaka, Daisuke; Inoue, Takashi; Kuroda, Kohei; Ebara, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Takao; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kasuga, Masato [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    A 79-year-old man who had received radiotherapy for portal vein thrombosis due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 5 months earlier, showed progressive anemia and melena. Endoscopy on admission revealed diffuse bleeding from multiple telangiectasias on the anterior wall of the antrum and bulbus. We treated this patient with a new non-contact hemostatic method: the argon plasma coagulator (APC). The melena stopped after the first session and the hemoglobin level remained stable for 7 months. No delayed complications have been observed. Gastrointestinal bleeding from chronic radiation gastroduodenitis is rarely reported compared with radiation proctitis. This case demonstrates that APC is effective for hemostasis of diffuse bleeding from radiation gastroduodenitis, just as for radiation protitis. (author)

  6. Quarantine versus pathogen-reduced plasma-coagulation factor content and rotational thromboelastometry coagulation.

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    Theusinger, Oliver M; Goslings, David; Studt, Jan-Dirk; Brand-Staufer, Brigitte; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Frey, Beat M

    2017-03-01

    Different types of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) exist, and the concentrations of plasma proteins vary between individuals and blood groups. Furthermore, processing may also influence the content. Quarantine-stored plasma (qFFP) and plasma that was pathogen-reduced using blood-safety (Intercept) technology (piFFP) were analyzed regarding procoagulant and anticoagulant hemostasis proteins, including endogenous thrombin (thrombin-generation) potential (ETP). Thirty-five samples of each type of FFP were analyzed using only male Blood Group O donors. FFP units were stored frozen for comparable periods of time before plasma protein content was assessed. Once the units were thawed, all tests were completed within 4 hours. The results are presented as means ± standard deviations or as median (minimum; maximum) and were compared using independent-sample t tests (significance, p < 0.01). Significantly higher concentrations of adintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-13 motifs (ADAMTS13), fibrinogen, Factor (F)V, FVIII, FXIII, protein S, protein S activity, antithrombin, microvesicle (<900 nm), and α2 antiplasmin were observed in qFFP. The variability of factors was significantly lower in piFFP. Tissue factor (TF) at 1 picomolar (pM) exhibited significantly longer lag time, a lower peak, lower ETP, and a lower velocity index in qFFP compared with piFFP. In TF at 5 pM, significant differences in lag time (longer in qFFP), velocity index (lower in qFFP), and peak (lower in qFFP) were observed. Rotational thromboelastometry revealed a significantly longer (p = 0.002) clot-formation time with intrinsic thromboelastometry for piFFP and a significantly shorter clotting time (p = 0.004) with thromboelastometry fibrinogen testing for piFFP. Pathogen reduction reduces procoagulant and anticoagulant coagulation factors as well as variability. A thrombin-generation assay showed no reduced ETP and no supraphysiological thrombin generation. None of the

  7. A biochemical quality study of a pharmaceutically licenced coagulation active plasma (Octaplas) thawed by the SAHARA-III dry tempering system compared to the regular use of a water bath.

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    Heger, A; Römisch, J; Svae, T-E

    2008-01-01

    The most common way to thaw frozen coagulation-active plasma products for transfusion is the use of a water bath with good circulation at 30-37 degrees C. The aim of this study was to perform an extensive biochemical characterization of the pharmaceutically licenced solvent/detergent-treated plasma, Octaplas, thawed using the SAHARA-III dry tempering system from the company Sarstedt GmbH, Austria. A regular water bath was used in parallel for comparison. Six batches Octaplas with different blood groups were thawed in a water bath or using the SAHARA-III dry tempering system in parallel. Thawed plasma was investigated on screening tests for blood coagulation, as well as on the activities of important coagulation factors and protease inhibitors. In addition, markers of activated coagulation and fibrinolysis were tested and von Willebrand factor multimeric analysis was performed. There were neither significant differences in the blood coagulation parameters, coagulation factors, protease inhibitors, nor of markers of activated coagulation and fibrinolysis when Octaplas thawed by the two different methods was tested. The von Willebrand factor analyses showed no influence on the overall profile of the multimeric pattern when using the SAHARA-III dry tempering system. Octaplas can be thawed using the SAHARA-III dry tempering system without any negative influences on the demonstrated quality of this product. The SAHARA-III dry tempering system enables standardized thawing and warming procedure. Furthermore, tempering of Octaplas in the emergency unit or operating theatre, where no water baths can be utilized, is safe and can be fully endorsed.

  8. Development of a microplate coagulation assay for Factor V in human plasma

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    Samis John A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor V (FV in its activated form, FVa, is a critical regulator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation. There is a need of a simple, fast, and inexpensive microplate-based coagulation assay to measure the functional activity of FV in human plasma. The objective of this study was to develop a microplate-based assay that measures FV coagulation activity during clot formation in human plasma, which is currently not available. Methods The FV assay requires a kinetic microplate reader to measure the change in absorbance at 405nm during fibrin formation in human plasma. The FV assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation in human plasma. Results The FV microplate assay is simple, fast, economical, sensitive to approx 24-80pM, and multiple samples may be analyzed simultaneously. All the required materials are commercially available. Standard curves of time or initial rate of fibrin clot formation vs FV activity in the 1-stage assay (Without activation by thrombin may be used to measure FV activity in samples of human plasma. The assay was used to demonstrate that in nine patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, the FV 1-stage, 2-stage (With activation by thrombin, and total (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity activities were decreased, on average, by approximately 54%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, from prolonged clot times when compared to normal pooled human reference plasma (NHP. The results indicate that the FV in the DIC patient plasmas supported both a delayed and slower rate of fibrin clot formation compared with NHP; however, the extent of fibrin clot formation in the DIC patients remained largely unchanged from that observed with NHP. Conclusions The FV microplate assay may be easily adapted to measure the activity of any coagulation factor using the appropriate factor-deficient plasma and clot initiating reagent. The microplate assay will find use in

  9. A cartridge based sensor array platform for multiple coagulation measurements from plasma.

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    Cakmak, O; Ermek, E; Kilinc, N; Bulut, S; Baris, I; Kavakli, I H; Yaralioglu, G G; Urey, Hakan

    2015-01-07

    This paper proposes a MEMS-based sensor array enabling multiple clot-time tests for plasma in one disposable microfluidic cartridge. The versatile LoC (Lab-on-Chip) platform technology is demonstrated here for real-time coagulation tests (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT)). The system has a reader unit and a disposable cartridge. The reader has no electrical connections to the cartridge. This enables simple and low-cost cartridge designs and avoids reliability problems associated with electrical connections. The cartridge consists of microfluidic channels and MEMS microcantilevers placed in each channel. The microcantilevers are made of electroplated nickel. They are actuated remotely using an external electro-coil and the read-out is also conducted remotely using a laser. The phase difference between the cantilever oscillation and the coil drive is monitored in real time. During coagulation, the viscosity of the blood plasma increases resulting in a change in the phase read-out. The proposed assay was tested on human and control plasma samples for PT and aPTT measurements. PT and aPTT measurements from control plasma samples are comparable with the manufacturer's datasheet and the commercial reference device. The measurement system has an overall 7.28% and 6.33% CV for PT and aPTT, respectively. For further implementation, the microfluidic channels of the cartridge were functionalized for PT and aPTT tests by drying specific reagents in each channel. Since simultaneous PT and aPTT measurements are needed in order to properly evaluate the coagulation system, one of the most prominent features of the proposed assay is enabling parallel measurement of different coagulation parameters. Additionally, the design of the cartridge and the read-out system as well as the obtained reproducible results with 10 μl of the plasma samples suggest an opportunity for a possible point-of-care application.

  10. Measurement of factor v activity in human plasma using a microplate coagulation assay.

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    Tilley, Derek; Levit, Irina; Samis, John A

    2012-09-09

    above the pre-existing pathology (15). The assay was used to show that in 9 patients with DIC, the FV 1-stage, 2-stage, and total activities were decreased, on average, by 54%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, compared with normal pooled human reference plasma (NHP). The FV microplate assay is easily adaptable to measure the activity of any coagulation factor. This assay will increase our understanding of FV biochemistry through a more accurate and complete measurement of its activity in research and clinical settings. This information will positively impact healthcare environments through earlier diagnosis and development of more effective treatments for coagulation disorders, such as DIC.

  11. Refreezing previously thawed fresh-frozen plasma. Stability of coagulation factors V and VIII:C.

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    Dzik, W H; Riibner, M A; Linehan, S K

    1989-09-01

    With the growth in autologous blood programs and the increased scrutiny of the indications for transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), an increase has been seen in the number of occasions on which FFP was requested and thawed but then not transfused. The coagulation properties of FFP units that were refrozen and then rethawed were therefore studied. Fifty-eight units of plasma were studied, with each experimental unit of FFP paired with an identical control unit. Experimental units were frozen, stored at -65 degrees C, thawed, stored at 1 to 6 degrees C for various periods of time up to 24 hours, and then refrozen, stored at -65 degrees C, rethawed, and stored again in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Control units were frozen once at the time the experimental units were first frozen and thawed once at the time of the second thaw of the experimental units. Aliquots of plasma were sampled periodically and were later batch-tested for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and factor V and VIII:C activity. The results of coagulation testing of the twice-frozen plasmas were always within the normal range. There was a slight but statistically valid prolongation of the PT and aPTT and a decrease in the factor V and VIII:C levels for twice-frozen plasma compared with control plasma. The greatest decline occurred in the level of factor VIII:C. The measured deterioration in coagulation of twice-frozen FFP is unlikely to be of clinical importance. Refreezing FFP may eventually prove useful for rare donor, autologous, and massive transfusion programs.

  12. Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants

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    Manda, Innocent K. M.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Saka, John D. K.; Biswick, Timothy T.

    2016-06-01

    Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to investigate the efficiency of polymeric coagulants (sufdfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s) in turbidity reduction comparative with inorganic coagulant (aluminium sulphate) at Zomba, Liwonde, Mangochi, Chikwawa and Mulanje Treatment plants. The jar test method was used to determine the effectiveness of the water coagulants. The results revealed that sudfloc 3850 was most effective in reducing turbidity at Mangochi (99.4 ± 0.06%) and Liwonde (97.2 ± 0.04%) using 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dose. The Zomba, Mulanje and Chikwawa plants gave 19.56 ± 0.03%, 29.23 ± 0.02% and 9.43 ± 0.02% total reductions respectively. Algaefloc 19s afforded the highest turbidity reduction at Liwonde and Mangochi plants (98.66 ± 0.06 and 97.48 ± 0.05% at a dose of 0.4 and 0.6 mg L-1 respectively), while Chikwawa provided the lowest (9.52 ± 0.01%). At the Zomba and Mulanje plants 20.5 ± 0.03% and 28.4 ± 0.04% reductions were obtained respectively. The inorganic flocculant, alum provided a 99.0 ± 0.05% and 98.6 ± 0.04% reduction at a dose of 4.0 mg L-1 and 6.0 mg L-1 at Zomba and Liwonde plants respectively. The lowest reductions in turbidity were achieved at Chikwawa (7.50 ± 0.01%), Mangochi (12.97 ± 0.02%) and Mulanje (25.00 ± 0.02). The best and optimum pH ranges for polymeric and inorganic coagulants were 7.20-7.80 and 7.35 to 7.57 respectively. The results further revealed that sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s achieved faster formation of heavy flocs than alum. At 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dosage sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s required ten times

  13. Adrenaline Injection Plus Argon Plasma Coagulation versus Adrenaline Injection Plus Hemoclips for Treating High-Risk Bleeding Peptic Ulcers: A Prospective, Randomized Trial

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    Seyed Alireza Taghavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several combination endoscopic therapies are currently in use. The present study aimed to compare argon plasma coagulation (APC + adrenaline injection (AI with hemoclips + AI for the treatment of high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers.

  14. Epinephrine plus argon plasma or heater probe coagulation in ulcer bleeding

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    Ahmet Karaman; Mevlut Baskol; Sebnem Gursoy; Edip Torun; Alper Yurci; Banu Demet Ozel; Kadri Guven; Omer Ozbakir; Mehmet Yucesoy

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and heater probe coagulation (HPC) in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Eighty-five (18 female, 67 male) patients admitted for acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric or duodenal ulcer were included in the study. Upper endoscopy was performed and HPC or APC were chosen randomly to stop the bleeding. Initial hemostasis and rebleeding rates were primary and secondary end-points of the study. RESULTS: Initial hemostasis was achieved in 97.7% (42/43) and 81% (36/42) of the APC and HPC groups, respectively (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: APC is an effective hemostatic method in bleeding peptic ulcers. Larger multicenter trials are necessary to confirm these results.

  15. Bronchoscopic electrocauterization versus argon plasma coagulation as a palliative management for patients with bronchogenic carcinoma

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    Amgad A. Farhat

    2015-01-01

    It was concluded that, therapeutic bronchoscopic intervention either by electrocautery or argon plasma coagulation is a safe and effective method for palliative management of patients with central malignant airway obstruction.

  16. Changes in Dietary Fat Content Rapidly Alters the Mouse Plasma Coagulation Profile without Affecting Relative Transcript Levels of Coagulation Factors.

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    Audrey C A Cleuren

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events.Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding.HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation.Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby preceding plasma metabolic changes, which

  17. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ...Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  18. Coagulation parameters as a guide for fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: A tertiary hospital experience

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    Wan Haslindawani W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appropriate use of blood and blood products means the transfusion of safe blood products only to treat a condition leading to significant morbidity or mortality, which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The safety and effectiveness of transfusion depend on the appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products. This study was conducted to review the practice of fresh frozen plasma usage (FFP for transfusion, based on the coagulation profile, requested by various departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. Methodology: A retrospective review of blood bank records and coagulation profile results of the patients given FFP from October to December 2006, in Hospital USM was undertaken. The criteria set by the College of American Pathologists in 1994, were used as the guidelines. Results: One thousand six hundred and ninety-eight units of FFP were used during this study period. Only 806 (47.47% FFP units were deemed appropriate. 20.38% were based on studies without any coagulation tests prior to transfusion and 21.13% were transfused for mild prolongation of coagulation test results. About 6.41% requested FFP in the setting of normal coagulation results. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant proportion of the FFP transfusion was not guided by the coagulation profile. We recommend that a continuous education on FFP transfusion may help to guide the appropriate request for FFP.

  19. The protein concentration of blood coagulation factor VII can be measured equally well in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Overgaard, K; Gram, J

    1995-01-01

    In the Northwick Park Heart Study, the coagulant activity of factor VII (FVII:C) has been identified as a risk marker of ischaemic heart disease. In the fasting state, the protein concentration of FVII (FVII:Ag) might be an even better risk marker, because of the low coefficient of variation...... samples. Results were compared by means of linear regression, where y = 0.984 x +0.770, r = 0.96. No systematic variation existed between FVII:Ag in plasma and serum. The mean difference in FVII:Ag between plasma and serum was -1.17 (SD 11.92) arbitrary units, compared with a mean difference of 0.18 (SD 8.......31) arbitrary units between duplicate measurements of the same plasma dilution. Our findings indicate that there is a good agreement between FVII:Ag in plasma and serum. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-May...

  20. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

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    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  1. Prophylactic argon plasma coagulation ablation does not decrease delayed postpolypectomy bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kyun; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Tae Hoon; Chung, Il-Kwun; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Hong-Soo; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2009-08-01

    The most common complication of colonoscopic polypectomy is postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB). However, there are no established guidelines for the prevention of delayed PPB. It is possible that submucosal vessels of an artificial ulcer are a potential source of delayed bleeding that occurs several days after polypectomy. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic argon plasma coagulation (APC) of nonbleeding visible vessels in preventing delayed PPB. A prospective, randomized, controlled study. A tertiary referral center. A total of 987 polyps in 600 consecutive patients were resected by colonoscopic polypectomy. In patients who underwent APC (APC group), all nonbleeding visible vessels on the ulcer crater were targeted and were then coagulated by APC ablation until they disappeared, but not in patients who did not undergo APC (control group). The incidence of delayed PPB in the APC group was compared with that in the control group. Delayed PPB occurred in 3.3% (16/475) of all the patients, including 2.5% (6/240) in the APC group and 4.3% (10/235) in the control group. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in the rates of delayed PPB, irrespective of the type of delayed bleeding (significant bleeding: 0.8% [2/240] vs 1.3% [3/235], P = .638; minor bleeding: 1.7% [4/240] vs 3% [7/235], P = .378). There were no significant APC-related complications. Single-center study. Prophylactic APC ablation does not appear to have an additional advantage in the prevention of delayed PPB.

  2. Determining the effect of freezing on coagulation testing: comparison of results between fresh and once frozen-thawed plasma.

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    Gosselin, Robert C; Dwyre, Denis W

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the results from coagulation testing can be affected by numerous preanalytic and analytic variables including the stability of the citrated sample at room temperature. Samples not tested within 2-4 h of collection should be processed and frozen for later analysis. As limited data exist about the impact of freezing samples on coagulation testing, we sought to evaluate the effect of freezing on coagulation testing. Plasma samples into 3.2% sodium citrate tubes, centrifuged to yield platelet-poor plasma, were evaluated for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin (AT) activity, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, lupus anticoagulant and anti-Xa measurements for both unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. Samples were then frozen at -70°C for at least 1 week and testing was repeated using the same lot of material. All tests strongly correlated (R > 0.85) between fresh and frozen sample results. Using paired t test analysis, significant differences between fresh and frozen tested plasma existed for PT, APTT, factors V, VIII and AT. Significant differences existed between fresh and frozen lupus anticoagulant ratios (lupus anticoagulant screen but not lupus anticoagulant confirm), and single centrifugation process underestimated the presence of lupus anticoagulant as compared to double centrifugation processing. Freezing significantly affects the results for PT, APTT, factors V and VIII activity, and AT activity, although these differences were not considered to be clinically significant. Double centrifugation is required for accurate lupus anticoagulant testing, regardless of whether platelet-poor plasma is achieved with single centrifugation.

  3. Surface-mediated molecular events in material-induced blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kaushik

    Coagulation and thrombosis persist as major impediments associated with the use of blood-contacting medical devices. We are investigating the molecular mechanism underlying material-induced blood-plasma coagulation focusing on the role of the surface as a step towards prospective development of improved hemocompatible biomaterials. A classic observation in hematology is that blood/blood-plasma in contact with clean glass surface clots faster than when in contact with many plastic surfaces. The traditional biochemical theory explaining the underlying molecular mechanism suggests that hydrophilic surfaces, like that of glass, are specific activators of the coagulation cascade because of the negatively-charged groups on the surface. Hydrophobic surfaces are poor procoagulants or essentially "benign" because they lack anionic groups. Further, these negatively-charged surfaces are believed to not only activate blood factor XII (FXII), the key protein in contact activation, but also play a cofactor role in the amplification and propagation reactions that ultimately lead to clot formation. In sharp contrast to the traditional theory, our investigations indicate a need for a paradigm shift in the proposed sequence of contact activation events to incorporate the role of protein adsorption at the material surfaces. These studies have lead to the central hypothesis for this work proposing that protein adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces attenuates the contact activation reactions so that poorly-adsorbent hydrophilic surfaces appear to be stronger procoagulants relative to hydrophobic surfaces. Our preliminary studies measuring the plasma coagulation response of activated FXII (FXIIa) on different model surfaces suggested that the material did not play a cofactor role in the processing of this enzyme dose through the coagulation pathway. Therefore, we focused our efforts on studying the mechanism of initial production of enzyme at the procoagulant surface. Calculations for the

  4. Inhibition of vascular permeability by antisense-mediated inhibition of plasma kallikrein and coagulation factor 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Revenko, Alexey S; Crosby, Jeffrey R; May, Chris; Gao, Dacao; Zhao, Chenguang; Monia, Brett P; MacLeod, A Robert

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent, acute, and painful episodes of swelling involving multiple tissues. Deficiency or malfunction of the serine protease inhibitor C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) results in HAE types 1 and 2, respectively, whereas mutations in coagulation factor 12 (f12) have been associated with HAE type 3. C1-INH is the primary inhibitor of multiple plasma cascade pathways known to be altered in HAE patients, including the complement, fibrinolytic, coagulation, and kinin-kallikrein pathways. We have selectively inhibited several components of both the kinin-kallikrein system and the coagulation cascades with potent and selective antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to investigate their relative contributions to vascular permeability. We have also developed ASO inhibitors of C1-INH and characterized their effects on vascular permeability in mice as an inducible model of HAE. Our studies demonstrate that ASO-mediated reduction in C1-INH plasma levels results in increased vascular permeability and that inhibition of proteases of the kinin-kallikrein system, either f12 or prekallikrein (PKK) reverse the effects of C1-INH depletion with similar effects on both basal and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced permeability. In contrast, inhibition of coagulation factors 11 (f11) or 7 (f7) had no effect. These results suggest that the vascular defects observed in C1-INH deficiency are dependent on the kinin-kallikrein system proteases f12 and PKK, and not mediated through the coagulation pathways. In addition, our results highlight a novel therapeutic modality that can potentially be employed prophylactically to prevent attacks in HAE patients.

  5. Clinical analysis on argon plasma coagulation (APC) under painless colonoscopy for treatment of patients with colorectal polyp canceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J-Y; Sun, D-J; Li, X-J; Jiao, K; Zhai, Z-W

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effects of argon plasma coagulation combined high frequency electric knife in treating patients with colorectal polyp canceration. 56 patients diagnosed with colorectal polyp canceration were divided into control group (n=23) and observation group (n=33). Patients in the control group were treated with high frequency electric band ligation electroexcision while patients in observation group were treated with argon coagulation combined high frequency electric knife therapy. The patients were followed up for 6 months and, then, compared for their clinical effects and prognosis. The average diameter of the polyp, the ratios of sessile and flat polyps in observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group with p0.05. Further, the differences in operation completion rate and polyp resection rate at one time in observation group was significantly higher than those of control group while operative complication rate and operation time was significantly lower than those in the control group with pplasma coagulation combined high frequency electric knife could extend polyp resection indication, along with improvement in the operation effect and reduction of complications.

  6. Micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic sensor for plasma and whole blood coagulation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Song, Shuren; Ma, Jilong; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Liu, Weihui; Guo, Qiuquan

    2017-05-15

    Monitoring blood coagulation is an important issue in the surgeries and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the blood coagulation monitoring based on a micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic resonator. The resonator was excited by a lateral electric field and operated under the shear mode with a frequency of 1.9GHz. According to the apparent step-ladder curves of the frequency response to the change of blood viscoelasticity, the coagulation time (prothrombin time) and the coagulation kinetics were measured with the sample consumption of only 1μl. The procoagulant activity of thromboplastin and the anticoagulant effect of heparin on the blood coagulation process were illustrated exemplarily. The measured prothrombin times showed a good linear correlation with R(2)=0.99969 and a consistency with the coefficient of variation less than 5% compared with the commercial coagulometer. The proposed film bulk acoustic sensor, which has the advantages of small size, light weight, low cost, simple operation and little sample consumption, is a promising device for miniaturized, online and automated analytical system for routine diagnostics of hemostatic status and personal health monitoring.

  7. Conclusive evidence of abrupt coagulation inside the void during cyclic nanoparticle formation in reactive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we present scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results that confirm in a direct way our earlier explanation of an abrupt coagulation event as the cause for the void hiccup. In a recent paper, we reported on the fast and interrupted expansion of voids in a reactive dusty argon-acetylene plasma. The voids appeared one after the other, each showing a peculiar, though reproducible, behavior of successive periods of fast expansion, abrupt contraction, and continued expansion. The abrupt contraction was termed "hiccup" and was related to collective coagulation of a new generation of nanoparticles growing in the void using relatively indirect methods: electron density measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. In this letter, we present conclusive evidence using SEM of particles collected at different moments in time spanning several growth cycles, which enables us to follow the nanoparticle formation process in great detail.

  8. Evaluation of Some Plasma Coagulation Factors in Women with Spontaneous Miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Besharat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that 15-20% of parous female have experienced at least one miscarriage, while 3% of them have experienced two miscarriages. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma level of coagulation factors in women with a history of spontaneous abortions. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 82 women with a history of two or more abortions referred to the six private gynecologic clinics in Gorgan city without any structural abnormality were recruited during 2011-2012. Plasma levels of antithrombin III (ATIII using colorimetric assay, protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden and lupus anticoagulant (LAC using coagulation method were measured. The control group was women with a history of normal delivery and no abortions. Those under anti-coagulant therapy were excluded from the study. Data were entered into the computer using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 16 and analyzed by Chi-square, t test and non-parametric tests. Results: At least one abnormality was reported in 35 cases (42.7%. Among them, protein C deficiency was the most prevalent (30.5%. ATIII was abnormal in 17.1% and lupus anti-coagulant was abnormal in 8.5%. Factor V Leiden was normal in all cases and protein S deficiency was only seen in one case. Conclusion: We suggest to perform these tests in regards to the thrombophilia in cases with spontaneous abortions in order to find an early cure for this treatable disorder.

  9. A parametric comparative study of electrocoagulation and coagulation using ultrafine quartz suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Mehtap Gülsün; Hoşten, Cetin; Demirci, Sahinde

    2009-11-15

    This paper attempts to compare electrocoagulation using aluminum anodes and stainless steel cathodes with conventional coagulation by aluminum sulfate dosing on aqueous suspensions of ultrafine quartz. Several key parameters affecting the efficiency of electrocoagulation and coagulation were investigated with laboratory scale experiments in search of optimal parameter values. Optimal values of the parameters were determined on the basis of the efficiency of turbidity removal from ultrafine quartz suspensions. The parameters investigated in the study were suspension pH, electrical potential, current density, electrocoagulation time, and aluminum dosage. A comparison between electrocoagulation and coagulation was made on the basis of total dissolved aluminum, revealing that electrocoagulation and coagulation were equally effective at the same aluminum dosage for the removal of quartz particles from suspensions. Coagulation, however, was more effective in a wider pH range (pH 6-9) than electrocoagulation which yielded optimum effectiveness in a relatively narrower pH range around 9, where, in both methods, these pH values corresponded to near-zero zeta potentials of quartz particles. Furthermore, experimental results confirmed that electrocoagulation could display some pH buffering capacity. The kinetics of electrocoagulation was very fast (<10 min) in approaching a residual turbidity, which could be modeled with a second-order rate equation.

  10. The effect of corn trypsin inhibitor and inhibiting antibodies for FXIa and FXIIa on coagulation of plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K M; Nielsen, S; Elg, M; Deinum, J

    2014-10-01

    Corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI), an inhibitor of FXIIa, is used to prevent plasma coagulation by contact activation, to specifically investigate tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation. In the present work the specificity of CTI for factor (F) XIIa is questioned. In the commercial available plasma coagulation assays CTI was found to double activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at a plasma concentration of 7.3 ± 1.5 μm CTI (assay concentration 2.4 μm). No effect was found on the prothrombin time (PT) when high TF concentrations were used. Also, with specific antibodies for FXIIa and for FXIa only APTT was found to be extended but not PT. With specific enzyme assays using chromogenic substrates CTI was shown to be a strong inhibitor of FXIIa and a competitive inhibitor of FXIa with Ki  = 8.1 ± 0.3 μm, without effect on the coagulation factors FVIIa, FIXa, FXa and thrombin. In thrombin generation and coagulation (free oscillation rheometry, FOR) assays, initiated with low TF concentrations, no effect of CTI (plasma concentrations of 4.4 and 13.6 μm CTI, 25 resp. 100 mg L(-1) in blood) was found with ≥ 1 pm TF. At ≤ 0.1 pm TF in the FOR whole blood assay the coagulation time (CT) concentration dependently increased while the plasma CT became longer than the observation time. To avoid inhibition of FXIa and the thrombin feedback loop we recommend that for coagulation assays the concentration of CTI in blood should be below 20 mg L(-1) (1.6 μm) and in plasma below 3 μm. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Ablation of Barrett’s esophagus using the second-generation argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the second-generation argon plasma coagulation (VIO APC) in ablation of Barrett’s esophagus. Methods Eighteen patients with Barrett’s esophagus (12 males, median age of 55 years, median length of 2.1 cm,1 low-grade dysplasia, 13 cases of short segment Barrett’s esophagus) received VIO APC, which was performed at a power setting of 40W and argon gas flow at 1.5-2.0 L/min, "forced" mode, in 1-3 sessions (mean 1.3). All the patients received treatment with hi...

  12. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  13. Hemolysis of coagulation specimens: a comparative study of intravenous draw methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Mary; Sherman, Beth; Pugh, Lorene; Parone, Dominic; Looby-Rodriguez, Karen; Bell, Annette; Reed, Carole-Rae

    2012-01-01

    Hemolysis of blood samples creates significant delays in the treatment and disposition of patients in the emergency department. The purpose of this study was to compare the hemolysis rates of coagulation blood samples obtained during insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter without (group 1) or with (group 2) extension tubing connected to the IV catheter hub. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether the investigators could predict whether a coagulation sample was hemolyzed based on visual observation during the specimen withdrawal process. A prospective, 2-group randomized comparative design was used to determine which method of blood collection for coagulation specimens provided the lowest hemolysis rate. This study was conducted in an urban level I emergency department averaging 58,000 visits per year. The sample consisted of 121 adult ED patients randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups. Data collectors were trained in the 2 methods of coagulation sample collection and followed a strict protocol. The clinical laboratory used a standardized color-coded scale to determine hemolysis. Pearson χ(2) analysis was used to test for differences between all nominal variables. The level of significance for all tests was P hemolysis rates between the groups by use of χ(2) analysis (P = .84). Nurses were significantly more likely to predict that a sample was hemolyzed when it was not and to think that it was not hemolyzed when in fact it was (P hemolysis rates occurred equally when coagulation blood samples were drawn via a peripheral IV catheter either at the hub or through extension tubing. Emergency nurse investigators could not accurately predict by visualization whether a coagulation sample was hemolyzed at the time of blood withdrawal. Venipuncture as the preferred method of blood draw is an industry recommendation. This method has been shown in prior experimental studies to reduce hemolysis rates to less than 4%. Therefore, if hemolysis rates are a

  14. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.Methods One-hundred and seventy one cases with early esophageal cancer (intramucosal carcinoma) and precancerous lesions were treated by APC from 1994 to 2005,

  15. Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.

    2016-11-11

    Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

  16. Effects of in vitro hemodilution with crystalloids, colloids, and plasma on canine whole blood coagulation as determined by kaolin-activated thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bari R; deLaforcade, Armelle; Lee, Joyce; Palmisano, Joseph; Meola, Dawn; Rozanski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of in vitro hemodilution with lactated Ringers solution (LRS), hetastarch (HES), and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) on whole blood coagulation in dogs as assessed by kaolin-activated thromboelastography. In vitro experimental study. University teaching hospital. Six healthy client-owned dogs. Whole blood was collected and diluted in vitro at a 33% and 67% dilution with either LRS, HES, or FFP. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography was performed on each sample as well as a control. Thromboelastographic parameters R (min), alpha (deg), K (min), and MA (mm) were measured and compared to the sample control for each dilution using mixed model methodology. Prolongation in coagulation times were seen at both dilutions with LRS and HES. There was no significant difference in R times at the 33% dilution, but R time was significantly prolonged at the 67% dilution with HES (P = 0.004). MA was significantly decreased for LRS at both dilutions (P = 0.013, P < 0.001) and more profoundly decreased for HES (P < 0.001, P = 0.006). No significant difference in any parameter was found for FFP. In vitro hemodilution of whole blood with both LRS and HES but not FFP resulted in significant effects on coagulation with HES having a more profound effect. In vivo evaluation of changes in coagulation with various resuscitation fluids is warranted and may be clinically relevant. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  17. The effect of different methods of leucoreduction on plasma coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul Enein, Azza A; Abdel Rahman, Hala A; Abdel Maged, Mohamed M M; El Sissy, Maha H

    2017-03-01

    Removal of leucocytes from blood products, namely leucoreduction, improves the safety of blood transfusion by reducing adverse events associated with the incidental transfusion of leucocytes. Coagulation factors might be compromised during leucoreduction because of exposure of plasma to a variety of filter materials. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of different methods of prestorage leucofiltration (apheresis and whole blood filters) on prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time and factors V and VIII. There was a significant prolongation of prothrombin time as well as elevation of international normalized ratio in plasma after leucoreduction (14.5 ± 0.7 s vs. 13.9 ± 0.7 s, P = 0.008 and 1.14 ± 0.07 vs. 1.09 ± 0.07, P = 0.005, respectively). Also, there was a statistically significant prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time in nonleucoreduced plasma (55.6 ± 9.9 s vs. 43.2 ± 12.8 s, P = 0.001). There was no significant filtration effect on factors V and VIII levels. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in factors V and VIII levels between plasma filtered by inline whole blood filters and apheresis machine. Leucodepleted plasma originating from both inline whole blood filter and apheresis machine maintained satisfactory levels of factors V and VIII.

  18. Theoretical study of nanoparticle formation in thermal plasma processing: Nucleation, coagulation and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Gonzalez, Norma Yadira

    This work presents a mathematical modeling study of the synthesis of nanoparticles in radio frequency (RF) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors. The purpose is to further investigate the influence of process parameters on the final size and morphology of produced particles. The proposed model involves the calculation of flow and temperature fields of the plasma gas. Evaporation of raw particles is also accounted with the particle trajectory and temperature history calculated with a Lagrangian approach. The nanoparticle formation is considered by homogeneous nucleation and the growth is caused by condensation and Brownian coagulation. The growth of fractal aggregates is considered by introducing a power law exponent Df. Transport of nanoparticles occurs by convection, thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion. The method of moments is used to solve the particle dynamics equation. The model is validated using experimental results from plasma reactors at laboratory scale. The results are presented in the following manner. First, use is made of the computational fluid dynamics software (CFD), Fluent 6.1 with a commercial companion package specifically developped for aerosols named: Fine Particle Model (FPM). This package is used to study the relationship between the operating parameters effect and the properties of the end products at the laboratory scale. Secondly, a coupled hybrid model for the synthesis of spherical particles and fractal aggregates is developped in place of the FPM package. Results obtained from this model will allow to identify the importance of each parameter in defining the morphology of spherical primary particles and fractal aggregates of nanoparticles. The solution of the model was made using the geometries and operating conditions of existing reactors at the Centre de Recherche en Energie, Plasma et Electrochimie (CREPE) of the Universite de Sherbrooke, for which experimental results were obtained experimentally. Additionally, this study

  19. Improved virus removal by high-basicity polyaluminum coagulants compared to commercially available aluminum-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Oshiba, A; Marubayashi, T; Sato, S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of basicity, sulfate content, and aluminum hydrolyte species on the ability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants to remove F-specific RNA bacteriophages from river water at a pH range of 6-8. An increase in PACl basicity from 1.5 to 2.1 and the absence of sulfate led to a reduction of the amount of monomeric aluminum species (i.e., an increase of the total amount of polymeric aluminum and colloidal aluminum species) in the PACl, to an increase in the colloid charge density of the PACl, or to both and, as a result, to high virus removal efficiency. The efficiency of virus removal at around pH 8 observed with PACl-2.1c, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high colloidal aluminum content, was larger than that observed with PACl-2.1b, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high polymeric aluminum content. In contrast, although extremely high basicity PACls (e.g., PACl-2.7ns, basicity 2.7) effectively removed turbidity and UV260-absorbing natural organic matter and resulted in a very low residual aluminum concentration, the virus removal ratio with PACl-2.7ns was smaller than the ratio with PACl-2.1c at around pH 8, possibly as a result of a reduction of the colloid charge density of the PACl as the basicity was increased from 2.1 to 2.7. Liquid (27)Al NMR analysis revealed that PACl-2.1c contained Al30 species, which was not the case for PACl-2.1b or PACl-2.7ns. This result suggests that Al30 species probably played a major role in virus removal during the coagulation process. In summary, PACl-2.1c, which has high colloidal aluminum content, contains Al30 species, and has a high colloid charge density, removed viruses more efficiently (>4 log10 for infectious viruses) than the other aluminum-based coagulants-including commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-1.8), alum, and PACl-2.7ns-over the entire tested pH (6-8) and coagulant dosage (0.54-5.4 mg-Al/L) ranges.

  20. Selective depletion of plasma prekallikrein or coagulation factor XII inhibits thrombosis in mice without increased risk of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenko, Alexey S; Gao, Dacao; Crosby, Jeff R; Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Zhao, Chenguang; May, Chris; Gailani, David; Monia, Brett P; MacLeod, A Robert

    2011-11-10

    Recent studies indicate that the plasma contact system plays an important role in thrombosis, despite being dispensable for hemostasis. For example, mice deficient in coagulation factor XII (fXII) are protected from arterial thrombosis and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. We demonstrate that selective reduction of prekallikrein (PKK), another member of the contact system, using antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) technology results in an antithrombotic phenotype in mice. The effects of PKK deficiency were compared with those of fXII deficiency produced by specific ASO-mediated reduction of fXII. Mice with reduced PKK had ∼ 3-fold higher plasma levels of fXII, and reduced levels of fXIIa-serpin complexes, consistent with fXII being a substrate for activated PKK in vivo. PKK or fXII deficiency reduced thrombus formation in both arterial and venous thrombosis models, without an apparent effect on hemostasis. The amount of reduction of PKK and fXII required to produce an antithrombotic effect differed between venous and arterial models, suggesting that these factors may regulate thrombus formation by distinct mechanisms. Our results support the concept that fXII and PKK play important and perhaps nonredundant roles in pathogenic thrombus propagation, and highlight a novel, specific and safe pharmaceutical approach to target these contact system proteases.

  1. Comparative study of humic acid removal and floc characteristics by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerjian, Lucy; Damaj, Ahmad; Salam, Darine

    2015-11-01

    The current study aims at investigating the efficiency of electrocoagulation for the removal of humic acid from contaminated waters. In parallel, conventional chemical coagulation was conducted to asses humic acid removal patterns. The effect of varying contributing parameters (matrix pH, humic acid concentration, type of electrode (aluminum vs. iron), current density, solution conductivity, and distance between electrodes) was considered to optimize the electrocoagulation process for the best attainable humic acid removal efficiencies. Optimum removals were recorded at pH of 5.0-5.5, an electrical conductivity of 3000 μS/cm at 25 °C, and an electrode distance of 1 cm for both electrode types. With aluminum electrodes, a current density of 0.05 mA/cm2 outperformed 0.1 mA/cm2 yet not higher densities, whereas a current density of 0.8 mA/cm2 was needed for iron electrodes to exhibit comparable performance. With both electrode types, higher initial humic acid concentrations were removed at a slower rate but ultimately attained almost complete removals. On the other hand, the best humic acid removals (∼90%) by chemical coagulation were achieved at 4 mg/L for both coagulants. Also, higher removals were attained at elevated initial humic acid concentrations. Humic acid removals of 90% or higher at an initial HA concentration of 40 mg/L were exhibited, yet alum performed better at the highest experimented concentration. It was evident that iron flocs were larger, denser, and more geometrical in shape compared to aluminum flocs.

  2. [Changes in the blood coagulating properties of preserved blood and the native and lyophilized plasma of cattle during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubenov, Kh D

    1984-01-01

    Studied were some of the indices characterizing the blood clotting system (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, recalcified clotting time, CA-thromboplastin time, kephalin-kaolin time, thrombin time. F II, and F V) in preserved glucose-citrate blood kept at 4 degrees C, in untreated bovine plasma kept at 20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C, and in freeze-dried bovine plasma. It was concluded that bovine blood preserved with L-12 could be used as a hemostatic agent up to the 10th day after it was obtained; untreated plasma could be used up to one month after it was obtained; and freeze-dried plasma could be used up to two months after it was obtained. Following freeze-drying the coagulation properties of the plasma remained active for more than a year, and it could also be used as a hemostatic agent.

  3. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Wolfgang

    2002-10-31

    Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting

  4. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  5. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  6. Safety of plasma-derived protein C for treating disseminated intravascular coagulation in adult patients with active cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malato, Alessandra; Saccullo, Giorgia; Coco, Lucio Lo; Caracciolo, Clementina; Raso, Simona; Santoro, Marco; Zammit, Valentina; Siragusa, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Cancer-related disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a life-threatening condition for which no effective treatment is currently available. Protein C (PC), a modulator of coagulation as well as the inflammatory system, has been successfully tested (in its activated recombinant form [a-rPC]) in sepsis-related coagulopathy, but with an increased risk for major bleeding. Plasma-derived PC (pd-PC) is more suitable than a-rPC in patients at high risk from bleeding due to its self-limiting process. We carried out a single-arm study evaluating the role of pd-PC in adult cancer patients with overt DIC. Over a period of 3 years, we treated 19 patients with overt DIC and a PC plasma concentration <50%; all received PC concentrate (Ceprotin(®), Baxter) for 72 hr in adjusted doses to restore normal PC values (70-120%). Blood coagulation, haematological tests, and the DIC score were recorded after 12, 24, 48 hr, 7 and 10 days, while clinical outcomes (bleeding, thrombosis and mortality) were recorded up to 28 days. Within 48 hr of starting pd-PC therapy, laboratory tests as well as the DIC score improved in all patients. At 28-days follow-up, no bleeding or thrombosis was observed. This is the first study to investigate the use of pd- PC for treatment of cancer-related overt DIC.

  7. Coagulation Profile Dynamics in Pediatric Patients with Cushing Syndrome: A Prospective, Observational Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Leah; Lodish, Maya; Tirosh, Amit; Chittiboina, Prashant; Keil, Meg; Lyssikatos, Charlampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Feelders, Richard A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the association between Cushing syndrome and hypercoagulability in children. A prospective, observational study was performed of 54 patients with Cushing syndrome, 15.1 ± 3.9 years, treated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Coagulation profiles were taken before and 6-12 months after surgery and compared with18 normocortisolemic children, 13.7 ± 3.6 years. At baseline, patients with Cushing syndrome had greater levels of the procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII) vs controls (145 IU/dL ± 84 vs 99 ± 47, P = .04); 6-12 months after surgery, FVIII levels decreased to 111 ± 47, P = .05. Patients with Cushing syndrome had greater levels of the antifibrinolytic α2-antiplasmin, 96 ± 17% vs 82 ± 26%, P = .015. After surgery, antifibrinolytic α2-antiplasmin levels decreased to 82 ± 24%, P Cushing syndrome vs controls at baseline, including protein C (138 ± 41% vs 84 ± 25%, P Cushing syndrome had elevated procoagulants, antifibrinolytics, and anticoagulants at baseline compared with controls; normalization of coagulation measures was seen after surgical cure. Despite the increase in anticoagulants, hypercortisolemia is associated with a hypercoagulable state in children, as is the case in adults. This finding has potential implications for prevention of venous thromboembolism in children with Cushing syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00001595. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Long-term follow-up after complete ablation of Barrett's esophagus with argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Madisch; Stephan Miehlke; Ekkehard Bayerd(o)rffer; Birgit Wiedemann; David Antos; Anke Sievert; Michael Vieth; Manfred Stolte; Heinrich Schulz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To report the long-term outcome of patients after complete ablation of non-neoplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE) with respect to BE relapse and development of intraepithelial neoplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma.METHODS: In 70 patients with histologically proven nonneoplastic BE, complete BE ablation was achieved by argon plasma coagulation (APC) and high-dose proton pump inhibitor therapy (120 mg omeprazole daily). Sixty-six patients (94.4%) underwent further surveillance endoscopy. At each surveillance endoscopy four-quadrant biopsies were taken from the neo-squamous epithelium at 2 cm intervals depending on the pre-treatment length of BE mucosa beginning at the neo-Z-line, and from any endoscopically suspicious lesion.RESULTS: The median follow-up of 66 patients was 51 mo (range 9-85 mo) giving a total of 280.5 patient years.A mean of 6 biopsies were taken during surveillance endoscopies. In 13 patients (19.7%) tongues or islands suspicious for BE were found during endoscopy. In 8 of these patients (12.1%) non-neoplastic BE relapse was confirmed histologically giving a histological relapse rate of 3% per year. In none of the patients, intraepithelial neoplasia nor an esophageal adenocarcinoma was detected.Logistic regression analysis identified endoscopic detection of islands or tongues as the only positive predictor of BE relapse (P = 0.0004).CONCLUSION: The long-term relapse rate of nonneoplastic BE following complete ablation with high-power APC is low (3% per year).

  9. Ablation of Barrett's esophagus using the second-generation argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Lei Dong; Jia Liu; Xiao-lan Lu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the second-generation argon plasma coagulation (VIO APC) in ablation of Barrett's esophagus. Methods Eighteen patients with Barrett's esophagus (12 males, median age of 55 years, median length of 2.1 cm,1 low-grade dysplasia, 13 cases of short segment Barrett's esophagus) received VIO APC, which was performed at a power setting of 40W and argon gas flow at 1. 5-2. 0 L/min, "forced" mode, in 1-3 sessions (mean 1.3). All the patients received treatment with high-dose proton pump inhibitors. The main complaints before ablation were upper abdominal pain in 12 patients (66%), sour regurgitation in 14 patients (77%), and dysphagia or odynophagia in 7 patients (38%). Two patients (11%) had esophageal hiatal hernia. Results The percentage of patients in whom ablation was endoscopically achieved proximal to the gastroesophageal junction was 77. 8%(14/18), and histologically achieved in 66. 7% (12/18). Berried glands were observed in 2 patients who had achieved endoscopic ablation, the areas of Barrett's mucosa were reduced by more than 60% in the other 4 patients. After treatment, 4 patients had transient retrosternal pain and 3 patients had mild epigastric discomfort. One patient had small amounts of hemorrhage during the process, and it ceased after norepinephrine and thrombosin were administered through endoscope biopsy channel. No esophageal stricture or other severe adverse events was observed. During 11.8 (4-15) months' follow-up, the patients who had achieved the complete ablation had no evidence of relapse of Barrett's esophagus. Conclusion VIO APC with a relatively low power setting can effectively ablate the Barrett's mucosa with special intestinal metaplasia when standard APC has been done. No severe adverse events were observed. Long-term follow-up is needed to assess cancer prevention and the durability of the neo-squamous epithelium.

  10. Argon plasma coagulation of gastrojejunal anastomosis for weight regain after gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baretta, Giorgio A P; Alhinho, Helga C A W; Matias, Jorge Eduardo F; Marchesini, João Batista; de Lima, João Henrique F; Empinotti, Celso; Campos, Josemberg M

    2015-01-01

    The failure of approximately 20 % of obese patients who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) to maintain weight loss over the following 18-24 months is related to the surgical procedure, to the patient, or both. Although the underlying mechanisms are uncertain, one factor that has been postulated is the dilation of the gastrojejunal anastomosis. The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the serial use of argon plasma coagulation (APC) in reducing the diameter of the dilated gastrojejunal anastomosis and post-RYGB weight regain. We carried out a prospective, nonrandomized study of 30 patients, with no control or sham group, monitoring RYGB weight regain associated with dilation of the gastrojejunal anastomosis over a postoperative period of 18 months. Each patient underwent three sessions of APC in the anastomosis separated by 8 weeks, with a final endoscopic examination 8 weeks after the last session. There was a loss of 15.48 kg (range = 8.0-16.0 kg) of the 19.6 kg (range = 7.0-39.0 kg) of regained weight after RYGB and a reduction of 66.89 % in the final anastomotic diameter, with statistically significant reductions between each APC session. Previous body mass index significantly decreased up to the final examination, and the final weight was close to but not at the same level as the nadir. Our study indicates that the use of APC to treat weight regain after RYGB is a safe and effective procedure and promotes a reduction in gastrojejunal anastomosis, final weight, and BMI, with a low rate of complications.

  11. Video: argon plasma coagulator in a 2-month-old child with tracheoesophageal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Giovanni Di; Oliva, Salvatore; Barbato, Maria; Aloi, Marina; Midulla, Fabio; Roggini, Mario; Valitutti, Francesco; Frediani, Simone; Cucchiara, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    A 2 month-old boy was admitted to the authors' hospital because of regurgitation and persistent cough during breastfeeding. A chest X-ray examination and a barium esophagogram disclosed small amounts of barium passing in the trachea, suggesting a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Bronchoscopy combined with upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy performed with the patient under general anesthesia confirmed the fistula. The TEF was treated by injection of 1 ml Glubran 2 from the esophageal side. A nasogastric tube was placed for feedings, and 7 days later, a barium esophagogram showed a reduction of caliber but not complete closure of the TEF. Unsuccessful fistula obliteration with Glubran was attributed to technical difficulties in catheterization of the fistula orifice, mainly resulting from its close proximity to the upper esophageal sphincter and to its small caliber. Therefore, an argon plasma coagulator (APC) probe with a circumferentially oriented nozzle was used from the esophageal side as an alternative technique to fulgurate the residual fistula orifice (see video). A nasogastric tube was placed for feedings. Oral feeding was started 7 days later when a barium esophagogram confirmed complete fistula closure. At the 2-year follow-up visit, the boy was asymptomatic, and the barium esophagogram was negative. This report describes a case in which esophagoscopy gave a clear view of the fistula due to its direction from esophagus to trachea. Complete fistula obliteration was not obtained with Glubran. However, APC was successfully used to close the residual fistula orifice. The authors suggest that APC can be used as an alternative endoscopic technique to repair TEF when other techniques fail.

  12. Etude comparative des coagulations du lait par actions de l'extrait des écorces de l'Ongokea gore et des enzymes coagulants bien connus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libouga, DG.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk Clotting Using Ongokea gore Bark Extract Compared to those Obtained to Well Known Milk Clotting Extracts. The evolution of firmness in curd obtained using plant extract (Ongokea gore barks and that using renounce coagulating enzymes (bovine pepsin, Endothia parasitica, porcine pepsin, Mucor pusillis, rennet were compared. The study was carried out using reconstituted milk (Berrigde substrate and a formagraph was used for the analysis of curd firmness. Variations in amplitude of the formagrammes were measured with time. It was noticed that at the same coagulation time, the curd firming rate of Ongokea gore extracts was higher than that of porcine pepsin but lower than those of Endothia parasitica, Mucor pusillis, bovine pepsin and rennet. The evolution of curd firmness with pH on one hand and the quantity of dissolved powder milk on the other hand showed some similarities in rennet and Ongokea gore extract curds: the effect of the pH of the milk substrate is less remarkable on the rate of curd firmness while this rate increases with the quantity of dissolved powder milk.

  13. Comparing the MicroRNA spectrum between serum and plasma.

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    Kai Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes, primarily through interaction with messenger RNAs. The levels of specific, circulating miRNAs in blood have been shown to associate with various pathological conditions including cancers. These miRNAs have great potential as biomarkers for various pathophysiological conditions. In this study we focused on different sample types' effects on the spectrum of circulating miRNA in blood. Using serum and corresponding plasma samples from the same individuals, we observed higher miRNA concentrations in serum samples compared to the corresponding plasma samples. The difference between serum and plasma miRNA concentration showed some associations with miRNA from platelets, which may indicate that the coagulation process may affect the spectrum of extracellular miRNA in blood. Several miRNAs also showed platform dependent variations in measurements. Our results suggest that there are a number of factors that might affect the measurement of circulating miRNA concentration. Caution must be taken when comparing miRNA data generated from different sample types or measurement platforms.

  14. COMBINED PLASMA FILTRATION, SELECTIVE ADSORPTION OF CYTOKINES WITH HEMOFILTRATION AND PLASMA EXCHANGE IN THE CORRECTION OF PLATELET AND COAGULATION HEMOSTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH THE SYNDROME OF DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Belskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To improve the efficiency of treatment of the patients with pancreatic necrosis through correcting the platelet-coagulation potential by methods of combined plasma filtration, selective sorption of cytokines with hemofiltration and plasmapheresis. Methods. The effects of selective sorption of cytokines with hemofiltration and plasmapheresis upon coagulation potential were studied in 70 patients with acute pancreatitis. Plasmapheresis was performed on PCS 2 (Haemonetics, USA; selective sorption of cytokines with hemofiltration – on Lynda ® machine (Bellco, Italy. The method of computer laser phasemeter was used for vital assessing of platelet morphofunctional status. Results. In patients with pancreatic necrosis in the fermentation phase the percentage of resting platelets was 51.3%, which is 12% below the control numbers. The number of activated platelets increased: 25.1% of the cells were represented by platelets with low activation; 15.5% – highly activated cells. The number of degenerative-modified platelets increased by two times – up to 8.1%. In the phase of sequestration and suppurative complications the percentage of resting platelets was only 42.3%, which is 1.5 times lower than the control numbers. 34.2% of the cells were presented by platelets with low activation; 11.0% – highly activated cells. The number of degenerative-modified platelets exceeded 12.5%. The analysis of the morphological structure of the platelets population revealed that due to plasmapheresis inclusion into therapeutic complex in the phase of intoxication of pancreatic necrosis the normalization of platelet activation status of hemostasis was observed. In 5 (20% patients the normalization of average platelets morphometric parameters was shown after selective sorption of cytokines with hemofiltration and plasmapheresis. These patients demonstrated positive clinical dynamics. In 15 patients morphometric values of platelets either remained at the same

  15. An Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp in the Hepatic Flexure of the Colon Treated with Argon Plasma Coagulation, Endoscopic Clipping and Polypectomy

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    Ariyo Ihimoyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP is a rare benign polypoid lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IFPs occur in the stomach and colonic occurrence is very rare. Histologically IFP is characterized by a mixture of numerous small vessels, fibroblasts and edematous connective tissue associated with marked inflammatory infiltration by eosinophils. We present a rare case of a pedunculated IFP in the hepatic flexure of the colon treated successfully with a combination of argon plasma coagulation, endoclipping and polypectomy. A 74-year-old asymptomatic female underwent a screening colonoscopy in our hospital. A 12-mm pedunculated polyp was found at the hepatic flexure of the colon. After saline injection, we attempted to remove the polyp with a hot snare. However the polyp stalk was extremely difficult to resect despite several attempts with the hot snare. We placed an endoclip at the base of the stalk and then applied argon plasma coagulation at 1.0 l/min and 40 W. After these measures we were able to resect the stalk and the polyp was retrieved. Histologically the polyp was located in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Proliferation of spindle cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells such as plasma cells and eosinophils were observed. The spindle cells were positive for CD34 and S100 but negative for c-kit and muscle markers. These findings are consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of IFP.

  16. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  17. Efficacy of argon plasma coagulation in the management of portal hypertensive gastropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Amr Shaaban; El Hawary, Amr Talaat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluation of the outcome and experience in 2 years of management of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) by argon plasma coagulation (APC) in a cohort of Egyptian cirrhotic patients. Methods: This study was conducted over a 2-year period from January 2011 to February 2013. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to evaluate the degree and site of PHG. APC was applied to areas with mucosal vascular lesions. Results: In total, 200 cirrhotic patients were enrolled; 12 patients were excluded due to death (n = 6) caused by hepatic encephalopathy (n = 3), hepatorenal syndrome (n = 2), or chronic lymphatic leukemia (n = 1), or did not complete the treatment sessions (n = 6), so 188 patients completed the study. PHG was mainly fundic in 73 patients (38.8 %), corporeal in 66 patients (35.1 %), and pangastric in 49 patients (26.1 %) (P = 0.026). Patients were exposed to APC and received proton pump inhibitors together with propranolol at a dose sufficient to reduce the heart rate by 25 % or down to 55 beats/min. The mean (± standard deviation) number of sessions was 1.65 ± 0.8; six patients needed four sessions (3.2 %), 19 patients needed three sessions (10.1 %), 74 patients needed two sessions (39.4 %), and 89 patients needed one session (47.3 %). Patients with fundic and corporeal PHG required the lowest number of sessions (P = 0.000). Patients were followed up every 2 months for up to 1 year; the end point was a complete response with improved anemia and blood transfusion requirement which was achieved after one session in 89 patients (75.4 %), two sessions in 24 patients (20.3 %) and three sessions in five patients (4.3 %). A complete response was more prevalent in patients with corporeal and fundic PHG (P = 0.04). Conclusions: After 2 years’ experience in managing PHG, we found that a combination of APC and non-selective beta blockers was highly efficacious and safe in controlling

  18. Impacts of Coagulation Pretreatment on MF Filtration and a Comparative Study of Different Membrane Module Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi-feng; Kim Seung-hyun; Yun Jong-sup; Moon Seong-yong

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the regulatory requirements and the forthcoming Disinfectant/Disinfection By-Products (D/DBP)Rule will require that drinking water treatment facilities be operated to achieve maximum removals of particles and disinfectant tolerant microorganisms as well as natural organic matter (NOM). For drinking water production, the use of membrane filtration processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) alone to satisfy the turbidity, particle and microorganism removal a requirement of the surface water treatment regulation (SWTR) is not enough. MF/UF treatment processes can achieve only nominal (10 percent) removal of disinfection by-products (DBP) precursors (James, et al., 1995). On the other hand, too fast fouling can make the filtration processes more difficult to carry on. To solve these problems, many authors have been interested in installing coagulation pretreatment before membrane filtration to improve membrane performance. However, previous studies reported conflicting results. Some supported the effectiveness of coagulation pretreatment, while others contended that coagulation aggravated membrane performance. This research aims to identify the effects of coagulation pretreatment on membrane filtration through a pilot study using PVDF membrane in combination with analyzing the rationale of coagulation. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the different impacts on membrane performance of using different membrane modules (the submerged module and pressured module). The results showed that coagulation pretreatment greatly improved the membrane performance, extending the filtration time as well as reducing the permeated organic level, and that the submerged module is much more efficient than the pressured module.

  19. Comparison of argon plasma coagulation in management of upper gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and gastric antral vascular ectasia hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Chun; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Tam, William; Hu, Ming-Luen; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chiu, King-Wah; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2012-06-09

    Vascular ectasias, including gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) and angiodysplasia, are increasingly recognized as important sources of gastrointestinal bleeding. This study investigated and compared the efficacies and outcomes of treatment of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) angiodysplasia and GAVE hemorrhage by endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC). From January 2006 to December 2009, 46 patients diagnosed with upper GI bleeding caused by angiodysplasia or GAVE at a tertiary hospital were recruited into this study. They included 26 males and 20 females with an average age of 65.6 years (range, 45-90 years). All patients underwent APC for hemostasis during an endoscopic procedure. Parameters such as underlying co-morbidities, number of endoscopic treatment sessions, recurrent bleeding, and clinical outcomes during follow-up were analyzed. The 46 patients with UGI vascular ectasia hemorrhage included 27 patients with angiodysplasia and 19 with GAVE. The patients with angiodysplasia were older than those with GAVE (71.6 ± 10.2 years versus 61.8 ± 11.9 years, P = 0.005). More GAVE patients than angiodysplasia patients had co-existing liver cirrhosis (63.2% versus 25.9%, P = 0.012). The patients with GAVE had a higher rate of recurrent bleeding (78.9% versus 7.4%, P bleeding. Further multivariate analysis revealed that GAVE was the only independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding after APC treatment (OR = 0.027, P bleeding. The efficacy of APC treatment is greater for angiodysplasia than for vascular ectasia bleeding. GAVE patients have a higher recurrent bleeding rate and may require multiple treatment sessions for sustained hemostasis.

  20. Endoscopic ablation of Barrett's esophagus using the second generation argon plasma coagulation: a prospective randomized controlled trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Lei Dong; Jia Liu; Xiaolan Lu; Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of the second generation argon plasma coagulation(VIO APC) in the ablation of Barrett's Esophagus. Methods:A total of 35 patients with uncomplicated Barrett's esophagus entered into a prospective, randomized, unblinded study comparing the treatment VIO APC combined with a proton pump inhibiter with a proton pump inhibiter administered alone. VIO APC was performed at a power setting of 40W, and argon gas flow at 1.5-2.0 L/min, and "forced" mode. Ablative treatment was repeated until either no Barrett's epithelium remained or a maximum of 5 treatment sessions occurred. Results:In the ablation group, macroscopic complete ablation was achieved in 14 of 18 patients, and complete ablation confirmed by histology in 12 of 18 patients (P<0.01). Buried glands were observed in 2 patients who had achieved macroscopic ablation. The Barrett's mucosa averaged a reduction of 65%(range 50-75%) in the remaining 4 patients. In the control group, only 2 patients had partial regression, median 30%(range 20-40%).In the ablation group, post-treatment 4 patients had transient retrosternal pain, and 3 patients had mild epigastric discomfort. One patient had a small hemorrhage during the procedure, which ceased after norepinephrine and thrombosin were administered through the endoscope biopsy channel. No adverse events were observed in the control group. During 11.8(4-15) months follow-up, patients who had achieved the complete ablation have no evidence of relapse of Barrett's esophagus. Conclusion:VIO APC with a relatively low power setting can effectively ablate the Barrett's mucosa. No severe adverse events were observed. Long-term follow-up is needed to assess cancer prevention and the durability of the neo-squamous epithelium.

  1. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 enhances coagulation in rabbit plasma and decreases bleeding time in clopidogrel/aspirin-treated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Chawla, Nikhil; Mangla, Dipty; Gomes, Sheldon B; Arkebauer, Matthew R; Wasko, Kimberly A; Sadacharam, Kesavan; Vosseller, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Administration of carbon monoxide derived from carbon monoxide-releasing molecules has been demonstrated to enhance coagulation in vitro at small concentrations (100-200 μmol/l) in human and rabbit plasma. We sought to determine if carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 [tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer, CORM-2] would improve coagulation in rabbit plasma in vitro via thrombelastography and in an in vivo preclinical rabbit model of ear bleeding time following administration of clopidogrel (20 mg/kg) with aspirin (10 mg/kg) via gavage. Addition of 100 μmol/l CORM-2 to rabbit plasma significantly improved coagulation. This procoagulant effect was blocked by pre-exposure of plasma to an agent that converts hemefibrinogen to methemefibrinogen in human plasma, preventing carbon monoxide binding and enhancement of coagulation. Rabbit ear bleeding time was 5.8 ± 1.1 min 2-3 h after clopidogrel/aspirin administration. Bleeding time significantly decreased to 2.6 ± 0.6 min, 5 min after administration of CORM-2 (10 mg/kg; 279 μmol/l 'best-case' instantaneous concentration) intravenously. CORM-2 enhances plasmatic coagulation in a manner similar to that of human plasma in vitro, and plasmatic coagulation is enhanced in vivo by CORM-2 as well. Additional preclinical investigation of the effects of CORM-2 on coagulopathy (e.g. heparin or hemodilution mediated) utilizing this rabbit model is planned.

  2. Analysis of coagulation tests, proteins C and S, and plasma fibrinogen in addicts and non-addicts with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Moloudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the high incidence of drug addiction in the society and high prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD in opium users, this study was conducted to evaluate the coagulation tests and plasma levels of proteins C and S, and fibrinogen in opium users with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. The results indicated that the plasma level of fibrinogen in addicted patients was higher than that of non-addicted patients (p=0.001, but the findings of coagulation tests and proteins C and S levels revealed no significant difference between groups.

  3. The application of cold-plasma coagulation on the visceral pleura results in a predictable depth of necrosis without fistula generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Ulrich, Anita; Schloericke, Erik; Limmer, Stefan; Habermann, Jens Karsten; Wolken, Heike; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Kujath, Peter

    2012-03-01

    A technique for the safe transfer of electric energy to the pulmonary surface for the potential evaporation of malignant tumours is non-existent to date. By conducting the current study, we wanted to generate data on the potential beneficiary effects and complications of using cold-plasma coagulation on the pulmonary surface. Cold-plasma coagulation was applied to the pulmonary surface in eight female mini-pigs via a thoracoscopic access. After 12 days, we performed a re-thoracoscopy on the contralateral side. After a further 12 days, we performed a median sternotomy and did cold-plasma coagulation on previously untreated areas of either lung. No pulmonary fistulas were detected. In two of the eight pigs, we found a localized chronic pneumonia. None of the pigs died during the course of the study. Morbidity was also low with two pigs refusing food intake, one pig with dyspnoea after difficult intubation and one pig coughing. All events were self-limited and occurred only on post-operative Day 1. The treatment effect was almost linear and correlated to the generator energy applied. The differences between the effects reached statistical significance (P < 0.05). The application of cold-plasma coagulation to the pulmonary surface is safe in pigs. A potential clinical application of this technique is treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  4. From electrocautery, balloon dilatation, neodymium-doped:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to argon plasma coagulation and cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Edward M.; Lee, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant advancement in the development/application of therapeutics in thoracic diseases. Ablation methods using heat or cold energy in the airway is safe and effective for treating complex airway disorders including malignant and non-malignant central airway obstruction (CAO) without limiting the impact of future definitive therapy. Timely and efficient use of endobronchial ablative therapies combined with mechanical debridement or stent placement results in immediate relief of dyspnea for CAO. Therapeutic modalities reviewed in this article including electrocautery, balloon dilation (BD), neodymium-doped:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and cryotherapy are often combined to achieve the desired results. This review aims to provide a clinically oriented review of these technologies in the modern era of interventional pulmonology (IP). PMID:26807284

  5. The role of argon plasma coagulation in the management of Barrett's esophagus: a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad YZ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Yahia Z Gad1, Adel A Zeid21Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Consultant Surgeon, Al Nil Hospital, Mansaura, EgyptBackground/aim: Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE are 30 times more likely to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC than the general population. Data regarding the use of argon plasma coagulation (APC for treatment of patients with BE in Egypt are still limited. This article discusses the efficacy and safety of APC as a thermoablative modality in Egyptian patients with BE.Materials and methods: A total of 73 referred eligible patients with a confirmed endoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of BE were enrolled in this study and subjected to thermoablation by high-power (hp-APC equipment at a 60 W setting until complete ablation or a maximum of five sessions and were followed up clinically and endoscopically at 3-month intervals. Computer-generated randomization allocated patients into APC-treated and control groups (n = 75, all of whom were treated with a proton pump inhibitor.Results: Minor and major complications occurred in 8 of 73 (10.95% and 1 of 73 (1.36% patients, respectively. Macroscopic ablation was achieved after one session in 37 of 73 (50.63% patients, and complete histologic ablation was confirmed after 167 sessions in 69 of 73 (94.52% patients. At 1-year follow-up, no relapses of BE or progression to EAC were observed.Conclusion: hp-APC at a medium-energy setting of 60 W in an acid-reduced environment can ablate BE effectively and safely with promising initial results.Keywords: Barrett's esophagus, argon plasma coagulation

  6. [Comparative assessing the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the hemorheology and the blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xia; Tang, Yu-Ping; Guo, Jian-Ming

    2012-06-01

    To comparatively assess the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the hemorheology and the blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats. Ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline were both used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. The whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and haematocrit were tested to observe the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the hemorheology of blood stasis rats. The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and plasma fibrinogen (FIB) were tested to observe the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the blood coagulation function of blood stasis rats. Finally all those indices were integrated to the total activating blood circulation effect value to assess the total effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. Compared with the normal control group, the hemorheological indices obviously increased, PT and APTT were obviously shortened, and the FIB content obviously increased in the model group. Compared with the model group, the water extracts, alcohol extracts, water-alcohol extracts of angelica root, chuanxiong, angelica root and chuanxiong 1:1, and angelica root and chuanxiong 1.5:1 could decrease the hemorheological indices, prolong the PT and APTT, and significantly reduce the content of FIB. Under the condition of the same preparation method, the alcohol extract of angelica root and chuanxiong 1:1 showed the best total effect. As for the single herbs, chuanxiong had better effect than angelica root on the total effects of activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. Under the condition of the same ratio, the alcohol extracts of angelica root and chuanxiong showed better total effects of activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis than water extracts and water-alcohol extracts. The angelica root and chuanxiong could obviously improve the

  7. [Point-of-care diagnostics compared to standard coagulation tests in multiple trauma. Pros and cons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanning, K

    2014-02-01

    The haemostasiological management of patients with multiple injuries requires rapid and adequate therapy decisions due to the highly dynamic surroundings. For this, diagnostic techniques which have the ability to detect and differentiate coagulation disorders that are commonly present in multiple trauma patients are necessary. Widely used routine coagulation tests (e.g., aPTT or PT) sensitively measure impairments of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway, but without further identification or differentiation. Important influencing parameters like acidosis, hypothermia, fibrinolysis or polymerization dysfunction but especially the clot quality are not detectable. Moreover, the turn around times of these tests are about 30-60 min. However, thrombelastography measures clot strength and stability in whole blood under the present conditions of the injured patient. Impairments of clot quality can be differentiated. Because of the visualization of the clot formation, a patient's coagulation capacity can be assessed within minutes. Admittedly the use of these point-of-care devices in the operation theatre requires human and temporal resources.

  8. Vaporization and coagulation potentials of the new electrosurgical rollerbar devices for transurethral prostatectomy as compared to contact laser fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Hillenius, Robert-Jan; van Vliet, Remco J.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Boon, Tom A.

    1996-05-01

    Laser prostatectomy is at present an established alternative for transurethral electroresection of the prostate (TUR-P). To compete with the different laser techniques, new electrosurgical modalities were developed as replacement for the standard electrosurgery tools for TUR-P. These modalities consist of a grooved cylinder fitted at the end of a TUR-P-element and are designed to combine both vaporization and coagulation in one device. The aim of this study was to investigate the potentials of the new 'rollerbar' devices and compare them with contact laser devices. Four different 'rollerbars' (Ciron, Storz and Prosurg), standard rollerball (Storz), and contact fibers (SLT) were applied to bovine myocard tissue submerged in glycine (electro) or saline (laser). The Valley Laboratory Force 40 and Force 300 were used as electrosurgical units; an MBB 4060 as Nd:YAG laser. Power settings ranged from 100 to 300 Watt (pure cut mode) for the electrosurgery device. The laser settings ranged from 10 to 60 Watt. The devices were moved over the tissue with a constant speed, while constant force was applied. The direct thermal effect of the devices was studied with a special thermal imaging technique on phantom tissue. Results show the vaporizing and coagulating power of the different devices. The rollerball (adjusted to high electrical power, i.e., 200 Watt) and the contact fibers provide similar vaporizing potential as the special-developed 'rollerbar' devices. Coagulation, necessary for hemostasis, is in all cases limited to a depth of about 2 mm. Increasing the electrical power from 200 to 300 watt only slightly increased the affected volume. The presented 'rollerbars' have a clear vaporizing and coagulating effect on tissue. The standard rollerball and contact laser fibers show similar capacities as the special-designed rollerbars.

  9. Comparative analyses of plasma probe diagnostics techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godyak, V. A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA and RF Plasma Consulting, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Alexandrovich, B. M. [Plasma Sensors, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The subject of this paper is a comparative analysis of the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir probe procedure, from different theories of the ion current to the probe, and from measured electron energy distribution function (EEDF) obtained by double differentiation of the probe characteristic. We concluded that the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir procedure can be subjected to significant inaccuracy due to the non-Maxwellian EEDF, uncertainty of locating the plasma potential, and the arbitrariness of the ion current approximation. The plasma densities derived from the ion part of the probe characteristics diverge by as much as an order of magnitude from the density calculated according to Langmuir procedure or calculated as corresponding integral of the measured EEDF. The electron temperature extracted from the ion part is always subjected to uncertainty. Such inaccuracy is attributed to modification of the EEDF for fast electrons due to inelastic electron collisions, and to deficiencies in the existing ion current theories; i.e., unrealistic assumptions about Maxwellian EEDFs, underestimation of the ion collisions and the ion ambipolar drift, and discounting deformation of the one-dimensional structure of the region perturbed by the probe. We concluded that EEDF measurement is the single reliable probe diagnostics for the basic research and industrial applications of highly non-equilibrium gas discharge plasmas. Examples of EEDF measurements point up importance of examining the probe current derivatives in real time and reiterate significance of the equipment technical characteristics, such as high energy resolution and wide dynamic range.

  10. Retention of coagulation factors in plasma frozen after extended holding at 1-6 degrees C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, JF; Ness, PM; Moroff, G; Luban, NLC

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The ability to use plasma, isolated from units of whole blood and frozen within 24 h of phlebotomy, as a substitute for plasma frozen within 8 h of phlebotomy would have several advantages for blood centers. It should provide increased flexibility pertaining to the freezin

  11. Comparative Study on the Effects of Two Contraceptive Injections (Mesigyna, Cyclofem) on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of consecutively using the contraceptive injections (Mesigyna or Cy clofem) on both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis were evaluated on 94 Chinese women who had been injected with one of these two injections once a month for 9 months. To provide the evidences on the safety of long-term use, relevant parame ters were observed before the treatment, after the injection 3 and 9, as well as 3 months after drug withdrawing. The results were as follows: Among those who had been injected with Mesigyna, the levels of factor VII and factor X declined signifi cantly during treatment. The activity of AT- Ⅲ, plasminogen and the concentration of protein C also decreased. Moreover, the corresponding parameters did not recov ered to the normal level after stopping treatment. Prothrombin time (PT) and acti vated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were prolonged in the early period of treatment, but recovered to the normal at week 47 (injection withdrawn). No or slight change was observed in other parameters. Among the woman injected with Cy clofem, the concentrations of factor VII and plasminogen decreased over time, while the tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (t-PAD levels increased after the 9th injec tion and recovered to normal at week 47 after discontinuation of treatment. The re sults suggested that some significant parameter changes of coagulation and of fibri nolysis could be detected among long-term users, but their impact on the fibrinolysis system was not obvious. The observed phenomenon did not show a tendency to facili tate thromboembolism and possibility of being harmful to the users. Thus, the ob served changes should be regarded as the reactions to keep the equilibrium between coagulation and fibrinolysis and had no marked clinical pathological significance on the users.

  12. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ... omitting the data from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, with mean values of 113 U/ml for FVII:Ag and 110 U/ml for FVII:Am (p

  13. Neutralisation of the anti-coagulant effects of heparin by histones in blood plasma and purified systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Colin; Hogwood, John; Gray, Elaine; Komorowicz, Erzsebet; Varjú, Imre; Varga, Zoltán; Kolev, Krasimir

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed primarily of DNA and histones are a link between infection, inflammation and coagulation. NETs promote coagulation and approaches to destabilise NETs have been explored to reduce thrombosis and treat sepsis. Heparinoids bind histones and we report quantitative studies in plasma and purified systems to better understand physiological consequences. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) was investigated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and alongside low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in purified systems with thrombin or factor Xa (FXa) and antithrombin (AT) to measure the sensitivity of UFH or LMWH to histones. A method was developed to assess the effectiveness of DNA and non-anticoagulant heparinoids as anti-histones. Histones effectively neutralised UFH, the IC50 value for neutralisation of 0.2 IU/ml UFH was 1.8 µg/ml histones in APTT and 4.6 µg/ml against 0.6 IU/ml UFH in a purified system. Histones also inhibited the activities of LMWHs with thrombin (IC50 6.1 and 11.0 µg/ml histones, for different LMWHs) or FXa (IC50 7.8 and 7.0 µg/ml histones). Direct interactions of UFH and LMWH with DNA and histones were explored by surface plasmon resonance, while rheology studies showed complex effects of histones, UFH and LMWH on clot resilience. A conclusion from these studies is that anticoagulation by UFH and LMWH will be compromised by high affinity binding to circulating histones even in the presence of DNA. A complete understanding of the effects of histones, DNA and heparins on the haemostatic system must include an appreciation of direct effects on fibrin and clot structure.

  14. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  15. Quality Control and Assurance for Coagulation Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭黎明

    2006-01-01

    @@ The coagulation laboratory aids the clinician in assessing not only the bleeding patient but also the thrombotic patient. The techniques of coagulation laboratory are used to evaluate not only the coagulation system but also the anti-coagulation system, fibrinolytic system,platelet and vascular endothelial function. Enzymes, inhibitors, plasma factors and co-factors, cellular release products, and cell receptors can be measured in coagulation laboratory.

  16. Coagulation factor VIII activity in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermina Babić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To examine coagulation factor VIII activity in plasma, as a risk factor for thrombosis, in the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Also, to assess its relationship with ibrinogen and fasting blood glucose concentrations and with body mass index. Methods The plasma coagulation factor VIII activity, plasma levels of ibrinogen and blood glucose concentrations were measured in 30 patients with DM type 1, 30 patients with DM type 2 and in 30 healthy subjects. Body weight and body height were also measured and BMI was calculated.Results The plasma factor VIII activity in patients with DM type 1 and patients with DM type 2 was signiicantly higher than the values measured in healthy subjects. There was no signiicant difference in the factor VIII activity between patients with DM type 1 and type 2. The concentrations of ibrinogen and blood glucose in both groups of patients were signiicantly higher than in the group of healthy subjects. Patients with DM type 2 had a signiicantly higher BMI compared to healthy subjects, as well as compared to patients with DM type 1. There was a signiicant positive correlation between plasma factor VIII activity and plasma level of ibrinogen and a signiicant negative correlation between factor VIII activity and BMI in patients with DM type 2. Conclusion Diabetic patients have the elevated plasma coagulation factor VIII activity and increased ibrinogen concentration thus an increased risk of thrombosis and vascular diseases.

  17. A comparative study of coagulation, granular- and powdered-activated carbon for the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and their occurrence causes toxicological effects on humans. We examined different conventional coagulant treatments such as alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride in removing these compounds. These were then compared with a natural coagulant (Moringa oleifera). We also investigated the powdered-activated carbon (PAC) and granular-activated carbon (GAC) for removing these compounds. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, polyaluminium chloride led to a higher reduction of PFOS/PFOA compared with alum which in turn was higher than ferric. The removal efficiency increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. M. oleifera was very effective in reducing PFOS and PFOA than conventional coagulants, with a reduction efficiencies of 65% and 72%, respectively, at a dose of 30 mg/L. Both PAC and GAC were very effective in reducing these compounds than coagulations. PAC led to a higher reduction in PFOS and PFOA than GAC due to its greater surface area and shorter internal diffusion distances. The addition of PAC (10 min contact time) with coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) significantly increased the removal efficiency, and the maximum removal efficiency was for M. oleifera with 98% and 94% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. The reduction efficiency of PFOS/PFOA was reduced with the increase in dissolved organic concentration due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and PFOS/PFOA.

  18. Comparison of Hemostatic Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation with and without Distilled Water Injection in Treating High-Risk Bleeding Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Rung Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Argon plasma coagulation (APC is useful to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding, but its hemostatic efficacy has received little attention. Aims. This investigation attempted to determine whether additional endoscopic injection before APC could improve hemostatic efficacy in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers. Methods. From January 2007 to April 2011, adult patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers were included. This investigation compared APC plus distilled water injection (combined group to APC alone for treating high-risk bleeding ulcers. Outcomes were assessed based on initial hemostasis, surgery, blood transfusion, hospital stay, rebleeding, and mortality at 30 days posttreatment. Results. Totally 120 selected patients were analyzed. Initial hemostasis was accomplished in 59 patients treated with combined therapy and 57 patients treated with APC alone. No significant differences were noted between these groups in recurred bleeding, emergency surgery, 30-day mortality, hospital stay, or transfusion requirements. Comparing the combined end point of mortality plus the failure of initial hemostasis, rebleeding, and the need for surgery revealed an advantage for the combined group (P=0.040. Conclusions. Endoscopic therapy with APC plus distilled water injection was no more effective than APC alone in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers, whereas combined therapy was potentially superior for patients with poor overall outcomes.

  19. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  20. Plasma carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) generation during in vitro clot lysis and its interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, Dorien; Aernouts, Jef; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Sim, Yani; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Hendriks, Dirk

    2017-07-26

    Carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) is a basic carboxypeptidase that is able to attenuate fibrinolysis. The inactive precursor procarboxypeptidase U is converted to its active form by thrombin, the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex or plasmin. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise the time course of CPU generation in healthy individuals. In plasma of 29 healthy volunteers, CPU generation was monitored during in vitro clot lysis. CPU activity was measured by means of an enzymatic assay that uses the specific substrate Bz-o-cyano-Phe-Arg. An algorithm was written to plot the CPU generation curve and calculate the parameters that define it. In all individuals, CPU generation was biphasic. Marked inter-individual differences were present and a reference range was determined. The endogenous CPU generation potential is the composite effect of multiple factors. With respect to the first CPU activity peak characteristics, we found correlations with baseline proCPU concentration, proCPU Thr325Ile polymorphism, time to clot initiation and the clot lysis time. The second CPU peak related with baseline proCPU levels and with the maximum turbidity of the clot lysis profile. In conclusion, our method offers a technique to determine the endogenous CPU generation potential of an individual. The parameters obtained by the method quantitatively describe the different mechanisms that influence CPU generation during the complex interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis, which are in line with the threshold hypothesis.

  1. Surface modification with poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) to reduce fibrinogen adsorption, platelet adhesion, and plasma coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Chien, Hsiu-Wen; Wei, Ta-Chin; Lee, Chiapyng; Tsai, Wei-Bor

    2011-12-12

    Zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) polymers were known to possess excellent antifouling properties due to high hydration capacity and neutral charge surface. In this study, copolymers of SBMA and acrylic acid (AA) with a variety of compositions were synthesized and were immobilized onto polymeric substrates with layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films via electrostatic interaction. The amounts of platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption were determined to evaluate hemocompatibility of poly(SBMA-co-AA)-modified substrates. Among various deposition conditions by modulating SBMA ratio in the copolymers and pH of the deposition solution, poly(SBMA(56)-co-AA(44)) deposited at pH 3.0 possessed the best hemocompatibility. This work demonstrated that poly(SBMA-co-AA) copolymers adsorbed on polyelectrolyte-base films via electrostatic interaction improve hemocompatibility effectively and are applicable for various substrates including TCPS, PU, and PDMS. Furthermore, poly(SBMA-co-AA)-coated substrate possesses great durability under rigorous conditions. The preliminary hemocompatibility tests regarding platelet adhesion, fibrinogen adsorption, and plasma coagulation suggest the potential of this technique for the application to blood-contacting biomedical devices.

  2. Effects of Rutin and Hesperidin and Their Al(III and Cu(II Complexes on in Vitro Plasma Coagulation Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kuntić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, were investigated in vitro for anticoagulant activity through coagulation tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, prothrombin time (PT and thrombin time (TT. Only an ethanolic solution of rutin at the concentration of 830 µM prolonged aPTT, while TT and PT were unaffected. In order to evaluate whether the prolongation of aPTT was due to the decrease of coagulation factors, the experiment with deficient plasma was performed, showing the effects on factors VIII and IX. Since pharmacological activity of flavonoids is believed to increase when they are coordinated with metal ions, complexes of these flavonoids with Al(III and Cu(II ions were also tested. The results showed that complexes significantly prolonged aPTT and had no effects on PT and TT. Assay with deficient plasma (plasma having the investigated factor at less then 1% revealed that complexes could bind to the coagulation factors, what may lead to a non-specific inhibition and aPTT prolongation. An effort was made to correlate stability of complexes with their anticoagulant properties.

  3. APLICACIÓN DEL MÉTODO DE COÁGULO DE PLASMA PARA ESTUDIOS DE ULTRAESTRUCTURA CELULAR APPLICATION OF PLASMA COAGULATE METHOD FOR CELULAR ULTRASTRUCTURE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDO ANDRÉS TORRES RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de ultraestructura celular en material particulado como bacterias, virus y células en suspensión requieren de un manejo especial, es por esto que se han desarrollado técnicas como la de coágulo de plasma, la cual se aplicó en un modelo experimental de fagocitosis. Se realizaron análisis de Microscopia Electrónica de Transmisión y de Barrido observándose claramente cuatro etapas de la fagocitosis. Se consideró una relación de 10 partículas de levadura por PMN como la proporción más eficiente para la observación del proceso fagocítico, igualmente se determinó muy corto el periodo de incubación de 20 minutos para alcanzar la fagocitosis en su totalidad. La técnica del coágulo de plasma mostró muy buenos resultados en preparaciones para TEM conservando la integridad de las células, no obstante, esta técnica presentó inconvenientes al observarse en MEB debido a los componentes fibrosos del coágulo que impiden una observación de la muestra, adhiriéndose a las superficies produciendo artefactos y deterioro en éstas.Studying ultrastructure cell in particle material such as bacteria, virus and cells suspension require special handling. For that reason, it has been developed techniques like plasma coagulate with phagocytosis as experimental model and analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Four stages of phagocytosis were observed. The efficient proportion to observe the phagocytosis process was 10 particles per NPM (Nuclear Polymorphic, although 20 min as a incubation period was very short to reaching the total process. Applying this technique, cells conserved their integrity to obtain good quality preparation for TEM. In contrast for SEM samples which kept coagulate fiber components adhered to the surface, producing devices and cell deterioration was observed.

  4. Microrheological Coagulation Assay Exploiting Micromechanical Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Francesco; Duffy, James; Hegner, Martin

    2017-01-03

    Rheological measurements in biological liquids yield insights into homeostasis and provide information on important molecular processes that affect fluidity. We present a fully automated cantilever-based method for highly precise and sensitive measurements of microliter sample volumes of human blood plasma coagulation (0.009 cP for viscosity range 0.5-3 cP and 0.0012 g/cm(3) for density range 0.9-1.1 g/cm(3)). Microcantilever arrays are driven by a piezoelectric element, and resonance frequencies and quality factors of sensors that change over time are evaluated. A highly accurate approximation of the hydrodynamic function is introduced that correlates resonance frequency and quality factor of cantilever beams immersed in a fluid to the viscosity and density of that fluid. The theoretical model was validated using glycerol reference solutions. We present a surface functionalization protocol that allows minimization of unspecific protein adsorption onto cantilevers. Adsorption leads to measurement distortions and incorrect estimation of the fluid parameters (viscosity and density). Two hydrophilic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) sensor surfaces are compared to a hydrophobic terminated SAM coating. As expected, the hydrophobic modified surfaces induced the highest mass adsorption and could promote conformational changes of the proteins and subsequent abnormal biological activity. Finally, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assay was performed, and the viscosity, density, and coagulation rate of human blood plasma were measured along with the standard coagulation time. The method could extend and improve current coagulation testing.

  5. A comparative study of tissue factor and kaolin on blood coagulation assays using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Henry T; Grodecki, Richard; Rizoli, Sandro; Shek, Pang N

    2016-01-01

    Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been increasingly used to diagnose acute coagulopathy and guide blood transfusion. The tests are routinely performed using different triggering activators such as tissue factor and kaolin, which activate different pathways yielding different results. To optimize the global blood coagulation assays using ROTEM and TEG, we conducted a comparative study on the activation methods employing tissue factor and kaolin at different concentrations as well as standard reagents as recommended by the manufacturer of each device. Key parameter values were obtained at various assay conditions to evaluate and compare coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles of citrated whole blood collected from healthy volunteers. It was found that tissue factor reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R, and increased ROTEM clot formation time and TEG K in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, tissue factor affected ROTEM alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness, especially in the absence of kaolin activation, whereas both ROTEM and TEG clot lysis (LI30, CL30, and LY30) remained unaffected. Moreover, kaolin reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R and K, but to a lesser extent than tissue factor, in-tem and ex-tem. Correlations in all corresponding parameters between ROTEM and TEG were observed, when the same activators were used in the assays compared with lesser correlations between standard kaolin TEG and ROTEM (INTEM/EXTEM). The two types of viscoelastic point-of-care devices provide different results, depending on the triggering reagent used to perform the assay. Optimal assay condition was obtained to reduce assay time and improve assay accuracy.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-06-12

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3-5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3-5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2-30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  8. A sequence variation scan of the coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) structural gene and associations with plasma FVIII activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Kevin R; Machiah, Deepa K; Warren, Diane M; Khachidze, Manana; Buil, Alfonso; Fernstrom, Karl; Souto, Juan C; Peralta, Juan M; Smith, Todd; Blangero, John; Porter, Sandra; Warren, Stephen T; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Soria, Jose M; Flanders, W Dana; Almasy, Laura; Howard, Tom E

    2007-05-01

    Plasma factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) level is a highly heritable quantitative trait that is strongly correlated with thrombosis risk. Polymorphisms within only 1 gene, the ABO blood-group locus, have been unequivocally demonstrated to contribute to the broad population variability observed for this trait. Because less than 2.5% of the structural FVIII gene (F8) has been examined previously, we resequenced all known functional regions in 222 potentially distinct alleles from 137 unrelated nonhemophilic individuals representing 7 racial groups. Eighteen of the 47 variants identified, including 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were previously unknown. As the degree of linkage disequilibrium across F8 was weak overall, we used measured-genotype association analysis to evaluate the influence of each polymorphism on the FVIII:C levels in 398 subjects from 21 pedigrees known as the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia project (GAIT). Our results suggested that 92714C>G, a nonsynonymous SNP encoding the B-domain substitution D1241E, was significantly associated with FVIII:C level. After accounting for important covariates, including age and ABO genotype, the association persisted with each C-allele additively increasing the FVIII:C level by 14.3 IU dL(-1) (P = .016). Nevertheless, because the alleles of 56010G>A, a SNP within the 3' splice junction of intron 7, are strongly associated with 92714C>G in GAIT, additional studies are required to determine whether D1241E is itself a functional variant.

  9. Endoscopic plasma argon coagulation in treatment of weight regain after bariatric surgery: what does the patient think about this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Simone Dallegrave; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; Cambi, Maria Paula Carlini; Marchesini, João Batista

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is an effective treatment for refractory morbid obesity, causing the loss of 75% of initial excess weight. After the surgery, however, weight regain can occur in 10-20% of cases. To help, endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) is used to reduce the anastomotic diameter. Many patients who undergo this treatment, are not always familiar with this procedure and its respective precautions. The aim of this study was to determine how well the candidate for APC understands the procedure and absorbs the information provided by the multidisciplinary team. We prepared a questionnaire with 12 true/false questions to evaluate the knowledge of the patients about the procedure they were to undergo. The questionnaire was administered by the surgeon during consultation in the preoperative period. The patients were invited to fill out the questionnaire. We found out that the majority learned about the procedure through the internet. They knew it was an outpatient treatment, where the anesthesia was similar to that for endoscopy, and that they would have to follow a liquid diet. But none of them knew that the purpose of this diet was to improve local wound healing. Bariatric patients who have a second chance to resume weight loss, need continuous guidance. The internet should be used by the multidisciplinary team to promote awareness that APC will not be sufficient for weight loss and weight-loss maintenance in the long term. Furthermore, there is a need to clarify again the harm of drinking alcohol in the process of weight loss, making its curse widely known.

  10. Comparative response of platelet fV and plasma fV to activated protein C and relevance to a model of acute traumatic coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Campbell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC has been linked to an increase in activated protein C (aPC from 40 pM in healthy individuals to 175 pM. aPC exerts its activity primarily through cleavage of active coagulation factor Va (fVa. Platelets reportedly possess fVa which is more resistant to aPC cleavage than plasma fVa; this work examines the hypothesis that normal platelets are sufficient to maintain coagulation in the presence of elevated aPC. METHODS: Coagulation responses of normal plasma, fV deficient plasma (fVdp, and isolated normal platelets in fVdp were conducted: prothrombin (PT tests, turbidimetry, and thromboelastography (TEG, including the dose response of aPC on the samples. RESULTS: PT and turbidimetric assays demonstrate that normal plasma is resistant to aPC at doses much higher than those found in ATC. Additionally, an average physiological number of washed normal platelets (200,000 platelets/mm3 was sufficient to eliminate the anti-coagulant effects of aPC up to 10 nM, nearly two orders of magnitude above the ATC concentration and even the steady-state pharmacological concentration of human recombinant aPC, as measured by TEG. aPC also demonstrated no significant effect on clot lysis in normal plasma samples with or without platelets. CONCLUSIONS: Although platelet fVa shows slightly superior resistance to aPC's effects compared to plasma fVa in static models, neither fVa is sufficiently cleaved in simulations of ATC or pharmacologically-delivered aPC to diminish coagulation parameters. aPC is likely a correlative indicator of ATC or may play a cooperative role with other activity altering products generated in ATC.

  11. Safety and efficacy of argon plasma coagulator ablation therapy for flat colorectal adenomas Seguridad y eficacia de la ablación de pólipos colorrectales con argón plasma

    OpenAIRE

    García, A.; O. Núñez; C. González-Asanza; Parera, A; L. Menchén; Ripoll, C.; Senent, C; E. Cos; P. Menchén

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: argon-plasma coagulation (APC) has been used safely and efficaciously in multiple settings including colon polyp treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate APC efficacy and safety in the treatment of flat colorectal adenomas. Materials and methods: APC ablation was prospectively performed and evaluated in 22 consecutive patients with colorectal adenomas, 11 of which had large sessile adenomas that were treated with piecemeal polypectomy and APC ablation of residual adenoma...

  12. Paediatric tonsillectomy: radiofrequency-based plasma dissection compared to cold dissection with sutures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo Businco, L; Coen Tirelli, G

    2008-01-01

    Summary Aim of this study was to compare post-operative recovery over 14 days in children submitted to tonsillectomy using a bipolar radiofrequency-based plasma device (Coblation®, Evac 70, ArthroCare Corp, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) to cold dissection. Paediatric patients (n = 42) aged 5-16 years old with chronic tonsillitis underwent tonsillectomy using cold dissection with suture ligatures or a plasma device (Evac 70, ArthroCare Corp, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Pain intensity on the first day, use of analgesics, type of diet, and days of pain, fever, nausea, and absence from school were determined. Groups were compared using time-to-event (Kaplan-Meier) curves and statistically evaluated using the Breslow (generalized Wilcoxon) test. Children undergoing plasma tonsillectomy reported significantly less pain on the first post-operative day (1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 3.5 ± 1.5, p tonsillectomy was adopted for the majority of cases. Benefits of the plasma device include the possibility both to excise tissue and coagulate bleeding vessels using the same device whilst improving quality of post-operative recovery over cold dissection with suture ligatures. PMID:18669070

  13. A comparative study on the efficiency of ozonation and coagulation-flocculation as pretreatment to activated carbon adsorption of biologically stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim T M; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-09-01

    The present work investigates the potential of coagulation-flocculation and ozonation to pretreat biologically stabilized landfill leachate before granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. Both iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) are investigated as coagulants. Better organic matter removal is observed when leachate was treated with FeCl3. At a dose of 1mg FeCl3/mg CODo (CODo: initial COD content), the COD and α254 removal was 66% and 88%, respectively. Dosing 1mg PACl/mg CODo resulted in 44% COD and 72% α254 removal. The settle-ability of sludge generated by PACl leveled off at 252mL/g, while a better settle-ability of 154mL/g was obtained for FeCl3 after dosing 1mg coagulant/mg CODo. For ozonation, the percentage of COD and α254 removal increased as the initial COD concentration decreased. Respectively 44% COD and 77% α254 removal was observed at 112mg COD/L compared to 5% COD and 26% α254 removal at 1846mg COD/L. Subsequent activated carbon adsorption of ozonated, coagulated and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal after treatment of 6 bed volumes. Clearly showing the benefit of treating the leachate before GAC adsorption. Mathematical modeling of the experimental GAC adsorption data with Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models show that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and breakthrough time of GAC by a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  14. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashty, M; Motazacker, M M; Levels, J; de Vries, M; Mahmoudi, M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Rezaee, F

    2014-03-03

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis from the site of synthesis to effector locations. To better understand the role of VLDL and LDL in the transport of proteins, we applied a combination of LTQ ORBITRAP-XL (nLC-MS/MS) with both in-SDS-PAGE gel and in-solution tryptic digestion of pure and defined VLDL and LDL fractions. We identified the presence of 95 VLDL- and 51 LDL-associated proteins including all known apolipoproteins and lipid transport proteins, and intriguingly a set of coagulation proteins, complement system and anti- microbial proteins. Prothrombin, protein S, fibrinogen γ, PLTP, CETP, CD14 and LBP were present on VLDL but not on LDL. Prenylcysteine oxidase 1, dermcidin, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, TFPI-1 and fibrinogen α chain were associated with both VLDL and LDL. Apo A-V is only present on VLDL and not on LDL. Collectively, this study provides a wealth of knowledge on the protein constituents of the human plasma lipoprotein system and strongly supports the notion that protein shuttling through this system is involved in the regulation of biological processes. Human diseases related to proteins carried by VLDL and LDL can be divided in three major categories: 1 - dyslipidaemia, 2 - atherosclerosis and vascular disease, and 3 - coagulation disorders.

  15. Plasma triacylglycerol and coagulation factor concentrations predict the anticoagulant effect of dietary fish oil in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M;

    2007-01-01

    determined partly the interindividual variation in thrombin generation, of which prothrombin and triacylglycerol concentrations were the main determinants. In both healthy subjects and diabetes patients, high triacylglycerol concentrations (>1.69 mmol/L) at baseline were closely linked to a strong fish oil......-induced lowering of triacylglycerol and coagulation factor V, VII, and X concentrations, and thrombin generation. We conclude that high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations predict high procoagulant activity and a lowering of thrombin potential with dietary fish oil....

  16. Coagulation, thrombophilia and patency of arteriovenous fistula in children undergoing haemodialysis compared with healthy volunteers: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Fatina I; Elshamaa, Manal F; Abdel-Rahman, Safaa M; Thabet, Eman H; Kamel, Solaf; Kandil, Dina; Ibrahim, Mona H; El-Ahmady, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess whether markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis or thrombophilia are increased in children on haemodialysis compared with controls and whether measurement of any of these factors could help to identify patients at an increased risk of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) occlusion. Blood samples were taken from 55 children immediately before a session of haemodialysis and from 20 healthy volunteers. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), D-dimer, plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) and anticardiolipin immunoglobulin G (ACA-Ig G) were measured by ELISA. Factor V Leiden mutation (G1691A) was determined by gene polymorphism [restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)]. Determination of the patency of the AVF was prospectively followed up for a minimum of 4 years or until the AVF was nonfunctioning. Fifty-five patients were studied with a median follow-up of 659 days (range 30-1670 days). A significant increase was found in the levels of D-dimer, PAP and ACA-Ig G in haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVFs vs. There was a significant difference between both chronic haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVF with regard to ACA-IgG levels. At 1 year follow-up, primary patency was 61.4% (27 patients). In multivariate analysis, D-dimer was inversely associated with secondary patency.Thrombophilia may predispose children with end stage renal disease to access failure. The promising finding is that in children on haemodialysis, D-dimer levels were increased and inversely correlated with secondary patency. Further evaluation is required into the possible role of D-dimer as a biomarker of AVF occlusion.

  17. Potentiation of thrombin generation in hemophilia A plasma by coagulation factor VIII and characterization of antibody-specific inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya S Doshi

    Full Text Available Development of inhibitory antibodies to coagulation factor VIII (fVIII is the primary obstacle to the treatment of hemophilia A in the developed world. This adverse reaction occurs in 20-30% of persons with severe hemophilia A treated with fVIII-replacement products and is characterized by the development of a humoral and neutralizing immune response to fVIII. Patients with inhibitory anti-fVIII antibodies are treated with bypassing agents including recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa. However, some patients display poor hemostatic response to bypass therapy and improved treatment options are needed. Recently, we demonstrated that fVIII inhibitors display widely variable kinetics of inhibition that correlate with their respective target epitopes. Thus, it was hypothesized that for antibodies that display slow rates of inhibition, supplementation of rfVIIa with fVIII would result in improved thrombin generation and be predictive of clinical responses to this novel treatment regimen. In order to test this hypothesis, 10 murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs with non-overlapping epitopes spanning fVIII, differential inhibition titers, and inhibition kinetics were studied using a thrombin generation assay. Of the 3 MAbs with high inhibitory titers, only the one with fast and complete (classically defined as "type I" kinetics displayed significant inhibition of thrombin generation with no improvement upon supplementation of rfVIIa with fVIII. The other two MAbs that displayed incomplete (classically defined as "type II" inhibition did not suppress the potentiation of thrombin generation by fVIII. All antibodies that did not completely inhibit fVIII activity demonstrated potentiation of thrombin generation by the addition of fVIII as compared to rfVIIa alone. In conclusion, fVIII alone or in combination with rfVIIa corrects the thrombin generation defect produced by the majority of anti-fVIII MAbs better than single agent rfVIIa. Therefore, combined f

  18. Promoter methylation in coagulation F7 gene influences plasma FVII concentrations and relates to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, Valentina; Choi, Sang-Woon; Girelli, Domenico; Pinotti, Mirko; Guarini, Patrizia; Udali, Silvia; Pattini, Patrizia; Pizzolo, Francesca; Martinelli, Nicola; Corrocher, Roberto; Bernardi, Francesco; Olivieri, Oliviero

    2012-03-01

    Plasma factor VII concentrations (FVIIa), a marker of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, are influenced by genetic markers at the promoter site: the A2 allele, due to a 10bp insertion at position -323, is a determinant of lower FVIIa concentrations and reduced CAD risk, while the -402A allele, due to a G>A substitution, confers increased transcriptional activity in vitro resulting in higher FVIIa. Transcriptional regulation of F7 by epigenetic features is, however, still unknown as is the inter-relationship of genetic and epigenetic modifications at the promoter site. To investigate a possible epigenetic regulation of the F7 gene at the promoter region and its link with functional F7 polymorphisms at the same site. F7 promoter methylation and its relation to F7 promoter polymorphisms in modulating FVIIa and CAD risk were evaluated by methyl-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing techniques in 253 subjects, of whom 168 had CAD and 88 were CAD-free. Plasma FVIIa was inversely related to methylation in A1A1 and -402GG, that is in the absence of the rare A2 and -402A allele. The higher FVIIa paralleled the lower methylation in A1A1 compared to A2A2 (p=0.035), while no variation in methylation was associated with the different -402G>A genotypes. The modulation of methylation-induced FVIIa concentrations was observed only in A1A1 where the higher methylation resulting in lower FVIIa was prevalent within the CAD-free group compared to the CAD group (p=0.011). Epigenetic regulation through methylation of F7 promoter is associated with CAD by affecting plasma FVIIa concentrations in A1A1 genotypes.

  19. Performance of coagulation tests in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. A cross-sectional pharmacodynamic study based on peak and trough plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francart, Suzanne J; Hawes, Emily M; Deal, Allison M; Adcock, Dorothy M; Gosselin, Robert; Jeanneret, Cheryl; Friedman, Kenneth D; Moll, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of anticoagulation status during rivaroxaban therapy is desirable in certain clinical situations. It was the study objective to determine coagulation tests most useful for assessing rivaroxaban's anticoagulant effect. Peak and trough blood samples from 29 patients taking rivaroxaban 20 mg daily were collected. Mass spectrometry and various coagulation assays were performed. "On-therapy range" was defined as the rivaroxaban concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS. A "misprediction percentage" was calculated based on how often results of each coagulation assay were in the normal reference range, while the rivaroxaban concentration was in the "on-therapy" range. The on-therapy range was 8.9-660 ng/ml. The misprediction percentages for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), using multiple reagents and coagulometers, ranged from 10%-52% and 31%-59%, respectively. PT, aPTT and activated clotting time (ACT) were insensitive to trough rivaroxaban: 59%, 62%, and 80% of samples had a normal result, respectively. Over 95% of PT and ACT values were elevated at peak. Four different rivaroxaban calibrated anti-Xa assays had R² values >0.98, demonstrating strong correlations with rivaroxaban drug levels. In conclusion, PT, aPTT and ACT are often normal in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. However, PT and ACT may have clinical utility at higher drug plasma levels. Rivaroxaban calibrated anti-factor Xa assays can accurately identify low and high on-therapy rivaroxaban drug levels and, therefore, have superior utility in all clinical situations where assessment of anticoagulation status may be beneficial.

  20. UPLC-MRM Mass Spectrometry Method for Measurement of the Coagulation Inhibitors Dabigatran and Rivaroxaban in Human Plasma and Its Comparison with Functional Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Kuhn

    Full Text Available The fast, precise, and accurate measurement of the new generation of oral anticoagulants such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban in patients' plasma my provide important information in different clinical circumstances such as in the case of suspicion of overdose, when patients switch from existing oral anticoagulant, in patients with hepatic or renal impairment, by concomitant use of interaction drugs, or to assess anticoagulant concentration in patients' blood before major surgery.Here, we describe a quick and precise method to measure the coagulation inhibitors dabigatran and rivaroxaban using ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM mode (UPLC-MRM MS. Internal standards (ISs were added to the sample and after protein precipitation; the sample was separated on a reverse phase column. After ionization of the analytes the ions were detected using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Run time was 2.5 minutes per injection. Ion suppression was characterized by means of post-column infusion.The calibration curves of dabigatran and rivaroxaban were linear over the working range between 0.8 and 800 μg/L (r >0.99. Limits of detection (LOD in the plasma matrix were 0.21 μg/L for dabigatran and 0.34 μg/L for rivaroxaban, and lower limits of quantification (LLOQ in the plasma matrix were 0.46 μg/L for dabigatran and 0.54 μg/L for rivaroxaban. The intraassay coefficients of variation (CVs for dabigatran and rivaroxaban were < 4% and 6%; respectively, the interassay CVs were < 6% for dabigatran and < 9% for rivaroxaban. Inaccuracy was < 5% for both substances. The mean recovery was 104.5% (range 83.8-113.0% for dabigatran and 87.0% (range 73.6-105.4% for rivaroxaban. No significant ion suppressions were detected at the elution times of dabigatran or rivaroxaban. Both coagulation inhibitors were stable in citrate plasma at -20°C, 4°C and even at RT for at

  1. 内镜下HFEC术对比APC术治疗大肠息肉的疗效探究%Clinical efficacy of endoscopic high frequency electric coagulation and argon plasma coagulation for colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探究内镜下高频电凝切除术(High frequency electric coagulation,HFEC)与氩离子凝固术(Argon plasma coagulation,APC)在大肠息肉(Colorectal polyps,CP)治疗中的价值,为临床上CP治疗方式的选择提供依据.方法选择2009年3月-2014年3月在杭州师范大学附属医院接受治疗的CP患者980例,随机分成HFEC组490例(息肉653枚)和APC组490例(息肉688枚),HFEC组患者采用HFEC切除治疗,APC组则采用APC术治疗.治疗后,统计2组患者一次清除率和并发症发生率,据此评价两种术式对CP治疗的价值.结果采用SPSS19.0进行统计学分析,行x2检验,以P<0.05为差异具有统计学意义.结果 APC组一次切除息肉635枚,两次及以上切除53枚,一次切除率为92.3%,而HFEC组一次切除息肉562枚,两次及以上切除91枚,一次切除率为86.1%,2组一次切除率比较,差异具有统计学意义(x2 =13.58,P<0.05);APC组发生腹胀22例,腹痛13例,穿孔1例,出血2例,并发症率为7.8%;HFEC组发生腹胀34例,腹痛21例,穿孔6例,出血9例,并发症率为14.3%,2组并发症率比较,差异具有统计学意义(x2=10.66,P<0.05).结论 APC术治疗CP一次切除率高,且并发症低,安全可靠,是CP患者较佳的治疗方式.

  2. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Maria Nastase; Eriksson, Per; Ericsson, Carl-Göran; Hamsten, Anders; Silveira, Angela

    2006-03-01

    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin clot structure and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, the potential contribution of SNPs harboured in the fibrinogen, IL6 and F13A1 genes to these biochemical and clinical phenotypes was examined. A database and biobank based on 387 survivors of a first MI and population-based controls were used. Sixty controls were selected according to FGG 9340T > C [rs1049636] genotype for studies on fibrin clot structure using the liquid permeation method. The multifactor dimensionality reduction method was used for interaction analyses. We here report that the FGA 2224G > A [rs2070011] SNP (9.2%), plasma fibrinogen concentration (13.1%) and age (8.1%) appeared as independent determinants of fibrin gel porosity. The FGA 2224G > A SNP modulated the relation between plasma fibrinogen concentration and fibrin clot porosity. The FGG-FGA*4 haplotype, composed of the minor FGG 9340C and FGA 2224A alleles, had similar effects, supporting its reported protective role in relation to MI. Significant epistasis on plasma fibrinogen concentration was detected between the FGA 2224G > A and F13A1 Val34Leu [rs5985] SNPs (p FGG 9340T > C and FGB 1038G > A [rs1800791] SNPs appeared to interact on MI risk, explaining the association of FGG-FGB haplotypes with MI in the absence of effects of individual SNPs. Thus, epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms contribute to the variation in plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin clot structure and risk of MI.

  3. Comparative Study on the Effects of Two Contraceptive Injections (Mesigyna, Cyclofem) on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海瑛; 陈爱君; 孙丹利; 桑国卫

    2000-01-01

    The effects of consecutively using the contraceptive injections (Mesigyna or Cy-clofem) on both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis were evaluated on 94 Chinese women who had been injected with one of these two injections once a month for 9 months. To provide the evidences on the safety of long-term use, relevant parame-ters were observed before the treatment, after the injection 3 and 9, as well as 3 months after drug withdrawing. The results were as follows: Among those who had been injected with Mesigyna, the levels of factor Ⅶ and factor Ⅹ declined signifi-cantly during treatment. The activity of AT- Ⅲ , plasminogen and the concentration of protein C also decreased. Moreover, the corresponding parameters did not recov-ered to the normal level after stopping treatment. Prothrombin time (PT) and acti-vated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were prolonged in the early period of treatment, but recovered to the normal at week 47 (injection withdrawn).No or slight change was observed in other parameters. Among the woman injected with Cy-clofem, the concentrations of factor Ⅶ and plasminogen decreased over time, while the tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (t-PAI) levels increased after the 9th injec-tion and recovered to normal at week 47 after discontinuation of treatment. The re-suits suggested that some significant parameter changes of coagulation and of fibri-nolysis could be detected among long-term users, but their impact on the fibrinolysis system was not obvious. The observed phenomenon did not show a tendency to facili-tate thromboembolism and possibility of being harmful to the users. Thus, the ob-served changes should be regarded as the reactions to keep the equilibrium between coagulation and fibrinolysis and had no marked clinical pathological significance on the users.

  4. Watermelon stomach: clinical aspects and treatment with argon plasma coagulation Ectasia vascular do antro gástrico ("watermelon stomach": aspectos clínicos e tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton M. Chaves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a disorder whose pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. The endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation has been considered one of the best endoscopic therapeutic options. AIM: To analyze the endoscopic and clinical features of gastric antral vascular ectasia and its response to the argon plasma coagulation treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were studied and classified into two groups: group 1 - whose endoscopic aspect was striped (watermelon or of the diffuse confluent type; group 2 - diffuse spotty nonconfluent endoscopic aspect. RESULTS: Group 1 with eight patients, all having autoimmune antibodies, but one, whose antibodies were not searched for. Three were cirrhotic and three had hypothyroidism. All had gastric mucosa atrophy. In group 2, with 10 patients, all had non-immune liver disease, with platelet levels below 90.000. Ten patients were submitted to argon plasma coagulation treatment, with 2 to 36 months of follow-up. Lesions recurred in all patients who remained in the follow-up program and one did not respond to treatment for acute bleeding control. CONCLUSION: There seem to be two distinct groups of patients with gastric antral vascular ectasia: one related to immunologic disorders and other to non-immune chronic liver disease and low platelets. The endoscopic treatment using argon plasma coagulation had a high recurrence in the long-term evaluation.RACIONAL: "Watermelon stomach" ou ectasia vascular do antro gástrico é uma doença de etiopatogenia desconhecida. O tratamento endoscópico através da coagulação com plasma de argônio é considerado uma das melhores opções terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clínicos e endoscópicos da ectasia vascular do antro gástrico e a resposta ao tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes foram estudados e classificados em dois grupos: grupo I - oito pacientes que

  5. Comparative plasma disposition of fenbendazole, oxfendazole and albendazole in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, C; Bilgili, A; Hanedan, B; McKellar, Q A

    2007-09-30

    The plasma disposition of fenbendazole (FBZ), oxfendazole (OFZ) and albendazole (ABZ); and the enantiospecific disposition of OFZ, and ABZSO produced were investigated following an oral administration (50 mg/kg) in dogs. Blood samples were collected from 1 to 120 h post-administration. The plasma samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plasma concentration of FBZ, OFZ, ABZ and their metabolites were significantly different from each other and depended on the drug administered. The sulphone metabolite (FBZSO2) of FBZ was not detected in any plasma samples and the parent molecule ABZ did not reach quantifiable concentrations following FBZ and ABZ administration, respectively. OFZ and its sulphone metabolite attained a significantly higher plasma concentration and remained much longer in plasma compared with FBZ and ABZ and their respective metabolites. The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), area under the concentration time curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) of parent OFZ were more than 30, 68 and 2 times those of FBZ, respectively. The same parameters for ABZSO were also significantly greater than those of FBZSO. The ratio for total AUCs of both the parent drug and the metabolites were 1:42:7 for following FBZ, OFZ and ABZ administration, respectively. The enantiomers were never in racemic proportions and (+) enantiomers of both OFZ and ABZSO were predominant in plasma. The AUC of (+) enantiomers of OFZ and ABZSO was, respectively more than three and seven times larger than that of (-) enantiomers of both molecules. It is concluded that the plasma concentration of OFZ was substantially greater compared with FBZ and ABZ. The data on the pharmacokinetic profile of OFZ presented here may contribute to evaluate its potential as an anthelmintic drug for parasite control in dogs.

  6. Polymorphisms of the coagulation factor Ⅶ gene and its plasma levels in relation to acute cerebral infarction differences in allelic frequencies between Chinese Han and European populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文英; 王鸿利; 熊立凡; 王学锋; 储海燕; 璩斌; 刘湘帆; 尹俊; 段宝华; 王振义

    2004-01-01

    Background Coagulation factor Ⅶ (F Ⅶ) levels in plasma are usually related to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebral infarction shares many of the risk factors related to IHD. Is there any relationship between factor Ⅶ and cerebral infarction? We investigated the relationship between F Ⅶ and acute cerebral infarction and reported genotype frequencies and allelic frequencies of FⅦ gene polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population.Methods We recruited 62 patients with acute cerebral infarction confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from Ruijin Hospital, and 149 age-matched patients clinically free of vascular disease to act as controls. All of them were unrelated, and were from the Chinese Han population. FⅦ coagulant activity (FⅦc) was determined using an clotting assay, activated FⅦ (FⅦa) and FⅦ Ag were assayed using enzyme immunoassay kits. The FⅦ gene polymorphisms to be detected included-401G/T, -402G/A, 5'F7A1/A2, IVS7 and R353Q. 5'F7 and IVS7 were revealed by means of a PCR and direct agarose gel electrophoresis. The rest were examined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results The results showed that FⅦc, FⅦAg and FⅦa were higher in the acute cerebral infarction group than in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, respectively). There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies of FⅦ gene polymorphisms between the two groups. The allelic frequencies in the Chinese Han population were as follows: -401G/T (96.64/3.36), -402G/A (52.01/47.99), 5'F7A1/A2(96.64/3.36), IVS7 H5/H6/H7/H8 (0.34/52.35/46.98/0.34) and R353Q (95.64/4.36). There were significant differences (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively) in these allelic frequencies between the Chinese Han and European populations.Conclusions The results indicate that increased plasma FⅦ levels may contribute to thrombosis in cerebral infarction. And there was no significant difference

  7. Effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of chronic actinic proctitis Efectividad de la fulguración con argón plasma en el tratamiento de la proctitis actínica crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tormo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: there are two kinds of actinic proctitis - one is acute and self-limited, and lasts about 3 months; the other is chronic and develops months to years after radiation therapy. The incidence of chronic actinic proctitis is about 5-20% of radiated prostate tumors. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of chronic actinic proctitis. Material and method: a retrospective search of patients with the diagnosis of actinic proctitis. The number of argon plasma coagulation therapies needed to achieve the symptom resolution was analyzed. Results: we found 22 patients with a diagnosis of actinic proctitis. Nineteen were males (86.7% and three (13.6% were females. Nineteen patients (86.4% had a diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma, one had a diagnosis of squamous-cell cervix carcinoma (4.5%, and two had a diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma (9.1%. The mean number of coagulation sessions needed for symptom resolution was 2.58 (absolute range 1-7 with a median of 2 sessions. Conclusion: multiple treatments are described in the literature. None of them have shown promising results. Our results suggest that argon plasma coagulation is effective in the treatment of this condition, and achieves a rapid and sustained response with few sessions and a good safety profile.Introducción: existen 2 tipos de proctitis actínica, una aguda autolimitada, que dura aproximadamente 3 meses y otra crónica que aparece a los meses o años de la radioterapia. La incidencia de proctitis actínica crónica es del 5-20% de los tumores prostáticos irradiados. Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de la fulguración con argón plasma en el tratamiento de este tipo de proctitis. Material y método: estudio retrospectivo. Realizamos una búsqueda retrospectiva de aquellos pacientes diagnosticados de proctitis actínica entre 2004 y 2007. Analizamos el número de sesiones de fulguración con plasma de argón que fueron necesarias

  8. Cysteine as a Biological Probe for Comparing Plasma Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Golda, Judith; Kogelheide, Friederike; Held, Julian; Schulz-von-der-Gathen, Volker; Stapelmann, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    A large variety of plasma sources are available in the plasma medicine community. While enabling to choose the most promising source for a certain biomedical application, comparison of the different sources with a focus on their effect on biological targets is rather challenging. To allow for better comparison of various sources, the recent European COST action MP1101 was used to design the COST reference microplasma jet. Cysteine is a promising candidate investigate the impact of plasma from various sources on a standardized biological molecule, which is especially relevant for the investigations on a molecular level after plasma treatment. The simple structure of cysteine allows for a more in-depth analysis of each chemical group after plasma treatment and enables a comparison between different plasma sources and treatment parameters on each chemical group. The model itself has already been successfully established using a dielectric barrier discharge. Here, additional plasma sources are compared by the means of their impact on cysteine samples, showing e.g. the influence of feed-gas variations by adding oxygen or nitrogen admixture This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) with the packet grant PAK816 (PlaCID).

  9. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  10. Performance of titanium salts compared to conventional FeCl 3 for the removal of algal organic matter (AOM) in synthetic seawater: Coagulation performance, organic fraction removal and floc characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.

    2017-06-20

    During algal bloom periods, operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment processes (e.g. ultrafiltration (UF)) has been hindered due to the high concentration of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM). The present study evaluated for the first time the performance of titanium salts (i.e. titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC)) for the removal of AOM in seawater and results were compared with the conventional FeCl3 coagulant. Previous studies already demonstrated that titanium salts not only provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional coagulants by producing a valuable by-product but also minimise the environmental impact of sludge production. Results from this study showed that both TiCl4 and PTC achieved better performance than FeCl3 in terms of turbidity, UV254 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal at similar coagulant dose. Liquid chromatography – organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) was used to determine the removal of AOM compounds based on their molecular weight (MW). This investigation revealed that both humic substances and low MW organics were preferentially removed (i.e. up to 93% removal) while all three coagulants showed poorer performance for the removal of high MW biopolymers (i.e. less than 50% removal). The detailed characterization of flocs indicated that both titanium coagulants can grow faster, reach larger size and present a more compact structure, which is highly advantageous for the design of smaller and more compact mixing and sedimentation tanks. Both titanium coagulants also presented a higher ability to withstand shear force, which was related to the higher amount of DOC adsorbed with the aggregated flocs. Finally, TiCl4 had a better recovery after breakage suggesting that charge neutralization may be the dominant mechanism for this coagulant, while the lower recovery of both PTC and FeCl3 indicated that sweep flocculation is also a contributing mechanism for the coagulation of AOM.

  11. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  12. Fragmentation of bile duct stones: a prospective systematic in vitro evaluation of argon plasma coagulation, cryotechnology, and water-jet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, A; Koberstein, S; Rothsching, M; Gemmel, C; Eickhoff, J C; Riemann, J F; Enderle, M D

    2009-08-01

    Choledocholithiasis is a common disease in the West. Lithotripsy by mechanical methods using baskets and by laser or electrohydraulic methods varies in effectiveness. With argon plasma coagulation (APC), high temperatures are used for devitalization and fragmentation; cryogenic techniques use the selective controlled application of freeze-thaw cycles to devitalize pathological tissue; and the dissecting water jet exploits the high pressure action of a thin laminar jet. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of APC, cryotechnology, and the dissecting water jet as options for the fragmentation of bile duct stones. In an in vitro feasibility study, we evaluated the fragmentation of 120 bile duct stones treated with the three methods. Primary measures were assessment of the fragmentation rate, fragmentation effect, and energy application for each technology. Fragmentation was seen in only 10 % of stones treated cryogenically using liquid nitrogen. APC at a power setting of 30 - 50 W fragmented all the cholesterol stones, but results with hard pigment stones were unsatisfactory even at high energies of a 100 W setting and long application time. Using the water jet, all 40 stones (100 %) were cracked effectively and completely with a pressure of 10 - 50 bar. In this feasibility study, the first of its kind, only the water-jet device demonstrated efficient fragmentation of large bile duct stones in vitro. APC and cryotechnology are not suitable for the treatment of bile duct stones; the fragmentation rate with these methods was inadequate.

  13. Relationship between disseminated intravascular coagu-lation and levels of plasma thrombinogen segment 1+2,D-dimer, and thrombomodulin in patients with multiple injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-jun; HUANG Xian-kai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between dis-seminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and levels of plasma thrombinogen segment 1+2 (F1+2), D-dimer (D-D), and thrombomodulin (TM) in patients with severe multiple injuries.Methods: In this study, 66 patients (49 males and 17 females, aged 15-74 years, mean=38.4 years) with multiple injuries, who were admitted to our hospital within 24 hours after injury with no personal or family history of hematopathy or coagulopathy, were divided into a minor injury group (ISS≥16, n=45) according to the injury severity. The patients in the major injury group were divided into a subgroup complicated with DIC (DIC subgroup, n=12) and a subgroup compli-cated with no DIC (non-DIC subgroup, n=33). Ten healthy people (7 males and 3 females, aged 22-61 years, mean=36.5 years±9.0 years), who received somatoscopy and diagnosed as healthy, served as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected once in the control group and 1, 3 and 7 days after trauma in the injury groups. The F1+2 and TM concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and D-D concentrations were measured by automated latex enhanced immunoassay. Results: F1+2, D-D and TM levels were higher in the minor and major injury groups than in the control group.They were markedly higher in the major injury group than in the minor injury group. In the non-DIC subgroup, F1+2 levels declined gradually while D-D and TM levels declined continuously. In the DIC subgroup, F1+2 and D-D levels remained elevated while TM levels exhibited an early rise and subsequent decrease. Plasma F1+2, D-D and TM levels were higher in the DIC patients than in the non-DIC patients. Injury-induced increases in F1+2, D-D and TM plasma lev-els had significant positive correlation with each other at each time point.Conclusions: Besides being related to trauma severity, F1+2, D-D and TM levels correlate closely with the occur-rence of posttraumatic DIC. Therefore

  14. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  15. Comparative Plasma Protein Profiling of Hemoglobin H Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonlak Leecharoenkiat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HbH and HbH-constant spring (HbH-CS are the most common forms of α-thalassemia detected in the Thai population. The accumulation of excess β globin chains in these diseases results in increased red cell hemolysis, and patients with HbH-CS normally have a more severe clinical presentation than patients with HbH disease. This study aimed to detect alterations in the expression of plasma proteins of HbH and HbH-CS patients as compared to normal plasma. Platelet poor plasma was separated from HbH and HbH-CS and normal subjects and differential plasma proteins were detected using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using LC/MS/MS. A total of 14 differentially expressed proteins were detected of which 5 proteins were upregulated and 9 were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins are liver secreted proteins involved in hemolysis, oxidative stress response, and hemoglobin degradation. Seven proteins were found to be differentially expressed between HbH and HbH-CS. Levels of haptoglobin, a hemoglobin scavenging protein, were significantly increased in HbH patients as compared to HbH-CS patients. The identification of differentially expressed proteins may lead to a better understanding of the biological events underlying the clinical presentation of HbH and HbH-CS patients and can have application as hemolytic markers or severity predictors.

  16. Efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis Eficacia y seguridad de la electrocoagulación con plasma de argón en el tratamiento del sangrado rectal secundario a proctitis por radioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de la Serna Higuera

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy, safety and medium-/long-term clinical course of patients undergoing endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy. Design: descriptive, retrospective study with medium- and long-term follow-up. Patients, material and methods: ten patients were treated with argon plasma coagulation for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy between July 1998 and February 2003. Inclusion criteria were: evidence of chronic rectal bleeding, consistent endoscopic findings, and absence of any other cause of hematochezia after a comprehensive ano-rectal examination and complete colonoscopy. The equipment used was a standard colonoscope, an argon delivery unit, an argon plasma coagulation probe 1.5 mm in internal diameter, and a high-frequency electrosurgical generator. Consecutive treatment sessions were programmed whenever it was considered necessary until all mucosal lesions had been treated. Clinical and evolutive follow-up was performed with a focus on tolerance, efficacy, and potential argon plasma coagulation-related complications. Data were updated by personal or telephonic interview. Results: in all patients, chronic rectal bleeding stopped after the last treatment session. The mean number of treatment sessions to stop symptoms was 1.7. Mean follow-up was 31.1 months. All sessions were well tolerated, similarly to standard rectoscopy. In one case a recurrence of rectal bleeding was observed four months later, which required two repeat sessions. Four patients were anemic at inclusion. Three of them reported a resolved anemia at the end of the study. No delayed argon plasma coagulation-related complications such us ulcers or strictures were seen. Conclusions: argon plasma coagulation appears to be a useful, effective and safe treatment for rectal bleeding resulting from chronic radiation proctitis when compared to standard medical and endoscopic treatments. These successful outcomes seem

  17. Characterization of the gene for the a subunit of human factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase), a blood coagulation factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, A.; Davie, E.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer (a{sub 2}b{sub 2}) consisting of two a and two b subunits. The primary structures of the a and b subunits of human factor XIII have been reported by a combination of cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence analysis. To establish the gene structure of the a subunit for factor XIII, several human genomic libraries were screened by using the cDNA encoding the a subunit as a probe. Among {approx}5 {times} 10{sup 7} recombinant phage, 121 have been shown to contain an insert encoding a portion of the a subunit. Twenty-five unique clones were than characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. Overlapping clones encoding the a subunit of factor XIII span >160 kilobases. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the activation peptide released by thrombin, the active site cysteine region, the two putative calcium-binding regions, and the thrombin cleavage site leading to inactivation are encoded by separate exons. This suggest that the introns may separate the a subunit into functional and structural domains. A comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the genomic DNA sequence with those deduced from cDNA or determined by amino acid sequence analysis of the plasma and placental proteins revealed apparent amino acid polymorphisms in six positions of the polypeptide chain of the a subunit.

  18. Thromboelastography on plasma reveals delayed clot formation and accelerated clot lyses in HIV-1 infected persons compared with healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönsholt, Frederikke Falkencrone; Gerstoft, Jan; Ullum, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    in the hemostatic system in a pro-coagulant direction based on measurements of isolated components of the coagulation pahways. In disease conditions, the flowing blood may change from "normal" to hyper- or hypocoagulant or to hyper- or hypofibrinolytic. A balance may exist in the flowing blood, i.e. between blood......BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic events among HIV infected persons are a recognized clinical problem but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To assess whether coagulation and fibrinolysis differ between long-term treated HIV infected individuals (HIV+) and healthy controls (CON), we...... =-0.651, p = 0.012). DISCUSSION: No previous studies have examined plasma coagulation by TEG in HIV, however, we have previously demonstrated that HIV+ display hypocoagulability in whole blood by TEG in accordance with the results of this study. Others have reported of HIV associated changes...

  19. A comparative double-blind randomized trial of activated protein C and unfractionated heparin in the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Nobuo; Matsuda, Tamotsu; Saito, Hidehiko; Takatsuki, Kiyoshi; Okajima, Kenji; Takahashi, Hoyu; Takamatsu, Junki; Asakura, Hidesaku; Ogawa, Nobuya

    2002-06-01

    A randomized prospective double-blind trial was performed to compare the safety and efficacy of human activated protein C (APC) and unfractionated heparin for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). One hundred thirty-two patients with DIC were enrolled in this study: 63 patients received APC (12.5 U [2.5 microg]/kg body wt per hour) and 69 patients received heparin (8 U/kg body wt per hour) by intravenous infusion for 6 days. Forty-nine APC-treated patients and 55 heparin-treated patients were evaluated for efficacy, and 52 APC-treated patients and 55 heparin-treated patients were evaluated for safety. The 2 groups were similar with respect to sex, age, body weight, underlying diseases, and coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters before treatment. Aggravation of bleeding was seen after treatment in 8 patients receiving heparin, but in none of the patients receiving APC. The number of patients who showed alleviation of bleeding was significantly higher in the APC group than the heparin group (P = .009). The effects on DIC-related organ dysfunction were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Fibrinogen-fibrin degradation products, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), and plasmin-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) were all significantly decreased by treatment in both groups. Fibrinogen, protein C, and antithrombin were significantly increased in the APC group, whereas only protein C was significantly increased in the heparin group. Platelet count in the nonleukemic group was significantly increased in those patients receiving APC but not increased in those patients receiving heparin. Improvement of coagulation/fibrinolysis was assessed by scoring 4 parameters (soluble fibrin monomers, D-dimer, TAT, and PIC), and the results indicated that the APC group showed significantly greater improvement than the heparin group (P = .046). There was, however, no significant difference in the rate of complete recovery from DIC between the 2

  20. Clinical analysis of effect of endoscopic cryotherapy and argon plasma coagulation on 28 cases of Bronchial Tuberculosis%经支气管镜冷冻联合氩气刀治疗支气管结核28例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗玉昴; 齐曼古力·吾守尔; 胡昕; 夏宇; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    Objective To approach the effectiveness of effect of endoscopic cryotherapy and argon plasma coagulation on airway constriction in 28 cases of Bronchial Tuberculosis. Methods 28 cases of airway constriction with Bronchial Tuberculosis received endo scopic cryotherapy and argon plasma coagulation, and clinical symptoms, iconography and endoscopic changes were compared before and alter treatment. Results Every patient underwent 4. 7 times cryotherapy and argon plasma coagulation in the mean course of 1 . 6 months. Rate of complete response, partial response, mild response and invalidity were respectively 57. 1% ( 16/28 ), 35.7% ( 10/28 ), 7.1% ( 2/28 ) and 0. Only two of them was Pneumothorax and the rest of them had no adverse reaction. After 1 ~ 4 months of follow - up , re -stenosis occurred in 4 cases and received stent implantation. Long - term efficiency was 71 A% ( 20/28 ). Conclusions Endoscopic cry otherapy and argon plasma coagulation on airway constriction in treatment of Bronchial Tuberculosis are simple, effective and sale.%目的 探讨经支气管镜介入冷冻联合氩气刀治疗结核性大气道狭窄的疗效.方法 对28例支气管结核患者的狭窄气道进行冷冻联合氩气刀治疗,比较治疗前后的临床表现、影像学及镜下改变等指标来进行疗效评价.结果 28例患者经过平均1.6个月和平均4.7次/人的治疗,完全有效57.1%(16/28),部分有效35.7%(10/28),轻度有效7.1%(2/28),无效0例.术中有2例出现气胸,其余的未见明显不良反应,经过1~4月的随访,4例出现再次狭窄而采取支架植入治疗,长期有效率达71.4%(20/28).结论 冷冻联合氩气刀治疗支气管结核是一项安全、有效、简便的支气管治疗方法.

  1. Comparing Seminal Plasma Biomarkers between Normospermic and Azoospermic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetian, Soudabeh; Ardekani, Ali M.; Hodjat, Mahshid; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Amirjannati, Naser; Lakpour, Niknam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Azoospermia affects more than 10% - 15% of infertile male subjects attending infertilty clinics. At present, testicular biopsy is the golden standard procedure for evaluating spermatogenesis status in men with azoospermia. Semen collection and analysis is a non-invasive method and has proven to be valuable in the evaluation of spermatogenesis. Identification of seminal plasma markers with testicular or extra-testicular origins have a great value in predicting the prescence of sperm in testicular tissue and presumptive cause of azoospermia. The aim of this study was to find such markers by comparing the content of seminal plasma using different methods in normospermic and azoospermic men. Materials and Methods Semen samples were collected from 200 men attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic (AIC) in Tehran, Iran. Semen samples were analysed according to WHO guidlines. The subjects were divided into two groups: normospermic (n = 100; group one) and azoospermic men (n = 100; group two) according to semen analysis results. Seminal plasma was separated by high speed centrifuagation and stored in -20° C. Four markers including fructose, neutral alpha glucosidase (NαG), inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were measured in seminal plasma. Fructose and NαG were evaluated by spectrophotometry, while inhibin B and AMH were assessed by ELISA method. The spermatogenesis status in the azoospermic group was evaluated by histopathological method following testicular biopsy. Results Fructose concentration showed no difference between the two groups. However, it was significantly correlated with sperm count (p < 0.01, r = -0.408). Seminal plasma inhibin B (OR: 1.01; 95%: CI: 1.005 - 1.016), AMH (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17 - 2.28) and NαG, (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.1) levels were higher in normospermic subjects compared to azoospermic men. There were significant differences in inhibin B and AMH concentrations between the two groups based on the presence or

  2. Taoren-Honghua herb pair and its main components promoting blood circulation through influencing on hemorheology, plasma coagulation and platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-ao; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Jianming; Yang, Nianyun; Ma, Hongyue; Shi, Xuqin

    2012-01-31

    Persicae Semen (Taoren) and Carthami Flos (Honghua) used in pair which is named as Taoren-Honghua (TH) herb pair has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis for many years in China. This paper investigated the effects of TH and its main components amygdalin and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on hemorheological disorders of blood stasis in rats. Rats were randomly divided into seven groups (control group, model group, TH group, amygdalin group, HSYA group, amygdalin+HSYA group, and aspirin group) with eight animals in each, whose gender was equally distributed throughout groups. All treatments were performed by gavage and administered seven times with an interval of 12h. After the fifth administration, the model rats except those in control group with blood stasis were established by being placed in ice-cold water during the interval between two injections of adrenaline hydrochloride (Adr); and blood samples were collected 30min after the last administration on the following day. TH could significantly decrease whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV) and packed cell volume (PCV). It also significantly prolonged thrombin time (TT) and thromboplastin time (APTT), increased prothrombin time (PT) and lowered fibrinogen content (FIB). HSYA which significantly decreased WBV and PV had no effect on plasma coagulation parameters. Amygdalin could significantly decrease PV, prolong APTT and decrease FIB, showing few effects on WBV. TH and its main components amygdalin and HSYA could significantly reduce platelet aggregation and protect vascular endothelial cells. Based on the above results, amygdalin and HSYA were responsible for the main curative effects of TH and usually had synergetic effects, such as decreasing PV and platelet aggregation percentage. The study may provide scientific information to further understanding of the mechanism(s) of TH and its main components in activating blood

  3. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties using a novel zirconium coagulant against traditional ferric and alum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter; Sharp, Emma; Pidou, Marc; Molinder, Roger; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Coagulation in drinking water treatment has relied upon iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) salts throughout the last century to provide the bulk removal of contaminants from source waters containing natural organic matter (NOM). However, there is now a need for improved treatment of these waters as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve. Alternative coagulant chemicals offer a simple and inexpensive way of doing this. In this work a novel zirconium (Zr) coagulant was compared against traditional Fe and Al coagulants. The Zr coagulant was able to provide between 46 and 150% lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) residual in comparison to the best traditional coagulant (Fe). In addition floc properties were significantly improved with larger and stronger flocs forming when the Zr coagulant was used with the median floc sizes being 930 μm for Zr; 710 μm for Fe and 450 μm for Al. In pilot scale experiments, a similar improved NOM and particle removal was observed. The results show that when optimised for combined DOC removal and low residual turbidity, the Zr coagulant out-performed the other coagulants tested at both bench and pilot scale.

  4. Coagulation for the clinician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the surface of many cell types that are not normally in contact with the circulation (Fig. ...... The special stationary cylindrical cup holds the blood (0.36 ml) and is oscillated through .... coagulation process. The battery of traditional coagulation.

  5. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coagulation Factors Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Coagulation factor testing is performed to determine if a ...

  6. Comparative analysis of four blood coagulation indexes in patients with different liver diseases%凝血四项在不同肝病患者中的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the change of four blood coagulation indexes in patients with different liver diseases.Methods:Using water fully automatic coagulation analyzer CP2000 detected four blood coagulation indexes.Results:The four blood coagulation indexes results were compared in the acute hepatitis,chronic hepatitis group,liver cirrhosis group,liver cancer group and the normal control group,PT,APTT,TT had varying degrees of extension,and FIB had different degrees of decline or normal. Conclusion:The detection of four blood coagulation indexes can objectively and accurately evaluate the blood coagulation function and the prognosis of patients with different liver diseases in different degrees.%目的:观察凝血四项在不同肝脏疾病患者中的变化。方法:采用积水全自动凝血分析仪CP2000检测凝血四项。结果:急性肝炎、慢性肝炎组,肝硬化组,肝癌组与正常对照组凝血四项结果对比,PT、APTT、TT均有不同程度的延长,而FIB则有不同程度的下降或正常。结论:凝血四项的检测可以从不同程度上客观、准确地评价不同肝病患者的凝血功能状况及预后情况。

  7. Is argon plasma coagulation an effective and safe treatment option for patients with chronic radiation proctitis after high doses of radiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortelano, Eduardo; Gómez-Iturriaga, Alfonso; Ortiz-de-Zárate, Roberto; Zaballa, Manuel; Barturen, Ángel; Casquero, Francisco; San-Miguel, Íñigo; Carvajal, Carvajal; Cacicedo, Jon; Del-Hoyo, Olga; Lupiani, Javier; Pérez, Fernando; Bilbao, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    In severe cases refractory to medical treatment, APC appears to be the preferred alternative to control persistent rectal bleeding of patients with chronic radiation proctitis. Although successful outcomes have been demonstrated in patients previously treated with moderate doses of radiotherapy, there is reluctance towards its indication due to the concern of severe adverse events in patients treated with high doses of radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of APC in the management of bleeding radiationinduced proctitis in patients treated with high doses of radiation for prostate cancer. Data from 30 patients were treated with APC due to chronic radiation proctitis, were reviewed retrospectively. All cases had prostate cancer and 9 of them (30 %) underwent previous radical prostatectomy. The median dose of conformal 3D External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) delivered was 74 Gy (range 46-76). Median rectal D1cc and D2cc was 72.5 and 72.4 Gy respectively. Median rectal V70, V60 and V40 was 12, 39.5 and 80 %. Cardiovascular and digestive disease, diabetes, smoking behaviour, lowest haemoglobin and transfusion requirements were recorded. Indications for treatment with APC were anemia and persistent bleeding despite medical treatment. Argon gas flow was set at 1.8 l/min with an electrical power setting of 50 W. Median age of all patients was 69.6 years. The median lowest haemoglobin level was 9.6 g/dL. Median time between completion of radiotherapy and first session of APC was 13 months. Ninety-four therapeutic sessions were performed (median 3 sessions). Median time follow-up was 14.5 months (range 2-61). Complete response with resolved rectal bleeding was achieved in 23 patients (77 %), partial response in 5 (16 %) and no control in 2 (6 %). No patients required transfusion following therapy. Two patients developed long-term (> 6 weeks) grade 2 rectal ulceration and grade 2 rectal incontinence, respectively. The argon plasma coagulation

  8. Is argon plasma coagulation an effective and safe treatment option for patients with chronic radiation proctitis after high doses of radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hortelano

    grade 2 rectal incontinence, respectively. Conclusions: The argon plasma coagulation is an effective and safe management option in patients with medically refractory rectal bleeding after high doses of radiation for prostate cancer.

  9. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Diwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Peng, Juan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Jia, Jinping, E-mail: jpjia@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h{sup -1}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of 100 mg L{sup -1}. - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 {+-} 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 {+-} 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p < 0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  10. [The implantation of bipolar coagulation to remove endometriosis foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkiewicz, S; Palatyński, A; Salata, I

    2001-05-01

    The paper compares the results of bipolar coagulation bey means of ERBE ICC 300 diatermy coagulator and WISAP endocoagulator. The results of both types of coagulation were assessed with reference to the changes occurring on peritoneum ligamenti sacro-uterini, Douglas pouch and ovary. The best results of endometriosis foci coagulation were obtained with bipolar ball at 20-30 W; no side effects or feelings of malaise were observed in patients just after the operation or over a longer period of convalescence.

  11. Safety and efficacy of argon plasma coagulator ablation therapy for flat colorectal adenomas Seguridad y eficacia de la ablación de pólipos colorrectales con argón plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: argon-plasma coagulation (APC has been used safely and efficaciously in multiple settings including colon polyp treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate APC efficacy and safety in the treatment of flat colorectal adenomas. Materials and methods: APC ablation was prospectively performed and evaluated in 22 consecutive patients with colorectal adenomas, 11 of which had large sessile adenomas that were treated with piecemeal polypectomy and APC ablation of residual adenomatous tissue, whereas the remaining eleven patients with flat or carpet-like adenomas were only treated with APC. The mean initial longitudinal extension of adenomas to be treated with APC was 22 mm (range, 20 to 40 mm. Results: the mean age of patients was 70 years. Adenomas were found most frequently in the rectum (50% and cecum (23%. Complete ablation was achieved in 90.9% of adenomas. Recurrence was observed in 20% of patients, all of them in the rectum, after a mean follow-up period of 16.3 months (range, 8 to 35. All recurrences were managed satisfactorily. No major complications were seen. Conclusions: argon plasma coagulator ablation of flat colorectal adenomas is an efficacious and safe technique, specially in the right colon, but results must be confirmed in controlled trials with a higher number of patients.Introducción: el argón plasma (AP, como terapia endoscópica, ha sido utilizado en diferentes lesiones digestivas, incluyendo la ablación de tejido adenomatoso de pólipos colorrectales. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la seguridad y efectividad del tratamiento con AP de pólipos colorrectales. Material y métodos: se valoró de forma prospectiva la aplicación en la práctica clínica de AP en el tratamiento de 22 pacientes con pólipos colorrectales, de los cuales 11 pacientes con pólipos de gran tamaño fueron tratados con polipectomía endoscópica fragmentada más ablación del tejido adenomatoso con AP, y los otros 11

  12. Colon and pancreas tumors enhance coagulation: role of hemeoxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Nfonsam, Valentine N; Matika, Ryan W; Ong, Evan S; Jie, Tun; Warneke, James A; Steinbrenner, Evangelina B

    2014-07-01

    Colon and pancreatic cancer are associated with significant thrombophilia. Colon and pancreas tumor cells have an increase in hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, the endogenous enzyme responsible for carbon monoxide production. Given that carbon monoxide enhances plasmatic coagulation, we determined if patients undergoing resection of colon and pancreatic tumors had an increase in endogenous carbon monoxide and plasmatic hypercoagulability. Patients with colon (n = 17) and pancreatic (n = 10) tumors were studied. Carbon monoxide was determined by the measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). A thrombelastographic method to assess plasma coagulation kinetics and formation of carboxyhemefibrinogen (COHF) was utilized. Nonsmoking patients with colon and pancreatic tumors had abnormally increased COHb concentrations of 1.4 ± 0.9 and 1.9 ± 0.7%, respectively, indicative of HO-1 upregulation. Coagulation analyses comparing both tumor groups demonstrated no significant differences in any parameter; thus the data were combined for the tumor groups for comparison with 95% confidence interval values obtained from normal individuals (n = 30) plasma. Seventy percent of tumor patients had a velocity of clot formation greater than the 95% confidence interval value of normal individuals, with 53% of this hypercoagulable group also having COHF formation. Further, 67% of tumor patients had clot strength that exceeded the normal 95% confidence interval value, and 56% of this subgroup had COHF formation. Finally, 63% of all tumor patients had COHF formation. Future investigation of HO-1-derived carbon monoxide in the pathogenesis of colon and pancreatic tumor-related thrombophilia is warranted.

  13. Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruasi, Nisa

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, generation of thrombin, and leading to disturbance of the microvasculature. In this article, definition and diagnostic criteria of DIC depend on the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of DIC, only low quality evidence is used in general practice. Many diagnostic tests and repeated measurement are required. For the treatment of DIC, there is no good quality evidence. The most important treatment for DIC is the specific treatment of the conditions associated DIC. Platelets and/or plasma transfusion may be also necessary if indicated. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of DIC, we use only low quality evidence in general practice.

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in term and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Alex; Fischer, Doris; Nold, Marcel F; Wong, Flora Y

    2010-06-01

    Among critically ill patients, the risk of developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is probably highest in neonates. Low plasma reserves in pro- and anticoagulant coagulation factors, intravascular volume contraction after birth, and a high incidence of hypoxia and sepsis in critically ill newborns rapidly lead to a decompensation of the coagulation system in this population. Global coagulation tests and single-factor plasma levels have to be interpreted in the context of age-corrected normal ranges. Platelet consumption and reduced protein C plasma levels have diagnostic value; the latter also has prognostic potential in neonates with DIC and sepsis. Therapeutic success relies heavily on reversal of the underlying condition. Some coagulation-specific therapies have been explored in small studies and case series with varying success and sometimes conflicting results. Therefore, larger controlled trials in this common and serious condition are urgently needed.

  15. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Kolb, Juergen F; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC(50), from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC(50) in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  16. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif, E-mail: MArifMalik@gmail.com [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States); Kolb, Juergen F.; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC{sub 50}, from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC{sub 50} in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  17. Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:Effects of pH and coagulant dosage☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wei; Zhongguo Zhang; Dan Liu; Yue Wu; Jun Wang; Qunhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation mechanisms of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) at various dosages were studied using a conventional jar test at different final and initial pH values during treating kaolin suspension. The optimal final pH and dosages for PACl were obtained based on residual turbidity and zeta potential of flocs. The coagulation zones at various PACl dosages and solution pH values were developed and compared with those of alum. It is found that the optimal mechanism under acidic condition is charge neutralization, while alkaline condition wil facilitate the coagulation of PACl. Both charge neutralization coagulation and sweep coagulation can achieve high coagulation efficiency under the alkaline condition ranging from final pH 7.0 to 10.0. Stabilization, charge neutralization destabilization, restabilization and sweep zones occur successively with increasing PACl dosages with the final pH values fixed at 7.0 and 8.0, but restabilization zone disappears at final pH 10.0. When the final pH is not controlled and consequently decreases with increasing PACl dosage, no typical sweep zone can be observed and the coagulant efficiency decreases at high PACl dosage. It seems that the final pH is more meaningful than the initial pH for coagulation. Charge neutralization coagulation efficiency is dominated by zeta potential of flocs and PACl precipitates. The charge neutralization and sweep coagulation zones of PACl are broader in the ranges of coagulant dosage and pH than those of alum. The results are helpful for us to treat water and wastewa-ter using PACl and to understand the coagulation process of PACl.

  18. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  19. SIMULATION MODELING SLOW SPATIALLY HETER- OGENEOUS COAGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Zdorovtsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model of spatially inhomogeneous coagulation, i.e. formation of larger clusters by joint interaction of smaller ones, is under study. The results of simulation are compared with known analytical and numerical solutions.

  20. Influence of natural coagulants on isoflavones and antioxidant activity of tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C R; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-08-01

    Tofu (instead of preparing using synthetic coagulant) was prepared using coagulants of plant origin (Citrus limonum, Garcinia indica, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus acidus and Passiflora edulis). Total crude protein and fat contents were highest in tofu prepared using G. indica and T. indica (72.5% dbw) compared to synthetic coagulant. Tofu prepared with natural coagulants had signifi cantly higher antioxidant activity compared to synthetic coagulant. Bioconversion of isoflavone glucosides (daidzin and genistin) into their corresponding bioactive aglycones (daidzein and genistein) was observed in tofu. The difference between glucosides and aglycones contents in soy milk was significant but there was not much difference in tofu coagulated with synthetic and natural coagulants.

  1. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation.

  2. Coagulation defects resulting from ambient temperature-induced hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, D B; Sorensen, V J; Fath, J J; Raman, S B; Horst, H M; Obeid, F N

    1994-05-01

    Ambient temperature-induced hypothermia noted in trauma patients is frequently accompanied by a bleeding diathesis despite "laboratory normal" coagulation values. To document this impression, the following experiment was conducted. Coagulation studies and platelet function studies were performed in ten minipigs during induced whole body hypothermia (40 degrees C to 34 degrees C) and rewarming. Cooling was achieved in 2 to 3 hours and rewarming took 4 to 5 hours. In addition, similar coagulation and platelet function studies were conducted on plasma samples from the same animals that were cooled and then rewarmed in a water bath. Platelet counts and function as measured by Sonoclot analysis and aggregation did not decrease significantly with hypothermia in either model. Plasma cooled in a water bath demonstrated abnormal PT and aPTT (p coagulation defects in a porcine model. Some of the coagulation defects were most pronounced during rewarming.

  3. Effect of different time on coagulation factors in fresh frozen plasma after thawing%不同放置时间对融化后新鲜冰冻血浆中凝血因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐会芹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different time on coagulation factors in fresh frozen plasma after thawing.Methods The medicine blood by ACD B anticoagulated whole blood separation, preparation and fresh frozen plasma30,37℃ water bath melting and melt after 0,6,12,24h determination of prothrombin time (PT),activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT),fibrinogen(FIB),thrombin time (TT),coagulation factor FⅦ、FⅧ、FⅨ activity level.ResultsAfter the fresh frozen plasma,the PT,APTT,FIB,TT at different time points of the test results were not statistically different in 24 hours(P>0.05).Coagulation factor FⅦ and FⅧ changed with time and significantly decreased with the passage of time attenuation and blood immediate difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). FIX only when 12 hours had decreased,again after 24 hours.ConclusionFresh frozen plasma should be infused immediately after thawing,so as to guarantee the biological activity of coagulation factor and guarantee the effect of treatment.%目的:探讨不同放置时间对融化后新鲜冰冻血浆中凝血因子的影响。方法选择本院血站经ACD-B抗凝全血分离制备而成的新鲜冰冻血浆30份,37℃水浴融化,于融化后0、6、12、24h测定凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、纤维蛋白(FIB)、凝血酶时间(TT)、凝血因子FⅦ、FⅧ、FⅨ活性水平。结果新鲜冷冻血浆融化后,PT、APTT、FIB、TT在24h内不同时间点测定结果,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。凝血因子FⅦ及FⅧ随时间的改变而有明显的降低,随着时间的推移衰减,与抽血即刻比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。而FⅨ仅在12h的时候有一过性的下降,24h后又恢复。结论新鲜冰冻血浆在融化后应该立即输注,以保证凝血因子生物学活性,进一步保证治疗的效果。

  4. Alterations in Blood Coagulation and Viscosity Among Young Male Cigarette Smokers of Al-Jouf Region in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarshad, Hassan A; Hassan, Fathelrahman M

    2016-05-01

    Hemorheology, a measure of rheological properties of blood, is often correlated with cerebral blood flow and cardiac output; an increased blood viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Previous studies have reported a large variation in hemorheological properties of blood among smokers. This prompted us to conduct coagulation experiments to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on hematological parameters, like cell counts, and coagulation parameters among young males in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. The hematological and coagulation parameters were used to relate the changes in viscosity and coagulation to smoking. A total of 321 male participants (126 nonsmokers and 195 smokers) were enrolled into the study as randomized sample. Complete blood count was measured by hematology analyzer, and coagulation tests were performed by coagulation analyzer. Thettest analysis was performed to compare the relationships of variables between the 2 groups. The results confirmed that smoking alters some hematology parameters leading to significant deterioration in blood flow properties. Smoking also increased the hematocrit (HCT), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and plasma viscosity (PV) but decreased the international normalized ratio (INR). The decrease in INR was found to be associated with the increase in WBV, PV, and HCT. Further investigations are necessary to assess the reversibility of such changes in cessation of smoking or other elements of influence.

  5. Comparative efficiency of endoscopic hemostasis methods in bleeding undercomplicated peptic ulcer in children

    OpenAIRE

    Сокольник, Сергій Олександрович

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To compare the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis in complex treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in children of Chernovtsy region with peptic ulcer disease.Methods. 43 cases of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children are analyzed. Argon plasma coagulation is undergone in order to stop the bleeding for 11 patients, for others – aminocaproic acid irrigation.Results. Using argon plasma coagulation, in contrast to the aminocaproic acid irrigation reduces the risk of rebleeding 0....

  6. Cancer and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, C; Medico, E

    2006-05-01

    In human patients, blood coagulation disorders often associate with cancer, even in its early stages. Recently, in vitro and in vivo experimental models have shown that oncogene expression, or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, upregulate genes that control blood coagulation. These studies suggest that activation of blood clotting, leading to peritumoral fibrin deposition, is instrumental in cancer development. Fibrin can indeed build up a provisional matrix, supporting the invasive growth of neoplastic tissues and blood vessels. Interference with blood coagulation can thus be considered as part of a multifaceted therapeutic approach to cancer.

  7. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  8. Modeling of particle coagulation in low pressure PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandarkar, U.; Kortshagen, U.

    1998-10-01

    Contaminant particles generated in plasmas used to manufacture semiconductor devices can potentially destroy micro-electronic circuits. Particles of micrometer-size in a plasma are usually negatively charged due to the higher mobility of electrons. Like charges on the particles should inhibit growth by coagulation. However, the coagulation rates of nanometer-sized particles observed experimentally are even higher than the thermal coagulation rates of uncharged particles. This observation implies the presence of positively charged nano-particles along with the negative ones such that the mutual attraction enhances coagulation. We propose photo-detachment of electrons due to UV radiation as a potential path for the generation of positively charged particles. We have developed a self-consistent plasma-coagulation model based on the General Dynamic Equation which is well-known from aerosol research. Plasma properties are determined self-consistently using a global plasma model. The particle charge distribution is calculated using a charging module which also accounts for UV photo-detachment. Preliminary results of this model yield coagulation rates consistent with those observed experimentally.

  9. Blood coagulation screening using a paper-based microfluidic lateral flow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Han, D; Pauletti, G M; Steckl, A J

    2014-10-21

    A simple approach to the evaluation of blood coagulation using a microfluidic paper-based lateral flow assay (LFA) device for point-of-care (POC) and self-monitoring screening is reported. The device utilizes whole blood, without the need for prior separation of plasma from red blood cells (RBC). Experiments were performed using animal (rabbit) blood treated with trisodium citrate to prevent coagulation. CaCl2 solutions of varying concentrations are added to citrated blood, producing Ca(2+) ions to re-establish the coagulation cascade and mimic different blood coagulation abilities in vitro. Blood samples are dispensed into a paper-based LFA device consisting of sample pad, analytical membrane and wicking pad. The porous nature of the cellulose membrane separates the aqueous plasma component from the large blood cells. Since the viscosity of blood changes with its coagulation ability, the distance RBCs travel in the membrane in a given time can be related to the blood clotting time. The distance of the RBC front is found to decrease linearly with increasing CaCl2 concentration, with a travel rate decreasing from 3.25 mm min(-1) for no added CaCl2 to 2.2 mm min(-1) for 500 mM solution. Compared to conventional plasma clotting analyzers, the LFA device is much simpler and it provides a significantly larger linear range of measurement. Using the red colour of RBCs as a visible marker, this approach can be utilized to produce a simple and clear indicator of whether the blood condition is within the appropriate range for the patient's condition.

  10. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  11. Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use.

  12. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  13. Change in blood coagulation indices as a function of the incubation period of plasma in a constant magnetic field. [considering heparin tolerance and recalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepishina, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of a constant magnetic field (CMF) with a strength of 250 and 2500 oersteds on the recalcification reaction and the tolerance of plasma to heparin was studied as a function of the exposure time of the plasma to the CMF. The maximum and reliable change in the activation of the coagulatory system of the blood was observed after a 20-hour incubation of the plasma in a CMF. As the exposure time increased, the recalcification reaction changed insigificantly; the difference between the mean arithmetic of the experiment and control values was not statistically reliable. The tolerance of the plasma to heparin as a function of the exposure time to the CMF of the plasma was considerably modified, an was statistically reliable.

  14. Onset of Coagulation Function Recovery Is Delayed in Severely Injured Trauma Patients with Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Belinda H; Connelly, Christopher R; Fair, Kelly A; Holcomb, John B; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Bulger, Eileen M; Schreiber, Martin A

    2017-07-01

    Altered coagulation function after trauma can contribute to development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Severe trauma impairs coagulation function, but the trajectory for recovery is not known. We hypothesized that enhanced, early recovery of coagulation function increases VTE risk in severely injured trauma patients. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratio (PROPPR) trial, excluding patients who died within 24 hours or were on pre-injury anticoagulants. Patient characteristics, adverse outcomes, and parameters of platelet function and coagulation (thromboelastography) were compared from admission to 72 hours between VTE (n = 83) and non-VTE (n = 475) patients. A p value < 0.05 indicates significance. Despite similar patient demographics, VTE patients exhibited hypercoagulable thromboelastography parameters and enhanced platelet function at admission (p < 0.05). Both groups exhibited hypocoagulable thromboelastography parameters, platelet dysfunction, and suppressed clot lysis (low clot lysis at 30 minutes) 2 hours after admission (p < 0.05). The VTE patients exhibited delayed coagulation recovery (a significant change compared with 2 hours) of K-value (48 vs 24 hours), α-angle (no recovery), maximum amplitude (24 vs 12 hours), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (48 vs 12 hours). Platelet function recovery mediated by arachidonic acid (72 vs 4 hours), ADP (72 vs 12 hours), and collagen (48 vs 12 hours) was delayed in VTE patients. The VTE patients had lower mortality (4% vs 13%; p < 0.05), but fewer hospital-free days (0 days [interquartile range 0 to 8 days] vs 10 days [interquartile range 0 to 20 days]; p < 0.05) and higher complication rates (p < 0.05). Recovery from platelet dysfunction and coagulopathy after severe trauma were delayed in VTE patients. Suppressed clot lysis and compensatory mechanisms associated with altered coagulation that can potentiate VTE formation require additional

  15. Application of Dual Coagulant (Alum + Barley in Removing Colour from Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaylinda Mohd Zin Nur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation/flocculation is one of the treatment method for highly polluted leachate. One of the main affecting factor for this process is the coagulant used. Coagulant is divided into natural and chemical coagulant. In the current study, Alum (chemical coagulant and barley (natural coagulant were used as dual coagulant. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dual coagulant made from alum and barley in removing colour from the effluent of Simpang Renggam landfill leachate aeration lagoon through coagulation/flocculation method. Coagulation/flocculation process with single alum coagulant, single barley coagulant and dual coagulant (alum+barley were examined by evaluating the optimum values of pH and dose. Optimum dose and pH for alum and barley as single coagulant were; 3 g/L & pH 5; 0.8 g/L & pH 6. Higher removal of colour was recorded for alum compared to barley. Application of alum and barley as dual coagulant had higher colour removal than alum and barley as single coagulant. The optimum pH and dose for dual coagulant were at pH 6, 3.0 g/L of alum and 0.8 g/L of barley respectively. However, at pH 6, 2 g/L alum and 1.6 g/L barley, the removal of colour was similar to alum at 3 g/L. It can be concluded that barley as coagulant aid able to reduce 33 % usage of alum at par removals of colour. Thus, the dual coagulant consist of alum and barley has the potential to be applied as a coagulant for leachate treatment.

  16. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  17. Computer Simulation of Influence of Sedimentation on Rapid Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙祉伟; 陈致英

    2003-01-01

    A computer simulation was performed to explore the features and effects of sedimentation on rapid coagulation.To estimate the accumulated influence of gravity on coagulation for dispersions, a sedimentation influence ratio is defined. Some factors possibly related to the influence of sedimentation were considered in the simulation and analysed by comparing the size distribution of aggregates, the change in collision number, and coagulation rates at different gravity levels (0 g, 1 g and more with g being the gravitational constant).

  18. Impact of Albumin on Coagulation Competence and Hemorrhage During Major Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Pär I; Kridina, Irina; Kistorp, Thomas; Salling, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henning B; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Pedersen, Tom; Secher, Niels H

    2016-03-01

    For patients exposed to a massive blood loss during surgery, maintained coagulation competence is important. It is less obvious whether coagulation competence influences bleeding during elective surgery where patients are exposed to infusion of a crystalloid or a colloid. This randomized controlled trial evaluates whether administration of 5% human albumin (HA) or lactated Ringer solution (LR) affects coagulation competence and in turn blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included to receive either 5% HA (n = 20) or LR (n = 20). Nineteen patients were analyzed in the HA group and 20 patients in the lactated Ringer group. Blinded determination of the blood loss was similar in the 2 groups of patients: 1658 (800-3300) mL with the use of HA and 1472 (700-4330) mL in the lactated Ringer group (P = 0.45). Yet, by thrombelastography (TEG) evaluated coagulation competence, albumin affected clot growth (TEG-angle 69 ± 5 vs 74° ± 3°, P blood loss (P = 0.042) while administration of albumin was related to the changes in TEG-MA (P = 0.029), aPPT (P blood loss as compared to infusion of LR. Also the use of HA did not affect the need for blood transfusion, the incidence of postoperative complications, or the hospital in-stay. Yet, albumin decreases coagulation competence during major surgery and the blood loss is related to TEG-MA rather than to plasma coagulation variables.

  19. First comparative analysis concerning the plasma platelet contamination during MNC collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Hella; Achenbach, Susanne; Strobel, Julian; Zimmermann, Robert; Eckstein, Reinhold; Strasser, Erwin F

    2017-07-13

    Monocytes can be cultured into dendritic cells with addition of autologous plasma, which is highly prone to platelet contamination due to the apheresis process. Since platelets affect the maturation process of monocytes into dendritic cells and might even lead to a diminished harvest of dendritic cells, it is very important to reduce the platelet contamination. A new collection device (Spectra Optia) was analyzed, compared to two established devices (COM.TEC, Cobe Spectra) and evaluated regarding the potential generation of source plasma. Concurrent plasma collected during leukapheresis was analyzed for residual cell contamination in a prospective study with the new Spectra Optia apheresis device (n=24) and was compared with COM.TEC and Cobe Spectra data (retrospective analysis, n=72). Donor pre-donation counts of platelets were analyzed for their predictive value of contaminating PLTs in plasma harvests. The newest apheresis device showed the lowest residual platelet count of the collected concurrent plasma (median 3.50×10(9)/l) independent of pre-donation counts. The other two devices and sets had a higher platelet contamination. The contamination of the plasma with leukocytes was very low (only 2.0% were higher than 0.5×10(9)/l). This study showed a significant reduction of platelet contamination of the concurrent plasma collected with the new Spectra Optia device. This plasma product with low residual platelets and leukocytes might also be used as plasma for fractionation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 内镜下氩离子凝固术治疗老年人大肠息肉%Endoscopic argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of elderly patients with colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵耘; 何晓璞; 吴爱娟; 陈国胜; 许海尘; 薛绮萍; 孙为豪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨内镜下氩离子凝固术(APC)治疗老年人大肠息肉的安全性和有效性.方法 采用德国ERBE 公司生产的APC(VI0 200D型)内镜专用氩气刀对电子肠镜检查发现的大肠息肉进行内镜下治疗.结果 258例老年患者共检出525枚息肉全部使用APC治愈,根据息肉大小和形态,使用APC灼除302枚(57.5%),APC切除89枚(17%),黏膜下注射后APC切除134枚(25.5%),局部渗血者行APC电凝或钛夹止血.术后2例(0.8%)出现少量便血,予药物治疗后出血停止,无穿孔和大出血等严重并发症.结论 APC可作为老年人大肠息肉的首选治疗,安全性高,并发症少.%Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) in the treatment of elderly patients with colorectal polyps. Methods Colorectal polyps found in electronic enteroscopy were treated with argon plasma generated by ERBE APC (VIO 200D, ERBE Company, German) . Results A total of 525 polyps were detected in 258 elderly patients and all were cured by APC. According to the polyp size and morphology, 302 (57.5%) sessile flat polyps with diameter 0.2 cm to 0.5 cm were ablated with APC, 89 (17%) semi-pedunculated and pedunculated polyps were resected by high-frequency electrosection, and 134 sessile (25.5%) polyps with diameter 0.6 cm to 5.0 cm were resected after submucosal injection with epinephrine plus methylene blue normal saline on focal membrane. APC electric coagulation or titanium clip was employed when bleeding appeared in partial wounds. Minor bleeding occurred in two patients (0.8%) and was stopped after treated with hemostatic drugs; there were no serious complications such as perforations or bleeding requiring transfusion. Conclusion APC is a well tolerated and effective treatment for elderly patients with colorectal polyps.

  1. Compound bioflocculant and polyaluminum chloride in kaolin-humic acid coagulation: factors influencing coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihua; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xin; Dong, Hongyu; Li, Xiaochen; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of coagulant dosage and pH on coagulation performance and floc properties using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and compound bioflocculant (CBF) dual-coagulant in kaolin-humic acid (HA) treatment. Results showed that as PAC dosage rose, comparatively better coagulation efficiencies and floc characteristics were achieved due to stronger charge neutralization and sweeping effect. Addition of CBF could enhance coagulation performance and floc properties, including size, strength and recoverability, except fractal dimension. Solution pH had a significant effect on coagulation efficiencies and flocs formation. Under acidic condition, flocs showed higher strength and recoverability but lower fractal dimension, where charge neutralization was the foremost mechanism. More compact flocs were generated under alkaline condition due to the sweeping effect of hydrolyzed Al species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochemical and cytogenetic studies of Poecilia from eastern México. I. Comparative microelectrophoresis of plasma proteins of seven species

    OpenAIRE

    Balsano, J. S.; Rasch, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Over 2000 fisch plasmas from six species of Poecilia were collected from 33 populations in eastern Mexico and one from western Mexico. These plasmas were electrophoretically separated in 7.5% polyacrylamide gel which was stained for specific enzymes or total protein. Identiflcations of albumin band mobilities were verified by mixing isoaliquots of test plasmas with plasmas of known standards and by comparing test plasmas with plasmas from F1 hybrid progreny of known parentage.In the latipinna...

  3. [Blood coagulation in hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzina, W D; Herold, M; Günther, R; Kunz, F

    1980-01-01

    Young healthy volunteers were treated with physical hyperthermia (baths) in order to investigate changes in blood coagulation. Such therapy is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Single hot baths (mean body temperature 38,2-39,9 degrees C) resulted in a rise of fibrinogen, factors IX and XII, maximal amplitude of the thrombelastogram and hemoglobin and in a decrease of plasminogen. In a series of hypothermic baths no additional changes of coagulation or fibrinolysis could be found. The results suggest that hyperthermia causes a tendency to thrombosis.

  4. Comparative proteomics evaluation of plasma exosome isolation techniques and assessment of the stability of exosomes in normal human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Hina; Adda, Christopher G; Liem, Michael; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mechler, Adam; Simpson, Richard J; Hulett, Mark D; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2013-11-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into practice, the stability of exosomes needs to be assessed and exosome isolation protocols from blood plasma need to be optimized. To optimize methods to isolate exosomes from blood plasma, we performed a comparative evaluation of three exosome isolation techniques (differential centrifugation coupled with ultracentrifugation, epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunoaffinity pull-down, and OptiPrep(TM) density gradient separation) using normal human plasma. Based on MS, Western blotting and microscopy results, we found that the OptiPrep(TM) density gradient method was superior in isolating pure exosomal populations, devoid of highly abundant plasma proteins. In addition, we assessed the stability of exosomes in plasma over 90 days under various storage conditions. Western blotting analysis using the exosomal marker, TSG101, revealed that exosomes are stable for 90 days. Interestingly, in the context of cellular uptake, the isolated exosomes were able to fuse with target cells revealing that they were indeed biologically active.

  5. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty Rahmatabady, Monireh; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Levels, Johannes; de Vries, Marcel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Peppelenbosch, Maikel; Rezaee, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis fr

  6. Diagnosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically Ill adults by Sonoclot coagulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Tong, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xing-Qin; Duan, Peng-Kai; Tang, You-Qing; Su, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnosis is hampered by the limited availability of reliable clinical or laboratory tests. Currently available tests are time consuming and expensive. We investigated whether coagulation and platelet function analyses using the Sonoclot system were suitable for overt DIC diagnosis in critically ill adults. This was an observational diagnostic study performed in 498 patients presenting with an underlying disorder associated with DIC. Overt DIC patients were identified according to an International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) score of >5. Coagulation and platelet parameters were analyzed using the Sonoclot system, and compared with ISTH as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves were used to evaluate the value of the Sonoclot parameters. There were no differences for age or gender between the groups. Significant correlations were observed between activated clotting time (ACT) and ISTH score (r = 0.7; P coagulation dysfunction in patients with overt DIC.

  7. Recovery of struvite via coagulation and flocculation using natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    One of the major setbacks of struvite recovery processes is the difficulty in harvesting struvite crystals. This study evaluates the use of different coagulants to improve precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H20) crystals. Chitosan and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (Poly-DADMAC) as a coagulant-flocculent and alginate and bentonite as a coagulant aid have been examined in jar tests. Also, a continuous three-phase process, i.e., struvite crystallization, coagulation/flocculation and precipitation process, was set up for real wastewater. Addition of chitosan as the coagulant and bentonite as the coagulant aid was significantly more efficient in forming struvite flocs in comparison to Poly-DADMAC alone or with coagulant aid, which did not show any positive effect. The calculated average settling velocity of struvite with chitosan-bentonite addition in synthetic and in real wastewater increased by approximately 5.3 and 2.8 folds, respectively, compared with that of no coagulant/flocculent addition. Phosphorus recovery of over 70% was achieved by the continuous process. Findings in this study clearly confirmed the possibility of using chitosan and bentonite as an efficient coagulant-flocculent to enhance the recovery of struvite crystals.

  8. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Ram Kumar, M.C.; Arun Kumar, A. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli 627 152 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A.S. [School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed low cost cold atmospheric plasma reactor for plasma polymerization technique. • Surface of the PP film was modified by grafting of AAc and PEG by CAPP polymerization. • Biomolecules of chitosan, insulin and heparin were immobilized on surface of PEG-AAc grafted PP films. • The surface modified PP films were characterized by various techniques. • The plasma polymerized and immobilized film reveals substantial blood compatibility. - Abstract: Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as O−C=O, C=O, C−N and S−S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was

  9. Combination of Argon Plasma Coagulation and Cryotherapy in Treatment of Central Type Lung Cancer%APC联合冷冻治疗53例中央型肺癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江红; 王珏; 易楠; 项颖

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨经支气管镜氩等离子体凝固(argon plasma coagulation,APC)结合冷冻治疗中央型肺癌的疗效及安全性.方法 经支气管镜对53例中央型肺癌患者进行APC结合冷冻治疗,其中非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)46例,小细胞肺癌(SCLC)7例,从症状改善情况、肺功能、血气分析、气促评分、体力状况变化、狭窄再通疗效等方面进行评价.结果 53例病人经136次治疗后完全有效29例(54.7%)、部分有效21例(39.6%)、轻度有效2例(3.8%)、无效1例(1.9%).仅有少数病例出现一过性轻、中度低氧血症(19.9%).结论 经支气管镜应用APC结合冷冻治疗中央型肺癌安全、有效.

  10. Argon plasma coagulation treatment of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in men who have sex with men living with HIV: results of a 2-year prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pokomandy, A; Rouleau, D; Lalonde, R; Beauvais, C; de Castro, C; Coutlée, F

    2017-08-23

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV are at high risk for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and cancer. The best management of anal HSIL remains unclear. Our objective was to assess whether argon plasma coagulation (APC) could be safe, well tolerated and efficient to treat anal HSILs in MSM living with HIV. A prospective phase II, open-label, pilot study was conducted to evaluate APC to treat anal HSILs in 20 HIV-positive MSM. Participants were followed for 2 years after their first treatment. Twenty men with persistent HSILs completed the 2-year study. Their baseline median CD4 count was 490 cells/μL and 85% had undetectable HIV viral loads. Overall, 65% (13/20) of participants were clear of HSILs at their 24-month visit. The initial response rates after the first, second and third APC treatments were 45%, 44% and 67%, respectively, but recurrences were common. The main side effect was pain during and within 1 week after the treatments. There were no long-term side effects, nor serious adverse events related to the procedure. Cost is a drawback. APC can be used to treat anal HSILs in HIV-seropositive MSM, and requires repeated treatment because of a high recurrence rate. As successful treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or eradication of the anal transitional zone remains impossible, HSIL treatment is challenging and requires long-term follow-up. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  11. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine on murine coagulation gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Salloum-Asfar

    Full Text Available Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 production. Under these conditions, the impact of exogenous T3 on plasma coagulation, and hepatic and vessel-wall-associated coagulation gene transcription was studied in a short- (4 hours and long-term (14 days setting. Comparing euthyroid conditions (normal mice, with hypothyroidism (conditions of a shortage of thyroid hormone and those with replacement by incremental doses of T3, dosages of 0 and 0.5 μg T3/mouse/day were selected to study the impact of T3 on coagulation gene transcription. Under these conditions, a single injection of T3 injection increased strongly hepatic transcript levels of the well-characterized T3-responsive genes deiodinase type 1 (Dio1 and Spot14 within 4 hours. This coincided with significantly reduced mRNA levels of Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, and Serpin10, and the reduction of the latter three persisted upon daily treatment with T3 for 14 days. Prolonged T3 treatment induced a significant down-regulation in factor (F 2, F9 and F10 transcript levels, while F11 and F12 levels increased. Activity levels in plasma largely paralleled these mRNA changes. Thbd transcript levels in the lung (vessel-wall-associated coagulation were significantly up-regulated after a single T3 injection, and persisted upon prolonged T3 exposure. Two-week T3 administration also resulted in increased Vwf and Tfpi mRNA levels, whereas Tf levels decreased. These data showed that T3 has specific effects on coagulation, with Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, Serpin10 and Thbd responding rapidly, making these likely direct thyroid hormone receptor targets. F2, F9, F10, F11, F12, Vwf, Tf and Tfpi are late responding genes and probably

  12. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), a close relative of the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, D P; Polizello, A C; Rothschild, Z

    2000-01-01

    Fibrinolytic and coagulation properties of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, LINNAEUS, 1766) plasma were analysed and the results compared to the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus), a close relative. Capybara fibrinogen was isolated and fibrinolysis of its plasma was carried out in a homologous system and with bovine fibrin. Undiluted plasma did not have fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates; euglobulins gave a dose-related response. Zymography of capybara and guinea-pig plasma gave the same patterns of activity as human or bovine plasma. Human urokinase (UK) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) produced lysis in capybara fibrin plates. Streptokinase (SK) (500 IU/ml) did not activate capybara or guinea-pig plasma. In this system, human plasma was extensively activated. Coagulation tests for both species of rodent were prolonged. The capybara showed values for prothrombin time (PT) shorter than activated thromboplastin time (APTT). The guinea-pig, as already shown, had longer PT values. Factors X and VII were very low for capybara and guinea-pig when tested using reference curves and diagnostic kits for human plasma. It is suggested that the capybara could be a valuable laboratory animal considering its size and closeness to the guinea-pig, and this could allow for the provision of materials from one single animal when convenient or necessary.

  13. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  14. Comparative evaluation of leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma and pure platelet-rich plasma for cartilage regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengliang; Yin, Wenjing; Zhang, Yuelei; Qi, Xin; Chen, Yixuan; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained growing popularity in the treatment of articular cartilage lesions in the last decade. However, the potential harmful effects of leukocytes in PRP on cartilage regeneration have seldom been studied in vitro, and not at all in vivo yet. The objective of the present study is to compare the effects of leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) on cartilage repair and NF-κB pathway, in order to explore the mechanism underlying the function of leukocytes in PRP in cartilage regeneration. The constituent analysis showed that P-PRP had significantly lower concentrations of leukocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with L-PRP. In addition, cell proliferation and differentiation assays indicated P-PRP promoted growth and chondrogenesis of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSC) significantly compared with L-PRP. Despite similarity in macroscopic appearance, the implantation of P-PRP combining rBMSC in vivo yielded better cartilage repair results than the L-PRP group based on histological examination. Importantly, the therapeutic effects of PRP on cartilage regeneration could be enhanced by removing leukocytes to avoid the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Thus, PRP without concentrated leukocytes may be more suitable for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions. PMID:28265109

  15. Improvement of paint effluents coagulation using natural and synthetic coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulhassan, M A; Souabi, S; Yaacoubi, A; Baudu, M

    2006-11-01

    The coagulant iron chloride and the flocculants Polysep 3000 (PO), Superfloc A-1820 (SU) and Praestol 2515 TR (PR) have been used in this study to show the efficiency of coagulation flocculation process in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of organic and colouring matters from the paint industry wastewater. This study also includes the amount of produced sludge. The results indicate that FeCl(3) is efficient at pH range 8-9 and at optimal dose of 650 mgl(-1). Iron chloride allows the removal of 82% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 94% of colour. However, sequential addition of coagulant and polymeric additives enhance clearly pollutant removal and produces less decanted sludge compared to the results obtained when the coagulant is used alone. The removal efficiency of COD reaches 91% and that of colour 99%. Coagulation-biflocculation process is more effective than the coagulation-monoflocculation one. The sequential addition of iron chloride, Polysep 3000 (cationic flocculant) and Praestol 2515 TR (anionic flocculant) seems to be the most suitable combination for the treatment of the paint industry wastewaters.

  16. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  17. Genotype–phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayashree Shanker; Ganapathy Perumal; Arindam Maitra; Veena S. Rao; B. K. Natesha; Shibu John; Sridhar Hebbagodi; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed significantly across R353Q genotype ($P \\lt 0.0001$). Frequency of subjects with RR and QQ genotypes were higher in 4th quartile and 1st quartile of FVII.c activity, respectively ($P \\lt 0.0001$). F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score $-1.82$; $P = 0.002$). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506–2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679–3.641), respectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  18. Genotype-phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Jayashree; Perumal, Ganapathy; Maitra, Arindam; Rao, Veena S; Natesha, B K; John, Shibu; Hebbagodi, Sridhar; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed ignificantly across R353Q genotype (P F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score -1.82; P = 0.002). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506-2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679-3.641), espectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  19. Treatment of PDMS surfaces using pulsed DBD plasmas: comparing the use of different gases and its influence on adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, Fellype do; Machida, Munemasa; Parada, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present some results of the treatment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas. The results of plasma treatment using different gases to produce the plasmas (argon, argon plus water, helium, helium plus water, nitrogen and nitrogen plus water) were compared testing the adhesion between two PDMS samples for each kind of plasma. We also studied the water contact angle in function of plasma process time of PDMS surfaces with each kind of plasma. The plasmas were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy to identify the emitting species and determine plasma temperatures through comparison with emission spectra simulations. Measurements of power delivered to the plasmas were also performed. Plasmas of all gases are good enough for surface treatment with long exposure time. But when only a few discharges are applied the best choice is the helium plasma.

  20. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    OKUDA, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  1. Pro-coagulant activity of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Barbara A; Herzig, Maryanne C; Montgomery, Robbie K; Delavan, Christopher; Bynum, James A; Reddoch, Kristin M; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-04-05

    Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for the treatment of military and civilian trauma, based on their reduced immunogenicity and ability to modulate inflammation and immune function in the recipient. Although generally considered to be safe, MSCs express tissue factor (TF), a potent activator of coagulation. In the current study, we evaluated multiple MSC populations for tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity in order to characterize safety considerations for systemic use of MSCs in trauma patients who may have altered coagulation homeostasis. Multiple MSC populations derived from either human adipose tissue or bone marrow were expanded in the recommended stem cell media. Stem cell identity was confirmed using a well-characterized panel of positive and negative markers. Tissue factor expression on the cell surface was evaluated by flow cytometry with anti-CD142 antibody. Effects on blood coagulation were determined by thromboelastography (TEG) and calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assays using platelet poor plasma or whole blood. MSCs express tissue factor on their surfaces and are pro-coagulant in the presence of blood or plasma. The adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSC) evaluated were more pro-coagulant and expressed more tissue factor than bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), which showed a greater variability in TF expression. BM-MSCs were identified that exhibited low pro-coagulant activity, whereas all Ad-MSCs examined exhibited high pro-coagulant activity. The percentage of cells in a given population expressing surface tissue factor correlates roughly with functional pro-coagulant activity. MSC tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity change over time in culture. All MSC populations are not equivalent; care should be taken to select cells for clinical use that minimize potential safety problems and maximize chance of patient benefit. Adipose-derived MSCs appear more consistently pro-coagulant than BM-MSCs, presenting a

  2. Randomized study of coagulation and fibrinolysis during and after gasless and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J F; Ejstrud, P; Svendsen, F

    2001-01-01

    , after insufflation or traction, 30 min after introduction of the laparoscope, 10 min after exsufflation of carbon dioxide or traction, 4 h after extubation and 24 h after operation. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, body mass index and duration of operation. Plasma levels......BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum may be an important pathophysiological factor stimulating the coagulation system during conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that gasless laparoscopy produces smaller changes in the coagulation...... and fibrinolytic system than carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients were allocated randomly to conventional (n = 26) or gasless (n = 24) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Blood samples were obtained on admission, after induction of anaesthesia...

  3. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K.; Ram Kumar, M. C.; Arun Kumar, A.; Padmanabhan, P. V. A.; Deshmukh, R. R.; Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S.; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as Osbnd Cdbnd O, Cdbnd O, Csbnd N and Ssbnd S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was found that the anti-thrombogenic properties of the PP films are effectively controlled by the CAPP grafting of AAc and PEG followed by immobilization of biomolecules of heparin, chitosan and insulin. The grafting and immobilization was confirmed by FTIR and XPS through the recognition of specific functional groups such as COOH, Csbnd O, Ssbnd S and Csbnd N. on the surface of PP film. Furthermore, the surface morphology and hydrophilic nature of the PP films also tailored

  4. Ipomoea dasysperma seed gum: an effective natural coagulant for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Dixit, Awantika; Singh, Vandana

    2006-10-01

    An investigation of dye decolorization from synthetic dye solutions using the non-ionic, water-soluble, high molecular weight seed gums Ipomoea dasysperma and guar gum as coagulants was undertaken. The use of galactomannans derived from plants in this system presents a sustainable method of textile effluent treatment. These natural coagulants extracted from plants proved to be workable alternatives to conventional coagulants like polyaluminum chloride, as they are biodegradable, safe to human health, are cost effective when compared to imported chemicals and have a wider effective dosage range for flocculation of various colloidal suspensions. Coagulant dose and coagulation pH are important factors influencing the mechanism of coagulation. Also the type and chemical structure of the dye plays an important role in the coagulation process. The seed gums alone were found to be effective for decolorization of direct dye and in combination with PAC their coagulation efficiency was well extended even for reactive and acid dyes.

  5. Effects of plasma radiation on wound healing compared with X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin V, E.; Pena E, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C., E-mail: erica.azorin@inin.gob.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Blvd. Prol. Calz. de los Heroes No. 908, Col. La Martinica, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The radiation emitted by the plasma needle has shown high efficiency in the inactivation of microorganisms and the acceleration of the healing process; apparently such effects are related to the antioxidant activity, induction of cell damage and the generation of free radicals. To take advantage of plasma clinical applications it is essential to understand the cellular mechanisms activated by the exposure of human cells to radiation emitted by cold plasma. In this work we present the results of the characterization of the responses of human skin fibroblasts exposed to the radiation emitted by a plasma by varying the magnitude of flow, electrical power, time and composition of the cell culture medium comparing it with the response of these fibroblasts to low energy X-rays. (Author)

  6. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  7. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  8. Comparing transfusion reaction rates for various plasma types: a systematic review and meta-analysis/regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Schipperus, Martin R; le Cessie, Saskia; Middelburg, Rutger A; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-09-01

    We estimated rates for common plasma-associated transfusion reactions and compared reported rates for various plasma types. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles that reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Random-effects pooled rates were calculated and compared between plasma types. Meta-regression was used to compare various plasma types with regard to their reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Forty-eight studies reported transfusion reaction rates for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; mixed-sex and male-only), amotosalen INTERCEPT FFP, methylene blue-treated FFP, and solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma. Random-effects pooled average rates for FFP were: allergic reactions, 92/10(5) units transfused (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-184/10(5) units transfused); febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), 12/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 7-22/10(5) units transfused); transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), 6/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 1-30/10(5) units transfused); transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), 1.8/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 1.2-2.7/10(5) units transfused); and anaphylactic reactions, 0.8/10(5) units transfused (95% CI, 0-45.7/10(5) units transfused). Risk differences between plasma types were not significant for allergic reactions, TACO, or anaphylactic reactions. Methylene blue-treated FFP led to fewer FNHTRs than FFP (risk difference = -15.3 FNHTRs/10(5) units transfused; 95% CI, -24.7 to -7.1 reactions/10(5) units transfused); and male-only FFP led to fewer cases of TRALI than mixed-sex FFP (risk difference = -0.74 TRALI/10(5) units transfused; 95% CI, -2.42 to -0.42 injuries/10(5) units transfused). Meta-regression demonstrates that the rate of FNHTRs is lower for methylene blue-treated compared with FFP, and the rate of TRALI is lower for male-only than for mixed-sex FFP; whereas no significant differences are observed between plasma types for allergic

  9. Topical allogeneic platelet-rich plasma treatment for a massive cutaneous lesion induced by disseminated intravascular coagulation in a toy breed dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Baek, Dae-Seung; Kim, Namjung; Park, Jin-Ho; Park, Chul

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old intact female miniature Pinscher weighing 1.7 kg with a body condition score of 2/5 was presented for acute vomiting, lethargy for 2 days, and large petechial skin lesions on the hip region including the tail. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical signs, strong positive cPLI test, laboratory test and ultrasound appearance. While the clinical signs associated with acute pancreatitis had improved in 3-5 days, lesion of petechial appeared on the left hip region 7 days after the presentation, with a fast progression into a necrotic tissue along the left side hip. Allogenic platelet rich plasma (PRP) with Weibrich and Kleis method was administered to promote skin healing and regeneration. Gradual and complete improvement in the dog's wound lesions was noted approximately 1 month after applying allogeneic topical PRP. In this case report, allogeneic PRP was applied to a large regional cutaneous defect caused by coagulopathy induced by acute pancreatitis. Topical application of PRP in this case was unique in that allogeneic PRP was used instead of autologous PRP for the first time in cutaneous soft-tissue wound management in the veterinary medical field.

  10. A novel mutation in a patient with congenital coagulation factor Ⅻ deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ying; YE Xu; PANG Ying; DAI Jing; WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Xu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Human coagulation factor Ⅻ(FⅫ),also called Hageman factor,is a plasma plycoprotein that is functionally deficient in individuals with Hageman trait:which is an inhefited trait discovered by chance during preoperative blood coagulation screening tests.FⅫ is a single-chain 596-amino-acid zymogen of a serine protease with an approximate molecular weight of 80 000.

  11. 氩离子凝固术治疗结直肠息肉的临床应用价值%Application value of curing colorectal polyps with the argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰霞; 张鸣青; 王爱民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and the clinical value of argon plasma coagulation ( APC) in the treatment of colorectal polyps. Methods One hundred and sixty patients with 351 colorectal polyps were treated with APC ablation. 214 sessile and 65 semi-pedunculated polyps were only treated with APC, 72 pedunculated polyps were treated with polypectomy and polyp remnants were also treated with APC. Results All of the patients were healed. Symptomless emphysema under the local mucosal occurred in 2 patients. Transient mild abdominal pain occurred in 78 patients and relieved without treatment. Conclusion APC is an effective and safe method for treating colorectal polyp. It is easy to operate with fewer complications and can be the preferred method for the applanate and wide outsole polyps.%目的 探讨氩离子凝固术治疗结直肠息肉的疗效及临床应用价值.方法 对160例患者共351枚结直肠息肉行氩离子凝固术(APC)治疗,其中214枚扁平和65枚亚蒂息肉仅行APC治疗,72枚有蒂息肉电切治疗后用APC处理息肉残端.结果 本组病例全部临床治愈.2例患者出现无症状的局部黏膜下气肿,78例患者出现短暂腹痛,未行处理自行缓解.结论 APC是一种安全有效的结直肠息肉治疗方法,副反应少,操作简便,尤其是在扁平、广基息肉的治疗中可作为首选方法.

  12. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the mucosa of the gastroesophageal junction in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus – the results of ablation therapy with argon plasma coagulation and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Rembiasz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barrett’s oesophagus (BE is a result of replacement of the mucosa of the distal oesophagus by metaplasticcolumnar epithelium. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and chronic inflammation in the progression of BEtoward adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is emphasized. Argon plasma coagulation (APC allows for effective ablationof metaplastic mucosa. It is believed that effective suppression of gastric secretion with proton pump inhibitors(PPI promotes squamous cell re-epithelialization and a decrease in expression of some biomarkers including COX-2.A similar effect can be achieved by the anti-reflux procedure.Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of COX-2 expression in determining the risk of malignant transformation in patientswith BE.Material and methods: Patients from two out of three study groups underwent APC ablation of metaplastic mucosacombined with chronic PPI administration (group A or laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (group B. Controls (group Kwere submitted only to PPI treatment. Expression of COX-2 was evaluated in fresh-frozen biopsy specimens obtainedfrom the distal oesophagus in all 60 patients before and 12 months after treatment.Results: Overexpression of COX-2 was found in 41 patients (68.3%. The highest degree of COX-2 expression was documentedin patients with dysplasia. After treatment overexpression of COX-2 was markedly reduced in patients fromgroups A and B, which correlated well with histopathological findings. Controls did not show important changes inCOX-2 expression.Conclusions: Significant correlation of the degree of COX-2 overexpression with histopathological findings points tothe possible use of this biomarker as a valuable indicator of the risk of malignant transformation in patients with BE.

  13. Study on the Efficacy of Abstergent Autologous Blood Transfusion Combined with Fresh Frozen Plasma in Preventing Coagulation Disorders after Operation%洗涤式自体血回输联合新鲜冰冻血浆预防术后凝血功能障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新桥; 陈建明; 李慧梁; 蔡丹; 周巧群; 罗旭倩

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨洗涤自体血回输联合使用新鲜冰冻血浆预防术后凝血障碍的疗效。【方法】选取2012年1月至2013年12月本院收治的大出血患者90例,按照患者的术中失血量大小,将其分为小量组(<400mL,n=50)、中量组(400~800mL,n=20)和大量组(>800mL,n=20)。根据回输血量多少与患者凝血功能的量化关系,制定联合新鲜冰冻血浆输注的具体方案。比较分析三组患者纤维蛋白原(FIB)、血小板(PLT)及凝血酶原时间(PT)变化情况。【结果】回输血液后三组患者机体FIB、PLT均较术前显著降低,PT明显延长(P<0.05);术后18h三组患者FIB、PLT均较回输血液后明显升高,PT显著缩短(P<0.05)。【结论】联合新鲜冰冻血浆输注的具体方案能提高洗涤自体血回输的安全性和实用性,有效预防凝血功能障碍的发生。%Objective To explore the efficacy of abstergent autologous blood transfusion combined with fresh frozen plasma in preventing coagulation disorders after operation .[Methods] Totally 90 patients with hemorrhea in our hospital from Jan .2012 to Sept .2013 were chosen .According to blood loss volume ,all pa-tients were divided into small volume group(800ml) .On the basis of the quantitative relation between blood transfusion volume and coagulation function of patients ,the concrete scheme about the combined fresh frozen plasma transfusion was made .Fi-brinogen(FIB) ,platelet(PLT) and prothrombin time(PT ) in 3 groups at different time point were analyzed and compared .[Results] Compared with before blood transfusion ,FIB and PLT in 3 groups after blood trans-fusion were decreased significantly and PT was prolonged obviously ( P <0 .05) .Compared with after blood transfusion ,FIB and PLT in 3 groups 18h after blood transfusion were increased obviously and PT was short-ened significantly( P < 0 .05) .[Conclusion]The concrete scheme about the

  14. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Experiment Treating Benzene and CEES by Pulse Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xuefeng; Hu Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Based on an experiment treating benzene and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ( CEES )by pulse corona induced-plasma, the similarities and differences found in the experimental data and analytical results are analyzed in a comparative manner in this paper. The theory applied is also discussed.

  16. A comparative study of ideal kink stability in two reactor-relevant tokamak plasma configurations with negative and positive triangularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Liu, Yueqiang; Liu, Yue; Medvedev, S. Yu; Wang, Zhirui; Xia, Guoliang

    2016-11-01

    The effects of an ideal/resistive conducting wall, the drift kinetic resonances, as well as the toroidal plasma flow, on the stability of the ideal external kink mode are numerically investigated for a reactor-relevant tokamak plasma with strongly negative triangularity (NTR) shaping. Comparison is made for a similar plasma equilibrium, but with positive triangularity (PTR). It is found that the ideal wall stabilization is less efficient for the kink stabilization in the NTR plasma due to a less ‘external’ eigenmode structure compared to the PTR plasma. The associated plasma displacement in the NTR plasma does not ‘balloon’ near the outboard mid-plane, as is normally the case for the pressure-driven kink-ballooning instability in PTR plasmas, but being more pronounced near the X-points. The toroidal flow plays a similar role for the kink stability for both NTR and PTR plasmas. The drift kinetic damping is less efficient for the ideal external kink mode in the NTR plasma, despite a somewhat larger fraction of the particle trapping near the plasma edge compared to the PTR equilibrium. However, the drift kinetic damping of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in the NTR plasma is generally as efficient as that of the PTR plasma, although the RWM window, in terms of the normalized pressure, is narrower for the NTR plasma.

  17. Blood coagulation profiling in patients using optical thromboelastography (OTEG) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Tshikudi, Diane M.; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2016-02-01

    Impaired blood coagulation is often associated with increased postoperative mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular patients. The capability for blood coagulation profiling rapidly at the bedside will enable the timely detection of coagulation defects and open the opportunity for tailoring therapy to correct specific coagulation deficits Optical Thromboelastography (OTEG), is an optical approach to quantify blood coagulation status within minutes using a few drops of whole blood. The goal of the current study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of OTEG for rapid coagulation profiling in patients. In OTEG, temporal laser speckle intensity fluctuations from a drop of clotting blood are measured using a CMOS camera. To quantify coagulation status, the speckle intensity autocorrelation function is measured, the mean square displacement of scattering particles is extracted, and viscoelastic modulus (G), during coagulation is measured via the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation. By quantifying time-resolved changes in G, the coagulation parameters, reaction time (R), clot progression time (K), clot progression rate (Angle), and maximum clot strength (MA) are derived. In this study, the above coagulation parameters were measured using OTEG in 269 patients and compared with standard mechanical Thromboelastography (TEG). Our results showed a strong correlation between OTEG and TEG measurements for all parameters: R-time (R=0.80, pblood coagulation status to potentially improve clinical capability for identifying impaired coagulation in cardiovascular patients at the point of care.

  18. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material.

  19. 活化血浆凝固时间对评价血小板输注疗效价值的研究%Clinical Value of Activated Plasma Coagulation Time on Evaluation of Platelet Transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明艳; 邱群芳; 席雅娟; 彭友堂

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the value of activated plasma coagulation time ( APCT) on evaluation of platelet transfusion.Method:Patients with blood disease and blood platelets count (PLT) was less than 50× 109 L-1 in our hospital from January to December 2011 were selected,in which 34 hemorrhage patients were selected as the observation group , and 34 patients without hemorrhage were selected as the control group . PLT,APCT of two groups were detected ,platelet transfusion was adopted in patients whose PLT was less than 10×109L-1,detected APCT,PLT after anticoagulation,then calculated corrected count increment (CCI) and practical platelet recovery (PPR).Result:There were three patients adopted platelet transfusion ,difference of PLT≤20×109L-1 and PLT≤10×109L-1 in hemorrhage patients had no statistical significance (p>0.05), APCT had shortened compared to that before platelet transfusion ,difference was statistically signficant ( p<0. 01);in observation group platelet transfusion was effective in 29 patients,APCT was less than 80s after 24h, CCI of 2 patients and PPR of 5 patients met the invalid standard of platelet transfusion ,in addition,platelet transfusion of 5 patients was invalid,APCT was more than 80s after 24h ,only 2 patients’ CCI and PPR metthe invalid standard of platelet transfusion .Conclusion:ACT not only can show the number and quality chan-ges of blood platelet well , but also evaluate the efficacy of platelet transfusion more comprehensively .%目的:对用活化血浆凝固时间( APCT)评价血小板输注疗效的价值进行研究。方法:在2011年1月至12月于我院住院治疗的血小板计数(PLT)均<50×109L-1的血液病患者中,出血的患者34例为观察组,不出血34例为对照组。对两组患者静脉采血测PLT、APCT;再对观察组和对照组中PLT <10×109L-1的患者给予血小板输注,抗凝后测其APCT、PLT,并计算校正血小板增高指数(CCI)和实际血小板回收率

  20. [Coagulation profiles during cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitkova, E E; Zvereva, N Iu; Khvatov, V B; Chumakov, M V; Timerbaev, V Kh; Dublev, A V; Redkoborodyĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate patients' hemostasis after cardiac surgery using thromboelastometric and impedance aggregometry. 66 patients were examined intraoperatively. Comparison group included 45 blood donors. Hemostasis was tested for thromboelastometricRotem Gamma with the assessment of external (exTem) and internal (inTem) pathways of coagulation tests performed detection of heparin (hepTem) and cytochalasin-D-inactivation of platelets (fibTem) to assess the level of fibrinogen. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was determined in an aggregometer CHRONO-LOG (USA). Significant deviations of the parameters of hemostasis were detected in 52 of the 66 studied patients. In group-1 (23 patients) revealed a residual effect of heparin. The effect manifested prolongation CT (clotting time) inTem to an average of 241 +/- 15 s, compared with CT hepTem--181 +/- 7. Patients in this group were in need of additional administration of protamine sulfate. Postoperative bleeding and resternotomia were observed in 3 patients of group-1. In group-2 (25 patients) CT inTem was 216 +/- 21 with significantly fewer CT hepTem (272 +/- 26). The data indicated excess of protamine sulfate. Platelets aggregation decreased compared to the norm. According to the obtained results, the addition of protamine sulfate is not required, however, in 7 cases the protamine sulfate was administered in a dose of 8.9 +/- 0.8 mg in 6 cases resternotomiya required. In the third group (n = 6) bleeding was observed in 4 patients. The difference in CT-hepCT was significant. Significant variations were revealed in the tests of the activity of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation and cytochalasin-D-induced inactivation of platelets: exMCF- 42 +/- 2 mm (normal 57 +/- 15 mm), fibMCF 5.0 +/- 0.3 mm (norm 12.8 +/- 4.3 mm). The concentration of platelets and their aggregation activity was sharply reduced. Disorders of hemostasis in the third group, designated as dilution coagulopathy. Turning thromboelastometric and impedance

  1. Influences of fresh frozen plasma with different melting temperatures on coagulation factor and fibrinogen activity%新鲜冰冻血浆不同融解温度对凝血因子及纤维蛋白原活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨不同融解温度对新鲜冰冻血浆凝血因子及纤维蛋白原活性的影响。方法随机选取40份新鲜冰冻血浆,分别在37℃、42℃、45℃水浴中充分进行融解,检测纤维蛋白原(FIB)、凝血Ⅷ因子、总蛋白(TP)含量,进行统计学分析。结果42℃组与37℃组新鲜冰冻血浆凝血Ⅷ因子、FIB、TP差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。45℃组与37℃组新鲜冰冻血浆FIB、TP差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),45℃融解新鲜冰冻血浆凝血Ⅷ因子水平较37℃低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论随着融解温度升高,新鲜冰冻血浆凝血因子活性呈降低趋势,37℃为较佳融解温度。%Objective To explore the influences of fresh frozen plasma with different melting temperatures on coagulation factor and fibrinogen activity. Methods 40 samples of fresh frozen plasma were selected and sufficiently melted at 37℃, 42℃, 45℃ water bath respectively. The contents of fibrinogen (FIB), coagulation factor VIII, total protein (TP) were detected and statistically analyzed. Results There wad no difference in contents of FIB, coagulation factor VIII, TP between 42℃ group and 37℃ group (P>0.05). There wad no difference in contents of FIB, TP between 45℃ group and 37℃ group (P>0.05). The content of coagulation factor VIII in 45℃ group was lower than that in 37℃ group (P<0.05). Conclusion The coagulation factor activity of fresh frozen plasma was decreased when the melting temperature increased. 37℃ was the better choice of melting temperature.

  2. Argon plasma coagulation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in chronic radiation proctopathy, effectiveness and impact on tissue toxicity Argón plasma y oxígeno hiperbárico para el control de la rectorragia crónica secundaria a la proctopatía por radiación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Álvaro-Villegas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic radiation proctopathy (CRP is associated with recurrent rectal bleeding and transfusional requirements. Argon plasma coagulation (APC and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT have been shown to be effective in the control of CRP. No prospective comparisons have been reported between these treatments. Aim: the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety and impact on tissue toxicity of APC compared to HOT in patients with CRP. Material and methods: a prospective study for evaluating treatment response was conducted. Patients with cervical cancer and CRP with rectal bleeding were recruited. They had not received previous treatment. Collected data included: demographics, previous radiation dosage, duration and severity of rectal bleeding. Hemoglobin, transfusional requirements, and tissue toxicity (SOMA LENT questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months follow up were recorded. Results: thirty-one patients were included, 14 in the APC group and 17 in the HOT group. No response was noted in 13 and 18% of patients in the APC and HOT group respectively (p = NS. At the 1 and 2 months follow-up, the APC group showed a significantly better response in terms of transfusional requirements (0.6 vs. 3.4 and 0.7 vs. 2.5 and tissue toxicity score (5.3 vs. 8.6 and 3.8 vs. 7.248. After 3 months, both groups showed further improvement in all parameters without significant differences between them. Conclusions: APC and HOT were effective, safe and decreased the tissue toxicity scores in patients with CRP. However, response rate was higher and faster in the APC group.Introducción: la proctopatía por radiación (PPR se asocia con rectorragía recurrente y requerimientos de trasfusiones. La coagulación con argón plasma (APC y la terapia con oxígeno hiperbárico (HOT han sido efectivas en el control de la PPR. No hay estudios prospectivos comparativos entre ambas técnicas. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la efectividad

  3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that may complicate a variety of diseases, including malignant disease. DIC is characterized by widespread, intravascular activation of coagulation (leading to intravascular fibrin deposition) and simultaneous consumption of coagulation fact

  4. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  5. Comparative analysis of epigenetic markers in plasma and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratov A. G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The work is devoted to the development of less invasive tools for the colorectal cancer (CRC screening. Methods. Q-PCR and methylation-specific PCR techniques were used in the current work. Results. We have shown that the levels of cell-free plasma DNA are higher in the CRC patients compared with the healthy donors (p < 0.01. Hypermethylation of APC, FHIT, LRRC3B and HIC1 genes was studied in the tumor and plasma samples of CRC patients. Two-stage verification for CRC screening was proposed. Conclusions. We proposed and tested a novel approach for CRC screening based on the determination of cell-free DNA and methylated DNA fragments in the plasma.

  6. Comparative studies of chemically synthesized and RF plasma-polymerized poly(-toluidine)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shama Islam; G B V S Lakshmi; M Zulfequar; M Husain; Azher M Siddiqui

    2015-04-01

    Poly(-toluidine) (POT) polymer was synthesized by chemical method and RF plasma polymerization at a radio frequency (RF) power input of 15 W on ultrasonically cleaned glass and silicon wafer substrates. These samples were characterized by DC conductivity measurements, UV–visible, XRD and FTIR techniques. The DC-conductivity was measured at 410 K, which was found to increase by two orders of magnitude for thin film as compared to pellet samples. It has been observed that the activation energy increases for RF plasma-polymerized POT. Transmission and reflectance spectra were studied for measuring optical constants like absorption coefficient (), extinction coefficient (), optical band gap (g), Urbach energy (e), and refractive index (). From XRD studies, one can infer that the samples grown by both the methods are amorphous in nature. The results indicate that the structures of plasma-polymerized POT are rather different from polymers synthesized by conventional chemical methods, due to a higher degree of cross-linking and branching reactions in plasma polymerization. This makes them suitable for various electroactive devices. A higher and more stable conductivity can be obtained with RF plasma-polymerized POT which is much smoother and more uniform.

  7. Electrocoagulation versus chemical coagulation: coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and resulting floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harif, Tali; Khai, Moti; Adin, Avner

    2012-06-15

    Electrocoagulation (EC) and chemical coagulation (CC) are employed in water treatment for particle removal. Although both are used for similar purposes, they differ in their dosing method - in EC the coagulant is added by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material, while in CC dissolution of a chemical coagulant is used. These different methods in fact induce different chemical environments, which should impact coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and subsequent floc formation. Hence, the process implications when choosing which to apply should be significant. This study elucidates differences in coagulation/flocculation mechanisms in EC versus CC and their subsequent effect on floc growth kinetics and structural evolution. A buffered kaolin suspension served as a representative solution that underwent EC and CC by applying aluminum via additive dosing regime in batch mode. In EC an aluminum anode generated the active species while in CC, commercial alum was used. Aluminum equivalent doses were applied, at initial pH values of 5, 6.5 and 8, while samples were taken over pre-determined time intervals, and analyzed for pH, particle size distribution, ζ potential, and structural properties. EC generated fragile flocs, compared to CC, over a wider pH range, at a substantially higher growth rate, that were prone to restructuring and compaction. The results suggest that the flocculation mechanism governing EC in sweep floc conditions is of Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation (DCLA) nature, versus a Reaction Limited Cluster Aggregation (RLCA) type in CC. The implications of these differences are discussed.

  8. Tissue regenerating functions of coagulation factor XIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, C; Kvist, P H; Seidelin, J B;

    2013-01-01

    The protransglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) has recently gained interest within the field of tissue regeneration, as it has been found that FXIII significantly influences wound healing by exerting a multitude of functions. It supports haemostasis by enhancing platelet adhesion to damaged......-receptor 2 and the αVβ3 integrin is important for angiogenesis supporting formation of granulation tissue. Chronic inflammatory conditions involving bleeding and activation of the coagulation cascade have been shown to lead to reduced FXIII levels in plasma. Of particular importance for this review...

  9. Effect of coagulation pretreatment on the fouling of ultrafiltration membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bing-zhi; CHEN Yan; GAO Nai-yun; FAN Jin-chu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect and mechanism of preventing membrane fouling,by coagulation pretreatment,in terms of fractional component and molecular weight of natural organic matter(NOM).A relatively higher molecular weight(MW)of hydrophobic compounds was responsible for a rapid decline in the ultrafiltration flux.Coagulation could effectively remove the hydrophobic organics.resulting in the increase of flux.It was found that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds,which could remove inadequately by coagulation.was responsible for tlle slow declining flux.The fluxes in the filtration of coagulated water and supematant water were compared and the results showed that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds remained in the supernatant water after coagulation could be rejected by a membrane,resulting in fouling.It was also found that the coagulated flocs could absorb neutral hydrophilic compounds effectively.Therefore,with the coagulated flocs formed on the membrane surface,the flux decline could be improved.

  10. Monocytes regulate systemic coagulation and inflammation in abdominal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Braun, Oscar Ö; Zhang, Su; Norström, Eva; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal sepsis is associated with significant changes in systemic inflammation and coagulation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of peripheral blood monocytes for systemic coagulation, including thrombin generation and consumption of coagulation factors. Abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6 mice. Plasma and lung levels of IL-6 and C-X-C motif (CXC) chemokines [chemokine CXC ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL2, and CXCL5], pulmonary activity of myeloperoxidase, thrombin generation, and coagulation factors were determined 6 h after CLP induction. Administration of clodronate liposomes decreased circulating levels of monocytes by 96%. Time to peak thrombin formation was increased and peak and total thrombin generation was decreased in plasma from CLP animals. Monocyte depletion decreased time to peak formation of thrombin and increased peak and total generation of thrombin in septic animals. In addition, monocyte depletion decreased the CLP-induced increase in the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes in plasma. Depletion of monocytes increased plasma levels of prothrombin, factor V, factor X, and protein C in septic mice. Moreover, depletion of monocytes decreased CLP-induced levels of IL-6 and CXC chemokines in the plasma and lung by >59% and 20%, respectively. CLP-induced myeloperoxidase activity in the lung was attenuated by 44% in animals depleted of monocytes. Taken together, our findings show, for the first time, that peripheral blood monocytes regulate systemic coagulation. The results of our study improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis and encourage further attempts to target innate immune cell functions in abdominal sepsis.

  11. Comparison of two blood sampling techniques for the determination of coagulation parameters in the horse: Jugular venipuncture and indwelling intravenous catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C J; McGowan, C M; Pinchbeck, G; Carslake, H B

    2017-10-04

    Evaluation of coagulation status is an important component of critical care. Ongoing monitoring of coagulation status in hospitalised horses has previously been via serial venipuncture due to concerns that sampling directly from the intravenous catheter (IVC) may alter the accuracy of the results. Adverse effects such as patient anxiety and trauma to the sampled vessel could be avoided by the use of an indwelling IVC for repeat blood sampling. To compare coagulation parameters from blood obtained by jugular venipuncture with IVC sampling in critically ill horses. Prospective observational study. A single set of paired blood samples were obtained from horses (n = 55) admitted to an intensive care unit by direct jugular venipuncture and, following removal of a pre-sample, via an indwelling IVC. The following coagulation parameters were measured on venipuncture and IVC samples: whole blood prothrombin time (PT), fresh plasma PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and stored plasma antithrombin activity (AT) and fibrinogen concentration. D-dimer concentration was also measured in some horses (n = 22). Comparison of venipuncture and IVC results was performed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Agreement between paired results was assessed using Bland Altman analysis. Correlation was substantial and agreement was good between sample methods for all parameters except AT and D-dimers. Each coagulation parameter was tested using only one assay. Sampling was limited to a convenience sample and timing of sample collection was not standardised in relation to when the catheter was flushed with heparinised saline. With the exception of AT and D-dimers, coagulation parameters measured on blood samples obtained via an IVC have clinically equivalent values to those obtained by jugular venipuncture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of blood coagulation in mice: pre-analytical conditions and evaluation of a home-made assay for thrombin-antithrombin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijers Joost CM

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mouse models for the study of thrombotic disorders has gained increasing importance. Methods for measurement of coagulation activation in mice are, however, scarce. The primary aim of this study was to develop a specific mouse thrombin-antithrombin (TAT ELISA for measurement of coagulation activation and to compare it with two commercially available assays for human TAT complexes. In addition, we aimed to improve methods for mouse plasma anticoagulation and preparation. Methods and results First, for the measurement of TAT-complexes in plasma a mouse specific TAT-ELISA was developed using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against mouse thrombin and rat antithrombin, respectively. This ELISA detected an increase in TAT levels in a mouse model of endotoxemia. Two commercial human TAT ELISAs appeared to be less specific for mouse thrombin-rat antithrombin complexes. Second, to prevent clotting of mouse blood sodium citrate was either mixed with blood during collection in a syringe or was injected intravenously immediately prior to blood collection. Intravenous sodium citrate completely inhibited blood coagulation resulting in plasma with consistently low TAT levels. Sodium citrate mixed with blood during collection resulted in increased TAT levels in 4 out of 16 plasma samples. Third, heparinase was added to plasma samples after in vivo injection of different heparin doses to test its neutralizing effect. Heparinase neutralized up to a 20 U of heparin/mouse and resulted in accurate APTT and factor VIII determinations. Conclusion These procedures and reagents for plasma preparation and coagulation testing will improve studies on thrombotic disorders in mice.

  13. Hemostatic efficacy of TachoSil in liver resection compared with argon beam coagulator treatment: An open, randomized, prospective, multicenter, parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lars; Seiler, Christoph M.; Broelsch, Christoph E.

    2011-01-01

    points were drainage duration, volume, and content. Adverse events were collected to evaluate the safety of treatments. The trial was registered internationally (Eudract number 2008-006407-23). Results: Among 119 patients (60 TachoSil and 59 ABC) randomized in 10 tertiary care centers in Europe, the mean...... time to hemostasis was less when TachoSil was used (3.6 minutes) compared with ABC (5.0 minutes; P = .0018). The estimated ratio of mean time to hemostasis for TachoSil/ABC ws 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.80; P = .0003). Postoperative drainage volume, drainage fluid, and drainage duration did...... not differ between the 2 groups. Mortality (2 vs. 4 patients) and adverse reactions (24 vs. 28 patients) for TachoSil versus ABC did not differ. Conclusion: This trial confirmed that TachoSil achieved significantly faster hemostasis after liver resection compared with ABC. Postoperative morbidity...

  14. Hemostatic efficacy of TachoSil in liver resection compared with argon beam coagulator treatment: an open, randomized, prospective, multicenter, parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lars; Seiler, Christoph M; Broelsch, Christoph E;

    2011-01-01

    surgical trial with 2 parallel groups. Patients were eligible for intra-operative randomization after elective resection of = 1 liver segment and primary hemostasis. The primary end point was the time to hemostasis after starting the randomized intervention to obtain secondary hemostasis. Secondary end...... time to hemostasis was less when TachoSil was used (3.6 minutes) compared with ABC (5.0 minutes; P = .0018). The estimated ratio of mean time to hemostasis for TachoSil/ABC was 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.80; P = .0003). Postoperative drainage volume, drainage fluid, and drainage duration did...... not differ between the 2 groups. Mortality (2 vs 4 patients) and adverse reactions (24 vs 28 patients) for TachoSil versus ABC did not differ. CONCLUSION: This trial confirmed that TachoSil achieved significantly faster hemostasis after liver resection compared with ABC. Postoperative morbidity and mortality...

  15. Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation in Management of Different Pathologic Types Colorectal Polyps%氩离子凝固术治疗不同病理类型结直肠息肉的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曙光; 王旭霞; 黄裕新; 闻勤生; 赵保民

    2008-01-01

    目的:氩离子凝固术(Argon-plasma coagulation,APC)可以有效地治疗结直肠息肉,对不同病理类型息肉的疗效是否存在差异,目前尚不清楚.本文比较APC治疗不同病理类型结直肠息肉的效果.方法:对62例结直肠息肉患者共112枚结肠息肉行APC治疗,其中17例亚蒂和74例扁平息肉仅用APC治疗;21例有蒂息肉电切治疗后用APC处理息肉残基,治疗结束后1个月进行结肠镜随访.结果:112枚结直肠息肉经一次APC治疗均成功清除,随访期间共有4例(6.5%)患者出现复发,均为直肠腺瘤性息肉,经再次APC治疗后彻底清除.单纯APC治疗组复发3枚(3.3%);电切后用APC处理残端组术后复发1枚(4.7%),两组间复发率无显著差别(P>0.05),腺瘤性息肉的复发率显著高于其他两种病理类型(P<0.05).1例直肠有蒂息肉经圈套器切除后APC处理残端时出现黏膜下气肿,3例患者出现了短暂的腹痛,未经处理缓解,其余患者无特殊并发症.结论:APC是一种安全有效的结直肠息肉治疗方法,但对腺瘤性息肉APC治疗后应加强随访,以确保治疗成功.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia; Fábio Rangel Marques; Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins) and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B) was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin) was measured and...

  17. Influence of low molecular heparin on blood coagulation function and lung function in AECOPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of low molecular heparin on the blood coagulation function and lung function in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients.Methods:A total of 100 cases AECOPD patients were divided into observation group and control group according to the present order and odd number by half. They were all given AECOPD conventional symptomatic treatment, on this basis, patients in the observation group were treated with low molecular heparin, 10 d after treatment, arterial blood gas index such as oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), pulmonary function index such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, blood coagulation function index such as fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) between two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results:Compared with before treatment, the levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC in control group after treatment were significantly elevated, PaCO2, D-D were significantly reduced, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05); The levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC, PT, TT and APTT in observation group after treatment were significantly increased, and were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, PaCO2, D-D, Fib were significantly lower, and were lower than the control group after treatment, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05).Conclusions:AECOPD patients treated with low molecular heparin can help to improve the arterial blood gas, lung function and blood coagulation function.

  18. Effect of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy on Cytokines, Hemorheology and Coagulation Function of Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cui-ge; LI Lian-xiang; LIU Xiao-qin; SHI Jian-yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) on the cytokines, hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women. Methods: A total of 43 singleton pregnant women with ICP delivered in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, and 45 singleton healthy pregnant women accompanied by indications of cesarean section were selected as control group. Automatic Viscometer was used to detect the hematological indexes, Automatic Coagulometer to detect the indexes related to coagulation function and radioimmunoassay to determine the levels of cell inflammatory factors, and the pregnancy outcomes were closely observed. Results:The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high and low shear rates of whole blood viscosity, hematokrit, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in observation group were all dramatically higher than those in control group, and all the differences were statistically signiifcant (P0.05). When compared with control group, the levels of D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB) in observation group increased dramatically (P0.05). Conclusion: Both the hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women with ICP manifest signiifcantly high viscosity and hypercoagulability, and the release of cell inlfammatory factors increases, which all exert adverse inlfuence on pregnancy outcome.

  19. Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen levels using the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi; Ono, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Asumi; Katabami, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Wada, Takeshi; Yanagida, Yuichiro; Sawamura, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen (Fbg) levels is essential for maintaining homeostasis in patients with massive bleeding during severe trauma and major surgery. This study evaluated the accuracy of fibrinogen levels measured by the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer (A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan) using heparinized blood drawn for blood gas analysis (whole blood-Fbg). A total of 100 matched pairs of heparinized blood samples and citrated blood samples were simultaneously collected from patients in the intensive care unit. Whole blood-Fbg results were compared with those of citrated plasma (standard-Fbg). The whole blood coagulation analyzer measured fibrinogen levels within 2 minutes. Strong correlations between standard-Fbg and whole blood-Fbg were observed (ρ = 0.91, p blood-Fbg was 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.951-1.000, p blood coagulation analyzer can rapidly measure fibrinogen levels in heparinized blood and could be useful in critical care settings where excessive bleeding is a concern.

  20. Extremely refractory Kawasaki disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Yeong Bong

    2017-07-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.

  1. Comparative study on interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-GTA welding and laser-GMA welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Xu, Jiannan; Xin, Lijun; Zhao, Zuofu; Wu, Fufa

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes an investigation on differences in interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-gas tungsten arc (LT) welding and laser-gas metal arc (LM) welding. The characteristics of LT heat source and LM heat source, such as plasma behavior, heat penetration ability and spectral information were comparably studied. Based on the plasma discharge theory, the interactions during plasma discharge were modeled and analyzed. Results show that in both LT and LM welding, coupling discharge between the laser keyhole plasma and arc happens, which strongly enhance the arc. But, the enhancing effect in LT welding is much more sensitive than that in LM welding when parameters are adjusted.

  2. Randomised controlled trial comparing oral and intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) plasma levels when given as preoperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, J; Kuo, P Y; Reed, P W; Holder, K

    2011-03-01

    Gastric absorption of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be unreliable perioperatively in the starved and stressed patient. We compared plasma concentrations of parenteral paracetamol given preoperatively and oral paracetamol when given as premedication. Patients scheduled for elective ear; nose and throat surgery or orthopaedic surgery were randomised to receive either oral or intravenous paracetamol as preoperative medication. The oral dose was given 30 minutes before induction of anaesthesia and the intravenous dose given pre-induction. All patients were given a standardised anaesthetic by the same specialist anaesthetist who took blood for paracetamol concentrations 30 minutes after the first dose and then at 30 minute intervals for 240 minutes. Therapeutic concentrations of paracetamol were reached in 96% of patients who had received the drug parenterally, and 67% of patients who had received it orally. Maximum median plasma concentrations were 19 mg.l(-1) (interquartile range 15 to 23 mg.l(-1)) and 13 mg.l(-1) (interquartile range 0 to 18 mg.l(-1)) for the intravenous and oral group respectively. The difference between intravenous and oral groups was less marked after 150 minutes but the intravenous preparation gave higher plasma concentrations throughout the study period. It can be concluded that paracetamol gives more reliable therapeutic plasma concentrations when given intravenously.

  3. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.

  4. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  5. A different insight into blood coagulation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanım Karahan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The known model of blood coagulation involves a series of zymogen activation reaction sequences. At each stage, a zymogen is converted to an active protease by cleavage of one or more peptide bonds in the precursor molecule. The aim of this study was to investigate amino acid profiles during coagulation process in different conditions in vitro.Methods: Samples of serum and plasma (treated by EDTA or citrate were obtained from healthy donors and from patients with Phenylketonuria (PKU. Amino acid profiles analyzed with reverse phase HPLC column.Results: There were no differences between two plasma amino acid levels which were obtained by EDTA and acid citrate (p>0.05. Serum aspartate (asp, glutamate (glu, serine (ser, histidine (his and phenylalanine (phe levels were significantly higher in serum than plasma (p<0.05. This significant difference was not observed in patients with PKU.Conclusion: As a result the enzymatic reactions of coagulation process generate some aminoacids and these reactions take place in an appropriate chemical microenvironment. This microenvironment can be used to clarify the stages of coagulation cascades with further studies. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 173-176

  6. Purification of coagulation factor VIII by immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Estela S; Verinaud, Claudia I; Oliveira, Douglas S; Raw, Isaías; Lopes, Alexandre P Y; Martins, Elizabeth A L; Cheng, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) is a glycoprotein that plays an essential role in blood coagulation cascade. Purification of plasma-derived coagulation FVIII by direct application of plasma to a chromatographic column is a method of choice. Anion exchange column is a very powerful method because FVIII is strongly adsorbed, resulting in good activity recovery and high purification factor. However, vitamin-K-dependent coagulation factors coelute with FVIII. In the present study, we report the separation of vitamin-K-dependent coagulation proteins from FVIII using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Cu(2+) as the metal ligand. Plasma was directly loaded to a Q Sepharose Big Beads column, and FVIII was recovered with 65% activity and a purification factor of approximately 50 times. Then, the Q Sepharose eluate was applied to the IMAC-Cu(2+) column, and FVIII was eluted with 200 mM imidazole, with up to 85% recovery of activity. The mass recovery in this fraction was less than 10% of the applied mass of protein. Vitamin-K-dependent proteins elute with imidazole concentrations of lower than 60 mM. Because of the difference in affinity, FVIII could be completely separated from the vitamin-K-dependent proteins in the IMAC column.

  7. Advantages of Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Compared with Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma in Treating Rabbit Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Jing; Xu, Hai-Tao; Sheng, Jia-Gen; An, Zhi-Quan; Guo, Shang-Chun; Xie, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2016-04-17

    BACKGROUND Concentrated leukocytes in leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) may deliver increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage. However, to date no relevant studies have substantiated that in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS Autologous L-PRP and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) were prepared, measured for componential composition, and injected intra-articularly after 4, 5, and 6 weeks post-anterior cruciate ligament transection. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) was injected intraperitoneally to inhibit NF-κB activation. All rabbits were sacrificed after 8 weeks postoperative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the synovial fluid, Indian ink staining was performed for gross morphological assessment, and hematoxylin and eosin staining and toluidine blue staining were performed for histological assessment. RESULTS Compared with L-PRP, P-PRP injections achieved better outcomes regarding the prevention of cartilage destruction, preservation of cartilaginous matrix, and reduction of IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations. CAPE injections reversed the increased IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations in the synovial fluid after L-PRP injections and improved the outcome of L-PRP injections to a level similar to P-PRP injections, while they had no influence on the therapeutic efficacy of P-PRP injections. CONCLUSIONS Concentrated leukocytes in L-PRP may release increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage, and finally, result in a inferior efficacy of L-PRP to P-PRP for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  8. Therapeutic effect of argon plasma coagulation and cryotherapy combined with radiotherapy on patients with central type lung cancer%经支气管镜氩等离子体凝固及冷冻结合体外放射联合治疗中央型肺癌疗效的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小鹏; 刘小伟; 党焱; 王利; 杨友文; 朱波; 陈剑辉; 马玉娟

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study the efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and cryotherapy through bronchoscope combined with radiation on patients with central type lung cancer.[Methods] 60 patients with central type lung cancer patients were divided into two groups.35 cases in treatment group,with combined therapy.The control group 25 cases,radiation treatment.Clinical symptom,life quality scroe,airway obstruction were measured before and after treatment.[Results] After average 4 times APC and cryotherapy through bronchoscope,result compared with control group,the remission rate of clinical symptoms,airway obstruction,and improve of life quality score were markedly highter,two group had a statistically difference (P <0.05).[Conclusion] Radiation combined with APC and cryotherapy through bronchoscope is a effective and safe therapy for the patients with central type lung cancer.%目的 探讨经支气管镜氩等离子体凝固(APC)及冷冻技术结合体外放射治疗中央型肺癌的疗效.方法 对35例确诊为中心型肺癌的患者进行联合治疗,并与单纯放疗患者进行对比,以观察其疗效.结果 经平均4次的介入治疗,治疗组临床症状、生活质量评分、气道阻塞的缓解相对于对照组均有明显改善,其差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 经支气管镜APC及冷冻技术结合体外放疗是治疗中心型肺癌的安全有效方法.

  9. Coagulation And Hemagglutination Properties Of The Crude Extract Derived From The Leaves Of Euphorbia Hirta L. Tridax Procumbens L. And Vernonia Cinerea L Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo C. Ongpoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the potential of selected wild grasses from the Philippines as coagulant and typing sera. To do this Euphorbia hirta L. Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L Less aqueous infusions were each subjected to blood components from healthy individuals. The plasma part of the blood was used to test for coagulation where Plasma Clotting Time PCT and Factor VIII screening test were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts. On the other hand the Packed Red Blood Cell part of the blood was used to test for hemagglutination where microscopic and macroscopic evaluations were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts against the blood groups from the ABO system. About this study it was found out that all the wild grasses did not give a comparable coagulation to the commercially available positive control which is Calcium Chloride while Euphorbia hirta L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A and Type B cells Tridax procumbens L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A cell and Vernonia cinerea L Less gave a positive hemagglutination to Type B cells both in macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The results show that all the wild grasses tested may not be used as a coagulant but all of them may have a potential as a typing sera.

  10. The change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Shi; Yi-Xin Yang; Qian Xu; Yanhua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.Methods: Chose 89 patients with HDCP, they were set as HDCP group, chose another 60 cases health late pregnancy women and 42 cases non pregnant female, they were set as late pregnant group and non-pregnant control group, detected the platelet parameters: the average blood platelet count (PLT), platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and blood coagulation indexes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes in three groups.Results: (1) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PLT was significantly lower, while the MPV and PDW were significantly higher in HDCP group; PLT in late pregnant group was significantly lower than that in non-pregnant group, and there were no significantly difference of MPV and PDW in the two groups; (2) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PT and APTT levels were significantly lower, while FIB and D-D were significantly higher in HDCP group; The level of PT and APTT in late pregnant group were significantly lower, and FIB and D-D levels were significantly higher than that in non-pregnant group, However, The level of TT were no statistical significance difference among the three groups.Conclusion: HDCP existence phenomenon of platelet activation and apparent high coagulation state, dynamic detection of HDCP patients platelet parameters and blood coagulation indexes to prevent related complications, improve obstetrics safety is of great significance.

  11. Comparative plasma disposition kinetics of albendazole and its new benzimidazol prodrug in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Z; El Karbane, M; Faouzi, M E A; Ansar, M; Azougagh, M; El Harti, J; Taoufik, J

    2016-01-01

    The comparative pharmacokinetic behavior of albendazole (ABZ) and its new benzimidazol prodrug [1-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-5-propylthio-1-H-benzimidazol-2ylcarbamate of methyl] (ABZBoc), following their oral administration (10mg/kg) to healthy dogs was explored. Blood samples were obtained serially over a 24h period after treatment, then the plasma was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to search the albendazole metabolites (ABZSO and ABZSO2). However, the albendazole parent drug was not detectable at any time after both treatments (ABZ and ABZBoc). By albendazole metabolites (ABZSO and ABZSO2) were the analytes recovered in the plasma after oral administration of ABZ and ABZBoc. Furthermore, some amounts of ABZBoc were also available in the plasma samples treated with this new produg. The plasma profile of each analyte followed a similar pattern after both treatments, the active metabolite (ABZSO) was the major analyte recovered in plasma (between 1 and 24h post-treatment). The pharmacokinetic parameters of both groups were calculated (Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-›∞), and analyzed using the Student's t-test, Palbendazole metabolites (ABZSO, ABZSO2) between the group treated with albendazole (group A) and that treated with ABZBoc prodrug (group B). Hence, the levels of the various pharmacokinetics parameters were low in the group treated with prodrug, as well they did not reach equivalent concentrations to that of albendazole. These differences between albendazole and its new prodrug may be explained by the fact that ABZBoc prodrug was not effectively reduced in the intestine of dogs.

  12. Comparative investigation of ELM control based on toroidal modelling of plasma response to RMP fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiang

    2016-10-01

    The type-I edge localized mode (ELM), bursting at low frequency and with large amplitude, can channel a substantial amount of the plasma thermal energy into the surrounding plasma-facing components in tokamak devices operating at the high-confinement mode, potentially causing severe material damages. Learning effective ways of controlling this instability is thus an urgent issue in fusion research, in particular in view of the next generation large devices such as ITER and DEMO. Among other means, externally applied, three-dimensional resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have been experimentally demonstrated to be successful in mitigating or suppressing the type-I ELM, in multiple existing devices. In this work, we shall report results of a comparative study of ELM control using RMPs. Comparison is made between the modelled plasma response to the 3D external fields and the observed change of the ELM behaviour on multiple devices, including MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, EAST, DIII-D, JET, and KSTAR. We show that toroidal modelling of the plasma response, based on linear and quasi-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, provides essential insights that are useful in interpreting and guiding the ELM control experiments. In particular, linear toroidal modelling results, using the MARS-F code, reveal the crucial role of the edge localized peeling-tearing mode response during ELM mitigation/suppression on all these devices. Such response often leads to strong peaking of the plasma surface displacement near the region of weak equilibrium poloidal field (e.g. the X-point), and this provides an alternative practical criterion for ELM control, as opposed to the vacuum field based Chirikov criteria. Quasi-linear modelling using MARS-Q provides quantitative interpretation of the side effects due to the ELM control coils, on the plasma toroidal momentum and particle confinements. The particular role of the momentum and particle fluxes, associated with the neoclassical toroidal

  13. INTRALESIONAL PLATELET RICH PLASMA vs INTRALESIONAL TRIAMCINOLONE IN THE TREATMENT OF ALOPECIA AREATA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumez H, Prasad PVS, Kaviarasan PK, Deepika R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is a chronic non-scarring alopecia that involves the scalp and/or body, and is characterized by patchy areas of hair loss without any signs of clinical inflammation. Various therapies have been proposed for their treatment.But none have been shown to alter the course of the disease. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP is a volume of autologous plasma that has a high platelet concentration. Growth factors released from platelets may act on stem cells in the bulge area of the follicles, stimulating the development of new follicles and promoting neovascularization. Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of intralesional injection of autologous platelet rich plasma with intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/ml in the treatment of alopecia areata. Methodology: 74 patients with alopecia areata were allocated into 2 groups and treated with triamcinolone and PRP injections. Treatment outcome was measured by taking into account extent and density of regrowth of hair and was expressed as a percentage of overall growth. Results: Forty eight patients were treated with triamcinolone injections and 26 patients were treated with PRP injections. Patients treated with PRP had an earlier response at the end of 6weeks than patients treated with triamcinolone. However, this difference was statistically insignificant. The overall improvement at the end of 9 weeks was 100% for all patients in both groups. Conclusion: PRP is a safe, simple, biocompatible and effective procedure for the treatment of alopecia areata with efficacy comparable with triamcinolone.

  14. Thrombin generation by exposure of blood to endotoxin: a simple model to study disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, T W

    2006-04-01

    Pathologic disseminated intravascular coagulation (PDIC) is a serious complication in sepsis. In an in-vitro system consisting of incubation of fresh citrated blood with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or glucans and subsequent plasma recalcification plasmatic thrombin was quantified. Five hundred microliters of freshly drawn citrated blood of healthy donors were incubated with up to 800 ng/mL LPS (Escherichia coli) or up to 80 microg/mL Zymosan A (ZyA; Candida albicans) for 30 minutes at room temperature (RT). The samples were centrifuged, and 30 microL plasma were recalcified with 1 volume or less of CaCl(2) (25 micromoles Ca(2+)/mL plasma). After 0 to 12 minutes (37 degrees C), 20 microL 2.5 M arginine, pH 8.6, were added. Thirty microliters 0.9 mM HD-CHG-Ala-Arg-pNA in 2.3 M arginine were added, and the absorbance increase at 405 nm was determined. Fifty microliters plasma were also incubated with 5 microL 250 mM CaCl2 for 5, 10, or 15 minutes (37 degrees C). Fifty microliters 2.5 M arginine stops coagulation, and 50 microL 0.77 mM HD-CHG-Ala-Arg-pNA in 2.3 M arginine starts the thrombin detection. The standard was 1 IU/mL thrombin in 7% human albumin instead of plasma. Arginine was also added in the endotoxin exposure time (EET) or in the plasma coagulation reaction time (CRT). Tissue factor (TF)-antigen and soluble CD14 were determined. LPS at blood concentrations greater than 10 ng/mL or ZyA at greater than 1 microg/mL severalfold enhance thrombin generation, when the respective plasmas are recalcified. After 30 minutes EET at RT, the thrombin activity at 12 minutes CRT generated by the addition of 200 ng/mL LPS or 20 microg/mL ZyA is approximately 200 mIU/mL compared to approximately 20 mIU/mL without addition of endotoxin, or compared to about 7 mIU/mL thrombin at 0 minutes CRT. Arginine added to blood or to plasma inhibits thrombin generation; the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC 50) is approximately 15 mM plasma concentration. Endotoxin incubation of blood

  15. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckler, Ferreira Filho Sidney; Margarida, Marchetto; Rosemeire, Alves Laganaro

    2013-08-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water. This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption, combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant. The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests. The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition. Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L, and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L. The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L). Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant, showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process. The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass. For both cases of PAC dosing, upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point, the MIB removal efficiency was similar. However, MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application. This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores. This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation.

  16. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  17. Reference intervals for common coagulation tests of preterm infants (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Baer, Vickie L; Lambert, Diane K; Henry, Erick; Ilstrup, Sarah J; Bennett, Sterling T

    2014-03-01

    Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) is sometimes administered to nonbleeding preterm neonates who are judged to be at risk for bleeding because they have abnormal coagulation tests. The benefits/risks of this practice are not well defined. One limitation to progress is lack of reference intervals for the common coagulation tests, thus limiting precision about whether coagulation tests are indeed abnormal. In a sequential observational study, fetal blood was drawn at preterm birth (≤ 34 weeks) from the umbilical vein near the placenta. Fibrinogen, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, D-dimer, platelet (PLT) count, and mean PLT volume were measured. Reference intervals were constructed using 5th and 95th percentile values. Associations were then sought between abnormal coagulation values at birth and bleeding problems identified during the first week. Coagulation tests were drawn at 175 preterm deliveries and the results were organized into reference intervals by gestational age. No abnormal coagulation value, either alone or in combination, predicted hemorrhage (intraventricular, gastrointestinal, or pulmonary) during the first week. However, fibrinogen exceeding the 95th percentile was associated with evidence of in utero infection/inflammation (correlations with elevated C-reactive protein, pcoagulation values at preterm birth do not predict bleeding during the first week. This suggests to us that bleeding in the days after preterm birth is not generally the result of in utero coagulopathy. These findings bring into question the value of coagulation screening of nonbleeding preterm infants and prophylactic FFP administration to those with abnormal values. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Changes and significance of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in women with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-Zhi Zeng; Bo Zhang; Yu-Na Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension, and to explore its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 88 cases of women with pregnancy induced hypertension who were admitted in our hospital from July 2011 to February 2016 were selected as the research objects, at the same time, 90 normal pregnant women were selected as normal late pregnancy group. The coagulation parameters, hemodynamics, blood rheology indexes were detected in the two groups.Results:Before delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly lower than those in the normal late pregnancy group, and the values of D-D and FIB were significantly higher than those in the normal late pregnancy group. After delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher, and the FIB value was significantly lower, there were no significant differences between the two group. But the D-D value was still significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnancy group. The blood flow dynamics parameter in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnant group, the differences were statistically significant. The whole blood high and low shear viscosity, plasma viscosity, low shear reduction viscosity, hematocrit, erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte electrophoresis time and fibrinogen in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than those in normal late pregnancy group.Conclusion:The blood indexes in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension showed a high coagulation state compared with the normal late pregnancy women. Timely detection of patients’ coagulation function, hemodynamics, and blood rheology indexes has important significance for the detection, auxiliary diagnosis and prevention of the disease.

  19. Monitoring the effects of fibrinogen concentration on blood coagulation using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and its comparison with thromboelastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Efremov, Vitaly; Cullen, Sinéad; Byrne, Barry; Killard, Anthony J.

    2013-05-01

    Fibrinogen has been identified as a major risk factor in cardiovascular disorders. Fibrinogen (340 kDa) is a soluble dimeric glycoprotein found in plasma and is a major component of the coagulation cascade. It has been identified as a major risk factor in cardiovascular disorders. The time taken for its conversion to fibrin is usually used as an "endpoint" in most clot-based assays, without any information on dynamic changes in physical properties or kinetics of a forming clot. A global coagulation profile as measured by Thromboelastography® (TEG®) provides information on both the time and kinetics of changes in physical property of the forming clot. In this work, Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which is a piezoelectric resonator has been used to study coagulation of plasma and compared with TEG. The changes in resonant frequency (Δf) and half width at half maximum (HWHM or ΔΓ) were used to evaluate effect of fibrinogen concentration. It has been shown that TEG is less sensitive to low concentrations of fibrinogen and dilution while QCM is able to monitor clot formation in both the circumstances.

  20. Plasmin-induced procoagulant effects in the blood coagulation: a crucial role of coagulation factors V and VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Kenichi; Nogami, Keiji; Nishiya, Katsumi; Shima, Midori

    2010-09-01

    Plasminogen activators provide effective treatment for patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, paradoxical elevation of thrombin activity associated with failure of clot lysis and recurrent thrombosis has been reported. Generation of thrombin in these circumstances appears to be owing to plasmin (Plm)-induced activation of factor (F) XII. Plm catalyzes proteolysis of several coagulant factors, but the roles of these factors on Plm-mediated procoagulant activity remain to be determined. Recently developed global coagulation assays were used in this investigation. Rotational thromboelastometry using whole blood, clot waveform analysis and thrombin generation tests using plasma, showed that Plm (> or =125 nmol/l) shortened the clotting times in similar dose-dependent manners. In particular, the thrombin generation test, which was unaffected by products of fibrinolysis, revealed the enhanced coagulation with an approximately two-fold increase of peak level of thrombin generation. Studies using alpha2-antiplasmin-deficient plasma revealed that much lower dose of Plm (> or =16 nmol/l) actually contributed to enhancing thrombin generation. The shortening of clotting time could be observed even in the presence of corn trypsin inhibitor, supporting that Plm exerted the procoagulant activity independently of FXII. In addition, using specific coagulation-deficient plasmas, the clot waveform analysis showed that Plm did not shorten the clotting time in only FV-deficient or FVIII-deficient plasma in prothrombin time-based or activated partial thromboplastin time-based assay, respectively. Our results indicated that Plm did possess procoagulant activity in the blood coagulation, and this effect was likely attributed by multicoagulation factors, dependent on FV and/or FVIII.

  1. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  2. Disorders of coagulation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D; Beilin, Y

    2015-12-01

    The process of haemostasis is complex and is further complicated in the parturient because of the physiological changes of pregnancy. Understanding these changes and the impact that they have on the safety profile of the anaesthetic options for labour and delivery is crucial to any anaesthetist caring for the parturient. This article analyses current theories on coagulation and reviews the physiological changes to coagulation that occur during pregnancy and the best methods with which to evaluate coagulation. Finally, we examine some of the more common disorders of coagulation that occur during pregnancy, including von Willebrand disease, common factor deficiencies, platelet disorders, the parturient on anticoagulants, and the more rare acute fatty liver of pregnancy, with a focus on their implications for neuraxial anaesthesia.

  3. Comparative efficiency of endoscopic hemostasis methods in bleeding undercomplicated peptic ulcer in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Олександрович Сокольник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis in complex treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in children of Chernovtsy region with peptic ulcer disease.Methods. 43 cases of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children are analyzed. Argon plasma coagulation is undergone in order to stop the bleeding for 11 patients, for others – aminocaproic acid irrigation.Results. Using argon plasma coagulation, in contrast to the aminocaproic acid irrigation reduces the risk of rebleeding 0.59 times when the number of patients who must be treated – 2.99.Conclusions. The most effective method of endoscopic hemostasis of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children is argon plasma coagulation, which allows you to achieve a stable hemostasis and reduce the risk of rebleeding

  4. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  5. Coagulation of humic waters for diffused pollution control and the influence of coagulant type on DOC fractions removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of organic coagulants for treatment of typically humic peat extraction runoff water by comparing their performance with that of ferric sulphate (FS). The influence of coagulant type on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions removed was analysed in detail using LC-OCD-OND (size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and organic nitrogen detection) fractionation techniques. In general, lower coagulant dosage was needed under acidic (pH 4.5) than neutral (pH 6.5) conditions. Chitosan (Chit) and poly (diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDMAC) required significantly lower dosage (40-55%) than FS for acceptable purification, while a tannin-based coagulant (Tan2) required substantially higher dosage (55-75%) independent of water pH. FS demonstrated the best removal of DOC (polymers demonstrated satisfactory overall performance, achieving purification rates mostly inside the requirements set by Finnish environmental authorities.

  6. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-10-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O2/He or N2/He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation.

  7. EXHALED AND PLASMA NITRITE: a comparative study among healthy, cirrhotic and liver transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S AUGUSTO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context There is a relative lack of studies about exhaled nitrite (NO2- concentrations in cirrhotic and transplanted patients. Objective Verify possible differences and correlations between the levels of NO2-, measured in plasma and exhaled breath condensate collected from patients with cirrhosis and liver transplant. Method Sixty adult male patients, aged between 27 and 67 years, were subdivided into three groups: a control group comprised of 15 healthy volunteers, a cirrhosis group composed of 15 volunteers, and a transplant group comprised of 30 volunteers. The NO2- concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. Results 1 The analysis of plasma NO2- held among the three groups showed no statistical significance. 2 The comparison between cirrhotic and control groups, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted was not statistically significant. 3 The measurements performed on of NO2- exhaled breath condensate among the three groups showed no statistical difference. 4 When comparing the control group samples and cirrhotic, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted, there was no significant changes in the concentrations of NO2-. Conclusion No correlations were found between plasma and exhaled NO2-, suggesting that the exhaled NO2- is more reflective of local respiratory NO release than the systemic circulation.

  8. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  9. Benign intracranial hypertension associated to blood coagulation derangements

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    Niglio Alferio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors' control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. Patients and methods The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. Results The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM; 8.7 ± 2.5 ng/mL vs 2.2 ± 1.25 ng/mL; 45.7 ± 12.5 ng/mL vs 8.5 ± 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; p Discussion In agreement with other authors our data suggest a state of hypercoagulability in BIH associated with gene polymorphisms. Our findings also showed that mutations in cardiovascular genes significantly discriminate subjects with a BIH history. The association between coagulation and gene derangements, usually regarded to as cryptogenic, may suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism in BIH. So, a prothrombotic tendency may exist that would, at least in part, explain some cases of BIH. Although based on a small population, these findings raise the exciting possibility of using these haemostatic factors as markers for selecting high-risk subjects in BIH disease.

  10. Comparative Plasma Exposure of Albendazole after Administration of Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina G. Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were (a to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  11. Comparative plasma exposure of albendazole after administration of rapidly disintegrating tablets in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Silvina G; Dib, Alicia; Suarez, Gonzalo; Allemandi, Daniel; Lanusse, Carlos; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Palma, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b) to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  12. [Modern coagulation management reduces the transfusion rate of allogenic blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christian Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    Evaluating the patient's individual bleeding history with a standardized questionnaire, using "point-of-care" - methods for coagulation analyses and providing autologous transfusion techniques are preconditions of a modern coagulation management. Therapy of coagulopathic patients should be based on structured hemotherapy algorithms. Surgical haemostasis and the maintenance of the basic conditions for haemostasis are elementary requirements for an effective therapy. In cases of diffuse bleeding, early antifibrinolytic therapy should be considered. Coagulation factor deficiencies should be corrected "goal-directed" using coagulation factor concentrates. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma is only indicated in the clinical setting of massive transfusions. DDAVP and transfusion of platelet concentrates are options to optimize primary haemostasis. In cases of on-going bleeding, recombinant activated coagulation factor VII represents an option for "ultima-ratio" therapy.

  13. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  14. OPTIMISATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AS A NATURAL COAGULANT TO TREAT CONGO RED IN WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUN Y. YONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of coagulation is commonly practiced in water and wastewater treatment to reduce level of dissolved chemical, turbidity and so on with the usage of coagulant. Aluminium sulphate (alum is the most commonly used coagulant, however, recent studies show that residual aluminium in drinking water and sludge may induce Alzheimer’s disease and environmental issues. Natural coagulant which is environmental friendly and non-toxic is developed as an alternative to overcome these issues. In this work, Hibiscus Sabdariffa was studied as natural coagulant to treat dye wastewater containing Congo red. The seeds were extracted with different solvent such as distilled water, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.05 M NaOH to extract the coagulation agent. The working parameters were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. 0.5 M NaCl was found to have highest colour removal of 95.1 % among the solvents. In addition, Hibiscus Sabdariffa seed was found to be an effective coagulant that has 91.2 % colour removal at the optimal working condition of pH 2, 190 mg/L coagulant dosage at 400 ppm of dye concentration. It was also been identified that the performance of natural coagulant is comparable with conventional coagulant, aluminium sulphate with colour removal of 91.2 % and 92.3 % respectively.

  15. Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using modified micro sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldiri, Nur Hanani; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is considered as highly polluted wastewater, without any treatment, discharging into water system will cause underground water and surface water pollutions. This study was to investigate the treatability of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate via coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), cationic polymer, and modified micro sand. Leachate was collected from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) located in Penang, Malaysia. Coagulation-flocculation was performed by using jar test equipment and the effect of pH, dose of coagulant and dose of polymer toward removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and suspended solid (SS) were examined. Micro sand was also used in this study to compare settling time of coagulation-flocculation process. The optimum pH, dose of coagulant (PAC) and dose of polymer (cationic) achieved were 7.0, 1000 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The dose of micro sand used for the settling time process was 300 mg/L. Results showed that 52.66% removal of COD, 97.16% removal of SS and 96.44% removal of color were achieved under optimum condition. The settling times for the settling down of the sludge or particles that formed during coagulation-flocculation process were 1 min with modified sand, 20 min with raw micro sand and 45 min without micro sand.

  16. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  17. Analysis of the Factors Associated with Abnormal Coagulation and Prognosis
in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are associated with high risk of invasion, metastases, and negative final outcomes. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for approximately 80% to 85% of all lung malignancies. This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for NSCLC and provide a reference to patients on the prevention and treatment of thrombophilia. Methods Data were collected from 604 cases of hospitalized patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC from January 2009 to December 2012 at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Data included the related indexes of coagulation function in patients before treatment [(i.e., prothrombin time (PT, prothrombin time activity (PTA, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrinogen (Fib, D-dimer, and platelet count], as well as sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, and lymph node status. Fifty control subjects without cancer were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Results The plasma level of all coagulation tests including D-dimer, Fib, PT, APTT, INR, and platelet counts revealed statistically significant differences between the patient and control group (P<0.001 for all variables; P=0.001,5 and P=0.004,5 for Fib and platelet counts, respectively. The squamous subtype exhibited high plasma Fib levels (P<0.001 compared with adenocarcinoma cell lung cancer patients. Fib and PLT levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.014, respectively, and aPTT decreased (P<0.001 in patients at stages III and IV compared with those in patients at stages I and II. aPTT decreased significantly (P<0.001, and Fib and D-dimer levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.048, respectively in N1-3 patients with NSCLC compared with those of N0 patients. Prolonged PT and INR, high plasma Fib levels, and

  18. 产后出血患者大量输血治疗时血浆和红细胞的比例对凝血功能的影响%Effect of ratio of fresh frozen plasma to red blood cells on coagulation function in patients with massive blood transfusion for postpartum hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂芳; 金勇; 夏和凤

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨产后大出血患者早期大量输血时,输入新鲜冰冻血浆(FFP)和红细胞(RBC)的比例对凝血功能的影响.方法 因产后大出血24 h内需输注RBC大于10 U的患者45例,按输注FFP与悬浮RBC的比例,随机分为低血浆组(A组,FFP∶ RC=1∶2.5,15例)、中血浆组(B组,FFP∶ RBC=1∶1,16例)和高血浆组(C组,FFP∶ RBC=1.5∶1,14例).检测产前和输血后24h凝血功能和血常规,比较三组患者大量输血后24h内RBC和冷沉淀输入量的差异.结果 三组患者产前凝血功能、血常规比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).大量输血24 h后,A组凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)延长,纤维蛋白原(Fbg)含量降低(P<0.05),B、C组凝血功能无明显变化(P>0.05);三组患者大量输血后血小板计数(Plt)及血红蛋白(Hb)均降低(P<0.05),B组优于A、C组(P<0.05).三组间24 h内输注RBC和冷沉淀的量无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 产后大出血患者输血时,FFP与RBC比例过低,可造成血液稀释性低凝,建议以1∶1比例输注为宜.%Objective To investigate the effect of ratio of fresh frozen plasma(FFP) to red blood cells (RBC) on coagulation function in the patients with massive blood transfusion for postpartum hemorrhage.Methods Forty-five patients with blood transfusion more than 10 U in 24 hours were randomly assigned into three groups of A(ratio of FFP to RBC 1 ∶ 2.5,15 cases),B(ratio of FFP to RBC 1 ∶ 1,16 cases) and C(ratio of FFP to RBC 1.5 ∶ 1,14 cases).The coagulation function was examined before delivery and at 24 hours after transfusion.The volumes of RBC and cryoprecipitate infused in 24 hours were compared among three groups.Results The tests of coagulation function,platelet and hemoglobin (Hb) of three groups were similar before delivery (P>0.05).The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were significantly prolonged and fibrinogen was decreased at 24 hours after

  19. Correction of Antithrombin III Deficiency in Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

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    Ye. L. Neporada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antithrombin (AT III concentrate therapy is attended by an increased risk of hemorrhage, the data available in the literature suggest that the agent may have a positive effect on outcome in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP is associated with a less risk of hemorrhage; however, there is no evidence for its impact on prognosis in DIC. Objective: to compare the effects of AT concentrate and FFP on the activity of AT and on the clinical course of DIC. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients diagnosed as having as DIC (according to the JAAM scale and <70% AT deficiency were included into a randomized clinical study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age less than 16 years and more than 75 years; malignancy; hemorrhage; hemostatic therapy; a thrombocytopenia of <50X109/l. The patients were randomized into 3 groups: A AT concentrate 500— 1000 IU/day; B FFP 10 ml/kg/day; C combined therapy. The agents were daily administered for 4 days in a persistent AT deficiency of 70%. Nadroparin, 95 IU AXa/kg/day, was used as concurrent therapy. Results. The activity of AT substantially increased in Group A and great differences between Groups A and B preserved during therapy: 69±16 and 51±14% (p=0.007; 72±18 and 56±13% (p=0.02; 73±14 and 57±16% (p=0.03, respectively. No significant differences were found in the severity of respiratory disorders, dysfunction of other organs, DIC scale scores, the incidence of hemorrhages (2 cases in Group A, allergic reactions (2 cases of urticaria in Group C and in 30-day mortality — 40, 53.3, and 30.8% in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusion. As compared with FFP and combined therapy, AT concentrate therapy for DIC provides a more effective correction of AT deficiency. Further studies are needed to compare the impact of three therapy modalities on the outcome and incidence of complications in DIC. Key words: disseminated intravascular

  20. Valoración de la respuesta endoscópica al tratamiento con argón plasma en la rectitis actínica crónica Evaluation of the endoscopic response to argon plasma coagulation in patients with chronic radiation proctopathy

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    M. Latorre Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valorar la mejoría endoscópica tras el tratamiento con argón plasma utilizado para el control sintomático de las rectitis actínicas crónicas. Diseño y pacientes: estudio prospectivo de 48 meses de duración, con 38 pacientes (26 hombres y 12 mujeres, con edad media de 70,9 ± 7,38 años. Todos presentaban algún grado de rectorragia y/o anemia. Se realizaron entrevistas clínicas, analíticas y sesiones endoscópicas con argón, de forma periódica mensual, hasta la normalización analítica y cese del sangrado, con un seguimiento posterior de 24 meses. Para valorar la mejoría se utilizaron parámetros analíticos, gradación de sangrado (Chutckan y un índice endoscópico. Resultados: el tiempo medio trascurrido entre el inicio y la finalización del seguimiento fue de 28,5 ± 3,9 meses. La media de sesiones administradas por paciente ha sido de 3,6 ± 2,7. Si comparamos los síntomas antes, después del tratamiento existe una disminución significativa en el grado de rectorragia según la clasificación de Chutkan (2,29 ± 1,08 vs. 0,59 ± 1,12, p Objectives: to evaluate endoscopic improvement after argon plasma coagulation (APC in symptomatic patients with chronic radiation proctopathy. Methods and patients: a prospective study of 38 patients with radiation proctitis (26 males and 12 females, mean age 70.9 ± 7.38 yrs, and with rectal bleeding and or anemia. We performed monthly interviews, blood tests, and APC sessions until rectal bleeding had ceased and hemoglobin and ferritin levels were improved, with a follow-up of 24 months. We used blood testing, bleeding scores (Chutckhan's index, and endoscopic scores to evaluate improvement. Results: mean time between inclusion and follow-up completion was 28.5 ± 3.9 months. Mean number of sessions per patient was 3.6 ± 2.7. There was a significant decrease (2.29 ± 1.8 vs. 0.59 ± 1.12, p < 0.05 in rectal bleeding (Chutckan score from baseline after APC. There was a significant

  1. An ex vivo evaluation of efficacy of refrigerated canine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowsky, Adam R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; de Laforcade, Armelle M; Sharp, Claire R; Meola, Dawn M; Schavone, Jessica J; Brooks, Majory B

    2014-01-01

    To determine thawing times of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and to evaluate the activity of hemostatic proteins (coagulation factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, and fibrinogen), clotting times (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), and sterility of canine plasma stored refrigerated. Prospective laboratory-based study. Veterinary teaching hospital blood bank. Phase 1: Six units of canine FFP were retrieved from the blood bank and thawed individually in a warm water bath. Time for thaw was recorded in minutes and reported as mean ± SD. Phase 2: One unit of fresh whole blood was collected from 9 dogs and processed routinely. Resulting plasma was divided into 2 aliquots, 1 stored as refrigerated plasma (RP) and 1 as frozen plasma. Samples from the RP were taken at 0, 1, 5, 7, and 14 days and from the FFP at days 0 and 14 for determination of clotting factor activity (V, VII, VIII, IX, and X and fibrinogen) and clotting times. Coagulation factors and clotting times were analyzed using a mixed effects linear model for ANOVA, comparing changes over time as well as differences between groups. For all comparisons, a P value of coagulation factor activity in canine plasma. The use of RP, therefore, may be a viable option in high-volume veterinary hospitals for rapid correction of coagulopathy in critical care patients. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  2. Optimisation of combined coagulation and microfiltration for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, S J; Hillis, P

    2001-08-01

    The effect of upstream coagulant dosing for full-flow microfiltration of an upland-reservoir water has been investigated. The process, run under conditions of constant flux and pH and based on a ferric salt, is compared with a published study of another full-flow process based on alum dosing and operated at constant pressure and coagulant concentration. The current study includes data for the residual deposit remaining following backflushing by reverse flow. Results are presented in terms of the specific-cake resistance (R'o, m(-2)) as a function of pH or coagulant dose. Reasonable correlation with classical cake filtration theory was obtained, such that R' was assumed to be independent of run time and cake thickness. The following trends have been noted: The optimum pH for the alum-based system appears to be between 7.5 and 8 on the basis of cake resistance. The effect of coagulant dose between 18 and 71 microM Fe3+ is much more significant than a change in pH between 5 and 9 for the alum system: a 53-fold increase in specific flux compared with a 7-fold increase with reference to the limiting R'o values at pH 4.8 and 7.7. A low coagulant dose (0.018mM, 1.0 mg l(-1) Fe3+) appears to have a slightly detrimental effect on downstream microfiltration operation. The low coagulant doses apparently cause incomplete aggregation of colloidal particles such that internal fouling of the membrane takes place. The residual (cleaning cycle) deposit resistance followed roughly the same trend as the backflush cycle-cake resistance with coagulant concentration, but with a much reduced value (about 16 times lower, on average). An optimum coagulant dose of 0.055 mM (3.1 mg/l) Fe3+ can be identified on the basis of operational cost based on coagulant cost and cake resistance, all other aspects of the system being substantially unchanged. It is concluded that coagulation with downstream microfiltration offers a cost-effective means of removing natural organic matter, achieving a THMFP

  3. Impacts of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine on coagulation performance and membrane fouling in coagulation/ultrafiltration combined process with different Al-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Ruihua; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-09-01

    Two kinds of aluminum-based coagulants and epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) were used in the treatment of humic acid-kaolin simulated water by coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) hybrid process. Coagulation performance, floc characteristics, including floc size, compact degree, and strength were investigated in this study. Ultrafiltration experiments were conducted by a dead-end batch unit to implement the resistance analyses to explore the membrane fouling mechanisms. Results showed that DAM-ECH aid significantly increased the UV254 and DOC removal efficiencies and contributed to the formation of larger and stronger flocs with a looser structure. Aluminum chloride (Al) gave rise to better coagulation performance with DAM-ECH compared with poly aluminum chloride (PACl). The consequences of ultrafiltration experiments showed that DAM-ECH aid could reduce the membrane fouling mainly by decreasing the cake layer resistance. The flux reductions for PACl, Al/DAM-ECH (dosing both Al and DAM-ECH) and PACl/DAM-ECH (dosing both PACl and DAM-ECH) were 62%, 56% and 44%, respectively. Results of this study would be beneficial for the application of PACl/DAM-ECH and Al/DAM-ECH composite coagulants in water treatment processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [A comparative analysis of the passive electric probe detection and spectrum diagnosis of laser-induced plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Yang, Li-Jun; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Lang-Ping

    2014-02-01

    An approach to detecting laser-induced plasma using passive probe was brought up. The plasma of laser welding was studied by using a synchronous electric and spectral information acquisition system, the laser-induced plasma was detected by a passive electric probe and fiber spectrometer, the electrical signal was analyzed on the basis of the theory of plasma sheath, and the temperature of laser-induced plasma was calculated by using the method of relative spectral intensity. The analysis results from electrical signal and spectral one were compared. Calculation results of three kinds of surface circumstances, which were respectively coated by KF, TiO2 and without coating, were compared. The factors affecting the detection accuracy were studied. The results indicated that the results calculated by passive probe matched that by spectral signal basically, and the accuracy was affected by ions mass of the plasma. The designed passive electric probe can be used to reflect the continuous fluctuation of electron temperature of the generated plasma, and monitor the laser-induced plasma.

  5. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors

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    Beata Olejnik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate–protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers.

  6. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarząb, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M.; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate–protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  7. Comparative study of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kazunori; Katayama, Ryu; Sarinont, Thapanut; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Attri, Pankaj; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    We are comparing several non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications. Here we measured discharge period dependence of pH value and 750 nm absorbance of KI-starch solution of deionized water after plasma irradiation with two discharge devices; a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet device and a scalable DBD device. The pH and the absorbance of KI-starch solution are useful indicator of their oxidizability. We have obtained a map of the absorbance and proton concentration [H+] which is deduced from pH value. For the scalable DBD, the range of the absorbance is between 0.7 and 1.3 and that of [H+] is between 10-7 and 10-5 mol/L. For the DBD jet, the range of the absorbance and [H+] are 2.0-3.2 and 10-4-10-3 mol/L, respectively. Measured data for both devices shows same tendency in the map, while the range of values for the scalable DBD is smaller than that for the DBD jet. The results indicate the oxidazability for the scalable DBD is much weaker than that for the DBD jet.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

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    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin was measured and Bradford method showed the lowest variation of absorbance. The concentration of total protein obtained by using Bradford method was not statistically different (p>0.05 from concentration of total protein obtained by the biuret method. But in regard to erythrosin-B and TBPEE methods the concentrations of total protein were statistically different (pA determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo é importante em diversas áreas de pesquisa. Um estudo comparativo entre o método de biureto (método padrão para proteínas totais e diversos métodos que utilizam corantes (Bradford, tetrabromofenolftaleína etil éster-TBPEE, e eritrosina-B foi realizado para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo de ratos. O método de Bradford mostrou a maior sensibilidade para proteínas e o de biureto a menor. Para todos os métodos, as absorbâncias para diferentes proteínas (BSA, caseína, e ovoalbumina foram medidas e o método de Bradford mostrou a menor variação da absorbância. Utilizando o método de Bradford a concentração de proteínas totais obtida não foi estatisticamente diferente (p>0.05 daquela obtida pelo método do biureto. Porém, para os métodos da eritrosina-B e TBPEE as concentrações de proteínas totais foram estatisticamente diferentes (p<0.05 da obtida pelo método de biureto. Portanto o método de Bradford pode ser utilizado no lugar do método de biureto para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo.

  9. Activation of Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: a Prospective Pilot Study

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    Agnese Ozolina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coagulation and fibrinolysis remain sparsely addressed with regards to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We hypothesized that ARDS development might be associated with changes in plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between ARDS diagnosis and plasma concentrations of tissue factor (TF, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in mechanically ventilated patients at increased risk of developing ARDS. Materials and Methods: We performed an ethically approved prospective observational pilot study. Inclusion criteria: patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for mechanical ventilation for 24 hours, or more, because of one or more disease conditions associated with increased risk of developing ARDS. Exclusion criteria: age below 18 years; cardiac disease. We sampled plasma prospectively and compared patients who developed ARDS with those who did not using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis of baseline demographical and clinical data. We also analyzed plasma concentrations of TF, t-PA and PAI-1 at inclusion (T0 and on third (T3 and seventh day (T7 of the ICU stay with non-parametric statistics inclusive their sensitivity and specificity associated with the development of ARDS using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Statistical significance: p < 0.05.Results: Of 24 patients at risk, six developed mild ARDS and four of each moderate or severe ARDS, respectively, 3 ± 2 (Mean ± SD days after inclusion. Median plasma concentrations of TF and PAI-1 were significantly higher at T7 in patients with ARDS, as compared to non-ARDS. Simultaneously, we found moderate correlations between plasma concentrations of TF and PAI-1, TF and PaO2/FiO2 and PEEP and TF. TF plasma concentration was associated with ARDS with 71% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a cut off level of 145 pg/ml and AUC 0

  10. The plasma scalpel: a new thermal knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, J L; Bendick, P J; Link, W J; Plunkett, R J

    1982-01-01

    A new thermal knife, the plasma scalpel, capable of simultaneous division of tissue and coagulation of blood vessels, is described. A high temperature argon gas plasma (unrelated to blood plasma) is created by passing the gas through a direct current arc, ionizing the gas and elevating its temperature to 3000 degrees C. A small plasma cutting jet is formed by a nozzle at the tip of the handpiece. Liver resections and muscle transections performed in a canine model, and full thickness burn excisions in a pig skin model showed effective division of tissue and significantly less blood loss when compared to the steel scalpel. Wound healing studies of histologic comparisons and wound breaking strength were performed for steel, plasma, laser, and electrosurgical scalped incisions in the skin of mice and rats. All thermal knife wounds showed localized tissue damage at the edges of the incision, but the events of healing began at the same time. Compared to the steel scalpel, there was a three to six day delay in the onset of healing, but healing occurred in the normal fashion and all thermal knife wounds reached the same healed breaking strength as the steel scalpel wounds. Clinically, the plasma scalped has been used for 138 procedures in 96 patients. The majority of cases have been transection of muscle, hepatic resection or debridement, or soft tissue debridement. Muscle transection data for the plasma scalped compared to the electrosurgical scalpel has shown virtually no blood loss with a shorter time to hemostasis for the plasma scalpel. The plasma scalpel has proved to be an effective thermal knife, capable of simultaneous division and coagulation. Further development work and proof of its efficacy in the clinical setting are necessary to establish the plasma scalpel and adequately demonstrate its proper role in surgery.

  11. Depinning as a coagulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşeri, M.; Kaspar, D.; Mungan, M.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a one-dimensional model that describes the depinning of an elastic string of particles in a strongly pinning, phase-disordered periodic environment under a slowly increasing force. The evolution towards depinning occurs by the triggering of avalanches in regions of activity which are at first isolated, but later grow and merge. For large system sizes the dynamically critical behavior is dominated by the coagulation of these active regions. Our analysis and numerical simulations show that the evolution of the sizes of active regions is well described by a Smoluchowski coagulation equation, allowing us to predict correlation lengths and avalanche sizes in terms of certain moments of the size distribution.

  12. Comparing Particle-in-Cell QED Models for High-Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Scott V.; Labun, Lance A.; Hegelich, Björn Manuel

    2016-10-01

    High-intensity lasers, such as the Texas Petawatt, are pushing into new regimes of laser-matter interaction, requiring continuing improvement and inclusion of new physics effects in computer simulations. Experiments at the Texas Petawatt are reaching intensity regimes where new physics-quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections to otherwise classical plasma dynamics-becomes important. We have two particle-in-cell (PIC) codes with different QED implementations. We review the theory of photon emission in QED-strong fields, and cover the differing PIC implementations. We show predictions from the two codes and compare with ongoing experiments. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's PULSE program (12-63-PULSE-FP014) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0045). HPC resources provided by TACC.

  13. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

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    Q. Imran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO42, aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO42, calcium carbonate (CaCO3, sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7. The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The quantity of various pollutants present in waste water was reduced after treatment. The optimized dose and pH for maximum decrease in EC and TDS were 5g/L and 7, respectively. The maximum reduction in the amount of sulphates and chlorides present in tannery wastewater was observed at dosage of 0.5g/L and pH 7. A dosage of 5g/L and pH 7 was also found most favorable for maximum reduction in values of COD, phenolphtalein and total alkalinity. The chromium concentrations in tannery wastewater before and after treatment were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A reduction in chromium concentration was observed after treatment. The promising results of the present study demonstrate that immobilization of chemical coagulants can make them more effective for wastewater treatment.

  14. In-depth characterization of viral isolates from plasma and cells compared with plasma circulating quasispecies in early HIV-1 infection.

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    Judith Dalmau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of in vitro models to unravel the phenotypic characteristics of circulating viral variants is key to understanding HIV-1 pathogenesis but limited by the availability of primary viral isolates from biological samples. However, overall in vivo genetic variability of HIV-1 within a subject may not be reflected in the viable viral population obtained after isolation. Although several studies have tried to determine whether viral populations expanded in vitro are representative of in vivo findings, the answer remains unclear due to the reduced number of clonal sequences analyzed or samples compared. In order to overcome previous experimental limitations, here we applied Deep Pyrosequencing (DPS technology in combination with phenotypic experiments to analyze and compare with unprecedented detail the composition of viral isolates and in vivo quasispecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We amplified by DPS HIV-1 genomic regions covering gag, protease, integrase and env-V3 to characterize paired isolates from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and compare them with total plasma viral RNA in four recently HIV-1 infected subjects. Our study demonstrated the presence of unique haplotypes scattered between sample types with conservation of major variants. In addition, no differences in intra- and inter-population encoded protein variability were found between the different types of isolates or when these were compared to plasma viral RNA within subjects. Additionally, in vitro experiments demonstrated phenotypic similarities in terms of replicative capacity and co-receptor usage between viral isolates and plasma viral RNA. CONCLUSION: This study is the first in-depth comparison and characterization of viral isolates from different sources and plasma circulating quasispecies using DPS in recently HIV-1 infected subjects. Our data supports the use of primary isolates regardless of their plasma or cellular origin to define

  15. Determination of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban by ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and coagulation assays for therapy monitoring of novel direct oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, E M H; Boonen, K; van den Heuvel, D J A; van Dongen, J L J; Schellings, M W M; Emmen, J M A; van der Graaf, F; Brunsveld, L; van de Kerkhof, D

    2014-10-01

    Three novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have recently been registered by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency Commission: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. To quantify DOACs in plasma, various dedicated coagulation assays have been developed. To develop and validate a reference ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method and to evaluate the analytical performance of several coagulation assays for quantification of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was validated by determination of precision, accuracy, specificity, matrix effects, lower limits of detection, carry-over, recovery, stability, and robustness. The following coagulation assays were evaluated for accuracy and precision: laboratory-developed (LD) diluted thrombin time (dTT), Hemoclot dTT, Pefakit PiCT, ECA, Liquid anti-Xa, Biophen Heparin (LRT), and Biophen DiXal anti-Xa. Agreement between the various coagulation assays and UPLC-MS/MS was determined with random samples from patients using dabigatran or rivaroxaban. The UPLC-MS/MS method was shown to be accurate, precise, sensitive, stable, and robust. The dabigatran coagulation assay showing the best precision, accuracy and agreement with the UPLC-MS/MS method was the LD dTT test. For rivaroxaban, the anti-factor Xa assays were superior to the PiCT-Xa assay with regard to precision, accuracy, and agreement with the reference method. For apixaban, the Liquid anti-Xa assay was superior to the PiCT-Xa assay. Statistically significant differences were observed between the various coagulation assays as compared with the UPLC-MS/MS reference method. It is currently unknown whether these differences are clinically relevant. When DOACs are quantified with coagulation assays, comparison with a reference method as part of proficiency testing is therefore pivotal. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Effects of hemoperfusion adsorption and/or plasma exchange in treatment of severe viral hepatitis:A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-Hai He; Ying-Jie Wang; Ze-Wen Wang; Jun Liu; Jia-Jia Li; Guo-Dong Liu; Yu-Ming Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Non-bioartificial liver has been applied to clinic for quite a long time, but the reported efficacy has been very different. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of hemoperfusion adsorption, plasma exchange and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption in treatment of severe viral hepatitis.METHODS: Seventy-five patients with severe viral hepatitis were treated with hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (24cases), plasma exchange therapy (17 cases) and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (34 cases).The data of liver function, renal function, blood routine test,prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin activity (PTa) preand post-therapy were analyzed.RESULTS: Clinical symptoms of patients improved after treatment. The levels of aminotransferase, total bilirubin,direct bilirubin decreased significantly after 3 therapies (P<0.05 or P<0.01). PT, the level of total serum protein decreased significantly and PTa increased significantly after plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The side effects were few and mild in all patients.CONCLUSION: Three therapies were effective in the treatment of severe viral hepatitis. Plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy are better than hemoperfusion adsorption therapy.

  17. Effects of hemoperfusion adsorption and/or plasma exchange in treatment of severe viral hepatitis: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nian-Hai; Wang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ze-Wen; Liu, Jun; Li, Jia-Jia; Liu, Guo-Dong; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Non-bioartificial liver has been applied to clinic for quite a long time, but the reported efficacy has been very different. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of hemoperfusion adsorption, plasma exchange and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption in treatment of severe viral hepatitis. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with severe viral hepatitis were treated with hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (24 cases), plasma exchange therapy (17 cases) and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (34 cases). The data of liver function, renal function, blood routine test, prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin activity (PTa) pre-and post-therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical symptoms of patients improved after treatment. The levels of aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin decreased significantly after 3 therapies (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). PT, the level of total serum protein decreased significantly and PTa increased significantly after plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The side effects were few and mild in all patients. CONCLUSION: Three therapies were effective in the treatment of severe viral hepatitis. Plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy are better than hemoperfusion adsorption therapy. PMID:15069730

  18. Simple and rapid methods for purification and characterization of active coagulants from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marobhe, N J; Dalhammar, G; Gunaratna, K R

    2007-06-01

    The coagulating properties of aqueous crude extracts and purified proteins of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata seeds, which are traditional water coagulants in rural areas of Tanzania, were studied. The coagulation activity assays were done using one millilitre (ml) of kaolin water samples. Coagulating proteins were purified in two-step ion exchange chromatography. The properties of coagulant protein were compared with Moringa oleifera. Coagulating components eluted by 0.6 M NaCl in both coagulants are cationic proteins that have the molecular mass of about 6 kDa, which is very similar to that of M. oleifera. The proteins of V. unguiculata and P. aculeata eluted by 0.3 M NaCl also harbour coagulation activity but proteins eluted with 0.6 M NaCl have higher activity. The dosage for coagulation using purified proteins of both coagulants is about 5 to 10 times lower than that of crude seed extracts. The optimum floc settling time of water treated by crude seed extracts and purified proteins ranged between two and two and half hours. Coagulating proteins of both coagulants eluted by 0.6 M NaCl are thermoresistant and retained coagulation activity of 87% to 92% after boiling for two hours at 80 degrees C and one hour at 95 degrees C. Thermotolerant proteins of V. unguiculata eluted by 0.6 M NaCl and P. aculeata have wider pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 for coagulation activity than those of M. oleifera proteins. The present investigation reveals the possibility of using purified natural coagulants for water treatment to produce safe drinking water.

  19. A Novel Role for Pro-Coagulant Microvesicles in the Early Host Defense against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmcke, Sonja; Westman, Johannes; Malmström, Johan; Mörgelin, Matthias; Olin, Anders I.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Herwald, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulation of whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells with bacterial virulence factors results in the sequestration of pro-coagulant microvesicles (MVs). These particles explore their clotting activity via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of coagulation; however, their pathophysiological role in infectious diseases remains enigmatic. Here we describe that the interaction of pro-coagulant MVs with bacteria of the species Streptococcus pyogenes is part of the early immune response to the invading pathogen. As shown by negative staining electron microscopy and clotting assays, pro-coagulant MVs bind in the presence of plasma to the bacterial surface. Fibrinogen was identified as a linker that, through binding to the M1 protein of S. pyogenes, allows the opsonization of the bacteria by MVs. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a strong interaction between pro-coagulant MVs and fibrinogen with a KD value in the nanomolar range. When performing a mass-spectrometry-based strategy to determine the protein quantity, a significant up-regulation of the fibrinogen-binding integrins CD18 and CD11b on pro-coagulant MVs was recorded. Finally we show that plasma clots induced by pro-coagulant MVs are able to prevent bacterial dissemination and possess antimicrobial activity. These findings were confirmed by in vivo experiments, as local treatment with pro-coagulant MVs dampens bacterial spreading to other organs and improved survival in an invasive streptococcal mouse model of infection. Taken together, our data implicate that pro-coagulant MVs play an important role in the early response of the innate immune system in infectious diseases. PMID:23935504

  20. 支气管镜介导下氩气刀与氩气刀联合冷冻技术治疗气道狭窄的对照研究%Prospective study of argon plasma coagulation(APC)and cryotherapy combined with APC under bronchoscopy for airway stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程剑剑; 陈献亮; 张文平; 齐咏; 刘红梅; 马芸

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation(APC)with cryotherapy combined with APC under flexible bronchoscopy to treat airway stenosis.Methods Patients with inoperable airway stenosis which are suitable for APC treatment are assigned to APC group or APC combined with cryotherapy group randomly.Then,evaluate the effect of the two different therapy by bronchoscopy.Results Fourteen of the total 40 patients have to undergo other therapy such as implanting stents and/or brachytherapy because of their special conditions,6 of them belonging to APC group,8 of them belonging to APC combined with cryotherapy group.Forty patients underwent 127 times of bronchoscopy.No differences in efficacy and safety were discovered between the two groups(P=0.173).Conclusions APC and cryotherapy combined with APC under bronchoscopy for airway stenosis were clinically safe and effective.%目的 评价支气管镜介导下使用氩气刀与联合使用氩气刀及冷冻技术治疗气道狭窄,对比其有效性和安全性.方法 选择2008年7月至2010年4月门诊及住院治疗的气道狭窄患者,根据病因及气道内的镜下表现,判断具有支气管镜介导下氩气刀治疗指征的患者,随机进入氩气刀治疗组或氩气刀联合冷冻治疗组.追踪复查支气管镜,评价疗效.结果 14例患者根据病情需要另外联合支架置入和/或后装放疗,其中6例属氩气刀治疗组,氩气刀联合冷冻治疗组8例.40例患者共进行127次气管镜检查治疗.两组患者疗效相比差异无统计学意义(P=0.173),均未出现并发症.结论 气管镜介导下使用氩气刀与联合使用氩气刀及冷冻技术治疗气道狭窄,均能达到满意的临床疗效,安全可靠.

  1. Clinical effect of co-infusion of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate on blood coagulation function in patients with postpartum hemorrhage%新鲜冰冻血浆联合冷沉淀输注对产后大出血患者凝血功能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涌泉; 王厚照; 吕小英; 张毓

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of co-infusion of fresh frozen plasma(FFP) and cryoprecipitate(Cryo) to raise the levels of fibrinogen(Fbg)and fibronectin(Fn)in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. Methods: Patients with postpartum hemorrhage were randomly divided into three groups , Group A: FFP and Cryo co-infusion group( n=25), Group B:FFP infusion group( n=23), Group C:Cryo infusion group( n=24). The levels of Fbg and Fn were determined 1 hour before infusion and 3-12 hours after infusion. Results: Compared to the FFP infusion group and Cryo infusion group, the levels of Fbg and Fn of FFP and Cryo co-infusion group were both significantly higher with the changes containing statistical significance. Conclusion: FFP and Cryo co-infusion could significantly raise the levels of Fbg and Fn in patients with postpartum hemorrhage, which could improve their coagulation functions and promote their hemostatic functions.%目的:观察新鲜冰冻血浆(FFP)和冷沉淀(Cryo)联合输注提升产后大出血患者血液中纤维蛋白原(Fbg)和纤维结合蛋白(Fn)水平的临床效果。方法:72例产后大出血患者分为3组, A 组:FFP 联合 Cryo 输注组(共25例),B 组:FFP 输注组(共23例),C 组:Cryo 输注组(共24例)。输注前1h 和输注后3~12h 测定血液中 Fbg 和 Fn 含量。结果:与 FFP 输注组和 Cryo 输注组相比,FFP 联合 Cryo 输注组输注后 Fbg 和 Fn 含量均明显上升,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:FFP 和 Cryo 联合输注比单独输注 FFP 或 Cryo 更能有效提升患者血液中 Fbg 和 Fn 含量,改善大出血产妇凝血功能状况和促进止血。

  2. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or...

  3. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-05-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10-6%), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon-acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  4. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jin, Pengkang; Hou, Rui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2017-04-05

    A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1mgO3/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O3-resistant hydroxyl radical (OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Shock-Tube Study of Autoignition and Plasma-Assisted Ignition of C2-Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, Ilya; Kindysheva, Svetlana; Plastinin, Eugeny; Aleksandrov, Nikolay; Starikovskiy, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of pulsed picosecond and nanosecond discharge development in liquid water, ethanol and hexane Using a shock tube with a discharge cell, ignition delay time was measured in a lean (φ = 0.5) C2H6:O2:Ar mixture and in lean (φ = 0.5) and stoichiometric C2H4:O2:Ar mixtures with a high-voltage nanosecond discharge and without it. The measured results were compared with the measurements made previously with the same setup for C2H6-, C2H5OH- and C2H2-containing mixtures. It was shown that the effect of plasma on ignition is almost the same for C2H6, C2H4 and C2H5OH. The reduction in time is smaller for C2H2, the fuel that is well ignited even without the discharge. Autoignition delay time was independent of the stoichiometric ratio for C2H6 and C2H4, whereas this time in stoichiometric C2H2- and C2H5OH-containing mixtures was noticeably shorter than that in the lean mixtures. Ignition after the discharge was not affected by a change in the stoichiometric ratio for C2H2 and C2H4, whereas the plasma-assisted ignition delay time for C2H6 and C2H5OH decreased as the equivalence ratio changed from 1 to 0.5. Ignition delay time was calculated in C2-hydrocarbon-containing mixtures under study by simulating separately discharge and ignition processes. Good agreement was obtained between new measurements and calculated ignition delay times.

  6. Coagulation Factor IX concentrate: method of preparation and assessment of potential in vivo thrombogenicity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menache, D; Behre, H E; Orthner, C L; Nunez, H; Anderson, H D; Triantaphyllopoulos, D C; Kosow, D P

    1984-12-01

    Thrombosis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are complications specifically associated with the use of factor IX complex in some patients. Assuming that these complications might result from zymogen overload, we have produced, using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephadex (Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ) and sulfated dextran chromatography, a factor IX concentrate (coagulation factor IX) that is essentially free of prothrombin, factor VII, and factor X. Factor IX specific activity is at least 5 U/mg protein, a 250-fold purification compared to plasma. Amounts of factors II, VII, and X are less than 5 units each per 100 units of factor IX. The concentrate is essentially free of activated clotting factors and contains no added heparin. In the rabbit stasis model, a dose of 200 factor IX U/kg was less thrombogenic than 100 factor IX U/kg of the DEAE-Sephadex eluate from which the concentrate was derived. Infusion of 200 factor IX U/kg did not induce DIC in the nonstasis rabbit model, whereas 100 factor IX U/kg of the DEAE-Sephadex eluate resulted in DIC in this model. Several factor IX lots were found to have shortened nonactivated partial thromboplastin times (PTTs), but were nonthrombogenic in both animal models. These data indicate that coagulation factor IX concentrate is less thrombogenic than factor IX complex.

  7. A Comparative Study of Hydrophilic Modification of Polypropylene Membranes by Remote and Direct Ar Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suzhen; CHENG Cheng; LAN Yan; MENG Yuedong

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by argon (Ar) plasma-induced graft polymerization with hydrophilic monomer [acrylic acid (AA) in this work]was investigated.It was found that both the distance of the membrane from the Ar plasma center and the plasma power had a strong influence on the surface modification,hydrophilicity and graft yield (GY) of the treated membrane.Results suggest that remote plasma treatment with a proper sample position,plasma power and graft polymerization leads to a membrane surface with not only less damage,but also more permanent hydrophilicity,than direct plasma treatment does.By analyzing the morphology and the chemical composition of the membrane surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),as well as Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) respectively,a possible mechanism was tentatively revealed.

  8. Comparative research of plasma-assisted milling and traditional milling in synthesizing AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Wenchun; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Dezheng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, traditional milling and discharge plasma-assisted milling are employed to synthesize aluminum nitride (AlN) powder at nanometer scale by milling the mixture of aluminum and lithium hydroxide monohydrate. AlN powders can be generated in traditional milling and plasma-assisted milling in an hour milling time. Differential thermal analysis curves show that the reaction temperature of the powders treated by plasma-assisted milling is lower than that of traditional milling. These results indicate that plasma-assisted milling has higher efficiency in the synthesis of AlN, getting smaller crystallite size and activating powder. Moreover, an optical emission spectrum is employed to demonstrate the active species in plasma. The different formation process of AlN in the two-milling process, and the promotion effects of plasma in the milling process are discussed.

  9. Comparative study of structural and optical properties of pulsed and RF plasma polymerized aniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, Tapan; Pal, Arup R., E-mail: arpal@iasst.gov.in; Chutia, Joyanti

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pulse DC and RF plasma is used for synthesis of conducting polymer films. • Conjugated structure retention is better at optimum powers in both the processes. • Conjugated structure retention is better in case of RF plasma prepared films. • Band gap is lower in case of RF plasma prepared films at higher power. • Defect in pulse plasma prepared film is less than RF plasma prepared thin films. - Abstract: Plasma polymerization of aniline is carried out by means of continuous RF and pulsed DC glow discharge plasma in a common reactor at different applied powers. The discharge control variables are optimized for good quality film growth and the role of fragmentation of the molecular structure on the structural, optical, morphological and optophysical properties of the deposited plasma polymerized aniline (PPAni) layers is investigated. Retention of the conjugated structure is found to be prominent at optimum applied power to the plasma in both the continuous RF and pulsed DC polymerization techniques. Improvement in conjugated structure and chain length have been observed in both the continuous RF and pulse DC PPAni thin films with the increase in applied power to the plasma up to a certain limit of applied power when working pressure is fixed at 0.15 mbar. A decrease in optical bandgap with the increase in applied power to the plasma is observed in both the pulsed DC and RF PPAni thin films, but it is more significant in case of RF PPAni films. The plasma polymerized aniline thin films are found to emit photoluminescence due to band to band transition and defects generated in the structure.

  10. Comparing plasma and X-ray exposure and identifying vulnerable cell parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bill

    2012-10-01

    Here two issues in plasma medicine that are being addressed in a collaboration between the Centre of Plasma Physics and the School of Pharmacy at Queen's University Belfast and the Plasma Institute at York University UK will be discussed. Recent measurements of the interaction of plasmas created directly in DMEM cell medium and MDAMB-231, a human breast cancer cell line, showed evidence of reduced cell viability and of DNA damage. The same set of experiments were undertaken but with X-ray exposure. A correlation of the dependence on plasma exposure time and X-ray dose was observed which might point the way to dose definition in plasma medicine. We have also been working to identify the cell parts most vulnerable to plasma exposure. In this study a 10 kHz atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet, operating in He/0.5%O2 and characterized to determine the behavior of many of the plasma species, was incident onto the surface of media containing either bacterial strains, in their planktonic and biofilm forms, or isolated bacterial plasmid DNA. The results of measurements to look for changes in plasmid structural conformation, rates of single and double strand breaks, the catalytic activity of certain bacterial enzymes, the peroxidation of lipid content of the bacterial cells, the leakage of ATP and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images will be discussed.

  11. 早发型重度子痫前期合并器官功能障碍患者可溶性内皮抑素、内皮素-1与凝血功能的变化及意义%Serum soluble Endoglin, plasma endothelin-1 and coagulation function in early onset severe preeclampsia with organ dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 韩玉环; 韩玉植

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression levels of serum soluble Endoglin (sEng), plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and coagulation function in patients suffering from early onset severe preeclampsia with organ dysfunction, and to analyze the clinical significance. Methods Forty-nine early onset severe preeclampsia patients were enrolled in the study group, including 26 cases without organ dysfunction (study group Ⅰ) and 23 cases with organ dysfunction (study group Ⅱ). The control group included 30 cases of health pregnant women during the same period of gestation. The serum levels of sEng and plasma ET-1 were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), coagulation function was determined at the same time, and the relationship between the change in levels of sEng, ET-1, coagulation function and organ function, and also outcome of perinatal infants. Results ① The levels of sEng, ET-1, fibrinogen (Fib) and mean platelet volume (MPV) of the study group Ⅰ and I were significantly higher compared with control group (sEng,μg/L:10.96±3.21, 14.17±4.02vs. 7.49±2.73; ET-1, μg/L: 41.54 ± 10. 37, 65.91± 12.46vs. 24.56±6.26; Fib, g/L:4.41±1.02,5.35±1.17vs. 3.69±0.82; MPV, fl:11. 71± 1.21, 13.89±1.76vs. 11.03±0.82, all P< 0.05), and prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and platelet (PLT) were significantly lower compared with control group (PT, s:10.73±1.82, 8.37±1.51vs. 12.95±1.91; APTT, s:26.14±4.32, 22.69±3.77vs. 30.25±4.71; PLT,×109/L; 164.17±50.67, 136.43±51.21vs. 201.63±59.83, all P<0.05). There were also statistical significances in all the values between study group Ⅰ and I (all P<0.05). ②There was positive correlation between the sEng level and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, Fib, urine protein of 24 hours, serum creatinine (SCr); there was negative correlation between the sEng level and albumin (Alb) content, PT, estriol/creatinine (E/C) of 12-hour urine, fetal birth weight (all P

  12. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  13. Using chloramine as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation of Yellow River water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Considering that contaminated raw water mostly contains high Ammonia-N and a majority of water treatment plants use prechlorination process in China, efficiency of chloramines as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation was investigated by Jar stirring and pilot-scale tests, using Yellow River water containing high concentration of natural organic matters (NOM) and bromide in winter. The jar tests results showed that, compared with no preoxidation, preformed chloramine apparently decreased the turbidity of settled and filtered water with low dosage (2.0 mg/L), and the aid-coagulation efficiency was further enhanced with the increase of chlorine (Cl2) to Ammonia-N (N) ratio. Pilot-scale studies indicated that, in comparison to the case without preoxidation, the turbidity removal efficiency of flotation and filtration effluent water was significantly improved, the particle counts of filtered water were decreased 63.4%, the average rate of filter head loss was reduced 18.2%, and filter run time was prolonged 15.7%. Therefore, chloramine preoxidation may substantially enhance the particle separation efficiency.

  14. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  15. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  16. Comparative analysis of the processing accuracy of high strength metal sheets by AWJ, laser and plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, M. C.; Schnakovszky, C.; Herghelegiu, E.; Tampu, N. C.; Zichil, V.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental tests were carried out on two high-strength steel materials (Ramor 400 and Ramor 550). Quantification of the dimensional accuracy was achieved by measuring the deviations from some geometric parameters of part (two lengths and two radii). It was found that in case of Ramor 400 steel, at the jet inlet, the deviations from the part radii are quite small for all the three analysed processes. Instead for the linear dimensions, the deviations are small only in case of laser cutting. At the jet outlet, the deviations raised in small amount compared to those obtained at the jet inlet for both materials as well as for all the three processes. Related to Ramor 550 steel, at the jet inlet the deviations from the part radii are very small in case of AWJ and laser cutting but larger in case of plasma cutting. At the jet outlet, the deviations from the part radii are very small for all processes; in case of linear dimensions, there was obtained very small deviations only in the case of laser processing, the other two processes leading to very large deviations.

  17. Turbulence in Collisionless Space Plasmas: a Comparative Study Between the Solar Wind and the Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, F.; Huang, S.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies of kinetic scales solar wind turbulence have revealed new features of the processes of energy cascade and dissipation at electron scales. However, several instrumental limitations have been found and shown to prevent one from deducing firm conclusions about the nature of the turbulence (e.g., scaling, anisotropy) at those scales. These limitations stem in particular from the low SNR (Signal-to-Noise-Ratio) in the solar wind due to the small amplitude of the electric and magnetic field fluctuations. To overcome this difficulty, we study the turbulence in the terrestrial magnetosheath (i.e., the region of the solar wind that is downstream of the Earth's bow shock), where the turbulent fluctuations become enhanced, which yields a higher SNR. We have performed a statistical study using the Cluster wave data (1Hzcompare to recent published work in the solar wind and to existing theoretical predictions. We discuss the implications of the results on physical mechanisms and on the theoretical modeling of energy dissipation in collisionless plasmas.

  18. Comparison of coagulation pretreatment of produced water from natural gas well by polyaluminium chloride and polyferric sulphate coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun; Huang, Zejin; Rahaman, Md Hasibur; Li, Yue; Mei, Longyue; Ma, Hongpu; Hu, Xuebin; Xiao, Haiwen; Luo, Zhiyong; Wang, Kunping

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to optimise coagulation pretreatment of the produced water (PW) collected from a natural gas field. Two coagulants, polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl), were applied separately for the organics, suspended solids (SS), and colour removal. Treatment performance at different coagulant dosages, initial pH values, stirring patterns, and the addition of cationic polyacrylamide (PAM) was investigated in jar tests. The optimal coagulation conditions were dosage of PACl 25 g/L or PFS 20 g/L with that of PAM 30 mg/L, initial pH of 11, and fast mixing of 1.5 min (for PACl) or 2 min (for PFS) at 250 rpm followed by slow mixing of 15 min at 50 rpm for both coagulants. PACl performed better than PFS to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), SS, and colour, and achieved a removal efficiency of 90.1%, 89.4%, 99.0%, and 99.9%, respectively, under the optimal condition; while PFS efficiency was 86.1%, 86.1%, 99.0%, and 98.2%, respectively. However, oil removal was higher in PFS coagulation compared to PACl and showed 98.9% and 95.3%, respectively. Biodegradability, ratio of the biological oxygen demand (five-day) (BOD5)/COD, of the PW after pretreatment increased from 0.08 to 0.32 for PFS and 0.43 for PACl. Zeta potential (Z-potential) analysis at the optimum coagulant dosage of PACl and PFS suggests that charge neutralisation was the predominant mechanism during coagulation. Better efficiency was observed at higher pH. The addition of PAM and starring pattern had a minor influence on the removal performance of both coagulants. The results suggest that PACl or PFS can be applied for the pretreatment of PW, which can provide substantial removal of carbon, oil, and colour, a necessary first step for subsequent main treatment units such as chemical oxidation or biological treatment.

  19. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Voort Danielle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of the risk of atherothrombotic complications. We distinguish two phases in atherosclerosis: In the first phase, atherosclerosis develops under influence of "classical" risk factors, i.e. both genetic and acquired forces. While fibrinogen/fibrin molecules participate in early plaque lesions, increased activity of systemic coagulation is of no major influence on the risk of arterial thrombosis, except in rare cases where a number of specific procoagulant forces collide. Despite the presence of tissue factor – factor VII complex it is unlikely that all fibrin in the atherosclerotic plaque is the direct result from local clotting activity. The dominant effect of coagulation in this phase is anticoagulant, i.e. thrombin enhances protein C activation through its binding to endothelial thrombomodulin. The second phase is characterized by advancing atherosclerosis, with greater impact of inflammation as indicated by an elevated level of plasma C-reactive protein, the result of increased production influenced by interleukin-6. Inflammation overwhelms protective anticoagulant forces, which in itself may have become less efficient due to down regulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR expression. In this phase, the inflammatory drive leads to recurrent induction of tissue factor and assembly of catalytic complexes on aggregated cells and on microparticles, maintaining a certain level of thrombin production and fibrin formation. In advanced

  20. Effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and blood coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Wang; Wei-Xin Yang; Xiu-Hua Zhang; Xian Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery.Methods:A total of 80 cases of hip joint replacement were divided into two groups according to the random number table method, 40 cases in each group. Patients in two groups were conducted with regular hip replacement, postoperative conventional symptomatic treatment. Based on it, patients of the observation group started to get the safflower yellow pigment and sodium chloride injection in the first week after operation, intravenous injection. A total of 3 weeks of treatment. blood rheological index were compared including plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity, red blood cell hematocrit and blood coagulation indexes: prothrombin time (PT), activation activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-Dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FIB) between the two groups postoperative 1 week, postoperative 2 weeks and postoperative 4 weeks.Results:The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in control group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly higher than that of preoperative 1 week; while red blood cell volume, PT, APTT, TT, Fib were significantly lower than preoperative 1 week (P0.05). The PT, APTT in observation group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week, and the TT in observation group postoperative 4 week was significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week (P<0.05); The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in observation group were significantly lower, while the PT, APTT, TT, Fib in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group in the same time point (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hip replacement will cause the change of blood rheology in

  1. [Algae-removal effect of AS/PDM composite coagulants to winter Taihu Lake raw water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Ling-Ling

    2009-04-15

    The series of stable AS/PDM composite coagulants prepared by polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDM) and aluminium sulphate (AS) were used to research the algae-removal effect to winter Taihu Lake raw water. The effects of dosage of composite coagulants, composite mass ratios (20:1-5:1) of AS and PDM, intrinsic viscosity values (0.55-3.99 dL/g) of PDM on algae-removal rates were studied through coagulation and algae-removal experiments. The feasibility of using composite coagulants to substitute prechlorination process was analysed. The results show that when residual turbidity of 2 NTU to water after coagulation and sediment is required by water plant, the dosage (based on Al2O3) of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 4.24 mg/L, 3.96-1.87 mg/L, and the algae-removal rates are 83.00%, 87.52%-90.93% respectively. When dosage to raw water are 4.24 mg/L, the algae-removal rates of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 83.00%, 88.29%-97.66%, and the residual turbidities are 2.00 NTU, 1.76-0.43 NTU respectively. When dosage to chlorine-added water are 4.50 mg/L, the treatment effect of AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS to chlorine-added water, and the treatment effect of AS/PDM (3.99/5:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1) and AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulants to chlorine-added water. So using AS/PDM composite coagulants can enhance evidently the treatment effect of AS to winter Taihu Lake raw water. Compared with using AS solely, the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are saved when the residual turbidities are required in same level, and the treatment effect of AS is enhanced when the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are same as that of using AS solely. Moreover, using composite coagulants can replace the part chlorine-added function on increasing coagulation and algae-removal in prechlorination process and profitably increases

  2. Turbulence in magnetized plasmas and financial markets: comparative study of multifractal statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, V. P.

    2004-12-01

    The turbulence in magnetized plasma and financial data of Russian market have been studied in terms of the multifractal formalism revisited with wavelets. The multifractal formalism based on wavelet calculations allows one to study the scaling properties of turbulent fluctuations. It is observed that both plasma edge turbulence in fusion devices and Russian financial markets demonstrate multifractal statistics, i.e., the scaling behaviour of absolute moments is described by a convex function. Multifractality parameter defined in multiplicative cacade model, seems to be of the same magnitude for the plasma and financial time series considered in this paper.

  3. A comparative evaluation of plasma glycerol and free fatty acids in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh V

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma glycerol concentration was determined in 158 patients admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain. The patients were retrospectively divided into five groups according to their diagnosis, taking into account the presence or absence of myocardial infarc-tion and complicating arrythmias, The plasma glycerol concentra-tion was significantly higher in the group with complicating arrhythmias, irrespective of whether infarction was present or not. Therefore it is proposed that elevation of plasma glycerol may provide an important clue to determine those myocardial ischaemia cases who may develop cardiac arrythmias at a later stage.

  4. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated intravenous coagulation, which will provide experiment evidences for early intervention and medication.

  5. A comparative study of the plasma level of arginase and rhodanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    rhodanese in the blood plasma of cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The activity of ... index enzyme in cancer therapy (Jamshidzadeh et al.,. 2001; Singh .... cancerous tissues of human breast, oesophagus, stomach and lung. Arc. Ira. Med.

  6. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration.

  7. Pre-treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits systemic intravascular coagulation and attenuates organ dysfunction in lipopolysaccharide-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Biao; WU Shu-ming; WANG Tao; LIU Kai; ZHANG Gong; ZHANG Xi-quan; YU Jian-hua; LIU Chuan-zhen; FANG Chang-cun

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can activate immunological cells to secrete various proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathophysiological process of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during infection.In recent years,it has been found that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can affect the activity of these immune cells and regulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.Here,we report the possible protective effect of BMSCs pre-treatment in LPS-induced DIC rat model and the mechanism.Methods Forty-eight adult male rats were divided into five experimental groups and one control group with eight animals in each group.In the treatment groups,0,1×106,2×106,3×106,and 5×106 of BMSCs were injected intravenously for 3 days before LPS injection,while the control group was treated with pure cell culture medium injection.Then,the LPS (3 mg/kg) was injected via the tail vein in the treatment groups,while the control group received 0.9% NaCl.Blood was withdrawn before and 4 and 8 hours after LPS administration.The following parameters were monitored:platelets (PLT),fibrinogen (Fib),D-dimer (D-D),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),prothrombin time (PT),tumor necrosis factor-o (TNF-α),interferon-γ (IFN-γ),interleukin-1β (IL-1β),creatinine (Cr),alanine aminotransferase (ALT),creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB),and endothelin (ET).Results Compared with the control group,a significant change of coagulation parameters were found in the experimental groups.The plasma level of the inflammatory mediator (TNF-α,IFN-γ,IL-1β),organ indicator (Cr,ALT,and CK-MB),and ET in the experimental groups were much lower (P <0.05) than that in the control group.Furthermore,some of these effects were dose-dependent; the statistical comparison of the plasma levels between the groups (from group 2 to group 5) showed a significant difference (P<0.05),except the ALT and CK-MB levels (P>0.05).Conclusion Pre-treatment with BMSCs can

  8. Relationship of coagulation test abnormalities to tumour burden and postoperative DVT in resected colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, L H; Thorlacius-Ussing, O

    2002-03-01

    In a prospective study, coagulation test results were compared in 137 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 39 subjects with benign colorectal diseases. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), and soluble fibrin (SF) were measured in plasma before and after surgery. CRC patients presented with significantly higher values of F1+2 and TAT than controls. Patients with localised CRC had elevated values of F1+2 and TAT, whereas patients with advanced CRC also had elevated SF values. TAT and SF levels correlated with tumour spread, and normal values virtually excluded advanced cancer. Postoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was diagnosed by phlebography in 20% of the CRC patients. Preoperative values of the markers did not predict postoperative DVT, but postoperative values did.

  9. Effect of fibrinogen on blood coagulation detected by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Teng, Xiangshuai

    2015-05-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique and the parameter 1/e light penetration depth (d1/e) were able to characterize the whole blood coagulation process in contrast to existing optical tests that are performed on plasma samples. To evaluate the feasibility of the technique for quantifying the effect of fibrinogen (Fbg) on blood coagulation, a dynamic study of d1/e of blood in various Fbg concentrations was performed in static state. Two groups of blood samples of hematocrit (HCT) in 35, 45, and 55% were reconstituted of red blood cells with: 1) treated plasma with its intrinsic Fbg removed and commercial Fbg added (0-8 g L-1) and 2) native plasma with commercial Fbg added (0-8 g L-1). The results revealed a typical behavior due to coagulation induced by calcium ions and the clotting time is Fbg concentration-dependent. The clotting time was decreased by the increasing amount of Fbg in both groups. Besides, the blood of lower HCT with various levels of Fbg took shorter time to coagulate than that of higher HCT. Consequently, the OCT method is a useful and promising tool for the detection of blood-coagulation processes induced with different Fbg levels.

  10. [Indications for fresh frozen plasma: evaluation of virus inactivating preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindur, G; Kiesewetter, H; Seyfert, U T; Wenzel, E

    1993-01-01

    When no specific factor concentrate is available fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) is indicated in the treatment of clinically relevant hemorrhagic diathesis. These disorders include congenital factor V and XI deficiencies, multiple factor defects, as disseminated intravascular coagulation and severe liver disease, and patients receiving massive transfusions, when bleeding occurs and severe abnormalities on coagulation testing are evident. FFP is beneficial when used with plasma exchange in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and related disorders. Various virucidal treatments including solvent-detergent (SD), photoactivated dyes (methylene blue) or pasteurization have been evolved to improve virus safety of human plasma. More extensive studies to demonstrate efficient virus inactivation in plasma have been performed with SD compared to other methods. On the other hand, the use of single-donor FFP in methylene blue treatment is possibly superior to pooled plasma which is processed according to the SD procedure. Pasteurization enables the inactivation not only of lipid-enveloped but also of non-lipid-enveloped viruses. Virucidal treatment of plasma may cause alterations in clotting factors, fibrinolysis and protease inhibitors; however, the currently achieved recovery of procoagulant activities is approximately comparable with that found in untreated FFP. The toxicity of virucidal additives is reported to be negligible since manufacturing includes a removal procedure (SD) or comparably low amounts (methylene blue) are used in inactivation treatment.

  11. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU...

  12. Comparative binding mechanism of lupeol compounds with plasma proteins and its pharmacological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallubai, Monika; Rachamallu, Aparna; Yeggoni, Daniel Pushparaju; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2015-04-01

    Lupeol, a triterpene, possesses beneficial effects like anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Binding of lupeol and its derivative (phytochemicals) to plasma proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a major determinant in the disposition of drugs. Cytotoxic studies with mouse macrophages (RAW 246.7) and HeLa cell lines revealed anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties for both lupeol and lupeol derivative. Both molecules reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS induced macrophages. Further, apoptosis was observed in HeLa cell lines when they were incubated with these molecules for 24 h. The fluorescence quenching of HSA was observed upon titration with different concentrations of lupeol and lupeol derivative; their binding constants were found to be 3 ± 0.01 × 10(4) M(-1) and 6.2 ± 0.02 × 10(4) M(-1), with binding free energies of -6.59 kcal M(-1) and -7.2 kcal M(-1). With AGP, however, the lupeol and lupeol derivative showed binding constants of 0.9 ± 0.02 × 10(3) M(-1) and 2.7 ± 0.01 × 10(3) M(-1), with free energies of -4.6 kcal M(-1) and -5.1 kcal M(-1) respectively. Molecular displacement studies based on competition with site I-binding phenylbutazone (which binds site I of HSA) and ibuprofen (which binds site II) suggest that lupeol binds site II and the lupeol derivative site I. Molecular docking studies also confirmed that lupeol binds to the IIIA and the lupeol derivative to the IIA domain of HSA. Secondary structure changes were observed upon formation of HSA-lupeol/lupeol derivative complexes by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations support greater stability of HSA-lupeol and HSA-lupeol derivative complexes compared to that of HSA alone.

  13. Coagulation parameters and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, A; Yılmaz, H; Temel, Y; Demirpence, M; Simsek, N; Karademirci, İ; Bozkurt, U; Yasar, E

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data about the evaluation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acromegalic patients are very limited and to our knowledge, platelet function analysis has never been investigated. So, we aimed to investigate the levels of protein C, protein S, fibrinogen, antithrombin 3 and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly. Thirty-nine patients with active acromegaly and 35 healthy subjects were included in the study. Plasma glucose and lipid profile, fibrinogen levels, GH and IGF-1 levels and protein C, protein S and antithrombin III activities were measured in all study subjects. Also, platelet function analysis was evaluated with collagen/ADP and collagen-epinephrine-closure times. Demographic characteristics of the patient and the control were similar. As expected, fasting blood glucose levels and serum GH and IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared with the control group (pglc: 0.002, pGH: 0.006, pIGF-1: 0.001, respectively). But lipid parameters were similar between the two groups. While serum fibrinogen and antithrombin III levels were found to be significantly higher in acromegaly group (p fibrinogen: 0.005 and pantithrombin III: 0.001), protein S and protein C activity values were significantly lower in the patient group (p protein S: 0.001, p protein C: 0.001). Also significantly enhanced platelet function (measured by collagen/ADP- and collagen/epinephrine-closure times) was demonstrated in acromegaly (p col-ADP: 0.002, p col-epinephrine: 0.002). The results did not change, when we excluded six patients with type 2 diabetes in the acromegaly group. There was a negative correlation between serum GH levels and protein S (r: -0.25, p: 0.04)) and protein C (r: -0.26, p: 0.04) values. Likewise, there was a negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and protein C values (r: -0.39, p: 0.002), protein S values (r: -0.39, p: 0.001), collagen

  14. Coupling effect of Brownian motion and laminar shear flow on colloid coagulation: a Brownian dynamics simulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sheng-Hua; Sun Zhi-Wei; Li Xu; Jin Tong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous orthokinetic and perikinetic coagulations(SOPCs)are studied for small and large Peclet numbers(Pe)using Brownian dynamics simulation.The results demonstrate that the contributions of the Brownian motion and the shear flow to the overall coagulation rate are basically not additive.At the early stages of coagulation with small Peclet numbers,the ratio of overall coagulation rate to the rate of pure perikinetic coagulation is proportional to Pe1/2,while with high Peclet numbers,the ratio of overall coagulation rate to the rate of pure orthokinetic coagulation is proportional to pe-1/2.Moreover,our results show that the aggregation rate generally changes with time for the SOPC,which is different from that for pure preikinetic and pure orthokinetic coagulations.By comparing the SOPC with pure preikinetic and pure orthokinetic coagulations,we show that the redistribution of particles due to Brownian motion can play a very important role in the SOPC.In addition,the effects of redistribution in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the shear flow direction are different.This perspective explains the behavior of coagulation due to the joint effects of the Brownian motion(perikinetic)and the fluid motion(orthokinetic).

  15. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  16. Plasma glycine and serine levels in schizophrenia compared to normal controls and major depression: relation to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Anil, A Elif; Jin, Dai; Jayathilake, Karu; Lee, Myung; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested decreased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor function may contribute to increased negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, glycine, a co-agonist at NMDA receptors, has been reported to improve negative symptoms associated with the illness. This study was performed to determine if plasma levels of glycine or its ratio to serine, a precursor of glycine, are decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal control subjects or patients with major depression. We also tested the hypothesis that these amino acids were correlated with negative symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. Plasma levels of glycine, serine, and their ratio, were compared in 144 patients with schizophrenia, 44 patients with major depression, and 49 normal control subjects. All subjects were medication-free. Psychopathology was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Plasma glycine levels and glycine/serine ratios were decreased in patients with schizophrenia relative to control subjects and patients with major depression. By contrast, serine levels were increased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal subjects but not compared to major depression. Patients with major depression also had increased plasma serine levels and decreased glycine/serine ratios compared to normal controls, but glycine levels were not different from those of normal controls. In subjects with schizophrenia, glycine levels predicted the Withdrawal-Retardation score (BPRS), whereas no such correlation was found in subjects with major depression. These results provide additional evidence that decreased availability of glycine may be related to the pathophysiology of negative symptoms. The decreases in plasma glycine levels support the evidence for an abnormality in the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia, and provide additional support for efforts to improve negative symptoms by augmentation of

  17. A comparative study of the plasma membrane permeabilization and fluidization induced by antipsychotic drugs in the rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Tetsuhito; Maruoka, Nobuyuki; Omata, Naoto; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Wada, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    We compared the potency of the interaction of three antipsychotic drugs, i.e., chlorpromazine (CPZ), haloperidol (HAL) and sulpiride (SUL), with the plasma membrane in the rat brain. CPZ loading ( 100 M) dose-dependently increased both membrane permeability (assessed as [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate release from brain slices) and membrane fluidity (assessed as the reduction in the plasma membrane anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene). On the other hand, a higher concent...

  18. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  19. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferreira Filho SIDNEY SECKLER; Marchetto MARGARIDA; Alves Laganaro ROSEMEIRE

    2013-01-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water.This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption,combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant.The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests.The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition.Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L,and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L.The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L).Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant,showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process.The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass.For both cases of PAC dosing,upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point,the MIB removal efficiency was similar.However,MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application.This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores.This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation.

  20. [Comparative study on the gas temperature of a plasma jet at atmospheric pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng-Ying; Li, Xue-Chen; Yuan, Ning

    2011-08-01

    A plasma jet of a dielectric barrier discharge in coaxial electrode was used to produce jet plasma in flowing work gas (argon mixed with trace nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure. The relation between the plasma length and the gas flow rate was obtained by taking the images of the jet plasma. A high-resolution optical spectrometer was used to collect the optical emission spectrum. The emission spectra of the first negative band of N(2+) (B2 Sigma(u+)-->Chi2 Sigma(g+), 390-391.6 nm) were used to estimate the rotational temperature of the plasma plume by fitting the experimental spectra to the simulated spectra. The gas temperature was investigated by this optical method and results show that the gas temperature increases with increasing the applied voltage. For comparison, a thermometer was used to measure the temperature of the gas emitted from the jet. The results also show that the gas temperature increases with increasing the applied voltage. The gas temperatures obtained by the two methods are consistent. The difference was analyzed.

  1. Trauma-induced coagulopathy: impact of the early coagulation support protocol on blood product consumption, mortality and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Giuseppe; Agostini, Vanessa; Rondinelli, Beatrice; Russo, Emanuele; Bastianini, Barbara; Bini, Giovanni; Bulgarelli, Simona; Cingolani, Emiliano; Donato, Alessia; Gambale, Giorgio; Ranaldi, Giulia

    2015-03-12

    Hemorrhage is the principal cause of death in the first few hours following severe injury. Coagulopathy is a frequent complication of critical bleeding. A network of Italian trauma centers recently developed a protocol to prevent and treat trauma-induced coagulopathy. A pre-post cohort multicenter study was conducted to assess the impact of the early coagulation support (ECS) protocol on blood products consumption, mortality and treatment costs. We prospectively collected data from all severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15) admitted to two trauma centers in 2013 and compared these findings with the data for 2011. Patients transfused with at least 3 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within 24 hours of an accident were included in the study. In 2011, patients with significant hemorrhaging were treated with early administration of plasma with the aim of achieving a high (≥1:2) plasma-to-PRBC ratio. In 2013, the ECS protocol was the treatment strategy. Outcome data, blood product consumption and treatment costs were compared between the two periods. The two groups were well matched for demographics, injury severity (ISS: 32.9 in 2011 versus 33.6 in 2013) and clinical and laboratory data on admission. In 2013, a 40% overall reduction in PRBCs was observed, together with a 65% reduction in plasma and a 52% reduction in platelets. Patients in the ECS group received fewer blood products: 6.51 units of PRBCs versus 8.14 units. Plasma transfusions decreased from 8.98 units to 4.21 units (P coagulation support (including point-of-care tests) decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2013.

  2. Comparative study of radiation emission without and with target in a 2.2 kJ plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair, E-mail: mzubairkhan-um76@yahoo.com [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia and Department of Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Ling, Yap Seong; San, Wong Chiow [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    The radiation emission in a 2.2 kJ Mather-type dense plasma focus device is investigated using a five channel BPX65 PIN diode spectrometer. Estimated X-ray associated with the hollow anode without and with target in Argon gas medium is compared. At optimum conditions, the radiation emission from the system is found to be strongly influenced with target in hollow anode and the filling gas pressure. The maximum X-ray yield in 4π sr was obtained in case of hollow anode in argon gas medium with target 'Lead' due to interaction of electron beam. Results indicated that an appropriate design of hollow anode with target could enhance the radiation emission by more intense interaction of expected electron beam with target. The outcomes are helpful in designing a plasma focus with enhanced X-ray radiation with improved shot to shot reproducibility in plasma focus device.

  3. Dopamine plasma clearance is increased in piglets compared to neonates during continuous dopamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Eriksen, Vibeke R

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Piglets models have often been used to study the effects of dopamine infusion on hypotension in neonates. However, piglets need higher doses of dopamine than neonates to increase blood pressure. We investigated whether this difference was due to interspecific difference in dopamine...... pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Arterial blood samples were drawn from six neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Copenhagen University Hospital and 20 newborn piglets during continuous dopamine infusion. Furthermore, to estimate the piglet plasma dopamine half-life, blood samples were drawn at 2.......5-minute intervals after the dopamine infusion was discontinued. The plasma dopamine content was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: The dopamine displayed first-order kinetics in piglets and had a half-life of 2.5 minutes, while the median plasma...

  4. Electron heat transport in current carrying and currentless thermonuclear plasmas. Tokamaks and stellarators compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.

    1996-01-16

    In the first experiment the plasma current in the RTP tokamak is varied. Here the underlying idea was to check whether at a low plasma current, transport in the tokamak resembles transport in stellarators more than at higher currents. Secondly, experiments have been done to study the relation of the diffusivity {chi} to the temperature and its gradient in both W7-AS and RTP. In this case the underlying idea was to find the explanation for the phenomenon observed in both tokamaks and stellarators that the quality of the confinement degrades when more heating is applied. A possible explanation is that the diffusivity increases with the temperature or its gradient. Whereas in standard tokamak and stellarator experiments the temperature and its gradient are strongly correlated, a special capability of the plasma heating system of W7-AS and RTP can force them to decouple. (orig.).

  5. Comparative evaluation of the cytomegalovirus DNA load in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and plasma of human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, G; Handfield, J; Toma, E; Murray, G; Lalonde, R; Bergeron, M G

    1998-02-01

    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load was determined in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and plasma samples from 106 human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects at risk of developing CMV disease (group 1) and from 27 AIDS patients with documented CMV disease (group 2). For both groups, the number of CMV copies in PMNL was significantly higher than in plasma when results were derived from an equivalent blood volume (P < .001, PMNL vs. plasma). Additionally, group 2 (symptomatic) patients had a greater viral DNA load than group 1 (asymptomatic) subjects (P < .001 for both PMNL and plasma). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of qualitative polymerase chain reaction using PMNL (PCR-PMNL) for the presence of CMV disease were 100%, 58%, 38%, and 100%, respectively, compared with 70%, 93%, 74%, and 92% for qualitative PCR-plasma and 93%, 92%, 76%, and 98% for quantitative PCR-PMNL using a cutoff of 16,000 copies/mL. Thus, the best strategy for diagnosing CMV disease in these individuals relies on quantitative assessment of the viral DNA load in PMNL.

  6. Coagulation factor Xa signaling : the link between coagulation and inflammatory bowel disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by activation of the coagulation cascade and it has long been suspected that coagulation is an essential component of this still largely idiopathic group of diseases. The realization that coagulation factors are not only passive mediators in the prop

  7. Comparative performance of the protocol of plasma rich in growth factors - universal 1 (PRGF-U1 for obtaining platelet rich plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Aguirre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the platelet concentration obtained after application of the protocol of plasma rich in growth factors - universal 1 (PRGF-U1 and the protocol of Anitua and Andia (PRP-A for obtaining platelet rich plasma. Material and Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out with a simple random probabilistic sample consisting of 16 patients who attended the Periodontics service of the Unit of Second Specialization in Stomatology of the National University of Trujillo. Five blood samples were obtained from each patient, after applying a health questionnaire to rule out any disease or drug consumption, in order to obtain the baseline platelet concentration and that obtained after PRGF-U1 and PRP-A. To compare the platelet concentrations of the two protocols, Student’s t-test was used considering a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: The baseline platelet concentration was 371,250±68,203 platelets/μL, for PRGF-U1 it was 747,875±121,645 platelets/μL and for PRP-A it was 595,000±129,202 platelets/μL. A statistically significant difference (p<0.001 was found between both protocols. Conclusion: The PRGF-U1 protocol yielded a higher platelet concentration compared to the Anitúa and Andía protocol.

  8. Simultaneous removal of multiple pesticides from water: effect of organically modified clays as coagulant aid and adsorbent in coagulation-flocculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer, T P Ahammed; Saha, Ajoy; Gajbhiye, V T; Gupta, Suman; Manjaiah, K M; Varghese, Eldho

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water sources with agrochemical residues became a major concern in the twenty-first century. Coagulation-flocculation is the most widely used water-treatment process, but the efficiency to remove pesticides and other organic pollutants are limited compared to adsorption process. Thus, simultaneous action of adsorption on normal bentonite or organo-modified montmorillonite clays [modified with octadecylamine (ODA-M) and octadecylamine + amino-propyltriethoxysilane (ODAAPS-M)] followed by coagulation-flocculation by alum and poly aluminium chloride has been evaluated for removal of 10 different pesticides, namely atrazine, lindane, metribuzin, aldrin, chlorpyriphos, pendimethalin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, p,p'-DDT, cypermethrin and two of its metabolites, endosulphan sulphate and p,p'-DDE, from water. The coagulation without integration of adsorption was less effective (removal % varies from 12 to 49) than the adsorption-coagulation integrated system (removal % varies from 71 to 100). Further, coagulation integrated with adsorption was more effective when organically modified montmorillonite was used as adsorbent compared to normal bentonite. The removal efficiency of organic clay depends upon the concentration of pesticides, doses of clay minerals, and efficiency was more for ODAAPS-M as compared to ODA-M. The combination of ODAAPS-M-clay with coagulants was also used efficiently for the removal of pesticides from natural and fortified natural water collected and the results exhibit the usefulness of this remediation technique for application in water decontamination and in treatment of industrial and agricultural waste waters.

  9. Pre-analytical effects of pneumatic tube system transport on routine haematology and coagulation tests, global coagulation assays and platelet function assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Paris, Mickaël; Nougier, Christophe; Sobas, Frédéric; Rugeri, Lucia; Girard, Sandrine; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Négrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) in hospitals is commonly used for the transport of blood samples to clinical laboratories, as it is rapid and cost-effective. The aim was to compare the effects on haematology samples of a newly acquired ~2km-long PTS that links 2 hospitals with usual transport (non-pneumatic tube system, NPTS). Complete blood cell count, routine coagulation assays, platelet function tests (PFT) with light-transmission aggregometry and global coagulation assays including ROTEM® and thrombin generation assay (TGA) were performed on blood samples from 30 healthy volunteers and 9 healthy volunteers who agreed to take aspirin prior to blood sampling. The turnaround time was reduced by 31% (p<0.001) with the use of PTS. No statistically significant difference was observed for most routine haematology assays including PFT, and ROTEM® analysis. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, shortening of the APTT after sample transport by PTS was found (mean±SD: 30s±1.8 vs. 29.5s±2.1 for NPTS). D-dimer levels were 7.4% higher after transport through PTS but were not discordant. A statistically significant increase of thrombin generation was found in both platelet poor- and platelet rich- plasma samples after PTS transport compared to NPTS transport. PTS is suitable for the transport of samples prior to routine haematology assays including PFT, but should not be used for samples intended for thrombin generation measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, D N; Toole, J J

    1985-06-01

    It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first

  11. Comparative studies on the soluble and plasma membrane associated nitrate reductase from Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Kłobus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical comparison between two forms of nitrate reductase from cucumber roots: the soluble enzyme and the plasma membrane-associated one was made. Soluble nitrate reductase was purified on the blue-Sepharose 4B. The nitrate reductase bound with plasma membranes was isolated from cucumber roots by partition of microsomes in the 6.5% dextran-PEG two phase system. The molecular weight of native enzyme estimated with HPLC was 240 kDa and 114 kDa for the soluble and membrane bounded enzyme, respectively. Temperature induced phase separation in Triton X-114 indicated a huge difference in hydrophobicity of the plasma membrane associated nitrate reductase and soluble form of enzyme. Small differences were observed in partial activities of plasma membrane nitrate reductase and soluble nitrate reductase. Also experiments with polyclonal antiserum raised against the native nitrate reductase showed some differences in the immunological properties of both forms of the nitrate reductase. The above results indicated that in cucumber roots two different forms of the nitrate reductase are present.

  12. Comparative analysis of barium titanate thin films dry etching using inductively coupled plasmas by different fluorine-based mixture gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Cong; Yao, Zhao; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the inductively coupled plasma etching technique was applied to etch the barium titanate thin film. A comparative study of etch characteristics of the barium titanate thin film has been investigated in fluorine-based (CF4/O2, C4F8/O2 and SF6/O2) plasmas. The etch rates were measured using focused ion beam in order to ensure the accuracy of measurement. The surface morphology of etched barium titanate thin film was characterized by atomic force microscope. The chemical state of the etched surfaces was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to the experimental result, we monitored that a higher barium titanate thin film etch rate was achieved with SF6/O2 due to minimum amount of necessary ion energy and its higher volatility of etching byproducts as compared with CF4/O2 and C4F8/O2. Low-volatile C-F compound etching byproducts from C4F8/O2 were observed on the etched surface and resulted in the reduction of etch rate. As a result, the barium titanate films can be effectively etched by the plasma with the composition of SF6/O2, which has an etch rate of over than 46.7 nm/min at RF power/inductively coupled plasma (ICP) power of 150/1,000 W under gas pressure of 7.5 mTorr with a better surface morphology.

  13. A thromboelastometric evaluation of the effects of hypothermia on the coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundgren, Malin; Engström, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Hypothermia may be accidental or therapeutic. Therapeutic hypothermia is increasingly used as treatment for various conditions, e.g., neuroprotection after cardiac arrest. Hypothermia leads to an impairment of the coagulation system, but the degree of impairment has been difficult to determine. Most studies have been performed on plasma instead of whole blood. We therefore evaluated whole blood investigating the effects of hypothermia on the coagulation system over a wide range of temperatures (25-40 degrees C). Blood was drawn from six healthy volunteers into citrated test tubes. Samples were then placed in water baths with temperatures ranging from 25 to 40 degrees C for 30 min before the coagulation system was studied using rotational thromboelastometry. A contact activator (Ellagic acid) was used for initiation of coagulation. Clotting time, clot formation time, alpha angle, and maximum clot strength were measured. All tests were run for 60 min and they were performed at the same temperature as the temperature in the water bath. Coagulation was increasingly impaired with decreasing temperatures in the temperature range studied. All variables measured were significantly impaired in a stepwise pattern (P coagulation system.

  14. Coagulation Abnormalities in the Trauma Patient: The Role of Point-of-Care Thromboelastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pieracci, Fredric M.; Moore, Ernest E.; Kashuk, Jeffry L.

    2015-01-01

    Current recommendations for resuscitation of the critically injured patient are limited by a lack of point-of-care (POC) assessment of coagulation status. Accordingly, the potential exists for indiscriminant blood component administration. Furthermore, although thromboembolic events have been described shortly after injury, the time sequence of post-injury coagulation changes is unknown. Our current understanding of hemostasis has shifted from a classic view, in which coagulation was considered a chain of catalytic enzyme reactions, to the cell-based model (CBM), representing the interplay between the cellular and plasma components of clot formation. Thromboelastography (TEG), a time-sensitive dynamic assay of the viscoelastic properties of blood, closely parallels the CBM, permitting timely, goal-directed restoration of hemostasis via POC monitoring of coagulation status. TEG-based therapy allows for goal-directed blood product administration in trauma, with potential avoidance of the complications resulting from overzealous component administration, as well as the ability to monitor post-injury coagulation status and thromboprophylaxis. This overview addresses coagulation status and thromboprophylaxis management in the trauma patient and the emerging role of POC TEG. PMID:20978993

  15. challenges in management of warfarin anti-coagulation in advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-01

    Jul 1, 2013 ... hyper-coagulable state in advanced HIV/AIDS patients has ... state in these patients with abnormalities in the coagulation ... Oral anti-coagulation therapy with warfarin ..... as stasis, trauma, or known hypercoagulability (e.g..

  16. New evidence for intrinsic blood coagulation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, J A; Hamilton, P B

    1981-01-01

    Coagulation of blood in chickens is considered the result of an extrinsic clotting system initiated, as in mammals, by tissue thromboplastin released from injured tissues. Blood coagulation in mammals depends principally on an intrinsic mechanism in which thromboplastin is generated from blood itself. Only a negligible role, if any, has been ascribed to an intrinsic system in chickens. A reevaluation of intrinsic coagulation in chickens was undertaken in this study. Whole blood of chickens was found to clot over 30% faster when contacted by suitable surface activators such as kaolin or glass than when such contact was omitted. Plasma recalcification times were significantly (P less than .02) shortened by contact activators. Clotting functions were measurable both by partial thromboplastin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, tests that bypass extrinsic factors. Intrinsic thromboplastin could be generated from dilute whole chicken blood although at a slower rate than that reported for human blood. Modification of whole blood thromboplastin generation techniques permitted measurement of activities that seem analogous to human intrinsic factors VIII and IX but not XI or XII. These data provide evidence of a functioning intrinsic clotting mechanism in chickens. A complete description and role for this mechanism remains to be defined.

  17. Preparation of PFS coagulant by sectionalized reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation rate of ferrous sulfate is investigated for the preparation of polyferric sulfate(PFS) coagulant.It is proved that this reaction is zero order with respect to Fe2 +,first order with respect to NO2 (g),and first order with respect to the interface area between gas phase and liquid phase.According to this mechanism,sectionalized reactor(SR) is used in place of traditional reactor(TR),and the liquid of reaction mixture is recycled by pump.As a result,not only the flow path of reaction liquid is prolonged,but also gas-liquid contact area enlarged,and the reaction distinctly accelerated,compared with traditional reactor.The effects of parameters including temperature,acidity and others on the reaction rate are also discussed.

  18. The effect of administration of a single dose of T-2 toxin on blood coagulation in the rabbit.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, P A

    1982-01-01

    The single intravenous administration of T-2 toxin to rabbits at a dosage of 0.5 mg per kg body weight produced an alteration in several blood coagulation parameters. The activities of factors VII, VIII, IX, X and XI were decreased by approximately 40% six hours after T-2 toxin administration. Plasma fibrinogen concentration became elevated within 24 hours after T-2 toxin exposure. Circulating platelet numbers were unaffected by T-2 toxin administration. The similarity of coagulation paramete...

  19. Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md; Fakhruddin, A N M; Hossain, Md Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed.

  20. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  1. Dead Zones in protoplanetary disks : accumulation and coagulation of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of micronic dust to macroscopical sizes (>meter) in a turbulent protoplanetary disk is still largely debated. In particular the dust coagulation process must go through two barriers imposed by their coupling with the gas: the "meter" barrier due to an efficient radial migration of dust when their Stokes number is about one and the "fragmentation barrier" implied by the critical fragmentation velocity (around cm/s) preventing any further growth of particle when they reach a macroscopic size due to the two fast relative velocities of particles. So, paradoxically, a protoplanetary disks may seem quite a hostile place for dust-growth, despite the frequent detection of exoplanets showing that planetary formation is in fact an efficient process. We then explore a new possibility suggested by the stratified nature of a protoplanetary disk. Protoplanetary disks are expected to harbour nonionized regions in their mid-plane, the so called "dead zone" inside which the gas flow should be laminar. Dust coagulation in these regions could be quite effective and in addition, since they are regions of low diffusivity, they are expected to be able to accumulate efficiently dust. Using hybrid numerical simulations, coupling dustgrowth and dust dynamics, we explore how dust penetrate a dead-zone and how dust coagulate up to macroscopic sizes and compare it to coagulation efficiency in the active layers of the disk, subject to turbulence. Different disk structures will be explored and discussed. Implication for observations by ALMA will be also presented.

  2. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of paraoxonase defined high density lipoprotein particles: Association of paraoxonase with the anti-coagulant, protein S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moren, Xenia; Lhomme, Marie; Bulla, Alexandre; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Kontush, Anatol; James, Richard W

    2016-03-01

    Characterizing high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and their relevance to HDL function is a major research objective. One aim is to identify functionally distinct particles. To try to limit both functional and compositional heterogeneity the present study focused on paraoxonase-1 (PON1) as a target for isolation of a minor HDL subfraction. Immunoaffinity techniques were applied to isolate PON1-containing HDL (P-HDL) and total HDL (T-HDL), which were subsequently characterized and compared. Analyses of the lipidomes showed significant differences between the fractions in the relative concentrations of individual lipid subspecies, notably reduced levels of unsaturated lysophosphatidylcholine (p < 0.05) in P-HDL (reflected in a significantly reduced total lysophosphatidylcholine polyunsaturated fatty acid content, p < 0.004). Significant differences were also observed for the proteomes. P-HDL was highly enriched in the anti-coagulant, vitamin K activated protein S (prot S) (p < 0.0001), and alpha2 macroglobulin (p < 0.01), compared to T-HDL. Conversely, procoagulant proteins kininogen 1 and histidine-rich glycoprotein were largely excluded from P-HDL. Immunoabsorption of PON1 from plasma significantly reduced prot S anti-coagulant activity. The P-HDL lipidome and proteome showed significant differences from T-HDL. Enrichment in anti-coagulation proteins indicates complementary functionalities within P-HDL particles and underlines their anti-atherosclerotic potential. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Activation of coagulation by administration of recombinant factor VIIa elicits interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 release in healthy human subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonge, de, E; Friederich, P.W; Vlasuk, G.P; Rote, W; Vroom, M.B; Levi, M.M; Poll, van der, T

    2003-01-01

    .... Here we report that the activation of coagulation in healthy human subjects by the administration of recombinant factor VIIa also elicits a small but significant increase in the concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in plasma...

  4. Use of plasma: clinical indications and types of plasma components in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norda, R; Tynell, E

    2007-12-01

    The use of plasma in Sweden is relatively high compared to other countries in the European Union. An analysis of all transfusion recipients in Orebro county during the whole year 2000 was performed. There were 3159 transfusion recipients of whom 96% had a registered diagnosis and 50% had undergone a "true" operation. Seven hundred and eleven patients (23%) had received plasma. Significantly more operated than nonoperated and more men than women received plasma. The typical plasma recipient was a man undergoing cardiovascular surgery. In Sweden there are two main types of plasma components: fresh frozen (FFP) and nonfrozen liquid plasma stored for up to 14 days, both considered to be clinically equal for most indications. The quality of these components as well as stored thawed FFP has been studied. The major storage effect was cold-induced contact activation and thereby consumption of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) by day 14 in 22%. The citrate content in plasma sustained the overall coagulation function over 14 days. Other studies have shown that the levels of FV and ADAMTS 13 after 14 days remain at 70% or more compared to those for FFP. Since it is immediately available, liquid, nonfrozen or thawed, plasma is of great value in emergencies. Quality criteria for plasma components need to be assessed against evidence based indications and published in guidelines.

  5. Increased mortality in systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients with high levels of coagulation factor VIIa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyseni, A.; Kemperman, H.; De Lange, D. W.; De Groot, P. G.; Linssen, M.; Kesecioglu, J.; Lisman, T.; Roest, M.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe tissue factor (TF)- Factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex has a pivotal role in inflammatory and coagulation responses in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Because zymogen FVII (FVII) and FVIIa compete for binding to TF, their plasma levels determine if a c

  6. The hemostatic status of pediatric recipients of adult liver grafts suggests that plasma levels of hemostatic proteins are not regulated by the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, Ton; Platto, Marco; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Colledan, Michele; Porte, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma levels of coagulation factors differ profoundly between adults and children, but are remarkably stable throughout adulthood. It is unknown which factors determine plasma levels of coagulation factors in a given individual. We hypothesized that the liver, which synthesizes coagulation factors,

  7. Blood coagulation reactions on nanoscale membrane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureza, Vincent S.

    Blood coagulation requires the assembly of several membrane-bound protein complexes composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits. The biomembranes involved in these reactions not only provide a platform for these procoagulant proteins, but can also affect their function. Increased exposure of acidic phospholipids on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane can dramatically modulate the catalytic efficiencies of such membrane-bound enzymes. Under physiologic conditions, however, these phospholipids spontaneously cluster into a patchwork of membrane microdomains upon which membrane binding proteins may preferentially assemble. As a result, the membrane composition surrounding these proteins is largely unknown. Through the development and use of a nanometer-scale bilayer system that provides rigorous control of the phospholipid membrane environment, I investigated the role of phosphatidylserine, an acidic phospholipid, in the direct vicinity (within nanometers) of two critical membrane-bound procoagulant protein complexes and their respective natural substrates. Here, I present how the assembly and function of the tissue factor˙factor VIIa and factor Va˙factor Xa complexes, the first and final cofactor˙enzyme complexes of the blood clotting cascade, respectively, are mediated by changes in their immediate phospholipid environments.

  8. Inflammation and coagulation in urticaria and angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Massimo; Asero, Riccardo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Lazzari, Riccardo; Marzano, Angelo V

    2012-09-01

    Urticaria is a skin disease characterised by short-lived surface swellings of the dermis (wheals) frequently accompanied by itching. It is classified as acute or chronic depending on whether the wheal recurrence occurs for less or more than six weeks. Acute urticaria is often due to a hypersensitivity reaction, whereas about 50% of the cases of chronic urticaria are regarded as autoimmune. Urticaria may occur alone or in association with a deeper swelling (angioedema) involving the subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues, and last from hours to a few days. Angioedema can also develop alone, and may be idiopathic or be caused by allergies, inherited or acquired deficiencies of C1-inhibitor protein, or adverse drug reactions. An interplay between inflammation and coagulation has been proposed as a pathomechanism in urticaria and urticaria-associated angioedema (in which histamine and thrombin are involved), as well as in angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency, which involves various biological systems. An increase in the plasma markers of thrombin generation, fibrinolysis and inflammation has been documented during exacerbations of urticaria and angioedema, with the marker levels decreasing to normal during remission. However, the hypercoagulable state in chronic urticaria and angioedema has not been reported to be associated with any increased risk of thrombosis, although there have been a number of reports of cardiovascular events occurring during episodes of acute urticaria. These observations have provided the rationale for the clinical evaluation of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic drugs, the efficacy of which has sometimes been demonstrated.

  9. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  10. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  11. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation.

  12. Coagulation factor VA2440G causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lisa M.; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers’ plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder–associated F5A2440G leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation. PMID:23979162

  13. Coagulation factor V(A2440G) causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lisa M; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-09-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers' plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder-associated F5(A2440G) leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation.

  14. Differential Kinetics of Coagulation Factors and Natural Anticoagulants in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Potential Clinical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tischendorf

    Full Text Available Advanced liver diseases are associated with profound alterations of the coagulation system increasing the risk not only of bleeding, but also of thromboembolic complications. A recent milestone study has shown that prophylactic anticoagulation in liver cirrhosis patients results in a reduced frequency of hepatic decompensation. Yet, INR measurement, one of the most widely applied tests to assess liver function, only inaccurately predicts the risk of hepatic decompensation related to alterations of the coagulation system. To assess the relationship between selected coagulation factors / natural anticoagulants with INR, MELD score, and hepatic decompensation, we performed the present pilot study. A total number of 92 patients with various stages of liver cirrhosis were included and prospectively followed for at least 6 months. We found that important natural anticoagulants, namely antithrombin and protein C, as well as factor XI (which may also serve as an anticoagulant decreased earlier and by a larger magnitude than one would expect from classical coagulation test results. The correlation between these factors and INR was only moderate. Importantly, reduced plasma activities of natural anticoagulants but not INR or MELD score were independent predictors of hepatic encephalopathy (P = 0.013 and 0.003 for antithrombin and protein C, respectively.In patients with liver cirrhosis plasma activities of several natural anticoagulants are earlier and stronger affected than routine coagulation tests. Reduced activities of natural anticoagulants may be predictive for the development of hepatic encephalopathy.

  15. Coagulation and fibrinolysis during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahr, H B; Fabrin, K; Larsen, J F

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery appears to be less traumatic to the patient than open surgery, but its influence upon coagulation and fibrinolysis is incompletely elucidated. Our aim was to measure markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis before, during. and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Blood...

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from Clinical Healthy Cows and Mastitic Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-xin; ZHAO Xing-xu; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    The current research presents the protein changes in plasma from healthy dairy cows and clinical mastitic cows using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After staining with silver nitrate and Coomassie Blue, differential expression proteins were detected by PDQuest 7.4 software, and then subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a Surveyor HPLC System, differential spots of protein were identified. Three protein spots that originated from preparation gels were identified to be two proteins. Overall, haptoglobin precursor was up-regulated in cows infected with clinical mastitis and could be a mastitis-associated diagnostic marker, whereas SCGB 2A1 (secretoglobin, family 2A, member 1) was down-regulated protein. Plasma protein expression patterns were changed when cows were infected with mammary gland inflammation; it suggests that analysis of differential expression protein might be useful to clarify the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology, and find new diagnostic markers of mastitis and potential protein targets for treatment.

  17. Comparative Study of Decomposition of CCl4 in Different Atmosphere Thermal Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jianjun; GUO Wenkang; XU Ping

    2007-01-01

    Decomposition of carbon tetrachloride was studied theoretically in the most commonly used thermal plasma atmosphere such as H2, N2, O2 and water steam. A code developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was adopted to calculate the chemical equilibrium distribution and energy consumption of the decomposition of CCl4 in the H2, N2, O2 and water steam atmosphere thermal plasma respectively, with a temperature range of 500 K to 5000 K. In the neutral condition (H2, N2, atmosphere) formation of solid carbon was observed and in the oxygen-atmosphere (O2 and water steam) solid carbon formation disappeared through controlling the ratio of C/O. This indicates that the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is impossible theoretically. The energy consumption in the N2 atmosphere was much higher than that in the H2, O2 and water steam atmosphere at 1500 K.

  18. Comparative effects of a novel angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor versus captopril on plasma angiotensins after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Monroy, Jazmín; Ferrario, Carlos M; Valencia-Hernández, Ignacio; Hernández-Campos, Maria Elena; Martínez-Aguilar, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The compound 4-tert-butyl-2,6-bis(thiomorpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenol (TBTIF) has molecular characteristics similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors of the sulfhydryl subclass. To assess its value as a new therapeutic agent, we performed a comparative analysis of the effect of TBTIF versus captopril on the circulating levels of angiotensin (Ang) peptides and bradykinin as well as ACE and ACE2 expression after myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) sham-operated rats; (2) rats subjected to 48 h of coronary artery ligation; (3) rats administered captopril (1 mg/kg, i.m.), and (4) a similar group of rats given TBTIF (1 mg/kg, i.m.). Both drugs were administered 30 min before coronary artery ligation and again 24 h later. Acute myocardial infarction lowered both systolic and left ventricular systolic blood pressures compared to the sham group and increased plasma levels of Ang I, Ang II, Ang(1-7) and Ang(1-12). Administration of either captopril or TBTIF reversed the increases in plasma angiotensins. Interestingly, the levels of plasma Ang(1-7) achieved by administration of TBTIF reached values higher than those recorded with captopril. Both agents reversed the decreases in plasma concentrations of bradykinin; in addition, TBTIF upregulated ACE expression, while both agents suppressed the ACE2 upregulation induced by myocardial infarction. These results demonstrate a beneficial effect of the novel compound TBTIF in suppressing the acute surge in the circulating renin-angiotensin system activity induced by myocardial infarction. The greater effects of this compound in augmenting plasma Ang(1-7) concentrations may be highly significant as drugs which augment the concentration of this heptapeptide will exert cardioprotective actions in part by suppressing the hypertrophic and profibrotic actions of Ang II. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Comparative study of the active cadmium efflux systems operating at the plasma membrane and tonoplast of cucumber root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migocka, Magdalena; Papierniak, Anna; Kosatka, Ewelina; Klobus, Grazyna

    2011-10-01

    The strategies developed by plants to avoid the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and other heavy metals involve active sequestration of metals into the apoplast and vacuoles. The protein systems excluding heavy metals from the cell cytosol localize to the plasma membrane and tonoplast and are energized either by ATP or by the electrochemical gradient generated by H(+)-ATPase or by V-ATPase and pyrophosphatase (PPase), respectively. In this work, a comparative study on the contribution of both the plasma membrane and tonoplast in the active detoxification of plant cells after treatment with Cd was performed. The studies using plants treated and untreated with Cd reveal that both, H(+)-coupled and MgATP-driven efflux of Cd across plasma membranes and tonoplast is markedly stimulated in the presence of Cd in the environment. Previous studies on plasma-membrane localized H(+)-coupled Cd efflux together with the present data demonstrating tonoplast H(+)/Cd(2+) antiport activity suggest that H(+)-coupled secondary transport of Cd displays a lower affinity for Cd when compared with Cd primary pumps driven by MgATP. In addition, it is shown that MgATP-energized Cd efflux across both membranes is significantly enhanced by cysteine, dithiothreitol, and glutathione. These results suggest that Cd is excluded from the cytosol through an energy-dependent system as a free ion as well as a complexed form. Although both membranes contribute in the active exclusion of ionized and complexed Cd from the cytosol, the overall calculation of Cd accumulation in the everted plasma membranes and vacuolar vesicles suggests that the tonoplast and vacuole have a major function in Cd efflux from the cytosol in the roots of cucumber subjected to Cd stress.

  20. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  1. Intein-Fused Lucine Zippers Increase Plasma Coagulation Activity by Improving Protein Trans-Splicing in Dual-Vector Factor Ⅷ Gene Delivered Mice%亮氨酸拉链提高小鼠血浆中剪接的凝血因子Ⅷ凝血活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱甫祥; 刘泽隆; 缪静; 屈慧鸽; 迟晓艳

    2012-01-01

    培养细胞实验表明,亮氨酸拉链通过改善内含肽(intein)的蛋白质剪接效率,提高双载体转B区缺失型凝血因子Ⅷ(BDD-FⅧ)基因细胞剪接FⅧ蛋白的分泌量和活性.本文从C57BL/6小鼠门静脉注射含亮氨酸拉链和Ssp DnaB内含肽融合的BDD-FⅧ的重链和轻链基因双表达载体,48 h后,检测到血浆的重链分泌量和FⅧ活性分别为(298±67) μg/L和(1.15±0.29) U/mL,明显高于不含亮氨酸拉链的双载体转BDD-FⅧ基因对照小鼠((179±59) μg/L和(0.58±0.19) U/mL).结果表明,亮氨酸拉链通过改善蛋白质反式剪接,提高基于蛋白质剪接的双载体转BDD-FⅧ基因小鼠血浆的凝血活性,为进一步双腺相关病毒(AAV)载体转BDD-FⅧ基因的甲型血友病基因治疗研究提供了依据.%We previously demonstrated that leucine zippers fused to intein could increase secretion of spliced B-domain-deleted coagulation factor Ⅷ (BDD-FⅧ) protein and activity by dual-vector based BDD-Ⅷ gene transfected cell in vitro through improving protein trans -splicing. In this study, a pair of plasmid vectors expressing human BDD-FⅧ heavy and light chain fused with lucine zipper and split Ssp DnaB intein was co-injected into C57BL/6 mice via the portal vein. Fourty-eight hours post-injection, the level of heavy chain and FⅧ coagulation activity in collected plasma were determined and shown as (298±67)μg/L and (1.15±0.29) U/ml respectively, greater than that of control mice injected with both vectors without leucine zippers ((179±59) μg/L and (0.58±0.19) U/ml). It demonstrated that leucine zippers fused intein could increase FⅧ coagulation activity in plasma of mice with intein-based dual-vector BDD-FⅧ gene delivery through improved protein trans -splicing. It provided evidence for ongoing hemophilia A gene therapy using dual-AAV vecors.

  2. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxynitrides films: A comparative spectroscopic and electrical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowińska, Małgorzata, E-mail: malgorzata.sowinska@b-tu.de; Henkel, Karsten; Schmeißer, Dieter [Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Applied Physics and Sensors, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Kärkkänen, Irina; Schneidewind, Jessica; Naumann, Franziska; Gruska, Bernd; Gargouri, Hassan [SENTECH Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstraße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The process parameters' impact of the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) method on the oxygen to nitrogen (O/N) ratio in titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) films was studied. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide in combination with NH{sub 3} plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium by applying N{sub 2} plasma processes were investigated. Samples were characterized by the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical characterization (current–voltage: I-V and capacitance–voltage: C-V) methods. The O/N ratio in the TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films is found to be very sensitive for their electric properties such as conductivity, dielectric breakdown, and permittivity. Our results indicate that these PE-ALD film properties can be tuned, via the O/N ratio, by the selection of the process parameters and precursor/coreactant combination.

  3. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myoung; Kim, Young Jin [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Quraishi, Shamshad Begum [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2003-05-01

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  4. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which the intersp......Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which....... nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  5. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  6. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M;

    2001-01-01

    , 3.5, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first fat load. Triglycerides, activated FVII (FVIIa), FVII coagulant activity (FVIIc), FVII amidolytic activity (FVIIam) and prothrombin fragment I + 2 (F1 + 2) were analysed in plasma samples. Median plasma triglycerides were significantly raised from 0.67 mmol....../l (baseline) to 2.56 mmol/l 5 h postprandially (P high-fat meal does not seem...

  7. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallas, M; Bovenhuis, H; Kaart, T; Pärna, K; Kiiman, H; Pärna, E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E(30))] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somatic cell count, pH) in first-lactation Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 17,577 test-day records from 4,191 Estonian Holstein cows in 73 herds across the country were collected during routine milk recordings. Measurements of RCT and E(30) determined with the Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frepillon, France) are based on an optical signal in the near-infrared region. The cows had at least 3 measurements taken during the period from April 2005 to January 2009. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. There was substantial variation in milk coagulation traits with a coefficient of variation of 27% for E(30) and 9% for the log-transformed RCT. The percentage of variation explained by herd was 3% for E(30) and 4% for RCT, suggesting that milk coagulation traits are not strongly affected by herd conditions (e.g., feeding). Heritability was 0.28 for RCT and 0.41 for E(30), and repeatability estimates were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlation between both milk coagulation traits was negligible, suggesting that RCT and E(30) have genetically different foundations. Milk coagulation time had a moderately high positive genetic (0.69) and phenotypic (0.61) correlation with milk pH indicating that a high pH is related to a less favorable RCT. Curd firmness had a moderate positive genetic (0.48) and phenotypic (0.45) correlation with the protein percentage. Therefore, a high protein percentage is associated with favorable curd firmness. All reported genetic parameters were statistically significantly different from zero. Additional univariate random regression analysis for milk coagulation traits yielded slightly higher average heritabilities of 0.38 and 0

  8. Comparative sterilization effectiveness of plasma in O2-H2O2 mixtures and ethylene oxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J M F; Moreira, A J; Oliveira, D C; Bonato, C B; Mansano, R D; Pinto, T J A

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influence of variable parameters of plasma sterilization and compared its effectiveness with that of ethylene oxide using a reactive ion etching plasma reactor at 13.56 MHz. Gases tested were pure oxygen and oxygen-hydrogen peroxide mixtures in 190/10, 180/20, and 160/40 sccm ratios with constant gas flow at 200 sccm, pressure at 0.100 torr, radio-frequency power at 25 W, 50 W, 100 W, and 150 W, and temperature below 60 degrees C. Ethylene oxide sterilization was performed using 450 mg/L at 55 degrees C, 60% humidity, and -0.65 and 0.60 kgf/cm2 pressure. The biological indicator was Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372, with exposure times of 3 to 120 min. Observed D values were 215.91, 55.55, 9.19, and 2.98 min for pure oxygen plasma at 25 W, 50 W, 100 W, and 150 W, respectively. Oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma produced D values of 6.41 min (190/10), 6.47 min (180/20), and 4.02 min (160/40) at 100 W and 1.47 min (190/10), 3.11 min (180/20), and 1.94 min (160/40) at 150 W. Ethylene oxide processes resulted in a D value of 2.86 min. Scanning electron microscopy analyses showed damage to the spore cortex.

  9. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  10. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 40 nm and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and a radioactive plume. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  11. Enhanced removal from the plasma of LDL-like nanoemulsion cholesteryl ester in trained men compared with sedentary healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Carmen G C; Ficker, Elisabeth S; Finazzo, Claudia; Alves, Maria J N; de Angelis, Katia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Negrão, Carlos E; Maranhão, Raul C

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on plasma removal of a cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) that mimics low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid structure and binds to LDL receptors. LDE-derived cholesteryl ester plasma kinetics was studied in 24 exercise-trained and 20 sedentary male subjects. LDE labeled with [(14)C]cholesteryl ester was injected intravenously, and plasma samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine radioisotope decay curves. LDL cholesterol concentration was similar in both groups. Fractional clearance rate (FCR) of the nanoemulsion label was greater in the exercise-trained group compared with the sedentary group (0.138 +/- 0.152 and 0.0261 +/- 0.023 h(-1), respectively). A positive correlation was found (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) between FCR and peak O(2) consumption in trained subjects. Circulating oxidized LDL levels were lower in trained subjects compared with the sedentary group (9.0 +/- 2.0 and 16.0 +/- 3.0 mU/l). LDE was also injected into control and LDL receptor gene knockout mice submitted and not submitted to training. Muscle LDE uptake percentage was increased in the trained mice compared with the untrained mice (1.1 +/- 0.8 and 0.2 +/- 0.1, respectively, P < 0.0001) in the control group but not in the knockout animals, indicating that the LDL receptor is involved in the increased uptake elicited by exercise. These results show that exercise training increases LDE plasma removal, which in turn suggests that it also increases LDL receptors or LDL receptor activity.

  12. Lipoprotein lipase and lipid profiles in plasma and placenta from normal pregnancies compared with patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z M; Ye, Y F; Zhang, Y K; Yang, S F; Ye, X L

    2016-08-01

    To analyse lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression and lipid levels in placenta and plasma of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and normal pregnancies. This prospective study included 30 patients with ICP and 30 gestational-age-matched pregnancies without any complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate plasma LPL levels from 28 weeks of gestation, at 4-weekly intervals, to 38 weeks of gestation, and data were assessed longitudinally. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect placental LPL expression and activity. Placental triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were also analysed. The clinical data related to ICP and lipid profiles were collected retrospectively. Plasma LPL concentration increased with gestational age in both groups, but the increase was limited in the ICP group. Immunohistochemistry revealed LPL staining mainly in syncytiotrophoblasts, and 3,3'-diamino-benzidine tetrahydrochloride wt% was lower in ICP placenta compared with normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL protein and mRNA expression in ICP placenta were significantly lower than in normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL activity was not significantly different in both groups. Correlation analysis indicated that the plasma LPL level was negatively associated with the corresponding concentration of total bile acid (r=-0.57) in the ICP group. Reduced LPL expression in placenta, limited increase in LPL level in maternal plasma, and abnormal lipid profiles were found in patients with ICP. LPL was possibly related to ICP by participating abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  14. Comparison of porcine and human coagulation by thrombelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ulf; Grau, Tamar; Gronchi, Fabrizio; Berger, Steffen; Brandt, Sebastian; Bracht, Hendrik; Marcucci, Carlo; Zachariou, Zacharias; Jakob, Stephan M

    2011-11-01

    Although the pig is a standard model for the evaluation of various diseases in humans, including coagulopathy, it is not clear whether results in animals can be extrapolated to man. In 75 anesthetized pigs, we assessed reagent-supported thrombelastometry (ExTEM®), platelet-blocked thrombelastometry (FibTEM®), and aprotinin thrombelastometry (ApTEM®). Results were compared to values from 13 anesthetized humans. RESULTS (MEDIAN, 95% CI): ExTEM®: While clot strength was comparable in pigs (66 mm, 65-67 mm) and in humans (64 mm, 60-68 mm; NS), clotting time in animals was longer (pigs 64 s, 62-66 s; humans 55 s, 49-71 s; Panesthesic drugs seem to influence thrombelastometry in animals. Accordingly, coagulation abnormalities in pigs subjected to diseases may not necessarily represent the coagulation profile in sick patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neprilysin Inhibits Coagulation through Proteolytic Inactivation of Fibrinogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Burrell

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP is an endogenous protease that degrades a wide range of peptides including amyloid beta (Aβ, the main pathological component of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We have engineered NEP as a potential therapeutic for AD but found in pre-clinical safety testing that this variant increased prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of wild type NEP and the engineered variant on coagulation and define the mechanism by which this effect is mediated. PT and APTT were measured in cynomolgus monkeys and rats dosed with a human serum albumin fusion with an engineered variant of NEP (HSA-NEPv as well as in control plasma spiked with wild type or variant enzyme. The coagulation factor targeted by NEP was determined using in vitro prothrombinase, calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT and fibrin formation assays as well as N-terminal sequencing of fibrinogen treated with the enzyme. We demonstrate that HSA-NEP wild type and HSA-NEPv unexpectedly impaired coagulation, increasing PT and APTT in plasma samples and abolishing fibrin formation from fibrinogen. This effect was mediated through cleavage of the N-termini of the Aα- and Bβ-chains of fibrinogen thereby significantly impairing initiation of fibrin formation by thrombin. Fibrinogen has therefore been identified for the first time as a substrate for NEP wild type suggesting that the enzyme may have a role in regulating fibrin formation. Reductions in NEP levels observed in AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy may contribute to neurovascular degeneration observed in these conditions.

  16. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; Ni, Jinren; Chow, Christopher W K

    2008-04-01

    Conventional coagulation is not an effective treatment option to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in water with high alkalinity/pH. For this type of water, enhanced coagulation is currently proposed as one of the available treatment options and is implemented by acidifying the raw water and applying increased doses of hydrolyzing coagulants. Both of these methods have some disadvantages such as increasing the corrosive tendency of water and increasing cost of treatment. In this paper, an improved version of enhanced coagulation through coagulant optimization to treat this kind of water is demonstrated. A novel coagulant, a composite polyaluminum chloride (HPAC), was developed with both the advantages of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and the additive coagulant aids: PACl contains significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products, which is less affected by the pH of the raw water than traditional coagulants (alum and ferric salts); the additives can enhance both the charge neutralization and bridging abilities of PACl. HPAC exhibited 30% more efficiency than alum and ferric salts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and was very effective in turbidity removal. This result was confirmed by pilot-scale testing, where particles and organic matter were removed synergistically with HPAC as coagulant by sequential water treatment steps including pre-ozonation, coagulation, flotation and sand filtration.

  17. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn: dimensionless input rates from plasma sources within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative significance for a planetary magnetosphere of plasma sources associated with a moon of the planet can be assessed only by expressing the plasma mass input rate in dimensionless form, as the ratio of the actual mass input to some reference value. Traditionally, the solar wind mass flux through an area equal to the cross-section of the magnetosphere has been used. Here I identify another reference value of mass input, independent of the solar wind and constructed from planetary parameters alone, which can be shown to represent a mass input sufficiently large to prevent corotation already at the source location. The source rate from Enceladus at Saturn has been reported to be an order of magnitude smaller (in absolute numbers than that from Io at Jupiter. Both reference values, however, are also smaller at Saturn than at Jupiter, by factors ~40 to 60; expressed in dimensionless form, the estimated mass input from Enceladus may be larger than that from Io by factors ~4 to 6. The magnetosphere of Saturn may thus, despite a lower mass input in kg s−1, intrinsically be more heavily mass-loaded than the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  18. SV-IV Peptide1–16 reduces coagulant power in normal Factor V and Factor V Leiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrazzi Paola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Native Factor V is an anticoagulant, but when activated by thrombin, Factor X or platelet proteases, it becomes a procoagulant. Due to these double properties, Factor V plays a crucial role in the regulation of coagulation/anticoagulation balance. Factor V Leiden (FVL disorder may lead to thrombophilia. Whether a reduction in the activation of Factor V or Factor V Leiden may correct the disposition to thrombophilia is unknown. Therefore we tested SV-IV Peptide 1–16 (i.e. a peptide derived by seminal protein vescicle number IV, SV-IV to assess its capacity to inhibit the procoagulant activity of normal clotting factor V or Factor V Leiden (FVL. We found that SV-IV protein has potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and also exerts procoagulant activity. In the present work we show that the SV-IV Peptide 1–16, incubated with plasma containing normal Factor V or FVL plasma for 5 minutes reduces the procoagulant capacity of both substances. This is an anticoagulant effect whereas SV-IV protein is a procoagulant. This activity is effective both in terms of the coagulation tests, where coagulation times are increased, and in terms of biochemical tests conducted with purified molecules, where Factor X activation is reduced. Peptide 1–16 was, in the pure molecule system, first incubated for 5 minutes with purified Factor V then it was added to the mix of phosphatidylserine, Ca2+, Factor X and its chromogenic molecule Chromozym X. We observed a more than 50% reduction in lysis of chromogenic molecule Chromozym X by Factor Xa, compared to the sample without Peptide 1–16. Such reduction in Chromozym X lysis, is explained with the reduced activation of Factor X by partial inactivation of Factor V by Peptide 1–16. Thus our study demonstrates that Peptide 1–16 reduces the coagulation capacity of Factor V and Factor V Leiden in vitro, and, in turn, causes factor X reduced activation.

  19. Comparative study on efficacy and influence on blood coagulation between low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin in the treatment of elderly patients with severe pneumonia%低分子肝素与普通肝素佐治老年重症肺炎中疗效及对凝血功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy and influence on blood coagulation between low mo-lecular weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the adjuvant treatment of elderly patients with severe pneumonia (SP). Methods 105 elderly SP cases were randomly divided into the LMWH group and the UFH group. All patients were treated with comprehensive treatment, such as anti-infection, anti-inflammation, spasm re-lieving, oxygen therapy, anti-coagulation and preventing complications, etc. Anticoagulation of the LMWH group was adopted with LMWH subcutaneous injection, 5000IU per time, twice a day for 7 days. The UFH group was used FUH subcutaneous injection, 6250IU per time, twice a day for 7 days. Their oxygenation indexes, APACHE Ⅱscore, clinical efficacy, blood coagulation indexes and bleeding were compared between the two groups. Results Af-ter the treatment, the levels of PaO2 and SpO2 were significantly higher, and the levels of PaCO2 and APACHE Ⅱscore were significantly lower in the LMWH group than in the UFH group (P 0. 05). After the treatment, the level of TXB2 decreased significantly in both groups, and 6-keto-PGF1α increased significantly, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0. 05). The level of CD62p was significantly lower in the LMWH group than in the UFH group (P 0.05);两组治疗后 TXB2明显下降,6-keto-PGF1α明显上升,治疗后差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);LMWH 组治疗后 CD62p 水平明显低于 UFH组(P <0.05)。结论老年重症肺炎患者在常规治疗基础上联合使用低分子肝素较普通肝素在改善肺部氧合与降低 APACHE Ⅱ评分方面具有显著优势,在抗凝效果与出血发生率方面具有比较优势。

  20. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  1. Comparative hemostatic protein alterations accompanying pregnancy and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, P A; Liptrap, R M

    1988-06-01

    Pregnancy and parturition represent adaptive, physiological stress situations that elicit both blood coagulation protein changes and endocrine alterations. This paper briefly reviews the interrelationships of these responses by comparing the available data in several mammalian species including man, dog, cow, and pig. Hemostasis is an enzymatically controlled cascade process involving platelets and specific coagulation proteins that results in the formation of insoluble strands of fibrin. Although qualitatively similar in most mammals, quantitative differences exist in the circulating levels of individual coagulation proteins which may contribute towards the different rates of clot formation. In the late gestation stage of human pregnancy, significant increases are observed in the circulating biological activities of the coagulation factors VII, VIII:C, IX, and X. In the dog, the activities of factors VII and IX reach peak values in midpregnancy, while in the cow little or no changes are observed except for factor VII values which show a significant increase only around the time of parturition. These coagulation changes appear to be associated with fluctuations in circulating hormone values, particularly plasma estrogen. In human pregnancy, the circulating levels of fibrinogen, the precursor of fibrin, increase during the gestation period reaching maximum values during and immediately following parturition. In the dog and the cow two distinct increases in fibrinogen values are observed, the first in the midgestation period and the second in the immediate postparturition period. In the pig, fibrinogen values also rise significantly at parturition. Oral contraceptive studies in the human female have indicated that changes in circulating activities of coagulation proteins are hormonally influenced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Changes of hemorheological indeses, coagulation function and cytokines in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Xiao-Li Li; Yuan-Xia Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes of hemorheological indexes, coagulation function and cytokines of women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy ICP.Methods: A total of 54 cases of ICP in our hospital were collected as study group, 54 cases of normal pregnancy period were collected as the control group. The changes of coagulation function, inflammatory cytokines and D- two dimer of two groups were observed and compared.Results: The blood rheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity at high shear, whole blood viscosity at low shear, plasma viscosity, hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate of study group were (4.73±0.81) mPa•s, (6.67±1.40) mPa•s, (1.93±0.38) mPa•s, (46.34±4.25)%, and the (68.92±7.93) mm/h, respectively; they were significantly higher than those of control group (P0.05). FIB, D-D of the study group respectively were (5.62±0.78) g/L, (0.45±0.11) mg/L, significantly higher than the control group. PLT was (168.44±16.35)í109/L, and was significantly reduced compared with the control group (P<0.05). The levels of IL-18, IL-12, TNF-α of the study Group were (70.22±5.33) ng/L,(47.55±4.23) ng/L and (40.45±3.45) ng/L, respectively. Compared with normal pregnancy control they was significantly increased (P<0.05). The rates of premature delivery, amniotic fluid contamination, fetal distress, neonatal asphyxia and low birth weight infants were 20.37%, 37.04%, 18.52%, 11.11% and 9.26%, significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: ICP patients have significantly high viscosity changes, high coagulation and has adverse effects on pregnancy outcome, which play important roles in the clinical diagnosis.

  3. Comparing Theory and Experiment for Analyte Transport in the First Vacuum Stage of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachreson, Matthew R.

    The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) has been used in laboratories for many years. The majority of the improvements to the instrument have been done empirically through trial and error. A few fluid models have been made, which have given a general description of the flow through the mass spectrometer interface. However, due to long mean free path effects and other factors, it is very difficult to simulate the flow details well enough to predict how changing the interface design will change the formation of the ion beam. Towards this end, Spencer et al. developed FENIX, a direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm capable of modeling this transitional flow through the mass spectrometer interface, the transitional flow from disorganized plasma to focused ion beam. Their previous work describes how FENIX simulates the neutral ion flow. While understanding the argon flow is essential to understanding the ICP-MS, the true goal is to improve its analyte detection capabilities. In this work, we develop a model for adding analyte to FENIX and compare it to previously collected experimental data. We also calculate how much ambipolar fields, plasma sheaths, and electron-ion recombination affect the ion beam formation. We find that behind the sampling interface there is no evidence of turbulent mixing. The behavior of the analyte seems to be described simply by convection and diffusion. Also, ambipolar field effects are small and do not significantly affect ion beam formation between the sampler and skimmer cones. We also find that the plasma sheath that forms around the sampling cone does not significantly affect the analyte flow downstream from the skimmer. However, it does thermally insulate the electrons from the sampling cone, which reduces ion-electron recombination. We also develop a model for electron-ion recombination. By comparing it to experimental data, we find that significant amounts of electron-ion recombination occurs just downstream from the

  4. Plasma myeloperoxidase, NT-proBNP, and troponin-I in patients on CAPD compared with those on regular hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hweish, Abdulla; Sultan, Sherif S; Mogazi, Khaled; Elsammak, Mohamed Y

    2010-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemoprotein that is released during inflammation and may lead to irreversible protein and lipid modification, increasing levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein, and promoting athrogenesis. Recently, it has been considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Similarly, the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness gives an indication about the degree of atherosclerosis and prediction of clinical cardiovascular events. Elevated white blood cells counts may indicate a state of acute inflammation and follow its progression. Dialysis patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with healthy subjects. The role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and increased cardiac troponin in identification and prognostication of cardiovascular diseases in end-stage renal disease patients has been investigated. The current study aimed to evaluate plasma MPO and its possible relationship with carotid intima-media thickness, troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA index) in a cohort of Saudi patients who are undergoing hemodialysis (HD) vs. continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Plasma MPO was significantly higher in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) than in those on HD and in normal subjects (P0.05). However, plasma MPO level correlated positively with the white blood cell count in patients on CAPD and in those on HD (P<0.05). Our findings suggest an increased oxidative stress in CAPD patients compared with HD patients, while the reported difference in plasma NT-proBNP and troponin-I may be related to the rapid decline of residual renal function in HD and type of membrane used in the HD dialysis procedure itself.

  5. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Yun-Liang Cui; Zhao-Fen Lin; De-Chang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis ofbacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia.The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis ofbacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU).Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed.Patients (n =241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels.The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors.Patients' BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups.The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups.Results: A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed.The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups.GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia.The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups.The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent.Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia.Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China.And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin

  6. Correlation between coagulation function, tumor stage and metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Bo; MA Lu-lin; ZHANG Shu-dong; XIAO Chun-lei; LU Jian; HONG Kai; LIAO Hong-yi

    2011-01-01

    Background The coagulation function in carcinoma patients is abnormal, but in renal cell carcinoma the extent and relationships of coagulation function remain unclear. This study retrospectively investigated the relationships between coagulation function, clinical stage and metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma.Methods A total of 350 consecutive patients admitted to our Urology Department from 2004 to 2010 were diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma by histolopathologic examination and were included in this study. A total of 231 cases of renal benign tumors were considered as the control group. Fibrinogen, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio were evaluated in all subjects. Tumor size, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were evaluated using radiologic imaging, intraoperative findings, and histological studies.Results The preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels of patients with renal cell carcinoma ((383.9±146.7) mg/dl) were significantly higher than those of the control group ((316.7±62.0) mg/dl) (P <0.01). We divided the renal cell carcinoma group into stages la, lb, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ. The fibrinogen values were (315.6±64.6) mg/dl, (358.3±91.1) mg/dl, (465.6±164.7)mg/dl, (500.0±202.1) mg/dl, and (585.8±179.7) mg/dl, respectively. There were no significant differences in fibrinogen values between stage la and control groups. However, results of other stages showed significant differences when compared to control group values (P <0.01). Using the cutoff value of 440 mg/dl, which defines hyperfibrinogenemia,plasma fibrinogen levels had a positive predictive value of 39.8% and a negative predictive value of 93.3% for predicting distant metastasis, with a sensitivity of 64.7% and specificity of 83.3%.Concluslons Preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels are elevated in patients with renal cell carcinoma with distant metastasis or lymph node metastasis. Potential metastasis is

  7. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Pigs are often used as animal models in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The usefulness of the assays applied within this field, and the knowledge of reference intervals are therefore essential and of utmost importance. In the study reported here, we investigated the applicability...... time, tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, factor VII, protein C, protein S, prothrombin fragment 1+2, antithrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, soluble fibrin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasmin inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and D-dimer. We found...... that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must...

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi SB

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular canines of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone osseointegration of coated implants was more than uncoated implants.

  9. 凯氏定氮法和 Lowry 法测定人凝血因子Ⅷ制剂中蛋白含量的比较%Compare the levels of protein content in coagulation factorⅧ by Kjeldahl′s assay and Lowry′s assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑琴; 许婉君; 张平英; 张丽铃

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitable methods for the protein determination coagulation factor Ⅷ. Methods The protein content in the coagulation factor Ⅷ was determined by Kjeldahl′s assay and Lowry′s assay de-scribed in Chinese Pharmacopeia(VolumeⅢ,2010 edition),using glycine as an interfering substance,observe the in-terference effects of glycine on Lowry method.Results In their suitable determination range,the accuracy of Kjel-dahl′s assay was better than that of Lowry′s assay.The recovery rates of Kjeldahl′s assay was significantly higher than that of Lowry′s assay in the determination of protein content.Conclusion Lowry′s assay was easy to operate, the results was stable and high sensitivity.Compared with the Kjeldahl′s assay ,Lowry′s assay was more suitable for determining protein content in coagulation factor Ⅷ.The determination results were interfered by glycine.With the increase of glycine content,the effect enhanced obviously.%目的:探讨适宜的人凝血因子Ⅷ制剂中蛋白含量测定方法。方法分别应用《中国药典》三部(2010年版)中凯氏定氮法和 Lowry 法测定人凝血因子Ⅷ制剂中的蛋白含量,比较两种方法的稳定性,并以甘氨酸为干扰物质,考察甘氨酸对 Lowry 法的干扰作用。结果两种方法在各自适合的测定范围内,凯氏定氮法的准确度优于Lowry 法,在测定人凝血因子Ⅷ制剂中的蛋白含量时,凯氏定氮法的回收率 RSD 明显高于 Lowry 法。结论Low-ry 法易操作,结果稳定,灵敏度较高,较凯氏定氮法更适合于人凝血因子Ⅷ制剂中的蛋白含量测定。但甘氨酸可干扰 Lowry 法的测定结果,随着甘氨酸含量的增加,干扰作用明显增强。

  10. Experimental investigation and modeling of dissolved organic carbon removal by coagulation from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sanghyun; Sathasivan, Arumugam; Kastl, George; Shim, Wang Geun; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation removes colloidal matters and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which can cause irreversible membrane fouling. However, how DOC is removed by coagulant is not well-known. Jar test was used to study the removal of hydrophobic and hydrophilic DOC fractions at various doses (0.5-8.0 mg-Fe(+3) L(-1)) of ferric chloride (FeCl3) and pH (5.0-9.0). Natural organic matter (NOM) in seawater and treated seawater were fractionated by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detector (LC-OCD). Compared to surface water, the removal of DOC in seawater by coagulation was remarkably different. Majority of DOC could be easily removed with very low coagulant dose (model of Kastl et al. (2004) which assumed that the removal occurred by adsorption of un-dissociated compounds onto ferric hydroxide was formulated and successfully validated against the jar test data.

  11. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  12. A comparative study of the plasma membrane permeabilization and fluidization induced by antipsychotic drugs in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tetsuhito; Maruoka, Nobuyuki; Omata, Naoto; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Wada, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    We compared the potency of the interaction of three antipsychotic drugs, i.e. chlorpromazine (CPZ), haloperidol (Hal) and sulpiride (Sul), with the plasma membrane in the rat brain. CPZ loading (> or = 100 microM) dose-dependently increased both membrane permeability (assessed as [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate release from brain slices) and membrane fluidity (assessed as the reduction in the plasma membrane anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene). On the other hand, a higher concentration of Hal (1 mM) was required to observe these effects. However, Sul failed to change membrane permeability and fluidity even at a high concentration (1 mM). These results indicated the following ranking of the potency to interact with the membrane: CPZ>Hal>Sul. The difference among antipsychotic drugs in the potency to interact with the plasma membrane as revealed in the present study may be partly responsible for the difference among the drugs in the probability of inducing extrapyramidal side-effects such as parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia.

  13. Comparative analysis of boar seminal plasma proteome from different freezability ejaculates and identification of Fibronectin 1 as sperm freezability marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilagran, I; Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Castillo, J; Oliva, R; Bonet, S

    2015-03-01

    Variation in boar sperm freezability (i.e. capacity to withstand cryopreservation) between ejaculates is a limitation largely reported in the literature. Prediction of sperm freezability and classification of boar ejaculates into good (GFEs) and poor freezability ejaculates (PFEs) before cryopreservation takes place may increase the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. While markers of boar sperm freezability have been found from sperm cell extracts, little attention has been paid to seminal plasma. On this basis, the present study compared the fresh seminal plasma proteome of 9 GFEs and 9 PFEs through two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ejaculates were previously classified as GFE or PFE upon their sperm viability and progressive motility assessments at 30 and 240 min post thawing. From a total of 51 spots, four were found to significantly (p sperm quality parameters. Results confirmed that FN1 is a reliable marker of boar sperm freezability, because GFEs presented significantly (p boar sperm freezability marker. We can thus conclude that levels of FN1 in fresh seminal plasma from boar semen may be used as a sperm freezability marker, thereby facilitating the use of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa.

  14. Intranasal exposure to amorphous nanosilica particles could activate intrinsic coagulation cascade and platelets in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials with particle sizes coagulation system. Methods We used nanosilica particles with diameters of 30, 70, or 100 nm (nSP30, nSP70, or nSP100 respectively), and conventional microscale silica particles with diameters of 300 or 1000 nm (mSP300 or mSP1000, respectively). BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to nSP30, nSP70, nSP100, mSP300, or mSP1000 at concentrations of 500 μg/mouse for 7 days. After 24 hours of last administration, we performed the in vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis, hematological examination and coagulation tests. Results In vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanosilica particles with a diameter coagulation tests showed that platelet counts decreased and that the activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged in nSP30 or nSP70-treated groups of mice, indicating that nanosilica particles might have activated a coagulation cascade. In addition, in in vitro activation tests of human plasma, nanosilica particles had greater potential than did conventional microscale silica particles to activate coagulation factor XII. In nanosilica-particle-treated groups, the levels of soluble CD40 ligand, and von Willebrand factor which are involved in stimulating platelets tended to slightly increase with decreasing particle size. Conclusions These results suggest that intranasally administered nanosilica particles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm could induce abnormal activation of the coagulation system through the activation of an intrinsic coagulation cascade. This study provides information to advance the development of safe and effective nanosilica particles. PMID:23958113

  15. In vitro study of safety and co-efficiency of the transbronchial coagulation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chong; DONG Yu-chao; SONG Xiao-lian; HUANG Yi; SHI Hui; HU Zhen-li; LI Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The usual transbronchial coagulation techniques include microwave,argon plasma coagulation (APC),electrocautery and cryotherapy.However,there are serious clinical problems in the safety of each.By analyzing the experimental data and clinical observations,we observed the variable effects of different coagulation techniques via bronchofibroscopy,to look for an optimal interventional management of luminal bronchus diseases,and evaluate the safety and the equivalent point.Methods Four kinds of coagulation techniques under bronchoscopy were performed on the fresh bronchus of healthy sheep,and the pathologic changes in all groups were observed under the microscope.The different treatment parameters were as follows:microwave 60 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds and 40 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds; APC 40 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds; electrocautery 40 W×1 second,3 seconds,5 seconds;cryotherapy 100 Ω×60 seconds,120 seconds.Results After treatment,ovine bronchial mucosa in all groups showed pathologic changes such as local necrosis and amotio of the mucosa lining epithelium,local submucosa coagulative necrosis or tissue defects,while inflammation in the surrounding tissue was not obvious.Under the same output power and action time,different methods had different outcomes.The damage by APC was the most superficial,microwave was the second,and electrocautery caused the worst damage.The study also found that effects of electrocautery at 40 W×3 seconds,microwave at 40 W×5 seconds or 60 W×3 seconds,APC at 40 W×5 seconds and cryotherapy at 100 Ω×120 seconds were the equivalent point conditions.The appearance included mucosa absence,partial submucosa absence,and collagen fiber coagulation in treatment areas.Conclusions Each coagulation technique has its own characteristic.It is very important to choose the appropriate power and action time of the suitable method according to the therapy requirement.

  16. Preliminary assessment of Hedychium coronarium essential oil on fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activity induced by Bothrops and Lachesis snake venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for new inhibitors of snake venom toxins is essential to complement or even replace traditional antivenom therapy, especially in relation to compounds that neutralize the local effects of envenomations. Besides their possible use as alternative to traditional antivenom therapy, some plant species possess bioactive secondary metabolites including essential oils, which can be extracted from weeds that are considered substantial problems for agriculture, such as Hedychium coronarium. Methods The essential oils of leaves and rhizomes from H. coronarium were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their potential inhibitory effects on the coagulant and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by the venoms of Lachesis muta, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni were analyzed. Citrated human plasma was used to evaluate the clotting time whereas changes in fibrinogen molecules were visualized by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. The experimental design used for testing coagulation inhibition was randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (concentration × essential oils), with three replications. The essential oils were compared since they were extracted from different organs of the same botanical species, H. coronarium. Results The results suggest that the oils interact with venom proteases and plasma constituents, since all oils evaluated, when previously incubated with venoms, were able to inhibit the clotting effect, with less inhibition when oils and plasma were preincubated prior to the addition of venoms. Conclusions Thus, after extensive characterization of their pharmacological and toxicological effects, the essential oils can be used as an alternative to complement serum therapy, especially considering that these plant metabolites generally do not require specific formulations and may be used topically immediately after extraction. PMID:26413083

  17. Numerical Modeling of Plasmas in which Nanoparticles Nucleate and Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pulkit

    Dusty plasmas refer to a broad category of plasmas. Plasmas such as argon-silane plasmas in which particles nucleate and grow are widely used in semiconductor processing and nanoparticle manufacturing. In such dusty plasmas, the plasma and the dust particles are strongly coupled to each other. This means that the presence of dust particles significantly affects the plasma properties and vice versa. Therefore such plasmas are highly complex and they involve several interesting phenomena like nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport. Dusty plasma afterglow is equally complex and important. Especially, residual charge on dust particles carries special significance in several industrial and laboratory situations and it has not been well understood. A 1D numerical model was developed of a low-pressure capacitively-coupled plasma in which nanoparticles nucleate and grow. Polydispersity of particle size distributions can be important in such plasmas. Sectional method, which is well known in aerosol literature, was used to model the evolving particle size and charge distribution. The numerical model is transient and one-dimensional and self consistently accounts for nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport of dust particles and their effect on plasma properties. Nucleation and surface growth rates were treated as input parameters. Results were presented in terms of particle size and charge distribution with an emphasis on importance of polydispersity in particle growth and dynamics. Results of numerical model were compared with experimental measurements of light scattering and light emission from plasma. Reasonable qualitative agreement was found with some discrepancies. Pulsed dusty plasma can be important for controlling particle production and/or unwanted particle deposition. In this case, it is important to understand the behavior of the particle cloud during the afterglow following plasma turn-off. Numerical model was modified to self

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  19. Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of borneol in mouse plasma and brain by different administrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-yi ZHAO; Yang LU; Shou-ying DU; Xiao SONG; Jie BAI; Yue WANG

    2012-01-01

    Borneol,a monoterpenoid alcohol,is used widely,particularly in combined formulas for preventing and curing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.In order to understand the blood and brain pharmacokinetics after intravenous,intranasal,or oral administration and to investigate the superiority and feasibility of intranasal administration,a simple gas chromatographic (GC) method with flame ionization detection (FID) was developed for the quantification of borneol.Blood samples and brain were collected from mice at 1,3,5,10,20,30,60,90,and 120 min after intravenous,intranasal,or oral administration of borneol at a dosage of 30.0 mg/kg.Sample preparations were carried out by liquid-liquid extraction with an internal standard solution of octadecane.The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software of Kinetica.The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.11-84.24 μg/ml and 0.16-63.18 μg/g for borneol in plasma and brain,respectively.The methodological and extraction recoveries were both in the range of 85%-115%.The intra-day and inter-day variabilities for plasma and brain samples were ≤5.00% relative standard deviation (RSD).The absolute bioavailabilities F of intranasal and oral administrations were 90.68% and 42.99%.The relative brain targeted coefficients Re of intranasal and oral administrations were 68.37% and 38.40%.The GC-FID method developed could be applied to determination and pharmacokinetic study.The borneol from injection was distributed and metabolized fast without absorption process.The borneol from oral administration was distributed more slowly and had the lowest absolute bioavailability.Nasal administration of borneol was quickly absorbed into the blood and brain,was easy to use and had a greater safety than infection,which makes it worthy of further development as an administration route for encephalopathy treatment.

  20. Allosteric activation of coagulation factor VIIa visualized by hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Jørgensen, Thomas; Olsen, Ole H;

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a serine protease that, after binding to tissue factor (TF), plays a pivotal role in the initiation of blood coagulation. We used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to visualize the details of FVIIa activation by comparing the exchange kinetics...... tissue factor binding, FVIIa undergoes dramatic structural stabilization as indicated by decreased exchange rates localized throughout the protease domain and in distant parts of the light chain, spanning across 50A and revealing a concerted interplay between functional sites in FVIIa. The results...... of distinct molecular states, namely zymogen FVII, endoproteolytically cleaved FVIIa, TF-bound zymogen FVII, TF-bound FVIIa, and FVIIa in complex with an active site inhibitor. The hydrogen exchange kinetics of zymogen FVII and FVIIa are identical indicating highly similar solution structures. However, upon...

  1. Dyeing wastewater treatment with a complex adsorption-coagulation agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-jian; LIU Jun-liang; ZHAO Qing-liang; LIU Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    To remove effectively the pollutants from printing and dyeing wastewater, a new complex adsorptioncoagulation agent was developed and employed in dyeing wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that better removals of COD, turbidity and color could be efficiently realized under the operating conditions of mixing at 150 r/min, reacting within 5 min and dosing at 15 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Combined with the settled sludge, the agent could be recycled for further adsorption and coagulation within 10 times. Compared to the conventional coagulants, the newly-developed agent had such merits as suitability for wide pH range of wastewater, less sludge production, reutilization of the condensed sludge and low operation cost.

  2. The use of chitosan as a coagulant in the pre-treatment of turbid sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Hossam

    2012-09-30

    One of the problems that encounters desalination industry is the fouling that takes place due to the poor quality of the sea water received, especially when it rains. In such a situation, the sea water reaches the desalination plant having high turbidity. Chitosan was tested as a coagulant in the removal of the turbidity of sea water to replace inorganic coagulants having hazardous effects. Jar test was performed to test some factors that may affect the coagulation process. The factors tested were dose of coagulant (0-370 mg/L), initial pH (2-11), type of coagulant (chitosan versus metal coagulants), and the chitosan solvent. Chitosan's turbidity removal efficiency was found to be greater than ferrous sulfate and comparable to that of alum. While most researches emphasize the use of chitosan in acidic or neutral media, it worked well in the alkaline pH. The highest turbidity removal efficiency of 97.5% was obtained at initial pH of 8.1. The optimum dose was found to be 18 mg/L. Chitosan dissolved in HCl was found to perform better than that dissolved in acetic acid. Comparable turbidity removal efficiencies were obtained using alum and chitosan. However, much higher doses were used when using alum which implies higher cost and increase of residual aluminum concentration in treated water.

  3. [New oral anticoagulants - influence on coagulation tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, L; Nagler, M; Wuillemin, W A

    2014-01-01

    The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent alternative antithrombotic agents for prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic diseases. They act either by inhibition of the clotting factor Xa or IIa (thrombin). As a consequence, they influence several coagulation assays (for example prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time). Because of the short half-life of these new agents, these changes show great variations in the course of 24 hours. Furthermore, there are significant differences of laboratory results depending on the used reagents. We explain the influence of apixaban, rivaroxaban (factor Xa inhibitors) and dabigatran (thrombin inhibitor) on the most commonly used coagulation assays. Besides we show that this influence depends on the way of action of the drug as well as on the principle of the coagulation assay. Being aware of this relationships helps to interpret the results of coagulation assays under influence of NOACs correctly.

  4. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome.

  5. Comparative study of X-ray emission from plasma focus relative to different preionization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Qayyum, A.; Hassan, M.; Zakaullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A 2.7-kJ Mather-type plasma focus has been investigated for X-ray emission with preionization produced by an α-source, a β-source, and a shunt resistor. Time-resolved and time integrated measurements are carried out using a PIN-diode-based X-ray spectrometer and pinhole camera. The β-source (28Ni63) assisted preionization enhances the X-ray emission up to 25%, while preionization induced by depleted uranium (92U238) increases both Cu-Kα and total X-ray yield of about 100%. The preionization caused by the optimum shunt resistor enhances the Cu-Kα and total X-ray yield of about 53%. It is found that preionization also broadens the working pressure range for the high X-ray yield and improves the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the system. Pinhole images reveal that the X-ray emission from the anode tip is dominant owing to impact of electron bombardment, while the X-ray emission from hot spots is also visible.

  6. Comparative neuroprotective properties of stilbene and catechin analogs: action via a plasma membrane receptor site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianetto, Stéphane; Dumont, Yvan; Han, Yingshan; Quirion, Rémi

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have reported on the neuroprotective effects of polyphenols, widely present in food, beverages, and natural products. For example, we have shown that resveratrol, a polyphenol enriched in red wine and other foods such as peanuts, protects hippocampal cells against beta-amyloid (Abeta)-induced toxicity, a key protein involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer disease. This effect involves, at least in part, the capacity of resveratrol to activate the phosphorylation of delta isoform of protein kinase C (PKC-delta). The neuroprotective action of resveratrol is shared by piceatannol, a stilbene derivative, as well as by tea-derived catechin gallate esters. The thioflavin T assay indicated that all these polyphenols inhibited the formation of Abeta fibrils, suggesting that this action likely also contributes to their neuroprotective effects. Binding and autoradiographic studies revealed that the effects of polyphenols might involve specific binding sites that are particularly enriched in the choroid plexus in the rat brain. Interestingly, the choroid plexus secretes transthyretin, a protein that has been shown to modulate Abeta aggregation and that may be critical to the maintenance of normal learning capacities in aging. Taken together, these data suggest that polyphenols target multiple enzymes/proteins, leading to their neuroprotective actions, possibly through action via specific plasma membrane binding sites.

  7. Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

  8. Effects of Paliperidone Palmitate on Coagulation: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Demirel Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a new antipsychotic drug paliperidone palmitate on hemogram and coagulation parameters in rats. Materials and Methods. Experiments were performed on 22 female albino Wistar rats (8–12 weeks old. Control group was given drinking water as vehicle (0.3 mL. PAL-1 rats were given 1 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage once a day for ten days and PAL-3 rats received 3 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage for ten days. Blood samples were drawn from the heart 24 hours after the last drug dose, and hemogram and coagulation parameters were measured with automated analyzers. Results. Hemogram did not change in the paliperidone treated groups compared to the controls. Factor VIII levels decreased in the PAL-1 and PAL-3 groups; and this decrease was significantly greater in the PAL-3. Factor IX levels decreased in PAL-3 rats, but its levels also increased in PAL-1 rats compared to the control. Discussion. Paliperidone has led to changes in the serum levels of coagulation factors VIII and IX in rats. As a result, paliperidone may be causing thromboembolism or bleeding in a dose-independent manner.

  9. Coagulation abnormalities and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Andrzej; Dabrowska-Wojciak, Iwona; Mikinka, Marek; Fendler, Wojciech; Walas, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Kuczkowski, Krzysztof Marek

    2010-07-01

    The association between intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and coagulation in infants has been a subject of controversy. Only few publications assessing risk factors for development of IVH reported results of coagulation studies. To evaluate the levels of coagulation and fibrinolysis systems in ELBW infants and determine their influence on IVH. Following IRB approval coagulation status of 38 ELBW infants was evaluated on first and second day of life. Severity of IVH assessed by cerebral ultrasonography was graded according to Papile classification. Newborns were assigned to either Group A--Grade III or IV, or Group B--Grade I-II, or no IVH. Neonates with Grade III/IV IVH had significantly lower plasma Factor VII (FVII) level on first day of life and FVII differed significantly between Groups A and B with sensitivity of 100%, specificity 41% for a cut-off value of< 7%. In Group A there was no improvement of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times on Day 2. A significant decline of platelet count was also observed. High-grade IVH coincides with severe derangement of coagulation in ELBW infants with FVII level being the most sensitive, it is not clear what the reason for such low FVII concentration is. Further studies are indicated.

  10. Identification of the blood coagulation factor interacting sequences in staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Saotomo; Takii, Takemasa; Onozaki, Kikuo; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Hida, Shigeaki

    2017-03-25

    Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins of Staphylococcus aureus. We have shown that SSL10 binds to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and inhibits blood coagulation induced by recalcification of citrated plasma. SSL10 was revealed to bind to coagulation factors via their γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. In this study we attempted to identify the responsible sequence of SSL10 for the interaction with coagulation factors. We prepared a series of domain swap mutants between SSL10 and its paralog SSL7 that does not interact with coagulation factors, and examined their binding activity to immobilized prothrombin using ELISA-like binding assay. The domain swap mutants that contained SSL10β1-β3 ((23)MEMKN ISALK HGKNN LRFKF RGIKI QVL(60)) bound to immobilized prothrombin, and mutants that contained SSL10β10-β12 ((174)SFYNL DLRSK LKFKY MGEVI ESKQI KDIEV NLK(207)) also retained the binding activity. On the other hand, mutants that lacked these two regions did not bind to prothrombin. These sequences, each alone, bound to prothrombin as 33 amino acid length polypeptides. These results suggest that SSL10 has two responsible sequences for the binding to prothrombin. These prothrombin-binding peptides would contribute to the development of new anticoagulants.

  11. The prevalence of abnormal preoperative coagulation tests in pediatric patients undergoing spinal surgery for scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katie M; O'Brien, Kirsty; Regan, Irene; O'Byrne, John M; Moore, David; Kelly, Paula M; Noel, Jacques; Butler, Joseph; Nolan, Beatrice; Kiely, Patrick J

    2015-06-01

    Multilevel spinal fusion surgery for deformity correcting spinal surgery in pediatric patients with scoliosis has typically been associated with significant blood loss. The mechanism of bleeding in such patients is not fully understood. Coagulation abnormalities, which may be associated with scoliosis, are thought to play a role. To document and compare the prevalence of preoperative coagulation abnormalities among patients with scoliosis attending a pediatric orthopedic department for spinal fusion surgery with patients attending for minor surgery. An observational study. All patients were recruited from a pediatric tertiary referral center in Dublin, Ireland. Coagulation profile results were prospectively collected over a 2-year period from 165 spinal surgery patients. In total, 175 patients were included in the non-scoliosis group. These patients attended the day ward for minor procedures and were recruited over a 4-month period. The primary outcome measure was the coagulation profiles, which included prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT). Levels of Coagulation Factors II, V, VII, and X were also recorded. All blood samples were sent to the haematology laboratory to establish the coagulation profile. The primary outcome was the presence of an abnormal coagulation screening test (if any of PT, APTT, or TT were abnormal). Prothrombin time, APTT, and TT were also analyzed as individual continuous variables, as well as Coagulation Factors II, V, VII, and X. Regression analysis was used to compare the coagulation profile of scoliosis patients with that of non-scoliosis patients. There were no outside funding sources or any potential conflict of interest associated with this study. The scoliosis patients were more likely to have an abnormal preoperative screening test compared with non-scoliosis patients, with an odds ratio of 2.6. Further analysis showed statistically significant longer clotting times for patients with

  12. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated...... intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion...

  13. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan; Ashlee Pruett; Sanjib Das Adhikary

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is ...

  14. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Kozue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d{sup 6}4p (3d{sup 5}4s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6–9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels. - Highlights: • This paper describes the excitation mechanism of iron ion in Okamoto-cavity MIP in comparison with conventional ICP. • Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron ionic lines of

  15. Defective glycosylation of coagulation factor XII underlies hereditary angioedema type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jenny; de Maat, Steven; Lewandrowski, Urs; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Oschatz, Chris; Schönig, Kai; Nöthen, Markus M; Drouet, Christian; Braley, Hal; Nolte, Marc W; Sickmann, Albert; Panousis, Con; Maas, Coen; Renné, Thomas

    2015-08-03

    Hereditary angioedema type III (HAEIII) is a rare inherited swelling disorder that is associated with point mutations in the gene encoding the plasma protease factor XII (FXII). Here, we demonstrate that HAEIII-associated mutant FXII, derived either from HAEIII patients or recombinantly produced, is defective in mucin-type Thr309-linked glycosylation. Loss of glycosylation led to increased contact-mediated autoactivation of zymogen FXII, resulting in excessive activation of the bradykinin-forming kallikrein-kinin pathway. In contrast, both FXII-driven coagulation and the ability of C1-esterase inhibitor to bind and inhibit activated FXII were not affected by the mutation. Intravital laser-scanning microscopy revealed that, compared with control animals, both F12-/- mice reconstituted with recombinant mutant forms of FXII and humanized HAEIII mouse models with inducible liver-specific expression of Thr309Lys-mutated FXII exhibited increased contact-driven microvascular leakage. An FXII-neutralizing antibody abolished bradykinin generation in HAEIII patient plasma and blunted edema in HAEIII mice. Together, the results of this study characterize the mechanism of HAEIII and establish FXII inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy to interfere with excessive vascular leakage in HAEIII and potentially alleviate edema due to other causes.

  16. Levels of acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) and coagulation factors in warfarin-treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, S; Umeki, Y

    1990-04-01

    PIVKA-II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II) was determined and compared with other coagulation factors in normal subjects and patients treated with the anticoagulant warfarin. In 18 (60%) of 30 patients treated with warfarin, PIVKA-II values were 1 microgram/ml or more, although they were less than 1 microgram/ml in all 39 normal subjects (100%). In patients treated with warfarin, values of prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were significantly higher than those in normal subjects. However, values of hepaplastintest (normotest) and thrombotest in the patients were greatly lower than those in normal subjects. There were no significant differences between bleeding time or plasma fibrinogen values in the patients and normal subjects. The values of PIVKA-II were inversely correlated (P less than 0.01) with those of hepaplastintest and thrombotest. The measurement of PIVKA-II in the plasma should be useful in detecting vitamin K-deficient status among haemorrhagic disorders.

  17. In vivo left ventricular assist induced coagulation derangements. Comparison of Sarns-3M and St. Jude Medical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J J; Wagner-Mann, C C; Mann, F A; Demmy, T L; Walls, J T; Schmaltz, R A

    1997-01-01

    An in vitro comparison of centrifugal pumping systems manufactured by Sarns-3M and St. Jude Medical revealed a difference in blood cell derangement. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of 96 hr of left ventricular assist (LVA) on indexes of coagulopathy, hemolysis, and complement activation. Two groups of calves (each: n = 5) were instrumented with identical left atrial to thoracic aorta centrifugal pumping circuits using either Sarns-3M or St. Jude centrifugal pumps. Laboratory evaluations were performed pre-assist and at 1, 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr during LVA. Platelet counts dropped significantly by 24 hr (Sarns-3M: 28%; St. Jude: 30%); no significant change in function was noted. Activated clotting time increased slightly (p > 0.05). Prothrombin time increased at 4 and 24 hr of LVA, returning to baseline by 96 hr (p Sarns-3M device never reached significance. No significant changes in lactate dehydrogenase or plasma free hemoglobin were detected. Complement fraction C5a rose by 1 hr of LVA (p Sarns-3M and St. Jude LVA caused coagulation derangement in calves, 2) neither pump demonstrated an advantage regarding coagulation and complement parameters, 3) hemolysis observed with the Sarns-3M pump in vitro was not evidenced in vivo, and 4) in vitro evidenced centrifugal pump differences may not be realized in vivo.

  18. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism.

  19. Use of Viscosity to Probe the Interaction of Anionic Surfactants with a Coagulant Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Maikokera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic viscosity of the coagulant protein was evaluated from the flow times of the protein solutions through a capillary viscometer, and the results suggested the coagulant protein to be globular. The interactions of the coagulant protein with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS were also investigated by capillary viscometry. We conclude that there is strong protein-surfactant interaction at very low surfactant concentrations, and the behavior of the anionic surfactants in solutions containing coagulant protein is very similar. The viscometry results of protein-SDS system are compared with surface tension, fluorescence, and circular dichroism reported earlier. Combining the results of the four studies, the four approaches seem to confirm the same picture of the coagulant protein-SDS interaction. All the physical quantities when studied as function of surfactant concentration for 0.05% (w/v protein solution either exhibited a maximum or minimum at a critical SDS concentration.

  20. Gyrokinetic study of turbulent convection of heavy impurities in tokamak plasmas at comparable ion and electron heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, C.; Bilato, R.; Casson, F. J.; Fable, E.; Mantica, P.; Odstrcil, T.; Valisa, M.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Contributors, JET

    2017-02-01

    In tokamaks, the role of turbulent transport of heavy impurities, relative to that of neoclassical transport, increases with increasing size of the plasma, as clarified by means of general scalings, which use the ITER standard scenario parameters as reference, and by actual results from a selection of discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JET. This motivates the theoretical investigation of the properties of the turbulent convection of heavy impurities by nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in the experimentally relevant conditions of comparable ion and electron heat fluxes. These conditions also correspond to an intermediate regime between dominant ion temperature gradient turbulence and trapped electron mode turbulence. At moderate plasma toroidal rotation, the turbulent convection of heavy impurities, computed with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, is found to be directed outward, in contrast to that obtained by quasi-linear calculations based on the most unstable linear mode, which is directed inward. In this mixed turbulence regime, with comparable electron and ion heat fluxes, the nonlinear results of the impurity transport can be explained by the coexistence of both ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the turbulent state, both contributing to the turbulent convection and diffusion of the impurity. The impact of toroidal rotation on the turbulent convection is also clarified.

  1. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  2. [Coagulation characteristics of polyferric chloride-poly (epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine) composite flocculant for simulated water treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-xin; Yang, Zhong-lian; Gao, Bao-yu; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qin-yan; Li, Qian

    2013-09-01

    Polyferric chloride (PFC) and poly (epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine) [P(EPI-DMA)] were applied as raw materials to prepare a novel inorganic-organic flocculant [PFC-P(EPI-DMA)] with various intrinsic viscosities (eta), basicity (B, OH/Fe molar ratio), and organic component fractions [omega(E)]. The PFC-P(EPI-DMA) prepared was then evaluated for the coagulation treatment of synthetic active dying wastewater and simulated ground water. Effects of B, and omega (E) on the Fe speciation distribution and coagulation performance of PFC-P(EPI-DMA) were comparatively examined as a function of coagulant dosage. The coagulation mechanism of PFC-P(EPI-DMA) was also discussed in this paper. Experimental results indicated the interaction effect of PFC and P (EPI-DMA) component in composite PFC-P (EPI-DMA). The effective Fe speciation content of PFC-EPI-DMA decreased with increasing omega(E), while it was maximized when eta = 850 mPa x As B value increased gradually, the Fe(b) concentration initially increased and then decreased, but the Fe(c) concentration kept continuously increasing. To some extent, higher eta and lower B value was favorable for the improvement of coagulation performance for coagulation treatment of both synthetic dyeing wastewater and simulated ground water. The omega (E) influence on the coagulation performance of PFC-P(EPI-DMA) was related to the treatment target. Both charge neutralization and adsorption bridging effect played roles in the coagulation process of the composite PFC-P(EPI-DMA).

  3. Effect of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy on Cytokines, Hemorheology and Coagulation Function of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-ge YU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP on the cytokines, hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women. Methods: A total of 43 singleton pregnant women with ICP delivered in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, and 45 singleton healthy pregnant women accompanied by indications of cesarean section were selected as control group. Automatic Viscometer was used to detect the hematological indexes, Automatic Coagulometer to detect the indexes related to coagulation function and radioimmunoassay to determine the levels of cell inflammatory factors, and the pregnancy outcomes were closely observed. Results: The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12, interleukin-18 (IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, high and low shear rates of whole blood viscosity, hematokrit, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR in observation group were all dramatically higher than those in control group, and all the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01. There was no statistical significance between two groups with regard to prothrombin When compared with control group, the levels of D-dimer (D-D and fibrinogen (FIB in observation group increased dramatically (P<0.01, but platelet (PLT decreased markedly (P<0.01. The incidence of amniotic fluid pollution and premature delivery in observation group was higher than in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01, and that of fetal distress, neonatal asphyxia and low birth weight tended to be higher than in control group, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.05. Conclusion: Both the hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women with ICP manifest significantly high viscosity and hypercoagulability, and the release of cell inflammatory factors increases, which all exert adverse influence on pregnancy outcome. time (PT and activated

  4. Eosinophil cationic protein levels parallel coagulation activation in the blister fluid of patients with bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, A; Marzano, A V; Lorini, M; Balice, Y; Cugno, M

    2015-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease due to autoantibodies against two hemidesmosomal antigens, namely BP180 and BP230, and characterized by coagulation activation both at cutaneous and systemic levels. Skin-infiltrating eosinophils contribute to bulla formation and, upon activation, are supposed to initiate the coagulation cascade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the activation of eosinophils and coagulation are linked in BP. We evaluated the correlation between eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and concentrations of the prothrombotic markers F1 + 2 and D-dimer in blister fluid and blood samples of 30 BP patients. Thirty healthy subjects were used as normal controls. ECP, F1 + 2 and D-dimer plasma levels were significantly higher in BP patients than in normal subjects. A significant correlation was found between ECP plasma levels and blood eosinophil count (r = 0.54, P = 0.002). F1 + 2 plasma levels positively correlated with disease severity, expressed as the percentage of body surface area involved (r = 0.36, P = 0.048). A striking increase in ECP (288.8 ± 45.2 ng/mL), F1 + 2 (31 409.9 ± 2929.4 pmol/L) and D-dimer levels (342 798.3 ± 44 206 ng/mL) was found in blister fluid from BP patients. In blister fluid, ECP levels were significantly higher than in peripheral blood (P blister fluids from BP patients and correlate with markers of coagulation activation, supporting the view that eosinophils initiate the coagulation cascade at skin level. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on coagulation and anticoagulation systems in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Javan, Atefeh Ordoei; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Shahroodian, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Saffron showed some effects on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In a clinical trial with a limited number volunteers, saffron tablets influenced on bleeding time. In this study, the effect of saffron on plasma level of fibrinogen, factor VII (as coagulant agent), C and S protein (as anti-coagulant agent), PT and PTT in a larger sample size was evaluated. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study consisting of 1 week treatment with 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets. Sixty healthy volunteers (age range 20-50 years) were selected for the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 received placebo; Groups 2 and 3 received 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days (1 tablet per day). Before and after 7 days treatment and also 1 month after that, blood samples were taken. The plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, C and S protein, PT and PTT were evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no difference between groups for any of evaluated factors. This study rejected any effect of saffron with dose of 200 and 400 mg for 1 week on coagulant and anticoagulant system.

  6. Enhanced coagulation for turbidity and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal from river Kansawati water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sumit; Goel, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimum coagulant doses for turbidity and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal and evaluate the extent to which TOC can be removed by enhanced coagulation. Jar tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine optimum doses of alum for the removal of turbidity and Natural Organic Matter (NOM) from river water. Various other water quality parameters were measured before and after thejar tests and included: UV Absorbance (UVA) at 254 nm, microbial concentrations, TDS, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, and pH. The optimum alum dose for removal of turbidity and TOC was 20 mg/L for the sample collected in November 2009 and 100 mg/L for the sample collected in March 2010. In both cases, the dose for enhanced coagulation was significantly higher than that for conventional coagulation. The gain in TOC removal was insignificant compared to the increase in coagulant dose required. This is usual for low TOC (TOC need to be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of enhanced coagulation.

  7. Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayon, S; Noor, M J Megat Mohd; Asma, M; Ghani, L A Abdul; Thamer, A M; Azni, I; Ahmad, J; Khor, B C; Suleyman, A M

    2006-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.

  8. Effect of coagulation and flocculation conditions on water quality in an immersed ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M E; Zhao, N; Gora, S L; Gagnon, G A

    2009-08-01

    The removal of natural organic matter under variable coagulation and flocculation pretreatment conditions was evaluated for three surface waters in an immersed ultrafiltration (UF) process. Coagulation with alum, flocculation and UF treatment were conducted in a bench-scale test apparatus designed to simulate pilot- and full-scale water treatment systems. Variable coagulation and flocculation operating conditions were investigated, including coagulant dose, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and mixing intensity (e.g. velocity gradient). Treatment performance was evaluated by measuring specific water quality parameters in the permeate stream, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and true colour. Coagulant dose was found to be the most important variable for treatment performance with regard to permeate water quality, with significantly lower alum dosages required to achieve enhanced coagulation water quality targets than conventional filtration systems. Experiments conducted to evaluate variable flocculation stage HRT and applied velocity gradient demonstrated that traditional set points for these operating variables, applied in conventional filtration systems, may not be required in UF systems. In particular, optimized UF permeate water quality was found with reduced flocculation retention times (e.g. process tank during operation was also evaluated. The use of air scour, tested as an intermittent operation at an applied velocity gradient of 50 s(-1) was found to significantly reduce DOC concentrations and UV254 measurements in the UF permeate stream when compared with UF operations without air scour.

  9. Spectroscopic investigations of plasma nitriding processes: A comparative study using steel and carbon as active screen materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Biermann, H.; Röpcke, J.

    2017-04-01

    Low-pressure pulsed DC H2-N2 plasmas were investigated in the laboratory active screen plasma nitriding monitoring reactor, PLANIMOR, to compare the usage of two different active screen electrodes: (i) a steel screen with the additional usage of CH4 as carbon containing precursor in the feeding gas and (ii) a carbon screen without the usage of any additional gaseous carbon precursor. Applying the quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy, the evolution of the concentration of four stable molecular species, NH3, HCN, CH4, and C2H2, has been monitored. The concentrations were found to be in a range of 1012-1016 molecules cm-3. By analyzing the development of the molecular concentrations at variations of the screen plasma power, a similar behavior of the monitored reaction products has been found for both screen materials, with NH3 and HCN as the main reaction products. When using the carbon screen, the concentration of HCN and C2H2 was 30 and 70 times higher, respectively, compared to the usage of the steel screen with an admixture of 1% CH4. Considering the concentration of the three detected hydrocarbon reaction products, a combustion rate of the carbon screen of up to 69 mg h-1 has been found. The applied optical emission spectroscopy enabled the determination of the rotational temperature of the N2+ ion which has been in a range of 650-900 K increasing with the power in a similar way in the plasma of both screens. Also with power the ionic component of nitrogen molecules, represented by the N2+ (0-0) band of the first negative system, as well as the CN (0-0) band of the violet system increase strongly in relation to the intensity of the neutral nitrogen component, i.e., the N2 (0-0) band of the second positive system. In addition, steel samples have been treated with both the steel and the carbon screen resulting in a formation of a compound layer of up to 10 wt. % nitrogen and 10 wt. % carbon, respectively, depending on the screen material.

  10. Optical changes of porcine brain tissue after thermal coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Goldbach, Thomas; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Ulrich, Frank; Bettag, Martin; Kahn, Thomas; Kaufmann, Raimund

    1995-05-01

    Porcine brain tissue is a model for human brain structures in laser induced thermo-therapy. However, its optical properties including possible heat-related changes were basically unknown so far. To simulate laser coagulation, 12 specimens (6 grey and 6 white matter) were heated in a saline bath (80°C, 2 hours) and compared to 11 untreated samples (5 grey and 6 white matter). The optical constants were obtained from transmission (total and collimated) and reflection (diffuse) measurements using the inverse Monte-Carlo method. The absorption coefficient ((mu) a) of untreated grey substance decreased from 0.35 +/- 0.06/mm (340 nm) to 0.03 +/- 0.02/mm (800 nm). The scattering coefficient ((mu) s) varied between 20.42 +/- 3.65/mm (340 nm) and 6.85 +/- 2.07/mm (800 nm). The anisotropy factor (g) increased from 0.848 +/- 0.013 (340 nm) to 0.889 +/- 0.009 (800 nm). Coagulation increased (mu) a up to a factor of 2 (340-540 nm; p Coagulation increased (mu) a by a factor up to 2 (340-800 nm; all data p < 0.05) while (mu) s and g remained unchanged. Thermal denaturation changes the absorption and scattering properties of porcine brain significantly.

  11. The use of argon beam coagulation in pressure sore reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Donald W; Lewis, Victor L

    2009-12-01

    Pressure sores are a significant source of physical and financial burden for debilitated patients. When conservative measures fail, surgical reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps may be the last hope for cure and/or improved quality of life in these patients. Adequate haemostasis is an integral component of these reconstructive procedures, as bleeding and haematoma formation can lead to increased morbidity. This study was designed to investigate the use of argon beam coagulation in patients undergoing bony debridement and subsequent pressure sore reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps. The clinical records of 34 patients undergoing pressure sore reconstruction with the use of argon beam coagulation from 2004 to 2006 at an academic institution were reviewed and outcomes were assessed. Reconstruction was performed by a single surgeon on 34 patients (31 men, three women; mean age 41+/-15 years), with a total of 41 pressure sores. Thirteen (32.5%) patients had evidence of osteomyelitis preoperatively and five (12.5%) had previous coccygectomies secondary to infection. Twenty-six (65%) of the pressure sores were treated with hamstring V-Y musculocutaneous flaps, 10 (25%) with gluteal flaps, and four (10%) with tensor fascia lata flaps. Overall, suture line dehiscence occurred in six (15%) cases, flap failure and pressure sore recurrence occurred in six (15%) cases, an abscess developed in one (2.5%) case, and a sinus tract with a superficial wound developed in one (2.5%) case. There were no complications related to haemostasis, including excessive bleeding or haematoma formation. Argon beam coagulation is an efficacious tool for achieving adequate haemostasis during pressure sore reconstruction, particularly when significant bony debridement is involved. The use of argon beam coagulation does not result in an increased complication or recurrence rate when compared with conventional electrocautery methods.

  12. Thrombelastographic evaluation of the influence of 2-RBC apheresis on donor's coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Olga Meltem; Karagulle, Mustafa; Kus, Gokhan; Mutlu, Fezan Sahın; Gunduz, Eren

    2013-06-01

    Rotation thrombelastogram (ROTEM®/TEG®) assays allow rapid global assessment of hemostatic function using whole blood. Since published data about the effects of automated red cell collection on coagulation system are scarce, we aimed to investigate the effects of 2-RBC apheresis on donor's coagulation system using ROTEM® assays. In INTEM assay, CFT was significantly shortened 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (papheresis and 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (papheresis and 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (p=0.001 and papheresis compared with baseline value (papheresis.

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetics of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate in rat plasma and extracellular fluid of brain after intranasal, intragastric and intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Meng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP in plasma and extracellular fluid of the cerebral cortex of rats via three delivery routes: intranasal (i.n., intragastric (i.g. and intravenous (i.v. administration. After i.n., i.g. and i.v. administration of a single-dose at 10 mg/kg, cerebral cortex dialysates and plasma samples drawn from the carotid artery were collected at timed intervals. The concentration of TMPP in the samples was analyzed by HPLC. The area under the concentration–time curve (AUC and the ratio of the AUCbrain to the AUCplasma (drug targeting efficiency, DTE was calculated to evaluate the brain targeting efficiency of the drug via these different routes of administration. After i.n. administration, TMPP was rapidly absorbed to reach its peak plasma concentration within 5 min and showed a delayed uptake into cerebral cortex (tmax=15 min. The ratio of the AUCbrain dialysates value between i.n. route and i.v. injection was 0.68, which was greater than that obtained after i.g. administration (0.43. The systemic bioavailability obtained with i.n. administration was greater than that obtained by the i.g. route (86.33% vs. 50.39%, whereas the DTE of the nasal route was 78.89%, close to that of oral administration (85.69%. These results indicate that TMPP is rapidly absorbed from the nasal mucosa into the systemic circulation, and then crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB to reach the cerebral cortex. Intranasal administration of TMPP could be a promising alternative to intravenous and oral approaches.

  14. Comparison of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine with other cationic organic polymers as coagulation aids of polyferric chloride in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shenglei; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Ruihua; Song, Wen; Bu, Fan; Zhao, Shuang; Jia, Ruibao; Song, Wuchang

    2016-04-15

    Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) copolymer was acquired by polycondensation of hazardous reagents: epichlorohydrin (analytical reagent, A.R.) and dimethylamine (A.R.) with ethanediamine (A.R.) as cross-linker. Its coagulation and membrane performance as coagulation aid of polyferric chloride (PFC) was evaluated by comparing with other two cationic coagulation aids: poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) in humic acid-kaolin (HA-Kaolin) simulated water treatment. Firstly, optimum dosages of PFC&DAM-ECH, PFC&PDMDAAC and PFC&PAM were identified according to their coagulation performance. Then their impacts (under optimum dosages) on membrane fouling of regenerated cellulose (RC) ultra-membrane disc in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were reviewed. Results revealed that small addition of DAM-ECH was the effective on turbidity and DOC removal polymer. Furthermore, in the following ultra-filtration process, external membrane fouling resistance was demonstrated to be the dominant portion of the total membrane fouling resistance under all circumstances. Meanwhile, the internal membrane fouling resistance was determined by residual of micro-particles(1) that cannot be intercepted by cake layer or ultrafiltration membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of valsartan combined with beraprost sodium on renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury in patients with hypertension and early renal damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of valsartan combined with beraprost sodium on renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury in patients with hypertension and early renal damage.Method:A total of 200 patients with hypertension and early renal damage were divided into observation group (n=97) (received valsartan combined with beraprost sodium therapy) and control group (n=103) (received valsartan therapy alone) according to different treatment methods. Differences in renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury index levels were compared between the two groups after treatment. Results: Eight weeks after treatment, CysC,β2-MG, Fib, D-D, MPV contents in plasma and UACR,α1-MG, NAG contents in urine of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, ATIII contents in plasma were significantly higher than that of control group; lower limb artery Vmax value of observation group was significantly higher than those of control group, carotid artery IMT value lower limb artery RI, FMD and NMD value were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions: Valsartan combined with beraprost sodium can protect the renal function and avoid further disease progression in patients with hypertension and early renal damage, and it is an ideal solution to disease treatment.

  16. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  17. [Comparative study on animal model of acute Achilles tendon rupture with surgical treatment using platelet-rich plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, J C; Vásquez, C R; Ceja, C B; Fuentes, C C E; Sesma, J F; Benítez, A G

    2012-01-01

    To compare the functional and histologicalal course of two animal model groups with acute Achilles tendon tears using platelet rich plasma. An open clinical trial was conducted with dogs donated by the animal facility of the Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP, for its acronym in Spanish). Dogs were divided into 2 groups: a control group and a problem group. Intentional surgical Achilles tendon tear was performed to them. The Krackow technique was used to repair the tendon and the control group received platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a clot; the other group did not receive PRP. The dogs were seen at 4 weeks to check functionality using the Farell and Schwarz scale to assess the degree of limping. They were sacrificed at week 5; the tendons were removed and sent to the histopathology lab. Functionality results according to the Farell and Schwarz scale showed grades I and II in the problem group, and grades IV and V in the control group. Histologically, the problem group showed moderate vascular proliferation and abundant fibroblastic proliferation. The control group had mild to moderate vascular proliferation and moderate fibroblastic proliferation. PRP improves tendon healing and this has repercussions on functional recovery.

  18. IMPACT OF OBESITY ON ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duburcq, Thibault; Tournoys, Antoine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Hubert, Thomas; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercé

    2015-10-01

    An early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occurs during sepsis, leading to the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Obesity has been demonstrated to be a hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state, but its impact on DIC has never been studied. In this study, we aimed to determine if obesity impairs DIC in an acute endotoxic shock model using minipigs. This was a prospective, comparative, and experimental ancillary study approved by the Animal Ethics Committee. Pigs were chosen as a clinically relevant species, resembling humans in coagulation reactions. Four groups of five "Yucatan" minipigs were studied: lean and obese control groups, a lean lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group receiving Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS), and an obese LPS group receiving the same endotoxin dose. We measured standard coagulation parameters (prothrombin time [PT], platelet count, and fibrinogen levels), thrombin-antithrombin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. All measurements were performed at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 min. Results were given as median with interquartile ranges. At baseline, platelet count (477 [428 - 532] G/L vs. 381 [307 - 442] G/L; P = 0.005) and fibrinogen levels (4.6 [3.8 - 5.2] g/L vs. 2 [1.8 - 2.9] g/L; P coagulation parameters (PT, platelet count, and fibrinogen levels) and the increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes (581 [382 - 1,057] μg/mL vs. 247 [125 - 369] μg/mL at 150 min; P = 0.03) were significantly more important in the obese LPS group compared with those in the lean LPS group. Concerning the fibrinolytic reaction, we found a slightly more elevated increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the obese LPS group at 300 min (481 [365 - 617] ng/mL vs. 355 [209 - 660] ng/mL; P = 0.66). In our model of endotoxic shock, obese pigs developed a more severe DIC with a more severe procoagulant response.

  19. Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom Variations between Boomslang (Dispholidus typus and Twig Snake (Thelotornis mossambicanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Debono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus and the twig snakes (Thelotornis species are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D. typus, and the mechanisms of action of both venoms have been understudied. In this study, we investigated the venom of D. typus and T. mossambicanus utilising a range of proteomic and bioactivity approaches, including determining the procoagulant properties of both venoms in relation to the human coagulation pathways. In doing so, we developed a novel procoagulant assay, utilising a Stago STA-R Max analyser, to accurately detect real time clotting in plasma at varying concentrations of venom. This approach was used to assess the clotting capabilities of the two venoms both with and without calcium and phospholipid co-factors. We found that T. mossambicanus produced a significantly stronger coagulation response compared to D. typus. Functional enzyme assays showed that T. mossambicanus also exhibited a higher metalloprotease and phospholipase activity but had a much lower serine protease activity relative to D. typus venom. The neutralising capability of the available boomslang antivenom was also investigated on both species, with it being 11.3 times more effective upon D. typus venom than T. mossambicanus. In addition to being a faster clotting venom, T. mossambicanus was revealed to be a much more complex venom composition than D. typus. This is consistent with patterns seen for other snakes with venom complexity linked to dietary complexity. Consistent with the

  20. Postoperative bleeding in a patient with normal screening coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Eva; Anvari, Reza; D'cunha, Nicholas; Thaxton, Lauren; Malik, Asim; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A 54-year-old man was brought to the emergency room after a head-on collision. He had multiple fractures in his lower extremities and required immediate surgery. After surgery, the patient had a persistent drop in hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets despite red blood cell transfusions. Laboratory studies included normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, normal plasminogen functional activity, negative antiplatelet antibodies, normal platelet functional analysis and negative disseminated intravascular coagulation screen. Factor XIII antigen levels were 25% of predicted, and the diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was made. The patient was treated with cryoprecipitate, and the bleeding stopped. Patients with factor XIII deficiency have either a rare congenital or acquired coagulation disorder. Both presentations have normal standard laboratory clotting tests, and the diagnosis requires an assay measuring factor XIII activity or antigen levels. The usual treatment includes cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma or recombinant factor XIII. This deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained spontaneous, traumatic or postoperative bleeding.

  1. Coagulation profile, gene expression and bioinformatics characterization of coagulation factor X of striped murrel Channa striatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, Abirami; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2016-08-01

    A transcriptome wide analysis of the constructed cDNA library of snakehead murrel Channa striatus revealed a full length cDNA sequence of coagulation factor X. Sequence analysis of C. striatus coagulation factor X (CsFX) showed that the cDNA contained 1232 base pairs (bp) comprising 1209 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF region encodes 424 amino acids with a molecular mass of 59 kDa. The polypeptide contains γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) rich domain and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) like domains including EGF-CA domain and serine proteases trypsin signature profile. CsFX exhibited the maximum similarity with fish species such as Stegastes partitus (78%), Poecilia formosa (76%) and Cynoglossus semilaevis (74%). Phylogenetically, CsFX is clustered together with the fish group belonging to Actinopterygii. Secondary structure of factor X includes alpha helix 28.54%, extended strand 20.75%, beta turn 7.78% and random coil 42.92%. A predicted 3D model of CsFX revealed a short α-helix and a Ca(2+) (Gla domain) binding site in the coil. Four disulfide bridges were found in serine protease trypsin profile. Obviously, the highest gene expression (P < 0.05) was noticed in blood. Further, the changes in expression of CsFX was observed after inducing with bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) and fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) infections and other synthetic immune stimulants. Variation in blood clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated prothromboplastin time (APTT) was analyzed and compared between healthy and bacterial infected fishes. During infection, PT and APTT showed a declined clotting time due to the raised level of thrombocytes.

  2. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography and standard coagulation assays in cyanotic and acyanotic infants undergoing complex cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Alessandra; Ricci, Zaccaria; Pezzella, Chiara; Favia, Isabella; Di Felice, Giovina; Ranucci, Marco; Cogo, Paola

    2017-02-01

    Several studies report the use of thromboelatography (TEG) to monitor coagulation in pediatric cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare baseline and intraoperative TEG, TEG-functional fibrinogen, and standard coagulation assays in children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiac surgery. This is a prospective observational study of 63 children aged <24 months undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Exclusion criteria included preoperative anticoagulant therapy and hepatic failure. We collected blood at anesthesia induction (T1), at lowest temperature after CPB start (T2), and after heparin neutralization (T3). Coagulation was evaluated by TEG (reaction time [R]), k, alpha-angle, maximum amplitude (MA), MA-fibrinogen (MA-fib), and by standard coagulation assays (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen level, platelet [PLT] count). Sixty-three patients were enrolled (38 cyanotic and 25 acyanotic). Median age was 4 [IQR 2-6] months and median weight was 5 [IQR 3.7-6.5] kg. Most common surgeries were: ventricular septal defect repair (n = 13), Fallot correction (n = 11), and arterial switch operation (n = 10). Cyanotic and acyanotic children were well matched: R, k, MA, and MA-fib at T1, T2, and T3 were not significantly different between cyanotic and acyanotic children. At T2, significant correlations were showed between MA and PLT count (r = 0.4; P = 0.0008) and k and plasma fibrinogen level (r = -0.54; P < 0.0001). At T3, significant correlations were showed between MA and PLT count (r = 0.5; P < 0.0001), G and PLT count (r = 0.6; P < 0.0001), and MA-fib and plasma fibrinogen level (r = 0.5; P = 0.002). According to our findings, cyanosis does not affect TEG parameters in children with CHD. PLT count and plasma fibrinogen significantly correlated (are significantly associated) with MA and MA-fib respectively, suggesting that use of TEG

  3. EVALUATION OF FERRIC CHLORIDE AND ALUM EFFICIENCIES IN ENHANCED COAGULATION FOR TOC REMOVAL AND RELATED RESIDUAL METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia, M. T. Rafiee, F. Vaezi and A. H. Mahvi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the removal of colloidal particles continues to be an important reason for using coagulation, a newer objective, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs, is growing in importance. Enhanced coagulation is thus introduced to most water utilities treating surface water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of alum and ferric chloride in removing DBPs precursors from eight synthetic water samples, each representing a different element of the USEPA’s 3×3 enhanced coagulation matrix. The effect of enhanced coagulation on the residual metal (aluminum/iron concentration in the treated water was assessed as well. The removal of total organic carbon (TOC was dependent on the coagulant type and was enhanced with increasing coagulant dose, but the latter had no further considerable effect in case of increasing to high levels. For all the treated samples coagulation with ferric chloride proved to be more effective than alum at similar doses and the mean values of treatment efficiencies were 51% and 32% for ferric chloride and alum, respectively. Ferric chloride was therefore considered the better chemical for enhancing the coagulation process. Besides, due to less production of sludge by this coagulant, it would be predicted that treatment plants would be confronted to fewer problems with respect to final sludge disposal. Measurements of residual metal in treated water indicated that iron and aluminum concentrations had been increased as expected but the quality of water concerning the residual metal deteriorated much more in cases of under-dosing. Despite expecting high residual Al and Fe concentrations under enhanced coagulation, metal concentrations were frequently remained low and were not increased appreciably.

  4. Treatment of Epilepsy with Bipolar Electro-coagulation: An Analysis of Cortical Blood Flow and Histological Change in Temporal Lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Cui; Guo-Ming Luan; Jian Zhou; Feng Zhai; Yu-Guang Guan; Min Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Bipolar electro-coagulation has a reported efficacy in treating epilepsy involving functional cortex by pure electro-coagulation or combination with resection.However,the mechanisms of bipolar electro-coagulation are not completely known.We studied the acute cortical blood flow and histological changes after bipolar electro-coagulation in 24 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.Methods:Twenty-four patients were consecutively enrolled,and divided into three groups according to the date of admission.The regional cortical blood flow (rCBF),electrocorticography,the depth of cortex damage,and acute histological changes (H and E staining,neuronal staining and neurofilament (NF) staining) were analyzed before and after the operation.The t-test analysis was used to compare the rCBF before and after the operation.Results:The rCBF after coagulation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05).The spikes were significantly reduced after electro-coagulation.For the temporal cortex,the depth of cortical damage with output power of 2-9 W after electro-coagulation was 0.34 ± 0.03,0.48 ± 0.06,0.69 ± 0.06,0.84 ± 0.09,0.98 ± 0.08,1.10 ± 0.1 l,1.11 ± 0.09,and 1.22 ± 0.11 mm,respectively.Coagulation with output power of 4-5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer,external granular layer,and external pyramidal layer.Conclusions:The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein,but also reduced the rCBF.We concluded that the injuries caused by electro-coagulation would prevent horizontal synchronization and spread of epileptic discharges,and partially destroy the epileptic focus.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which systemic activation of coagulation without a specific localization occurs, resulting in extensive formation of intravascular fibrin, particularly in small and midsize vessels. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may lead to several altered coagulation parameters, including a low platelet count, abnormal global clotting assays, low levels of physiological anticoagulant proteases, or increased fibrin degradation products. Also, more complex assays for activation of coagulation factors or pathways may indicate involvement of these molecules in DIC. None of these tests alone, however, can accurately ascertain or rebuff a diagnosis of DIC. Nonetheless, a combination of readily available routine assays may be instrumental in establishing a diagnosis of DIC and can also be useful to point to a subset of patients with DIC that may need definite, often costly, interventions in the hemostatic system. Current insights on relevant etiological pathways that may contribute to the occurrence of DIC have led to innovative therapeutic and adjunctive approaches to patient with DIC. Management options directed at the amelioration of hemostatic activation may tentatively be indicated and were found to be advantageous in experimental and clinical investigations. These treatments encompass elimination of tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation or restitution of normal anticoagulant function.

  6. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya, E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  7. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by