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Sample records for plasma 11-deoxycorticosterone doc

  1. Plasma 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and mineralocorticoid receptor testicular expression during rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss spermiation: implication with 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone on the milt fluidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Sylvain; Terrien, Xavier; Sturm, Armin; Ibrahim, Fidaa; Giton, Franck; Fiet, Jean; Prunet, Patrick; Le Gac, Florence

    2008-05-19

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the endocrine control of spermiation is not fully understood. Besides 11ketotestosterone (11KT) and 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (MIS), the potential physiological ligand of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), is a credible candidate in O. mykiss spermiation regulation as spermiation is accompanied with changes in aqueous and ionic flows. In this study, we investigated potential roles of DOC during spermiation 1) by describing changes in blood plasma DOC level, MR mRNA abundance during the reproductive cycle and MR localization in the reproductive tract 2) by investigating and comparing the effects of DOC (10 mg/kg) and MIS (5 mg/kg) supplementations on sperm parameters 3) by measuring the in vitro effect of DOC on testis MIS production. The plasma concentration of DOC increased rapidly at the end of the reproductive cycle to reach levels that were 10-50 fold higher in mature males than in immature fish. MR mRNA relative abundance was lower in maturing testes when compared to immature testes, but increased rapidly during the spermiation period, immediately after the plasma rise in DOC. At this stage, immunohistochemistry localized MR protein to cells situated at the periphery of the seminiferous tubules and in the efferent ducts. Neither DOC nor MIS had significant effects on the mean sperm volume, although MIS treatment significantly increased the percentage of males producing milt. However, a significant reduction in the spermatocrit was observed when DOC and MIS were administrated together. Finally, we detected an inhibitory effect of DOC on testis MIS production in vitro. These results are in agreement with potential roles of DOC and MR during spermiation and support the hypothesis that DOC and MIS mechanisms of action are linked during this reproductive stage, maybe controlling milt fluidity. They also confirm that in O. mykiss MIS is involved in spermiation induction.

  2. Measurement of plasma 11-deoxycorticosterone levels by radioimmunoassay in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, Soitsu; Nakajima, Katsuo; Takenouchi, Takahiko; Nishisato, Koji

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay procedure has been developed to measure 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in human peripheral plasma. DOC-oxime was coupled with porcine gamma globulin and antibodies produced in rabbits. One to 3 ml of plasma, with 1, 2 3 H-DOC added for recovery, was extracted with dichloromethane and purification achieved by a silica gel column and by one paper chromatograph. After overnight incubation of the antibody-steroid mixture at 4 0 C, bound and free fractions were separated using ammonium sulfate. The mean recovery of 3 H-DOC, after extraction and chromatography, was 84.6 +- 7.4%. The method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. Normal plasma DOC levels were found to be 4.4 +- 2.5 ng/100 ml (n=8). Plasma DOC levels were almost normal (0.3 - 26.8 ng/100 ml) in fifteen patients with benign essential hypertension. The mean level of 8.1 +- 8.2 ng/100 ml obtained in hypertensive patients with suppressed plasma renin activity, was not significantly different from normal. Plasma DOC showed a high level, 3.0 - 30.5 (11.4 +- 7.5) ng/100 ml, in 9 patients with primary aldosteronism. Four out of 8 patients with Cushing's syndrome were found to have elevated plasma DOC levels. Higher levels of 21.2 +- 15.8 ng/100 ml were found in 5 patients with adrenal hyperplasia than those of 12.3 +- 8.0 ng/100 ml in 3 with adrenal adenoma. Plasma DOC levels were high, 113 - 176 ng/100 ml, in 2 patients with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. ACTH administered to 5 subjects produced a mean increase in plasma DOC from 4.8 to 25.8 ng/100 ml. Angiotensin II infused at a rate of 10 ng/kg/min for 30 min into 4 subjects did not increase mean plasma DOC. Similarly, dietary sodium restriction or postural change did not increase plasma DOC. (auth.)

  3. First evidence of the possible implication of the 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in immune activity of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.): comparison with cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cédric; Milla, Sylvain; Mandiki, S N M; Douxfils, Jessica; Douny, Caroline; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Kestemont, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Cortisol, the main corticosteroid in fish, is frequently described as a modulator of fish immune system. Moreover, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) was shown to bind and transcriptionally activate the mineralocorticoid receptor and may act as a mineralocorticoid in fish. Immune modulations induced by intraperitoneal injections of these two corticosteroids were assessed in Eurasian perch juveniles. Cortisol and DOC were injected at 0.8 mg kg(-1) and 0.08 mg kg(-1) body weight respectively. Cortisol increased plasma lysozyme activity 72 h post-injection, C-type lysozyme expression in spleen from 1 to 72 h post-injection, and favoured blood neutrophils at the expense of a mixture of lymphocytes and thrombocytes. Moreover, 6 h after injection, cortisol reduced expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in spleen. DOC had no effects on the immune variables measured in plasma, but increased expression levels of C-type lysozyme and apolipoprotein A1 mRNA in both gills and spleen. Meanwhile, DOC stimulated its putative signalling pathway by increasing expression of mineralocorticoid receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 in spleen. These results confirmed the role of cortisol as an innate, short term immune stimulator. For the first time, DOC is described as a possible immune stimulator in fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of plasma 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and its response to ACTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, C.N.; Lewis, P.S.; Horth, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for 18-OH-DOC in plasma was developed using an antiserum raised against the γ-lactone derivative. The steroids with the greatest degree of cross reaction were 18-OH-corticosterone-γ-lactone and aldosterone-γ-lactone which showed cross-reactivities of 1.96% and 0.47% respectively. These and other interfering steroids were eliminated by chromatography of the extracts on columns of Sephadex LH-20. The lowest limit of detection of 18-OH-DOC in 1 ml of plasma corresponded to 33 pmol -1 . The intra-assay precision was 9.7, 4.8 and 2.6% at 102.0, 316.1 and 1144.0 pmol l -1 respectively and the interassay precision was 15.3 and 5.4% at 71.3 and 404.7 pmol l -1 respectively. The concentration of 18-OH-DOC in ten normal subjects was 172.1 +- 39.1 pmol l -1 at 09.00 h, 100.9 +- 16.9 pmol l -1 at 12.00 h and 95.8 +-33.3 pmol l -1 at 16.30 h. Plasma 18-OH-DOC and cortisol levels were measured after various intravenous doses of ACTH in three patients with essential hypertension. Lower doses of ACTH caused considerably greater increases in 18-OH-DOC. These results confirm the ACTH dependency of 18-OH-DOC secretion. (author)

  5. Differential effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone on ion transport protein mRNA levels in gills of two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borski, Russell J; Madsen, Steffen S

    2011-04-01

    The role of cortisol as the only corticosteroid in fish osmoregulation has recently been challenged with the discovery of a mineralocorticoid-like hormone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and necessitates new studies of the endocrinology of osmoregulation in fish. Using an in vitro gill explant incubation approach, DOC-mediated regulation of selected osmoregulatory target genes in the gill was investigated and compared with that of cortisol in two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The effects were tested in gills from both fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated fish. Both cortisol and DOC caused an up-regulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit in SW-acclimated tilapia but had no effect in FW-acclimated fish. Cortisol conferred an increase in Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1a transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated tilapia, whereas DOC had a stimulatory effect only in SW-acclimated fish. Cortisol had no effect on NKCC isoform 1b mRNA levels at both salinities, while DOC stimulated this isoform in SW-acclimated fish. In striped bass, cortisol conferred an up-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 and NKCC transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, whereas DOC resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts in FW-acclimated fish. It was also found that both corticosteroids may rapidly (30 min) alter the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway in gill, inducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in a salinity-dependent manner. The study shows a disparate organisation of corticosteroid signalling mechanisms involved in ion regulation in the two species and adds new evidence to a role of DOC as a mineralocorticoid hormone in teleosts.

  6. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  7. Doc Immelman

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Baarde, briewe en barmhartigheid (2013) verskyn as 'n laaste saluut aan die Namibiese skrywer,. Doc Immelman, ná sy dood in Maart 2013. Hierdie rubriekbundel is Immelman se twee- de versameling rubrieke ná Ruacana tot Rosh. Pinah (2011). Daniel Ferdinand (Doc) Immel- man was onder meer 'n rubriekskrywer, dig-.

  8. The two faces of DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Al-Reasi, H A; Smith, D Scott

    2011-10-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), through its ability to complex metals and thereby reduce their bioavailability, plays a major role in ameliorating metal toxicity in natural waters. Indeed DOC is a key variable in the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) for predicting metal toxicity on a site-specific basis. However, recent evidence indicates that all DOCs are not alike, but rather heterogeneous in their ability to protect organisms against metal toxicity, at least in fresh water. The degree of protection appears to correlate with optical properties, such that dark, aromatic-rich compounds of allochthonous origin, with greater humic acid content, are more effective in this regard, particularly against Cu, Ag, and Pb toxicity. The specific absorption coefficient of the DOC in the 300-350nm range (SAC(300-350)) has proven to be a simple and effective index of this protective ability. PARAFAC, a multivariate statistical technique for analysis of excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy data, also holds promise for quantifying the humic-like and fulvic-like fluorophores, which tend to be positively and negatively correlated with protective ability, respectively. However, what has been largely missing in the toxicological realm is any appreciation that DOC may also affect the physiology of target organisms, such that part of the protection may occur by a mechanism other than metal complexation. Recently published evidence demonstrates that DOC has effects on Na(+) transport, diffusive permeability, and electrical properties of the gills in fish and crustaceans in a manner which will promote Na(+) homeostasis. These actions could thereby protect against metal toxicity by physiological mechanisms. Future research should investigate potential direct interactions of DOC molecules with the branchial epithelium. Incorporation of optical properties of DOC could be used to improve the predictive capabilities of the BLM. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  10. DocSaludMental en netvibes

    OpenAIRE

    Onís, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    DocSaludMental es un escritorio virtual que, a partir de la plataforma netvibes, permite el acceso a información especializada y actualizada mediante la sindicación de contenidos a todos los profesionales de la red de salud mental en el Principado de Asturias DocSaludMental is a virtual desktop that allows access to expert information and updated from content syndication to all professionals in the mental health network in the Principality of Asturias

  11. Crystallization of Doc and the Phd–Doc toxin–antitoxin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa; Gazit, Ehud; Magnuson, Roy David; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of bacteriophage P1 Doc were grown in the free state, in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd and in complex with full-length Phd. The phd/doc addiction system is responsible for the stable inheritance of lysogenic bacteriophage P1 in its plasmidic form in Escherichia coli and is the archetype of a family of bacterial toxin–antitoxin modules. The His66Tyr mutant of Doc (Doc H66Y ) was crystallized in space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 53.1, b = 198.0, c = 54.1 Å, β = 93.0°. These crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and probably contained four dimers of Doc in the asymmetric unit. Doc H66Y in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd (Phd 52-73Se ) was crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.1, b = 38.6, c = 63.3 Å, β = 99.3°, and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. Crystals of the complete wild-type Phd–Doc complex belonged to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, had an elongated unit cell with dimensions a = b = 48.9, c = 354.9 Å and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation

  12. Radiocarbon in marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercq, M. le; Plicht, J. van der; Meijer, H.A.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) plays an important role in the ecology and carbon cycle in the ocean. Analytical problems with concentration and isotope ratio measurements have hindered its study. We have constructed a new analytical method based on supercritical oxidation for the determination of

  13. Crystallization of Doc and the Phd-Doc toxin-antitoxin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa; Gazit, Ehud; Magnuson, Roy David; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2008-11-01

    The phd/doc addiction system is responsible for the stable inheritance of lysogenic bacteriophage P1 in its plasmidic form in Escherichia coli and is the archetype of a family of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules. The His66Tyr mutant of Doc (Doc(H66Y)) was crystallized in space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.1, b = 198.0, c = 54.1 A, beta = 93.0 degrees . These crystals diffracted to 2.5 A resolution and probably contained four dimers of Doc in the asymmetric unit. Doc(H66Y) in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd (Phd(52-73Se)) was crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.1, b = 38.6, c = 63.3 A, beta = 99.3 degrees , and diffracted to 1.9 A resolution. Crystals of the complete wild-type Phd-Doc complex belonged to space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, had an elongated unit cell with dimensions a = b = 48.9, c = 354.9 A and diffracted to 2.4 A resolution using synchrotron radiation.

  14. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (DOC) is... United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to...

  15. 48 CFR 1329.203-70 - DOC Federal tax exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOC Federal tax exemption... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 1329.203-70 DOC Federal tax exemption. (a) The Office of... enabling DOC and its contractors to purchase spirits (e.g., specially denatured spirits) tax-free for non...

  16. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently serveral research institutions worldwide undertake considerable efforts to have their scientific datasets published and to syndicate them to data portals as extensively described objects identified by a persistent identifier. This is done to foster the reuse of data, to make scientific work more transparent, and to create a citable entity that can be referenced unambigously in written publications. GFZ Potsdam established a publishing workflow for file based research datasets. Key software components are an eSciDoc infrastructure [1] and multiple instances of the data curation tool panMetaDocs [2]. The eSciDoc repository holds data objects and their associated metadata in container objects, called eSciDoc items. A key metadata element in this context is the publication status of the referenced data set. PanMetaDocs, which is based on PanMetaWorks [3], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based metadata schema. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. Access rights can be applied to set visibility of datasets to other project members and allow collaboration on and notifying about datasets (RSS) and interaction with the internal messaging system, that was inherited from panMetaWorks. When a dataset is to be published, panMetaDocs allows to change the publication status of the eSciDoc item from status "private" to "submitted" and prepare the dataset for verification by an external reviewer. After quality checks, the item publication status can be changed to "published". This makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. PanMetaDocs is developed as an eSciDoc application. It is an easy to use graphical user interface to eSciDoc items, their data and metadata. It is also an application supporting a DOI publication agent during the process of

  17. Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Preparation for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Lawrence, B.; Guilyardi, E.; Pascoe, C.; Treshanksy, A.; Elkington, M.; Hibling, E.; Hassell, D.

    2015-12-01

    During the course of 2015 the Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project began its preparations for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 6) by further extending the ES-DOC tooling ecosystem in support of Earth System Model (ESM) documentation creation, search, viewing & comparison. The ES-DOC online questionnaire, the ES-DOC desktop notebook, and the ES-DOC python toolkit will serve as multiple complementary pathways to generating CMIP6 documentation. It is envisaged that institutes will leverage these tools at different points of the CMIP6 lifecycle. Institutes will be particularly interested to know that the documentation burden will be either streamlined or completely automated.As all the tools are tightly integrated with the ES-DOC web-service, institutes can be confident that the latency between documentation creation & publishing will be reduced to a minimum. Published documents will be viewable with the online ES-DOC Viewer (accessible via citable URL's). Model inter-comparison scenarios will be supported using the ES-DOC online Comparator tool. The Comparator is being extended to:• Support comparison of both Model descriptions & Simulation runs;• Greatly streamline the effort involved in compiling official tables.The entire ES-DOC ecosystem is open source and built upon open standards such as the Common Information Model (CIM) (versions 1 and 2).

  18. Radioimmunoassay of free urinary 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, J.; Gless, K.H.; Abdelhamid, S.; Vielhauer, W.; Vecsei, P.

    1978-01-01

    Specific antiserum was raised in white New Zealand rabbits using 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone-3-oxime-BSA complex as antigen. The urinary free 18-OH-DOC was estimated after dichloromethane extraction and separation in one paper chromatographic system (propylene glycol/toluene). The mean 18-OH-DOC excretion value (+-S.D.) in normal subjects was 0.861+-0.527 μg/24 h (n=23). ACTH produced a 25-fold increase in the excretion of free 18-OH-DOC. Dexamethasone suppressed the values to the lower range of sensitivity. 32% of patients of essential hypertension showed a moderate increase in the free urinary 18-OH-DOC values. The mean value (+-S.D.) in the low renin hypertension group was 2.50 +- 1.49 μg/24 h (n=19), in the normal renin patient group 1.84 +- 1.32 μg/24 h (n=38), and in the group with elevated plasma renin 1.61 +- 1.22 μg/24 h (n=8). The difference between controls and the hypertensive groups was statistically significant. Among the different hypertensive groups significant differences could not be calculated. (Auth.)

  19. Doc2B acts as a calcium sensor for vesicle priming requiring synaptotagmin-1, Munc13-2 and SNAREs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houy, Sébastien; Groffen, Alexander J; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Doc2B is a cytosolic protein with binding sites for Munc13 and Tctex-1 (dynein light chain), and two C2-domains that bind to phospholipids, Ca2+ and SNAREs. Whether Doc2B functions as a calcium sensor akin to synaptotagmins, or in other calcium-independent or calcium-dependent capacities is debated....... We here show by mutation and overexpression that Doc2B plays distinct roles in two sequential priming steps in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Mutating Ca2+-coordinating aspartates in the C2A-domain localizes Doc2B permanently at the plasma membrane, and renders an upstream priming step Ca2......+-independent, whereas a separate function in downstream priming depends on SNARE-binding, Ca2+-binding to the C2B-domain of Doc2B, interaction with ubMunc13-2 and the presence of synaptotagmin-1. Another function of Doc2B - inhibition of release during sustained calcium elevations - depends on an overlapping...

  20. Doc toxin is a kinase that inactivates elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W; Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S; Dunham, Christine M; Woychik, Nancy A

    2014-03-14

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site.

  1. 48 CFR 1323.404-70 - DOC affirmative procurement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOC affirmative procurement program. 1323.404-70 Section 1323.404-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Use of Recovered Materials 1323.404-70 DOC affirmative procurement...

  2. Doc Toxin Is a Kinase That Inactivates Elongation Factor Tu*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W.; Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S.; Dunham, Christine M.; Woychik, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site. PMID:24448800

  3. Sean Michaletz Directors Post Doc Fellow Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Cathy Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Predicting climate change effects on plant function is a central challenge of global change biology and a primary mission of DOE. Although increasing temperatures and drought have been associated with reduced growth and increased mortality of plants, accurate prediction of such responses is limited by a lack of process-based theory linking climate and whole-plant physiology. This inability to predict forest mortality can cause significant biases in climate forecasts. One way forward is metabolic scaling theory (MST), which proposes that physiologic rates – from cells to the globe – are governed by the rates of resource distribution through vascular networks and the kinetics of resource utilization by metabolic reactions. MST has traditionally not considered rates of resource acquisition from organism-environment interactions, but it has an ideal mechanistic basis for doing so. As a first step towards integrating these processes, Sean has extended MST to characterize effects of temperature and precipitation on plant growth and ecosystem production. Sean’s post doc fellowship aimed to address a remaining shortcoming in that the new theory does not yet consider the physical processes of resource acquisition, and thus cannot mechanistically predict plant performance in a changing climate.

  4. Plasma Steroid Metabolome Profiling for Diagnosis and Subtyping Patients with Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Masjkur, Jimmy; Peitzsch, Mirko; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Grüber, Matthias; Fazel, Julia; Osswald, Andrea; Beuschlein, Felix; Reincke, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patient samples tested for Cushing syndrome. Disease was excluded in 138 and confirmed in 51 patients with pituitary Cushing syndrome, 12 with ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion, and 21 with adrenal disease. Another 277 age- and sex-matched hypertensive and normotensive volunteers were included for comparison. Compared with patients without disease, the largest increases in plasma steroids among patients with Cushing syndrome were observed for 11-deoxycortisol (289%), 21-deoxycortisol (150%), 11-deoxycorticosterone (133%), corticosterone (124%), and cortisol (122%). Patients with ectopic disease showed the most prominent increases, but there was considerable variation for other steroids according to subtype. Patients with adrenal disease had the lowest concentrations of androgens, whereas those with ectopic and pituitary disease showed the lowest concentrations of aldosterone. Plasma 18-oxocortisol was particularly low in ectopic disease. With the use of 10 selected steroids, subjects with and without different Cushing syndrome subtypes could be discriminated nearly as closely as with the use of salivary and urinary free cortisol, dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol, and plasma adrenocorticotropin (9.5% vs 5.8% misclassification). Patients with different subtypes of Cushing syndrome show distinctive plasma steroid profiles that may offer a supplementary single-test alternative for screening purposes. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  5. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  6. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H; Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; McMahon, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM(-2)), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM(-2)). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Investigating Forest Harvest Effects on DOC Concentration and Quality: An In Situ, High Resolution Approach to Quantifying DOC Export Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, A. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Hawthorne, I.

    2013-12-01

    Justification: Forest harvest effects on water quality can signal alterations in hydrologic and ecologic processes incurred as a result of forest harvest activities. Organic matter (OM), specifically dissolved organic carbon (DOC), plays a number of important roles mediating UV-light penetration, redox reactivity and microbial activity within aquatic ecosystems. Quantification of DOC is typically pursued via grab sampling followed by chemical or spectrophotometric analysis, limiting the temporal resolution obtained as well as the accuracy of export calculations. The advent of field-deployable sensors capable of measuring DOC concentration and certain quality characteristics in situ provides the ability to observe dynamics at temporal scales necessary for accurate calculation of DOC flux, as well as the observation of dynamic changes in DOC quality on timescales impossible to observe through grab sampling. Methods: This study utilizes a field deployable UV-Vis spectrophotometer (spectro::lyzer, s::can, Austria) to investigate how forest harvest affects DOC export. The sensor was installed at an existing hydrologic monitoring site at the outlet of a headwater stream draining a small (91 hectare) second growth Douglasfir-dominated catchment near Campbell River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Measurement began late in 2009, prior to forest harvest and associated activities such as road building (which commenced in October 2010 and ended in early 2011), and continues to present. During this time - encompassing the pre, during and post-harvest conditions - the absorbance spectrum of stream water from 200 to 750 nm was measured. DOC concentration and spectroscopic indices related to DOC quality (including SUVA, which relates to the concentration of aromatic carbon, and spectral slope) were subsequently calculated for each spectra obtained at 30-minute intervals. Results and conclusions: High frequency measurements of DOC show that overall export of OM increased in

  9. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption in a tropical coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Farjalla

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in Imboassica lagoon, southeastern Brazil, to estimate the percentage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC available for bacterial growth, and to determine the bacterial growth efficiency (BGE of natural assemblages. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption were determined in batch culture experiments, in which water samples were supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus together or separately, or incubated without nutrient additions. When added together, N and P stimulated higher bacterial growth rates and production, as well as higher DOC consumption. The BGEs and DOC consumption rates were strongly dependent on the method used to determine bacterial production. The BGE ranged from 11 to 72%. However, only a minor fraction of bulk DOC was consumed by the planktonic bacteria (from 0.7 to 3.4%. The results suggest that low availability of phosphorus and nitrogen coupled with excess organic carbon was the main factor responsible for the relatively low bacterial utilization of DOC in Imboassica lagoon.

  10. CDOM-DOC relationship in contrasted coastal waters : implication for DOC retrieval from ocean color remote sensing observation

    OpenAIRE

    Vantrepotte, V.; Danhiez, F. P.; Loisel, Hubert; Ouillon, Sylvain; Meriaux, X.; Cauvin, A.; Dessailly, D.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing our knowledge on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spatio-temporal distribution in the coastal ocean represents a crucial challenge for better understanding the role of these ecosystems in the global oceanic carbon cycle. The assessment of DOC concentration from the absorption properties of the colored part of the dissolved organic matter (a(cdom)) was investigated from an extensive data set covering a variety of coastal environments. Our results confirmed that variation in the acdom(...

  11. DOC-dynamics in a small headwater catchment as driven by redox fluctuations and hydrological flow paths – are DOC exports mediated by iron reduction/oxidation cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Knorr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC exports from many catchments in Europe and North-America are steadily increasing. Several studies have sought to explain this observation. As possible causes, a decrease in acid rain or sulfate deposition, concomitant reductions in ionic strength and increasing temperatures were identified. DOC often originates from riparian wetlands; but here, despite higher DOC concentrations, ionic strength in pore waters usually exceeds that in surface waters. In the catchment under study, DOC concentrations were synchronous with dissolved iron concentrations in pore and stream water. This study aims at testing the hypothesis that DOC exports are mediated by iron reduction/oxidation cycles. Following the observed hydrographs, δ18O of water and DOC fluorescence, the wetlands were identified as the main source of DOC. Antecedent biogeochemical conditions, i.e., water table levels in the wetlands, influenced the discharge patterns of nitrate, iron and DOC during an event. The correlation of DOC with pH was positive in pore waters, but negative in surface waters; it was negative for DOC with sulfate in pore waters, but only weak in surface waters. Though, the positive correlation of DOC with iron was universal for pore and surface water. The decline of DOC and iron concentrations in transition from anoxic wetland pore water to oxic stream water suggests a flocculation of DOC with oxidising iron, leading to a drop in pH in the stream during high DOC fluxes. The pore water did not per se differ in pH. There is, thus, a need to consider processes more thoroughly of DOC mobilisation in wetlands when interpreting DOC exports from catchments. The coupling of DOC with iron fluxes suggested that increased DOC exports could at least, in part, be caused by increasing activities in iron reduction, possibly due to increases in temperature, increasing wetness of riparian wetlands, or by a shift from sulfate dominated to iron

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Dyadic Observed Communication Scale (DOCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Hunter, Heather L; Affleck, Katelyn; Donenberg, Geri; Diclemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the reliability and validity of the Dyadic Observed Communication Scale (DOCS) coding scheme, which was developed to capture a range of communication components between parents and adolescents. Adolescents and their caregivers were recruited from mental health facilities for participation in a large, multi-site family-based HIV prevention intervention study. Seventy-one dyads were randomly selected from the larger study sample and coded using the DOCS at baseline. Preliminary validity and reliability of the DOCS was examined using various methods, such as comparing results to self-report measures and examining interrater reliability. Results suggest that the DOCS is a reliable and valid measure of observed communication among parent-adolescent dyads that captures both verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors that are typical intervention targets. The DOCS is a viable coding scheme for use by researchers and clinicians examining parent-adolescent communication. Coders can be trained to reliably capture individual and dyadic components of communication for parents and adolescents and this complex information can be obtained relatively quickly.

  13. Decreasing soil water Ca2+ reduces DOC adsorption in mineral soils: implications for long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason Grainger; Eimers, M Catherine

    2012-06-15

    Positive trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration have been observed in surface waters throughout North America and northern Europe. Although adsorption in mineral soils is an important driver of DOC in upland streams, little is known about the potential for changes in DOC adsorption to contribute to these trends. We hypothesized that long-term declines in soil water Ca(2+) levels, in response to declining acid deposition, might influence DOC adsorption and that this could contribute to long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in south-central Ontario, Canada. Between 1987 and 2009, DOC concentrations increased significantly (pDOC concentration (DOC(np)), which is a measure of the soil water DOC concentration at equilibrium with the soil, ranged from 1.27 to 3.75 mg L(-1) in B horizon soils. This was similar to the mean DOC concentrations of B horizon soil water (2.04-6.30 mg L(-1)) and stream water (2.20 mg L(-1)), indicating that soil and stream water DOC concentrations are controlled by equilibrium processes at the soil-water interface. Adsorption experiments using variable Ca(2+) concentrations demonstrated that as Ca(2+) decreased the DOC(np) increased (1.96 to 4.74 mg L(-1)), which was consistent with the observed negative correlation between DOC and Ca(2+) in B horizon soil water (pDOC adsorption (p>0.05), indicating that changes in DOC adsorption might be related to cation bridging. We conclude that declines in soil water Ca(2+) concentration can contribute to increasing DOC trends in upland streams by reducing DOC adsorption in mineral soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Vicca, Sara; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jonard, Mathieu; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Gielen, Bert; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Waldner, Peter; Sawicka, Kasia

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  15. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, M.; Graf Pannatier, E.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Jonard, M.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Gielen, B.; Peñuelas, J.; Sardans, J.; Waldner, P.; Etzold, S.; Cecchini, G.; Clarke, N.; Galić, Z.; Gandois, L.; Hansen, K.; Johnson, J.; Klinck, U.; Lachmanová, Z.; Lindroos, A.J.; Meesenburg, H.; Nieminen, T.M.; Sanders, T.G.M.; Sawicka, K.; Seidling, W.; Thimonier, A.; Vanguelova, E.; Verstraeten, A.; Vesterdal, L.; Janssens, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  16. CDOM-DOC relationship in contrasted coastal waters: implication for DOC retrieval from ocean color remote sensing observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrepotte, Vincent; Danhiez, François-Pierre; Loisel, Hubert; Ouillon, Sylvain; Mériaux, Xavier; Cauvin, Arnaud; Dessailly, David

    2015-01-12

    Increasing our knowledge on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spatio-temporal distribution in the coastal ocean represents a crucial challenge for better understanding the role of these ecosystems in the global oceanic carbon cycle. The assessment of DOC concentration from the absorption properties of the colored part of the dissolved organic matter (a(cdom)) was investigated from an extensive data set covering a variety of coastal environments. Our results confirmed that variation in the a(cdom)(412) to DOC ratio (a*(cdom)(412)) can be depicted from the CDOM spectral slope in the UV domain (S(275-295)). They also evidenced that regional first order variation in both a*(cdom)(412) and S(275-295) are highly correlated to variation in a(cdom)(412). From these observations, generalized relationships for estimating a*(cdom)(412) from S(275-295) or a(cdom)(412) were parameterized from our development sites (N = 158; English Channel, French Guiana, Hai Phong Bay) and tested against an independent data set covering others coastal regions (N = 223; French Polynesia, Rhone River estuary, Gulf of Maine, Chesapeake Bay, Southern Middle Atlantic Bight) demonstrating the possibility to derive DOC estimates from in situ CDOM optical properties with an average accuracy of ~16% over very contrasted coastal environments (with DOC ranging from 50 to 250 µmol.L(-1)). The applicability of these generalized approaches was evaluated in the context of ocean color remote sensing observation emphasizing the limits of S(275-295)-based formulations and the potential for a(cdom)-based approaches to represent a compelling alternative for assessing synoptic DOC distribution.

  17. Music interventions in disorders of consciousness (DOC) - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Teresa; Kreutz, Gunter

    2018-03-22

    The effects of music interventions including active and receptive music therapy for people living with neurogenic disorders of consciousness (DOC) have been subject to empirical studies in the past. The aim of this systematic review was to find and analyse the current research about the effects of musical interventions on people with DOC. For this purpose, studies with music interventions and patients with DOC from the year 1900 to 2017 were searched in English, German, and French in different databases. Risk-of-bias-analyses were conducted for each study that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two quantitative studies (three randomised controlled trials with more than 10 participants) were found eligible for review. They include a total of 329 participants living with either coma, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, or minimally conscious state. Music interventions were associated with favourable behavioural and physiological responses in several studies, but methodological quality and outcomes were heterogeneous. More studies with a larger number of participants are needed as well as a consensus on key characteristics of effective short-term and long-term music interventions for DOC.

  18. Solar ultraviolet photodegradation of DOC may stimulate freshwater food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Morris, D.P.; Williamson, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The UV component in solar radiation increased the availability of DOC for bacterial growth, and led to an increase in bacterial and bacterivore abundance in laboratory plankton cultures. UV radiation may thus stimulate ecosystem productivity by increasing dissolved organic carbon lability and

  19. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coliform bacteria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 40 sites sampled during both the wet and dry seasons, 11 contained colifrorm bacteria during the wet season, while only 2 contained the microbes during the dry season. The microbes were detected only in the wells. DOC was detected in 37 sites during the wet season and in 31 sites during the dry season within ...

  20. COLWRIT – Collaborative Online Writing in Google Docs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lars Birch; Winther, Frederikke; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2014-01-01

    The poster presents preliminary hypotheses and findings of an on-going research project at Aalborg University, Denmark, which explores university students’ uses of collaborative writing tools like Google Docs when doing collaborative project work. The research project has a special focus on the v......The poster presents preliminary hypotheses and findings of an on-going research project at Aalborg University, Denmark, which explores university students’ uses of collaborative writing tools like Google Docs when doing collaborative project work. The research project has a special focus...... on the various effects on the collaboration process of students’ various usage of the commenting functions of online writing tools. The poster received the Best Poster Award at the conference....

  1. DOC removal paradigms in highly humic aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Amado, André M; Suhett, Albert L; Meirelles-Pereira, Frederico

    2009-07-01

    Dissolved humic substances (HS) usually comprise 50-80% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aquatic ecosystems. From a trophic and biogeochemical perspective, HS has been considered to be highly refractory and is supposed to accumulate in the water. The upsurge of the microbial loop paradigm and the studies on HS photo-degradation into labile DOC gave rise to the belief that microbial processing of DOC should sustain aquatic food webs in humic waters. However, this has not been extensively supported by the literature, since most HS and their photo-products are often oxidized by microbes through respiration in most nutrient-poor humic waters. Here, we review basic concepts, classical studies, and recent data on bacterial and photo-degradation of DOC, comparing the rates of these processes in highly humic ecosystems and other aquatic ecosystems. We based our review on classical and recent findings from the fields of biogeochemistry and microbial ecology, highlighting some odd results from highly humic Brazilian tropical lagoons, which can reach up to 160 mg C L(-1). Highly humic tropical lagoons showed proportionally lower bacterial production rates and higher bacterial respiration rates (i.e., lower bacterial growth efficiency) than other lakes. Zooplankton showed similar delta(13)C to microalgae but not to humic DOC in these highly humic lagoons. Thus, the data reviewed here do not support the microbial loop as an efficient matter transfer pathway in highly humic ecosystems, where it is supposed to play its major role. In addition, we found that some tropical humic ecosystems presented the highest potential DOC photo-chemical mineralization (PM) rates reported in the literature, exceeding up to threefold the rates reported for temperate humic ecosystems. We propose that these atypically high PM rates are the result of a joint effect of the seasonal dynamics of allochthonous humic DOC input to these ecosystems and the high sunlight incidence throughout the year

  2. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. G-DOC: A Systems Medicine Platform for Personalized Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Madhavan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cancer therapy remains limited by a “one-size-fits-all” approach, whereby treatment decisions are based mainly on the clinical stage of disease, yet fail to reference the individual's underlying biology and its role driving malignancy. Identifying better personalized therapies for cancer treatment is hindered by the lack of high-quality “omics” data of sufficient size to produce meaningful results and the ability to integrate biomedical data from disparate technologies. Resolving these issues will help translation of therapies from research to clinic by helping clinicians develop patient-specific treatments based on the unique signatures of patient's tumor. Here we describe the Georgetown Database of Cancer (G-DOC, a Web platform that enables basic and clinical research by integrating patient characteristics and clinical outcome data with a variety of high-throughput research data in a unified environment. While several rich data repositories for high-dimensional research data exist in the public domain, most focus on a single-data type and do not support integration across multiple technologies. Currently, G-DOC contains data from more than 2500 breast cancer patients and 800 gastrointestinal cancer patients, G-DOC includes a broad collection of bioinformatics and systems biology tools for analysis and visualization of four major “omics” types: DNA, mRNA, microRNA, and metabolites. We believe that G-DOC will help facilitate systems medicine by providing identification of trends and patterns in integrated data sets and hence facilitate the use of better targeted therapies for cancer. A set of representative usage scenarios is provided to highlight the technical capabilities of this resource.

  4. Removal of terrestrial DOC in aquatic ecosystems of a temperate river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, W.M.; Stewart, R. J.; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Salisbury, J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters play a potentially important role in the global carbon balance. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes are a major transfer of terrestrial carbon to river systems, and the fate of DOC in aquatic systems is poorly constrained. We used a unique combination of spatially distributed sampling of three DOC fractions throughout a river network and modeling to quantify the net removal of terrestrial DOC during a summer base flow period. We found that aquatic reactivity of terrestrial DOC leading to net loss is low, closer to conservative chloride than to reactive nitrogen. Net removal occurred mainly from the hydrophobic organic acid fraction, while hydrophilic and transphilic acids showed no net change, indicating that partitioning of bulk DOC into different fractions is critical for understanding terrestrial DOC removal. These findings suggest that river systems may have only a modest ability to alter the amounts of terrestrial DOC delivered to coastal zones.

  5. [Effect of the Runoff-sediment Control of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on DOC Transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ling; Wang, Ming-shi; Dong, Yu-long

    2015-04-01

    The sampling was carried out in Sanmenxia hydrological station, Xiaolangdi hydrological station and Huayuankou hydrological station from November 2011 to October 2012. The impact of the runoff-sediment control of the Xiaolangdi reservoir on DOC transport,was analyzed. The results were as follows. DOC contents in Sanmenxia station, Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station were 1.97-2.71 mg-L(-1), 1.87-2.76 mg x L(-1) and 2.07-2.93 mg x L(-1), respectively, during the normal operation period of Xiaolangdi Reservoir and Sanmenxia reservoir, and the DOC content in the three reservoirs had obvious seasonal change. DOC contents in the three stations were 2.14-3.32 mg x L(-1), 2.21-2.84 mg x L(-1) and 2.11-2.84 mg x L(-1), respectively, during the runoff-sediment control, and the DOC content in the sediment-releasing period of reservoir was higher than that in the water-releasing period of reservoir. DOC content had no significant correlation with TSS and flow either during the normal operation or during the water-sediment regulation of the reservoir. But the DOC content had significant correlation with water temperature during the normal operation of the reservoir. DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was similar to that in Xiaolangdi station from November to March. DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was obviously less than that in Xiaolangdi station from April to July. And the DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was much higher than that in Xiaolangdi station from August to October. The result showed that DOC was retained from August to October by Xiaolangdi reservoir and discharged from Xiaolangdi reservoir from April to July. The yearly DOC fluxes were 8.6 x 10(10), 9.0 x 10(10) and 9.7 x 10(10) g respectively in Sanmenxia station, Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station. The DOC flux of Sanmenxia station was the highest in September, which accounted for 22.0% of the yearly DOC flux, and the DOC flux of Xiaolangdi station was the highest in June, which accounted for 17.6% of the

  6. A Novel Source of DOC and DON to Watershed Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    A source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) to soils and groundwater is that emanating from decomposing mammals. Although there is an increase in human donor facilities (body farms) in the USA and in mass mortality events (MME) worldwide, this injection of DOC and DON into watershed soils has received little attention. Studies at two human donor facilities in Texas, USA have revealed that the purge fluid associated with decomposition is extremely high in DOC and DON and migrates down the soil profile. Two studies were carried out 1) The southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility on an Alfisol with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 331 mm hr-1 and 83% sand and 2) the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) on Mollisols with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 3.6-9.7 mm hr-1 and 28-33% sand. The numbers of days since donors were laid in the environment ranged from 219-680 d at STAFS and 306-960 d at FACTS. Purge can occur between 5 and 30 d dependent on the time of year the body is placed and the resultant phenomenon is termed cadaver decomposition island (CDI). Soil cores were taken at 5 cm increments to a depth of 30 cm in the sandy soil and 15 cm in the clayey/rocky soil. In the sandy soils, DOC concentrations were significantly higher in all the CDI soils when compared to control soils at depths of 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm and ranged from 121.7 µg g-1 (30 cm) to 167.6 µg g-1 (15 cm) in control soils and 461.9 µg g-1 (30 cm) to 660.4 µg g-1 (15 cm) in CDI soils, representing a three- to four-fold increase in DOC relative to control soils. DON in all CDI soils was not significantly higher than control soils until 30 cm depth and ranged from 9.9-32.3 µg g-1 in CDI soils and 121.7 µg g-1 in control soil, representing a two- to seven-fold increase in DON relative to control soils. DOC concentrations in control soils at the FARF site at 15 cm ranged 215-365 µg g-1 while in the CDI soils DOC was higher (range: 270

  7. 78 FR 35093 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EYE DOC; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EYE DOC; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... DOC is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Charter fishing on Lake Erie'' GEOGRAPHIC REGION: ``Ohio..., Maritime Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-13836 Filed 6-10-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-81-P ...

  8. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY...

  9. Irrigation of DOC-rich liquid promotes potential denitrification rate and decreases N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Shuping; Hu, Chunsheng; Clough, Tim J.; Luo, Jiafa; Oenema, Oene; Zhou, Shungui

    2017-01-01

    Lack of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is generally one of the key factors limiting denitrification in subsoil beneath the root zone. Despite a number of laboratory DOC amendment studies, the effects of in situ DOC infiltration on subsoil denitrification, and on subsequent end product

  10. Google Docs in an Out-of-Class Collaborative Writing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenyi; Simpson, Elizabeth; Domizi, Denise Pinette

    2012-01-01

    Google Docs, an online word processing application, is a promising tool for collaborative learning. However, many college instructors and students lack knowledge to effectively use Google Docs to enhance teaching and learning. Goals of this study include (1) assessing the effectiveness of using Google Docs in an out-of-class collaborative writing…

  11. STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz Suit Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz puts on a glove of his launch and entry suit with assistance from a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Horowitz''';s second space flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Discovery awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This will be the second HST servicing mission. Four back-to-back spacewalks are planned.

  12. Link between DOC in near surface peat and stream water in an upland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joanna M; Lane, Stuart N; Chapman, Pippa J; Adamson, John K

    2008-10-15

    Hydrologic transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat soils may differ to organo-mineral soils in how they responded to changes in flow, because of differences in soil profile and hydrology. In well-drained organo-mineral soils, low flow is through the lower mineral layer where DOC is absorbed and high flow is through the upper organic layer where DOC is produced. DOC concentrations in streams draining organo-mineral soils typically increase with flow. In saturated peat soils, both high and low flows are through an organic layer where DOC is produced. Therefore, DOC in stream water draining peat may not increase in response to changes in flow as there is no switch in flow path between a mineral and organic layer. To verify this, we conducted a high-resolution monitoring study of soil and stream water at an upland peat catchment in northern England. Our data showed a strong positive correlation between DOC concentrations at -1 and -5 cm depth and stream water, and weaker correlations between concentrations at -20 to -50 cm depth and stream water. Although near surface organic material appears to be the key source of stream water DOC in both peat and organo-mineral soils, we observed a negative correlation between stream flow and DOC concentrations instead of a positive correlation as DOC released from organic layers during low and high flow was diluted by rainfall. The differences in DOC transport processes between peat and organo-mineral soils have different implications for our understanding of long-term changes in DOC exports. While increased rainfall may cause an increase in DOC flux from peat due to an increase in water volume, it may cause a decrease in concentrations. This response is contrary to expected changes in DOC exports from organo-mineral soils, where increase rainfall is likely to result in an increase in flux and concentration.

  13. Google Docs: an experience in collaborative work in the University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa DELGADO BENITO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The educational environment contains multiple reasons to make use of the new possibilities that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT as an educational resource offer. The educational experience presented here has been realized in the subject of New Technologies applied to Education, which forms part of the study plans for primary school teachers in the University of Burgos (UBU, and which has as its main goal to facilitate the acquisition of generic competences of ICT to work online. To reach this proposed goal, we have cultivated active learning of the students, from individual to collective learning. At first, they were given a text to work individually, to read and review. After that, groups were created to work on the document cooperatively, online, through the use of the office tool Google Docs. After sharing and editing the document, every group made a multimedia presentation in which all of their contributions are bundled. Finally, all of the presentations made by every one of the groups were made public. When the practical part of the course was done, the students answered a short questionnaire in which they were asked about their initial knowledge, and the level of dominion and didactic usefulness of the tool Google Docs. It is worth noting that 75% of the class did not know the application before the course and that, after using it, 92% say they would use it in the educational and professional future. This educational experience has been very satisfactory for students and professors alike.

  14. Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Risse-Buhl

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany. Soil solution, upwelling ground water, stream water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages: 6.0–11.6 mg DOC L–1, despite small carbon stocks in both vegetation and soil of the catchment. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR of DOC in upwelling ground water revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32% and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33% than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively. The average 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2900 yr, while organic matter of the Quaternary substrate of the catchment had a 14C age of 3000 to 16 000 yr. Both the 14C age data and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC partly derived from organic matter of the Quaternary substrate (about 40 to 90% of the C in the DOC, indicating that both recent and old C of the DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession. However, in a 70 day incubation experiment, only about 11% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable. This proportion was irrespective of the water type. Origin of the microbial communities within the catchment (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water also had only a marginal effect on overall DOC utilization.

  15. ToxicDocs (www.ToxicDocs.org): from history buried in stacks of paper to open, searchable archives online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald; Chowkwanyun, Merlin

    2018-02-01

    As a result of a legal mechanism called discovery, the authors accumulated millions of internal corporate and trade association documents related to the introduction of new products and chemicals into workplaces and commerce. What did these private entities discuss among themselves and with their experts? The plethora of documents, both a blessing and a curse, opened new sources and interesting questions about corporate and regulatory histories. But they also posed an almost insurmountable challenge to historians. Thus emerged ToxicDocs, possible only with a technological innovation known as "Big Data." That refers to the sheer volume of new digital data and to the computational power to analyze them. Users will be able to identify what firms knew (or did not know) about the dangers of toxic substances in their products-and when. The database opens many areas to inquiry including environmental studies, business history, government regulation, and public policy. ToxicDocs will remain a resource free and open to all, anywhere in the world.

  16. Variable flushing mechanisms and landscape structure control stream DOC export during snowmelt in a set of nested catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent J. Pacific; Kelsey G. Jencso; Brian L. McGlynn

    2010-01-01

    Stream DOC dynamics during snowmelt have been the focus of much research, and numerous DOC mobilization and delivery mechanisms from riparian and upland areas have been proposed. However, landscape structure controls on DOC export from riparian and upland landscape elements remains poorly understood. We investigated stream and groundwater DOC dynamics across three...

  17. Doc2b synchronizes secretion from chromaffin cells by stimulating fast and inhibiting sustained release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; de Wit, Heidi; Walter, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 constitute the main calcium sensors mediating SNARE-dependent exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells, but the role of a closely related calcium-binding protein, Doc2b, remains enigmatic. We investigated its role in chromaffin cells using Doc2b knock-out mice and high temporal...... resolution measurements of exocytosis. We found that the calcium dependence of vesicle priming and release triggering remained unchanged, ruling out an obligatory role for Doc2b in those processes. However, in the absence of Doc2b, release was shifted from the readily releasable pool to the subsequent...... sustained component. Conversely, upon overexpression of Doc2b, the sustained component was largely inhibited whereas the readily releasable pool was augmented. Electron microscopy revealed an increase in the total number of vesicles upon Doc2b overexpression, ruling out vesicle depletion as the cause...

  18. Photochemical mineralization of terrigenous DOC to dissolved inorganic carbon in ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnos, Hanna; Gélinas, Yves; Kasurinen, Ville; Gu, Yufei; Puupponen, Veli-Mikko; Vähätalo, Anssi

    2018-01-01

    When terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) rich in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (tCDOM) enters the ocean, solar radiation mineralizes it partially into dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). This study addresses the amount and the rates of DIC photoproduction from tDOC and the area of ocean required to photomineralize tDOC. We collected water samples from 10 major rivers, mixed them with artificial seawater, and irradiated them with simulated solar radiation to measure DIC photoprod...

  19. A systematic examination of the relationship between CDOM and DOC for various inland waters across China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Wen, Zhidan; Ma, Jianhang; Shao, Tiantian; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a vital role in aquatic ecosystems. Strong relationship has been proven between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which set the basis for remote estimation of DOC with remote sensing data. An algorithm has been developed to retrieve DOC via CDOM absorption at 275 and 295 nm with coastal waters. However, the relationship between DOC and aCDOM(275) and aCDOM(295) for different types of inland waters are still not clear. Further, i...

  20. Dexamethasone-responsive hypertension in young women with suppressed renin and aldosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Hofman, J.A.; Smals, A.G.H.; Drayer, J.I.M.; Kloppenborg, P.W.C.; Benraad, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    Pronounced hypoaldosteronism was found in three young women with hypertension and symptoms of mineralocorticoid overproduction - i.e., hyporeninaemia, hypokalaemia, and a fall in blood-pressure after diuretic therapy. Plasma 11-deoxycorticosterone and 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone concentrations were normal. Treatment with dexamethasone induced a return to normal of blood-pressure and plasma-potassium and an increase in plasma-renin activity and urinary aldosterone excretion. The data suggest that hypertension in these patients is maintained by overproduction of an unknown adrenocorticotropin-dependent mineralocortocoid. (author)

  1. Isotope-geochemical studies on fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for determining the origin and evolution of DOC for purposes of groundwater dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, S.

    1994-01-01

    The laboratory work consisted in developing and testing methods of extraction and enrichment of individual high-purity DOC fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and low-molecular substances) with the aim of preparing large quantities of groundwaters (> 1000 l) with low DOC concentrations so as to obtain sufficient sampling material. Chemical characterisation of DOC consisted in an analysis of humic and fulvic acids with regard to element composition (C, H, N, O, S) and inorganic trace elements. Isotopic characterization of the DOC fractions consisted in determining 14 C, 13 C, and 2 H levels. For the first time δ 34 S and δ 15 N relations in humic and fulvic acids dissolved in groundwater were determined. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Sources for increased DOC-concentrations in the groundwater downstream of the landfill Hohne (DEA); Ursachen erhoehter DOC-Konzentrationen im Grundwasserabstrom am Beispiel der Deponie Hohne (DEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahlmann, E.; Seifert, R. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Eschenbach, A.; Kleinschmidt, V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    2017-08-15

    Construction waste together with drilling mud and oil-contaminated soil had been deposited in the landfill Hohne from 1971. Four groundwater monitoring sites had been installed: one monitoring site upstream and three sites downstream of the landfill in three different directions. Downstream of the landfill increased concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) had been measured over a period of years. Particularly the source of the DOC has remained unclear. Assumptions were (i) leaking of contaminants from the landfill and degradation under the landfill by microbes or plants or (ii) leaching of DOC from the soil under the landfill caused by a change in the redox potential. The determination of the DOC source was the major subject of this study.

  3. Inverse coupling of DOC and nitrate export from soils and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Over the last two decades, nitrate concentrations in surface waters have decreased across the Northeastern United States and parts of northern Europe. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this decrease, but the cause remains unclear. One control may be associated with increasing abundance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which in turn may be a result of soil recovery from acidification. Compared across catchments, surface water NO3- decreases sharply with increasing DOC concentration. Here, we used measurements of soil and solution nitrate, DOC, and their isotopic composition (13C-DOC, 15N- and 18O-NO3) to test several related hypotheses that changing acidification affects the release of DOC and bio-available DOC (bDOC) from soil, and that variation in stocks of soil C and release of bDOC partly control NO3- export from forested catchments in New York State, USA. We examined whether DOC and NO3- are both driven by soil C processes that produce inverse coupling at the scale of soil cores as well as across catchments, through comparison of soil and surface water chemistry across nine catchments selected from long-term monitoring networks in the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains. In addition, we conducted a series of soil core leaching experiments to examine the role of acidification and recovery in driving the net production of DOC and NO3- from soils. Over 8 months, soil cores were leached biweekly with simulated rainfall solutions of varying pH (3.6 to 7.0) from additions of H2SO4, CaCO3 and NaOH. These experiments did not yield a pH-induced change in DOC quantity, but did show a change in DOC quality, in that acidified cores released more bio-available DOC with less depleted 13C-DOC than cores with experimentally increased pH. All cores leached substantial amounts of nitrate. Together, these lab- and field comparisons are being used to identify the role of soil production and consumption processes in driving cross-watershed differences in DOC and NO3

  4. Insights and issues with simulating terrestrial DOC loading of Arctic river networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, David W; Hayes, Daniel J; McClelland, James W; Peterson, Bruce J; McGuire, A David; Melillo, Jerry M

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to hydrology. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that, over the 20th century, the pan-Arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to river networks emptying into the Arctic Ocean with most of the DOC coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of climate-induced increases in water yield. These increases have been offset by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to Arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both offset and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading and may be changing the relative importance of terrestrial carbon dynamics on this carbon flux. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-Arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the production and consumption of DOC within the soil profile, the transfer of DOC from land to headwater streams, the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western Russia.

  5. Insights and issues with simulating terrestrial DOC loading of Arctic river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, David W.; Hayes, Daniel J.; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.; McGuire, A. David; Melillo, Jerry M.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to hydrology. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that, over the 20th century, the pan-Arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to river networks emptying into the Arctic Ocean with most of the DOC coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of climate-induced increases in water yield. These increases have been offset by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to Arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both offset and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading and may be changing the relative importance of terrestrial carbon dynamics on this carbon flux. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-Arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the production and consumption of DOC within the soil profile, the transfer of DOC from land to headwater streams, the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western Russia.

  6. Implementing Gmail Docs and Blogs for Enhancing Motivation towards Writing in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Zapata, Julian Esteban

    2010-01-01

    This action research paper dealt with how to increase motivation towards writing in English through blogs and Gmail docs in a private school in Medellín, Colombia. It was necessary to explore the concepts of "social interaction," "motivation" and "reasons for writing" to understand how blogs and Gmail docs favored…

  7. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause substantially...

  8. Modelling impacts of atmospheric deposition and temperature on long-term DOC trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawicka, Kasia; Rowe, E.C.; Evans, C.D.; Monteith, D.T.; Vanguelova, E.I.; Wade, A.J.; Clark, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that widespread and substantial increases in Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in remote surface, and soil, waters in recent decades are linked to declining acid deposition. Effects of rising pH and declining ionic strength on DOC solubility have been

  9. Shedding light on DOC release by benthic primary producers and its consumption by bioeroding sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of light on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release of benthic primary producers (BPPs) was investigated on the coral reefs of Curaçao. Incubation experiments revealed a positive relation between the DOC release of four Caribbean reef algae (Cladophora sp., Dictyota menstrualis, Lobophora

  10. 48 CFR 1335.016-70 - DOC procedures for the use of broad agency announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOC procedures for the use of broad agency announcements. 1335.016-70 Section 1335.016-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 1335.016-70 DOC...

  11. DOC concentrations across a depth-dependent light gradient on a Caribbean coral reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Benjamin; Meesters, Erik H.; Duyl, Van Fleur C.

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP), such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water

  12. Nonlinear and threshold-dominated runoff generation controls DOC export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, C.; Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2017-03-01

    We used a relatively simple two-layer, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model to simultaneously simulate streamflow and stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in a small lead and arsenic contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. The model procedure was informed by an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC, and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC processing based on stream DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. The parsimonious model (i.e., few calibrated parameters) showed the importance of nonlinear and rapid near-surface runoff generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time—as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity but exported less DOC (115 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 11 kg C ha-1 yr-1) compared to the equivalent but wetter period in 2014 (189 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 38 kg C ha-1 yr-1). The exceedance of a critical water table threshold (-10 cm) triggered a rapid near-surface runoff response with associated higher DOC transport connecting all available DOC pools and subsequent dilution. We conclude that the combination of detailed experimental work with relatively simple, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry models not only allowed the model to be internally constrained but also provided important insight into how DOC and tightly coupled pollutants or trace elements are mobilized.

  13. The Intrinsically Disordered Domain of the Antitoxin Phd Chaperones the Toxin Doc against Irreversible Inactivation and Misfolding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-01-01

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. PMID:25326388

  14. DOC concentrations across a depth-dependent light gradient on a Caribbean coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; Meesters, Erik H; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP), such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope. We measured in situ DOC concentrations and light intensity in close proximity to the reef alga Dictyota sp. and the scleractinian coral Orbicella faveolata along a depth-dependent light gradient from 5 to 20 m depth and compared these to background concentrations in the water column. At 10 m (intermediate light), DOC concentrations near Dictyota sp. were elevated by 15 µmol C L -1 compared to background concentrations in the water column, but not at 5 and 20 m (high and low light, respectively), or near O. faveolata at any of the tested depths. DOC concentrations did not differ between depths and thereby light environments for any of the tested water types. However, water type and depth appear to jointly affect in situ DOC concentrations across the tested depth-dependent light gradient. Corroborative ex situ measurements of excitation pressure on photosystem II suggest that photoinhibition in Dictyota sp. is likely to occur at light intensities that are commonly present on Curaçaoan coral reefs under high light levels at 5 m depth during midday. Photoinhibition may have thereby reduced the DOC release of Dictyota sp. and DOC concentrations in its close proximity. Our results indicate that the occurrence of elevated DOC concentrations did not follow a natural light gradient across depth. Instead, a combination of multiple factors, such as water type, light

  15. DOC concentrations across a depth-dependent light gradient on a Caribbean coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mueller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP, such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope. We measured in situ DOC concentrations and light intensity in close proximity to the reef alga Dictyota sp. and the scleractinian coral Orbicella faveolata along a depth-dependent light gradient from 5 to 20 m depth and compared these to background concentrations in the water column. At 10 m (intermediate light, DOC concentrations near Dictyota sp. were elevated by 15 µmol C L−1 compared to background concentrations in the water column, but not at 5 and 20 m (high and low light, respectively, or near O. faveolata at any of the tested depths. DOC concentrations did not differ between depths and thereby light environments for any of the tested water types. However, water type and depth appear to jointly affect in situ DOC concentrations across the tested depth-dependent light gradient. Corroborative ex situ measurements of excitation pressure on photosystem II suggest that photoinhibition in Dictyota sp. is likely to occur at light intensities that are commonly present on Curaçaoan coral reefs under high light levels at 5 m depth during midday. Photoinhibition may have thereby reduced the DOC release of Dictyota sp. and DOC concentrations in its close proximity. Our results indicate that the occurrence of elevated DOC concentrations did not follow a natural light gradient across depth. Instead, a combination of multiple factors, such as water type

  16. Modelling impacts of temperature, and acidifying and eutrophying deposition on DOC trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Kasia; Rowe, Ed; Evans, Chris; Monteith, Don; Vanguelova, Elena; Wade, Andrew; Clark, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    Surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in large parts of the northern hemisphere have risen over the past three decades, raising concern about enhanced contributions of carbon to the atmosphere and seas and oceans. The effect of declining acid deposition has been identified as a key control on DOC trends in soil and surface waters, since pH and ionic strength affect sorption and desorption of DOC. However, since DOC is derived mainly from recently-fixed carbon, and organic matter decomposition rates are considered sensitive to temperature, uncertainty persists regarding the extent to the relative importance of different drivers that affect these upward trends. We ran the dynamic model MADOC (Model of Acidity and Soil Organic Carbon) for a range of UK soils (podzols, gleysols and peatland), for which the time-series were available, to consider the likely relative importance of decreased deposition of sulphate and chloride, accumulation of reactive N, and higher temperatures, on DOC production in different soils. Modelled patterns of DOC change generally agreed favourably with measurements collated over 10-20 years, but differed markedly between sites. While the acidifying effect of sulphur deposition appeared to be the predominant control on the observed soil water DOC trends in all the soils considered other than a blanket peat, the model suggested that over the long term, the effects of nitrogen deposition on N-limited soils may have been sufficient to elevate the DOC recovery trajectory significantly. The second most influential cause of rising DOC in the model simulations was N deposition in ecosystems that are N-limited and respond with stimulated plant growth. Although non-marine chloride deposition made some contribution to acidification and recovery, it was not amongst the main drivers of DOC change. Warming had almost no effect on modelled historic DOC trends, but may prove to be a significant driver of DOC in future via its influence

  17. Regulation of the corticosteroid signalling system in rainbow trout HPI axis during confinement stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Servili, Arianna; Péron, Sandrine; Valotaire, Claudiane; Goardon, Lionel; Leguen, Isabelle; Prunet, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to shed light on corticosteroid regulation of stress in teleost fish with focus on the corticosteroid signalling system. The role of the mineralocorticoid-like hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in fish is still enigmatic, as is the function of the mineralocorticoid receptor, MR. Low plasma DOC levels and ubiquitous tissue distribution of MR question the physiological relevance of the mineralocorticoid-axis. Furthermore, the particular purpose of each of the three corticosteroid receptors in fish, the glucocorticoid receptors, GR1 and GR2, and the MR, is still largely unknown. Therefore we investigate the regulation of cortisol and DOC in plasma and mRNA levels of MR, GR1 and GR2 in the HPI-axis tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary and interrenal gland) during a detailed confinement stress time-course. Here we show a sustained up-regulation of plasma DOC levels during a confinement stress time-course. However, the low DOC levels compared to cortisol measured in the plasma do not favour an activity of DOC through MR receptors. Furthermore, we show differential contribution of the CRs in regulation and control of HPI axis activity following confinement stress. Judged by the variation of mRNA levels negative feedback regulation of cortisol release occurs on the level of the pituitary via MR and on the level of the interrenal gland via GR2. Finally, asa significant effect of confinement stress on CR expressions was observed in the pituitary gland, we completed this experiment by demonstrating that corticosteroid receptors (GR1, GR2 and MR) are co-expressed in the ACTH cells located in the adenohypophysis. Overall, these data suggest the involvement of these receptors in the regulation of the HPI axis activity by cortisol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling rates of DOC degradation using DOM composition and hydroclimatic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, C. S.; Worrall, F.

    2017-05-01

    The fluvial fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peatlands form an important part of that ecosystem's carbon cycle, contributing approximately 35% of the overall peatland carbon budget. The in-stream processes acting on the DOC, such as photodegradation and biodegradation, can lead to DOC loss and thus contribute CO2 to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to understand what controls the rates of DOC degradation. Water samples from a headwater, peat-covered catchment, were collected over a 23 month period and analyzed for the DOC degradation rate and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in the context of hydroclimatic monitoring. Measures of DOM composition included 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, bomb calorimetry, and elemental analysis. Regression analysis showed that there was a significant role for the composition of the DOM in controlling degradation with degradation rates significantly increasing with the proportion of aldehyde and carboxylic acid functional groups but decreasing with the proportion of N-alkyl functional groups. The highest rates of DOC degradation occurred when aldehyde functionality was at its greatest and this occurred on the recession limb of storm hydrographs. Including this knowledge into models of fluvial carbon fate for an 818 km2 catchment gave an annual average DOC removal rate of 67% and 50% for total organic carbon, slightly lower than previously predicted. The compositional controls suggest that DOM is primarily being used as a ready energy source to the aquatic ecosystem rather than as a nutrient source.

  19. Corticosteroids stimulate the amphibious behavior in mudskipper: potential role of mineralocorticoid receptors in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Mori, Chie; Minami, Shogo; Takahashi, Hideya; Abe, Tsukasa; Ojima, Daisuke; Ogoshi, Maho; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2011-10-24

    It has long been held that cortisol, a glucocorticoid in many vertebrates, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. However, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) has been identified as a specific endogenous ligand for the teleostean mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Furthermore, the expressions of MR mRNA are modest in the osmoregulatory organs, but considerably higher in the brain of most teleosts. These recent findings suggest that the mineralocorticoid system (DOC/MR) may carry out some behavioral functions in fish. To test this possibility, we examined the effects of cortisol and DOC administration in the amphibious behavior in mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus) in vivo. It was found that mudskippers remained in the water for an increased period of time when they were immersed into 5 μM DOC or cortisol for 8h. Additionally, an exposure to 25 μM DOC for 4 to 8 h caused a decreased migratory frequency of mudskippers to the water, reflected a tendency to remain in the water. It was further observed that after 8 h of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with 0.3 pmol DOC or cortisol the staying period in the water increased in fish. The migratory frequency was decreased after ICV DOC injection which indicated that fishes stayed in the water. Concurrent ICV injections of cortisol with RU486 [a specific glucocorticoid-receptor (GR) antagonist] inhibited only the partial effects of cortisol. Together with no changes in the plasma DOC concentrations under terrestrial conditions, these results indicate the involvement of brain MRs as cortisol receptors in the preference for an aquatic habitat of mudskippers. Although the role of GR signaling cannot be excluded in the aquatic preference, our data further suggest that the MR may play an important role in the brain dependent behaviors of teleost fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of drought on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release from peatland soil and vegetation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Brazier, Richard E.; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2017-06-01

    Drought conditions are expected to increase in frequency and severity as the climate changes, representing a threat to carbon sequestered in peat soils. Downstream water treatment works are also at risk of regulatory compliance failures and higher treatment costs due to the increase in riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) often observed after droughts. More frequent droughts may also shift dominant vegetation in peatlands from Sphagnum moss to more drought-tolerant species. This paper examines the impact of drought on the production and treatability of DOC from four vegetation litters (Calluna vulgaris, Juncus effusus, Molinia caerulea and Sphagnum spp.) and a peat soil. We found that mild droughts caused a 39.6 % increase in DOC production from peat and that peat DOC that had been exposed to oxygen was harder to remove by conventional water treatment processes (coagulation/flocculation). Drought had no effect on the amount of DOC production from vegetation litters; however large variation was observed between typical peatland species (Sphagnum and Calluna) and drought-tolerant grassland species (Juncus and Molinia), with the latter producing more DOC per unit weight. This would therefore suggest the increase in riverine DOC often observed post-drought is due entirely to soil microbial processes and DOC solubility rather than litter layer effects. Long-term shifts in species diversity may, therefore, be the most important impact of drought on litter layer DOC flux, whereas pulses related to drought may be observed in peat soils and are likely to become more common in the future. These results provide evidence in support of catchment management which increases the resilience of peat soils to drought, such as ditch blocking to raise water tables.

  1. Decreased DOC concentrations in soil water in forested areas in southern Sweden during 1987-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Zetterberg, Therese

    2011-04-15

    During the last two decades, there is a common trend of increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and lakes in Europe, Canada and the US. Different processes have been proposed to explain this trend and recently a unifying hypothesis was presented, concluding that declining sulphur deposition and recovery from acidification, is the single most important factor for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters. If this recovery hypothesis is correct, the soil water DOC concentrations should increase as well. However, long-term soil water data from Sweden and Norway indicate that there are either decreasing or indifferent DOC concentrations, while positive DOC trends have been found in the Czech Republic. Based on the soil water data from two Swedish integrated monitoring sites and geochemical modelling, it has been shown that depending on changes in pH, ionic strength and soil Al pools, the DOC solubility might be positive, negative or indifferent. In this study, we test the acidification recovery hypothesis on long-term soil water data (25 and 50cm soil depth) from 68 forest covered sites in southern Sweden, showing clear signs of recovery from acidification. The main aim was to identify potential drivers for the DOC solubility in soil solution by comparing trends in DOC concentrations with observed changes in pH, ionic strength and concentrations of Al(n+). As in earlier Swedish and Norwegian studies, the DOC concentrations in soil water decreased or showed no trend. The generally small increases in pH (median <0.3 pH units) during the investigation period seem to be counterbalanced by the reduced ionic strength and diminished Al concentrations, increasing the organic matter coagulation. Hence, opposite to the conclusion for surface waters, the solubility of organic matter seems to decrease in uphill soils, as a result of the acidification recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling impacts of atmospheric deposition and temperature on long-term DOC trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, K; Rowe, E C; Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; E I Vanguelova; Wade, A J; J M Clark

    2017-02-01

    It is increasingly recognised that widespread and substantial increases in Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in remote surface, and soil, waters in recent decades are linked to declining acid deposition. Effects of rising pH and declining ionic strength on DOC solubility have been proposed as potential dominant mechanisms. However, since DOC in these systems is derived mainly from recently-fixed carbon, and since organic matter decomposition rates are considered sensitive to temperature, uncertainty persists over the extent to which other drivers that could influence DOC production. Such potential drivers include fertilisation by nitrogen (N) and global warming. We therefore ran the dynamic soil chemistry model MADOC for a range of UK soils, for which time series data are available, to consider the likely relative importance of decreased deposition of sulphate and chloride, accumulation of reactive N, and higher temperatures, on soil DOC production in different soils. Modelled patterns of DOC change generally agreed favourably with measurements collated over 10-20years, but differed markedly between sites. While the acidifying effect of sulphur deposition appeared to be the predominant control on the observed soil water DOC trends in all the soils considered other than a blanket peat, the model suggested that over the long term, the effects of nitrogen deposition on N-limited soils may have been sufficient to raise the "acid recovery DOC baseline" significantly. In contrast, reductions in non-marine chloride deposition and effects of long term warming appeared to have been relatively unimportant. The suggestion that future DOC concentrations might exceed preindustrial levels as a consequence of nitrogen pollution has important implications for drinking water catchment management and the setting and pursuit of appropriate restoration targets, but findings still require validation from reliable centennial-scale proxy records, such as those being developed

  3. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)

  4. Purification and crystallization of Phd, the antitoxin of the phd/doc operon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Sterckx, Yann; Vandenbussche, Guy; Loris, Remy

    2010-01-01

    The antitoxin Phd from the phd/doc operon of bacteriophage P1 was crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. The antitoxin Phd from the phd/doc module of bacteriophage P1 was crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. Crystals of His-tagged Phd contain a C-terminally truncated version of the protein and diffract to 2.20 Å resolution. Crystals of untagged Phd purified from the Phd–Doc complex diffract to 2.25 Å resolution. These crystals are partially merohedrally twinned and contain the full-length version of the protein

  5. Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd through fold complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Wyns, Lode

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in major physiological events set in motion under stress conditions. The toxin Doc (death on curing) from the phd/doc module on phage P1 hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation....... This Phd domain is intrinsically disordered in solution and folds into an alpha-helix upon binding to Doc. The details of the interactions reveal the molecular basis for the inhibitory action of the antitoxin. The complex resembles the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) proteins and suggests a possible......-antitoxin locus for its action in vivo....

  6. Absorption features of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and tracing implication for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Changjiang Estuary, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X. Y.; Chen, X.; Deng, H.; Du, Y.; Jin, H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the light absorbing fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Studies have shown that the optical properties of CDOM can be used to infer the distribution and diffusion characteristics of DOC in the estuary and coastal zone. The inversion of DOC concentrations from remote sensing has been implemented in certain regions. In this study we investigate the potential of tracing DOC from CDOM by the measure...

  7. Effect of light and nutrient availability on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by Caribbean turf algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, B.; den Haan, J.; Visser, P.M.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae increasingly dominate benthic communities on coral reefs. Given their abundance and high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release rates, turf algae are considered important contributors to the DOC pool on modern reefs. The release of photosynthetically fixed carbon as DOC generally, but not

  8. 75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-0146-02] Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' AGENCY... of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces voluntary product standard DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' which will supersede DOC PS 20-05. The Standard establishes standard sizes and...

  9. The eDoc-Server Project Building an Institutional Repository for the Max Planck Society

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    With the eDoc-Server the Heinz Nixdorf Center for Information Management in the Max Planck Society (ZIM) provides the research institutes of the Max Planck Society (MPS) with a platform to disseminate, store, and manage their scientific output. Moreover, eDoc serves as a tool to facilitate and promote open access to scientific information and primary sources. Since its introduction in October 2002 eDoc has gained high visibility within the MPS. It has been backed by strong institutional commitment to open access as documented in the 'Berlin Declaration on Open Access to the Data of the Sciences and Humanities', which was initiated by the MPS and found large support among major research organizations in Europe. This paper will outline the concept as well as the current status of the eDoc-Server, providing an example for the development and introduction of an institutional repository in a multi-disciplinary research organization.

  10. An Alternative to EPA Method 9 -- Field Validation of the Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasmussen, Steve L; Stone, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS) software translates images from a commercial digital camera into visual plume opacity measurements, and is proposed as an alternate reporting method to EPA Method 9...

  11. Variable relationships of DOC with oxygen in the northwestern Indian Ocean and their ecological implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; DileepKumar, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Desai, B.N.

    characterizEd. by the reducing environment, is found to outflux CO sub(2) much faster than the other regions. Considering the latitudinally variable relationships of DOC with oxidants, its different transport pathyways in the water column are discussed...

  12. Sources for increased DOC-concentrations in the groundwater downstream of the landfill Hohne (DEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, E.; Seifert, R.; Eschenbach, A.; Kleinschmidt, V.

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste together with drilling mud and oil-contaminated soil had been deposited in the landfill Hohne from 1971. Four groundwater monitoring sites had been installed: one monitoring site upstream and three sites downstream of the landfill in three different directions. Downstream of the landfill increased concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) had been measured over a period of years. Particularly the source of the DOC has remained unclear. Assumptions were (i) leaking of contaminants from the landfill and degradation under the landfill by microbes or plants or (ii) leaching of DOC from the soil under the landfill caused by a change in the redox potential. The determination of the DOC source was the major subject of this study.

  13. A systematic examination of the relationships between CDOM and DOC in inland waters in China

    OpenAIRE

    K. Song; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; Z. Wen; C. Fang; C. Fang; Y. Shang

    2017-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a vital role in the biogeochemical cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The relationship between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been investigated, and this significant relationship lays the foundation for the estimation of DOC using remotely sensed imagery data. The current study examined samples from freshwater lakes, saline lakes, rivers and streams, urban water bodies, and ice-covered lakes in China for tracking t...

  14. Regionalizando a produção de documentários – DocTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Holanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DocTV Program was a project created and carried out by Brazilian Ministry of Culture (2003-2010. Documentaries on DocTV were produced in each state and exhibited on the national network by way of public stations. This regional character in their production and exhibition is rare in the history of relationship between television and independent production in Brazil. This paper details the Program’s operation as well as its guiding principles and results.

  15. [Estimation of DOC concentrations using CDOM absorption coefficients: a case study in Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guang-Jia; Ma, Rong-Hua; Duan, Hong-Tao

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon stock in water ecosystems, which plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), an important water color variation, is the colored fraction of DOC and its absorption controls the instruction of light under water. The available linkage between DOC concentration and CDOM absorptions enables the determination of DOC accumulations using remote sensing reflectance or radiance in lake waters. The present study explored the multi-liner relationship between CDOM absorptions [a(g) (250) and a(g) (365)] and DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake, based on the available data in 4 cruises (201005, 201101, 201103, 201105) (totally 183 sampling sites). Meanwhile, the results were validated with the data of the experiment carried out from August 29 to September 2, 2011 in Taihu Lake (n = 27). Furthermore, a universal pattern of modeling from remote sensing was built for lake waters. The results demonstrated that this method provided more satisfying estimation of DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake. Except the data obtained in January 2011, the fitted results of which were not conductive to the winter dataset (201101) in Taihu Lake, due to the diverse sources and sinks of DOC and CDOM, the multi-liner relationship was robust for the data collected in the other three cruises (R2 = 0.64, RMSE = 14.31%, n = 164), which was validated using the 201108 sampling dataset (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 10.58%, n = 27). In addition, the form of the statistic model is universal, to some extent, for other water areas, however, there is difference in the modeling coefficients. Further research should be focused on the parameterization using local data from different lakes, which provides effective methodology for the estimation of DOC concentrations in lakes and other water regions.

  16. Quantifying tropical peatland dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; Peacock, Mike; Evans, Chris D; Page, Susan E; Whelan, Mick J; Gauci, Vincent; Kho, Lip Khoon

    2017-05-15

    UV-visible spectroscopy has been shown to be a useful technique for determining dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. However, at present we are unaware of any studies in the literature that have investigated the suitability of this approach for tropical DOC water samples from any tropical peatlands, although some work has been performed in other tropical environments. We used water samples from two oil palm estates in Sarawak, Malaysia to: i) investigate the suitability of both single and two-wavelength proxies for tropical DOC determination; ii) develop a calibration dataset and set of parameters to calculate DOC concentrations indirectly; iii) provide tropical researchers with guidance on the best spectrophotometric approaches to use in future analyses of DOC. Both single and two-wavelength model approaches performed well with no one model significantly outperforming the other. The predictive ability of the models suggests that UV-visible spectroscopy is both a viable and low cost method for rapidly analyzing DOC in water samples immediately post-collection, which can be important when working at remote field sites with access to only basic laboratory facilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraordinary slow degradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a cold marginal sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Guebuem; Lee, Shin-Ah; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-09-08

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon reservoir in the ocean, and the amount of carbon in this reservoir rivals that in atmospheric CO2. In general, DOC introduced into the deep ocean undergoes a significant degradation over a centennial time scale (i.e., ~50 μM to ~34 μM in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). However, we here show that high concentrations of DOC (58 ± 4 μM) are maintained almost constantly over 100 years in the entire deep East/Japan Sea (EJS). The degradation rate in this sea is estimated to be 0.04 μmol C kg(-1) yr(-1), which is 2-3 times lower than that in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Since the source of DOC in the deep EJS is found to be of marine origin on the basis of δ(13)C-DOC signatures, this slow degradation rate seems to be due to low temperature (DOC in the world ocean is very sensitive to global warming and slowdown of global deep-water overturning.

  18. Applicability of MIEX(®)DOC process for organics removal from NOM laden water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinska, Anna M; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Bilyk, Andrzej; Molczan, Marek

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of ion exchange process for organics removal from Douro River surface water at the intake of Lever water treatment plant using magnetized ion exchange resin MIEX®. Qualitative analysis of the natural organic matter present in the surface water and prediction of its amenability to removal in conventional coagulation process were assessed. Results obtained in MIEX®DOC process kinetic batch experiments allowed determination of ion exchange efficiency in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbing organics, and true color removal. The data were compared with the efficiencies of the conventional unit processes for organics removal at Lever WTP. MIEX®DOC process revealed to be more efficient in DOC removal than conventional treatment achieving the efficiencies in the range of 61-91 %, lowering disinfection by-products formation potential of the water. DOC removal efficiency at Lever WTP depends largely on the raw water quality and ranges from 28 % for water of moderated quality to 89 % of significantly deteriorated quality. In this work, MIEX®DOC process was also used as a reference method for the determination of contribution of anionic fraction to dissolved organic matter and selectivity of the unit processes at Lever WTP for its removal.

  19. [Variation of water DOC during the process of pre-pressure and coagulation sedimentation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Cong, Hai-Bing; Xu, Ya-Jun; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xin-Yue; Liu, Yu-Jiao

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore whether the pre-pressure and coagulation sedimentation process would result in algal cell disruption, leading to increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water, based on which, the pressure application mode would be optimized and safe and efficient pre-pressure algae removal process would be obtained. The changes in DOC during the process of pre-pressure and preoxidation treatment, the distribution of molecular weight in water as well as the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity and DOC after coagulation and sedimentation were investigated. The results showed that the DOC in water did not increase but decreased, and the molecular weight decreased after treated with 0.5-0.8 MPa pressure. While KMnO4 and NaClO pre-oxidation both increased the DOC, in the meanwhile, the distribution of molecular weight showed no obvious change. After the pre-pressure coagulation and sedimentation process, the removal rate of algae was 96.23% and that of DOC was 29. 11%, which was by 10% - 30% higher than the rate of pre-oxidation coagulation and sedimentation process.

  20. DOC:NO3- ratios and NO3- uptake in forested headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cardona, Bianca; Wymore, Adam S.; McDowell, William H.

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms driving the coupled interactions between inorganic nitrogen uptake and dissolved organic matter are not well understood, particularly in surface waters. To determine the relationship between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and nitrate (NO3-) uptake kinetics in streams, we performed a series of NO3- Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization experiments in four streams within the Lamprey River Watershed, New Hampshire, across a range in background DOC concentrations (1-8 mg C/L). Experiments were performed throughout the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Across streams and experimental dates, ambient uptake velocity (Vf) correlated positively with increasing DOC concentrations and DOC:NO3- ratios but was only weakly negatively associated with NO3- concentrations. Ambient NO3- Vf was unrelated to pH, light, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance at 254 nm. Although there were general tendencies across the entire Lamprey River Watershed, individual sites behaved differently in their uptake kinetics. NO3- uptake dynamics in the Lamprey River Watershed are most strongly influenced by DOC concentrations rather than NO3- concentrations or physicochemical parameters, which have been identified as regional- to continental-scale drivers in previous research. Understanding the fundamental relationships between dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients will be important as global and climatic changes influence the delivery and production of DOC and NO3- in aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Quantification of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) storage in lakes and reservoirs of mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Shang, Yingxing; Yang, Hong; Lyu, Lili; Liu, Ge; Fang, Chong; Du, Jia; Zhao, Ying

    2018-04-04

    As a major fraction of carbon in inland waters, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a crucial role in carbon cycling on a global scale. However, the quantity of DOC stored in lakes and reservoirs was not clear to date. In an attempt to examine the factors that determine the DOC storage in lakes and reservoirs across China, we assembled a large database (measured 367 lakes, and meta-analyzed 102 lakes from five limnetic regions; measured 144 reservoirs, and meta-analyzed 272 reservoirs from 31 provincial units) of DOC concentrations and water storages for lakes and reservoirs that are used to determine DOC storage in static inland waters. We found that DOC concentrations in saline waters (Mean/median ± S.D: 50.5/30.0 ± 55.97 mg/L) are much higher than those in fresh waters (8.1/5.9 ± 6.8 mg/L), while lake DOC concentrations (25.9/11.5 ± 42.04 mg/L) are much higher than those in reservoirs (5.0/3.8 ± 4.5 mg/L). In terms of lake water volume and DOC storage, the Tibet-Qinghai lake region has the largest water volume (552.8 km 3 ), 92% of which is saline waters, thus the largest DOC (13.39 Tg) is stored in these alpine lake region; followed by the Mengxin lake region, having a water volume of 99.4 km 3 in which 1.75 Tg DOC was stored. Compared to Mengxin lake region, almost the same amount of water was stored in East China lake region (91.9 km 3 ), however, much less DOC was stored in this region (0.43 Tg) due to the lower DOC concentration (Ave: 3.45 ± 2.68 mg/L). According to our investigation, Yungui and Northeast lake regions had water storages of 32.14 km 3 and 19.44 km 3 respectively, but relatively less DOC was stored in Yungui (0.13 Tg) than in Northeast lake region (0.19 Tg). Due to low DOC concentration in reservoirs, especially these large reservoirs having lower DOC concentration (V > 1.0 km 3 : 2.31 ± 1.48 mg/L), only 1.54 Tg was stored in a 485.1 km 3 volume of water contained

  2. Process Inference from High Frequency Temporal Variations in Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Dynamics Across Nested Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Lessels, J. S.; Soulsby, C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand aquatic ecosystem functioning it is critical to understand the processes that control the spatial and temporal variations in DOC. DOC concentrations are highly dynamic, however, our understanding at short, high frequency timescales is still limited. Optical sensors which act as a proxy for DOC provide the opportunity to investigate near-continuous DOC variations in order to understand the hydrological and biogeochemical processes that control concentrations at short temporal scales. Here we present inferred 15 minute stream water DOC data for a 12 month period at three nested scales (1km2, 3km2 and 31km2) for the Bruntland Burn, a headwater catchment in NE Scotland. High frequency data were measured using FDOM and CDOM probes which work by measuring the fluorescent component and coloured component, respectively, of DOC when exposed to ultraviolet light. Both FDOM and CDOM were strongly correlated (r2 >0.8) with DOC allowing high frequency estimations. Results show the close coupling of DOC with discharge throughout the sampling period at all three spatial scales. However, analysis at the event scale highlights anticlockwise hysteresis relationships between DOC and discharge due to the delay in DOC being flushed from the increasingly large areas of peaty soils as saturation zones expand and increase hydrological connectivity. Lag times vary between events dependent on antecedent conditions. During a 10 year drought period in late summer 2013 it was apparent that very small changes in discharge on a 15 minute timescale result in high increases in DOC. This suggests transport limitation during this period where DOC builds up in the soil and is not flushed regularly, therefore any subsequent increase in discharge results in large DOC peaks. The high frequency sensors also reveal diurnal variability during summer months related to the photo-oxidation, evaporative and biological influences of DOC during the day. This relationship is less

  3. Linking soil DOC production rates and transport processes from landscapes to sub-basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y. Q.; Yu, Q.; Li, J.; Ye, C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research rejects the traditional perspective that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) component in global carbon cycle are simply trivial, and in fact evidence demonstrates that lakes likely mediate carbon dynamics on a global scale. Riverine and estuarine carbon fluxes play a critical role in transporting and recycling carbon and nutrients, not only within watersheds but in their receiving waters. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive carbon fluxes, from land to rivers, lake and oceans, remain poorly understood. This presentation will report a research result of the scale-dependent DOC production rate in coastal watersheds and DOC transport processes in estuarine regions. We conducted a series of controlled experiments and field measurements for examining biogeochemical, biological, and geospatial variables that regulate downstream processing on global-relevant carbon fluxes. Results showed that increased temperatures and raised soil moistures accelerate decomposition rates of organic matter with significant variations between vegetation types. The measurements at meso-scale ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation to bulk concentration of DOC monitored in receiving waters at the outlets of sub-basins (R2 > 0.65). These field and experimental measurements improved the model of daily carbon exports through below-ground processes as a function of the organic matter content of surface soils, forest litter supply, and temperature. The study demonstrated a potential improvement in modeling the co-variance of CDOM and DOC with the unique terrestrial sources. This improvement indicated a significant promise for monitoring riverine and estuarine carbon flux from satellite images. The technical innovations include deployments of 1) mini-ecosystem (mesocosms) with soil as replicate controlled experiments for DOC production and leaching rates, and 2) aquatic mesocosms for co-variances of DOC and CDOM endmembers, and an instrumented incubation experiment for

  4. G-DOC Plus - an integrative bioinformatics platform for precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwar, Krithika; Belouali, Anas; Singh, Varun; Johnson, Robert M; Song, Lei; Alaoui, Adil; Harris, Michael A; Clarke, Robert; Weiner, Louis M; Gusev, Yuriy; Madhavan, Subha

    2016-04-30

    G-DOC Plus is a data integration and bioinformatics platform that uses cloud computing and other advanced computational tools to handle a variety of biomedical BIG DATA including gene expression arrays, NGS and medical images so that they can be analyzed in the full context of other omics and clinical information. G-DOC Plus currently holds data from over 10,000 patients selected from private and public resources including Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the recently added datasets from REpository for Molecular BRAin Neoplasia DaTa (REMBRANDT), caArray studies of lung and colon cancer, ImmPort and the 1000 genomes data sets. The system allows researchers to explore clinical-omic data one sample at a time, as a cohort of samples; or at the level of population, providing the user with a comprehensive view of the data. G-DOC Plus tools have been leveraged in cancer and non-cancer studies for hypothesis generation and validation; biomarker discovery and multi-omics analysis, to explore somatic mutations and cancer MRI images; as well as for training and graduate education in bioinformatics, data and computational sciences. Several of these use cases are described in this paper to demonstrate its multifaceted usability. G-DOC Plus can be used to support a variety of user groups in multiple domains to enable hypothesis generation for precision medicine research. The long-term vision of G-DOC Plus is to extend this translational bioinformatics platform to stay current with emerging omics technologies and analysis methods to continue supporting novel hypothesis generation, analysis and validation for integrative biomedical research. By integrating several aspects of the disease and exposing various data elements, such as outpatient lab workup, pathology, radiology, current treatments, molecular signatures and expected outcomes over a web interface, G-DOC Plus will continue to strengthen precision medicine research. G-DOC Plus is available

  5. A systematic examination of the relationships between CDOM and DOC in inland waters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin

    2017-10-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a vital role in the biogeochemical cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The relationship between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been investigated, and this significant relationship lays the foundation for the estimation of DOC using remotely sensed imagery data. The current study examined samples from freshwater lakes, saline lakes, rivers and streams, urban water bodies, and ice-covered lakes in China for tracking the variation of the relationships between DOC and CDOM. The regression model slopes for DOC vs. aCDOM (275) ranged from extremely low 0.33 (highly saline lakes) to 1.03 (urban waters) and 3.01 (river waters). The low values were observed in saline lake waters and waters from semi-arid or arid regions, where strong photobleaching is expected due to less cloud cover, longer water residence time, and daylight hours. In contrast, high values were found in waters developed in wetlands or forest in Northeast China, where more organic matter was transported from catchment to waters. The study also demonstrated that closer relationships between CDOM and DOC were revealed when aCDOM (275) were sorted by the ratio of aCDOM(250)/aCDOM (365), which is a measure for the CDOM absorption with respect to its composition, and the determination of coefficient of the regression models ranged from 0.79 to 0.98 for different groups of waters. Our results indicate the relationships between CDOM and DOC are variable for different inland waters; thus, models for DOC estimation through linking with CDOM absorption need to be tailored according to water types.

  6. A systematic examination of the relationships between CDOM and DOC in inland waters in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM plays a vital role in the biogeochemical cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The relationship between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC has been investigated, and this significant relationship lays the foundation for the estimation of DOC using remotely sensed imagery data. The current study examined samples from freshwater lakes, saline lakes, rivers and streams, urban water bodies, and ice-covered lakes in China for tracking the variation of the relationships between DOC and CDOM. The regression model slopes for DOC vs. aCDOM (275 ranged from extremely low 0.33 (highly saline lakes to 1.03 (urban waters and 3.01 (river waters. The low values were observed in saline lake waters and waters from semi-arid or arid regions, where strong photobleaching is expected due to less cloud cover, longer water residence time, and daylight hours. In contrast, high values were found in waters developed in wetlands or forest in Northeast China, where more organic matter was transported from catchment to waters. The study also demonstrated that closer relationships between CDOM and DOC were revealed when aCDOM (275 were sorted by the ratio of aCDOM(250∕aCDOM (365, which is a measure for the CDOM absorption with respect to its composition, and the determination of coefficient of the regression models ranged from 0.79 to 0.98 for different groups of waters. Our results indicate the relationships between CDOM and DOC are variable for different inland waters; thus, models for DOC estimation through linking with CDOM absorption need to be tailored according to water types.

  7. Function analysis of 5'-UTR of the cellulosomal xyl-doc cluster in Clostridium papyrosolvens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xia; Ren, Zhenxing; Wang, Na; Cheng, Yin; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Chenggang

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic, mesophilic, and cellulolytic Clostridium papyrosolvens produces an efficient cellulolytic extracellular complex named cellulosome that hydrolyzes plant cell wall polysaccharides into simple sugars. Its genome harbors two long cellulosomal clusters: cip - cel operon encoding major cellulosome components (including scaffolding) and xyl - doc gene cluster encoding hemicellulases. Compared with works on cip - cel operon, there are much fewer studies on xyl - doc mainly due to its rare location in cellulolytic clostridia. Sequence analysis of xyl - doc revealed that it harbors a 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) which potentially plays a role in the regulation of downstream gene expression. Here, we analyzed the function of 5'-UTR of xyl - doc cluster in C. papyrosolvens in vivo via transformation technology developed in this study. In this study, we firstly developed an electrotransformation method for C. papyrosolvens DSM 2782 before the analysis of 5'-UTR of xyl - doc cluster. In the optimized condition, a field with an intensity of 7.5-9.0 kV/cm was applied to a cuvette (0.2 cm gap) containing a mixture of plasmid and late cell suspended in exponential phase to form a 5 ms pulse in a sucrose-containing buffer. Afterwards, the putative promoter and the 5'-UTR of xyl - doc cluster were determined by sequence alignment. It is indicated that xyl - doc possesses a long conservative 5'-UTR with a complex secondary structure encompassing at least two perfect stem-loops which are potential candidates for controlling the transcriptional termination. In the last step, we employed an oxygen-independent flavin-based fluorescent protein (FbFP) as a quantitative reporter to analyze promoter activity and 5'-UTR function in vivo. It revealed that 5'-UTR significantly blocked transcription of downstream genes, but corn stover can relieve its suppression. In the present study, our results demonstrated that 5'-UTR of the cellulosomal xyl - doc cluster blocks the

  8. Spatial and Seasonal Variation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Irish streams: importance of soil and topography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Xu, Xianli; McGoff, Nicola M; Eaton, James M; Leahy, Paul; Foley, Nelius; Kiely, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have increased in many sites in Europe and North America in recent decades. High DOC concentrations can damage the structure and functions of aquatic ecosystems by influencing water chemistry. This study investigated the spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in Irish streams across 55 sites at seven time occasions over 1 year (2006/2007). The DOC concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 25.9 mg/L with a mean value of 6.8 and a median value of 5.7 mg/L and varied significantly over the course of the year. The DOC concentrations from late winter (February: 5.2 ± 3.0 mg/L across 55 sites) and early spring (April: 4.5 ± 3.5 mg/L) had significantly lower DOC concentrations than autumn (October: mean 8.3 ± 5.6 mg/L) and early winter (December: 8.3 ± 5.1 mg/L). The DOC production sources (e.g., litterfall) or the accumulation of DOC over dry periods might be the driving factor of seasonal change in Irish stream DOC concentrations. Analysis of data using stepwise multiple linear regression techniques identified the topographic index (TI, an indication of saturation-excess runoff potential) and soil conditions (organic carbon content and soil drainage characteristics) as key factors in controlling DOC spatial variation in different seasons. The TI and soil carbon content (e.g., soil organic carbon; peat occurrence) are positively related to DOC concentrations, while well-drained soils are negatively related to DOC concentrations. The knowledge of spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in streams and their drivers are essential for optimum riverine water resources management.

  9. Long-term changes in acidity and DOC in throughfall and soil water in Finnish forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Starr, Mike; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Nieminen, Tiina M

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine if any detectable trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulphate (SO4-S) concentrations and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in throughfall (TF) and soil water (SW) could be found during 1990-2010 and to relate them to recent changes in decreased acid deposition. The study was conducted in seven boreal coniferous forest sites: four of which are managed and three unmanaged forests sites. Generally, temporal trend showed a significant decrease in SO4-S concentrations in bulk precipitation (BP), TF and SW. At some of the sites, there was an increasing tendency in BP and TF in the DOC concentrations. This feature coincides with decreasing SO4-S concentration, indicating that SO4-S may be an important driver of DOC release from the canopy. However, a slightly increased temperature, larger senescing needle mass and consequently increased decaying activity in the canopy may partly explain the increasing trend in DOC. In SW, no consistent DOC trend was seen. At some sites, the decreased base cation concentrations mostly account for the decrease in the ANC values in SW and TF.

  10. Plant diversity induces a shift of DOC concentration over time - results from long term and large scale experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Plant diversity has been demonstrated as a crucial factor for soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. The horizontal SOC formation in turn is strongly impacted by the relative small but consistent flow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils. In this process, pore water leaches plant material and already stored SOC while simultaneously these leachates are transported downwards. However, there is a big uncertainty about the drivers of DOC flux; in particular about the importance of biological processes. We investigated the impact of plant diversity and other biotic drivers on DOC concentrations and total DOC fluxes (concentration × sampled water amount). In addition, we considered abiotic factors such as weather and soil conditions to assess the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers and how their importance changes over time. We used a comprehensive data set, gathered in the frame of the long-term biodiversity experiment "The Jena Experiment". Permanent monitoring started directly after establishment of the field site in 2002 and is still running. This enabled us to trace the impact of plant communities with their increasing establishment over the time on DOC concentration. We found the amount of sampled pore water best explained by rainfall, while it was not related to plant associated variables. Directly after establishing the experimental site, DOC concentrations were highest and then decreasing with time. In the first period of the experiment plant diversity had no or even a slightly negative impact on DOC concentrations. The direction of the plant diversity effect on DOC concentrations changed over time; namely in later phases we observed highest DOC concentrations on plots with high plant diversity. Moreover, DOC concentrations were negatively affected by increased amounts of sampled pore water indicating a dilution effect. Even though this impact was highly significant; its effect size was even less pronounced at later time points. In summary

  11. Automatisierte Artikelbestellverwaltung: Doctor-Doc – ein bibliothekarisches Verwaltungswerkzeug / Automation in Interlibrary Loan: Doctor-Doc – a tool for librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Interlibrary loan has always been an important service to supplement own library holdings.To organize and standardize the order process of journal articles for 6 hospitals, we did create an online tool for the Solothurner Spitäler AG. The resulting application is available for libraries free of charge under http://www.doctor-doc.com/. The application is maintained and will be further developed by an association founded specially for this purpose. Doctor-Doc is not a supplier of articles, but rather a platform to organize orders at existing suppliers like Subito, British Library or any other supplying libraries. Doctor-Doc is OpenURL compliant and is able to resolve identifiers like PMIDs. In combination with an existing account from the german EZB, libraries can use the application as a linkresolver.The application has become an essential tool to efficiently manage interlibrary loan for the Solothurner Spitäler AG. The tool is also used by many libraries in Germany and Switzerland.

  12. An evaluation of organic substance fraction removal during ion exchange with Miex-DOC resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the usefulness of Miex-DOC resin in eliminating organic substances and their fractions from water sources for drinking water was evaluated. The objects of study were samples from three surface water sources and one infiltration water source taken at water treatment plants before treatment in technical conditions. In particular, the effectiveness of removing biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions as a function of resin dosages and water-resin contact times was evaluated. The ion exchange process with the Miex-DOC resin achieved a high effectiveness in removing aromatic non-biodegradable organic substances, and therefore a reduction in UV254 absorbance. The biodegradable fraction is much less susceptible to removal yet its removal effectiveness allows for a significant reduction in hazards connected with secondary microorganism development. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using ion exchange with the Miex-DOC resin for effective removal of disinfection by-product precursors.

  13. The intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin Phd chaperones the toxin Doc against irreversible inactivation and misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-12-05

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. CDOM fluorescence as a proxy of DOC concentration in natural waters: a comparison of four contrasting tropical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle-Newall, E; Hulot, F D; Janeau, J L; Merroune, A

    2014-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence or absorption is often proposed as a rapid alternative to chemical methods for the estimation of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in natural waters. However, the robustness of this method across a wide range of systems remains to be shown. We measured CDOM fluorescence and DOC concentration in four tropical freshwater and coastal environments (estuary and coastal, tropical shallow lakes, water from the freshwater lens of two small islands, and soil leachates). We found that although this method can provide an estimation of DOC concentration in sites with low variability in DOC and CDOM sources in systems where the variability of DOC and CDOM sources are high, this method should not be used as it will lead to errors in the estimation of the bulk DOC concentration.

  15. Declines in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and flux from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Burt, Tim P.; Bartlett, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been reported for many catchments across the northern hemisphere. Hypotheses to explain the increase have varied (eg. increasing air temperature or recovery from acidification) but one test of alternative hypotheses is the trend over the recent decade, with the competing hypotheses predicting: continuing increase; the rate of increase declining with time; and even decrease in concentration. In this study, records of DOC concentration in non-tidal rivers across the UK were examined for the period 2003-2012. The study found that: Of the 62 decade-long concentration trends that could be examined, 3 showed a significant increase, 17 experienced no significant change and 42 showed a significant decrease; in 28 of the 42 significant decreases, a significant step change was apparent with step changes being a decrease in concentration in every case. Of the 118 sites where annual flux and concentration records were available from 1974, 28 showed a significant step change down in flux and 52 showed a step down in concentration. The modal year of the step changes was 2000 with no step changes observed before 1982. At the UK national scale, DOC flux peaked in 2005 at 1354 ktonnes C/yr (5.55 tonnes C/km2/yr) but has declined since. The study suggests that there is a disconnection between DOC records from large catchments at their tidal limits and complementary records from headwater catchments, which means that mechanisms believed to be driving increases in DOC concentrations in headwaters will not necessarily be those controlling trends in DOC concentration further downstream. We propose that the changes identified here have been driven by changes in in-stream processing and changes brought about by the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive. Therefore, signals identified in headwater catchments may bear little relation to those observed in large rivers much further downstream and vice versa.

  16. The importance of the relationship between scale and process in understanding long-term DOC dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J M; Bottrell, S H; Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; Bartlett, R; Rose, R; Newton, R J; Chapman, P J

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon have increased in many, but not all, surface waters across acid impacted areas of Europe and North America over the last two decades. Over the last eight years several hypotheses have been put forward to explain these increases, but none are yet accepted universally. Research in this area appears to have reached a stalemate between those favouring declining atmospheric deposition, climate change or land management as the key driver of long-term DOC trends. While it is clear that many of these factors influence DOC dynamics in soil and stream waters, their effect varies over different temporal and spatial scales. We argue that regional differences in acid deposition loading may account for the apparent discrepancies between studies. DOC has shown strong monotonic increases in areas which have experienced strong downward trends in pollutant sulphur and/or seasalt deposition. Elsewhere climatic factors, that strongly influence seasonality, have also dominated inter-annual variability, and here long-term monotonic DOC trends are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, in areas receiving similar acid loadings, different catchment characteristics could have affected the site specific sensitivity to changes in acidity and therefore the magnitude of DOC release in response to changes in sulphur deposition. We suggest that confusion over these temporal and spatial scales of investigation has contributed unnecessarily to the disagreement over the main regional driver(s) of DOC trends, and that the data behind the majority of these studies is more compatible than is often conveyed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural diet of coral-excavating sponges consists mainly of dissolved organic carbon (DOC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mueller

    Full Text Available Coral-excavating sponges are the most important bioeroders on Caribbean reefs and increase in abundance throughout the region. This increase is commonly attributed to a concomitant increase in food availability due to eutrophication and pollution. We therefore investigated the uptake of organic matter by the two coral-excavating sponges Siphonodictyon sp. and Cliona delitrix and tested whether they are capable of consuming dissolved organic carbon (DOC as part of their diet. A device for simultaneous sampling of water inhaled and exhaled by the sponges was used to directly measure the removal of DOC and bacteria in situ. During a single passage through their filtration system 14% and 13% respectively of the total organic carbon (TOC in the inhaled water was removed by the sponges. 82% (Siphonodictyon sp.; mean ± SD; 13 ± 17 μmol L(-1 and 76% (C. delitrix; 10 ± 12 μmol L(-1 of the carbon removed was taken up in form of DOC, whereas the remainder was taken up in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC; bacteria and phytoplankton despite high bacteria retention efficiency (72 ± 15% and 87 ± 10%. Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix removed DOC at a rate of 461 ± 773 and 354 ± 562 μmol C h(-1 respectively. Bacteria removal was 1.8 ± 0.9 × 10(10 and 1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(10 cells h(-1, which equals a carbon uptake of 46.0 ± 21.2 and 42.5 ± 14.0 μmol C h(-1 respectively. Therefore, DOC represents 83 and 81% of the TOC taken up by Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix per hour. These findings suggest that similar to various reef sponges coral-excavating sponges also mainly rely on DOC to meet their carbon demand. We hypothesize that excavating sponges may also benefit from an increasing production of more labile algal-derived DOC (as compared to coral-derived DOC on reefs as a result of the ongoing coral-algal phase shift.

  18. Aging and temperature effects on DOC and elemental release from a metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, C.E.; Jacobson, A.R.; McBride, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Increased aging and temperatures may affect DOC element complexes and their release. - The combined effect of time and temperature on elemental release and speciation from a metal contaminated soil (Master Old Site, MOS) was investigated. The soil was equilibrated at 10, 28, 45, 70 and 90 deg. C for 2 days, 2 weeks, and 2 months in the laboratory. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total soluble elements (by ICP), and labile metals (by DPASV) were determined in the filtered (0.22 μm) supernatants. For the samples equilibrated at 90 deg. C, DOC fractions were size fractionated by filtration and centrifugation; a subsample was only centrifuged while another was also filtered through a 0.45 μm filter. Analyses of the supernatants (ICP, DPASV, DOC) were performed on all size fraction subsamples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased both with temperature and incubation time; however, metal behavior was not as uniform. In general, total soluble metal release (ICP) paralleled the behavior of DOC, increasing with both time and temperature, and confirming the importance of soil organic matter (SOM) in metal retention. Voltammetric analysis (dpasv) of Cu and Zn showed that very little of these metals remains labile in solution due, presumably, to complexation with dissolved organic matter. Labile concentrations of Cd, on the other hand, constituted a significant portion (50%) of total soluble Cd. Copper and Al increased in solution with time (up to 2 months) and temperature up to 70 deg. C; however, at 90 deg. C the soluble concentration declined sharply. The same behavior was observed after equilibration for longer periods of time (550 days) at lower temperatures (23 and 70 deg. C). While concentrations of labile Cu and total soluble Cu and Al increased in the unfiltered samples, the trend remained the same. DPASV analysis showing shifts in labile Cu complexes with temperature and time, together with the results from the unfiltered samples, lead to the hypothesis that Cu

  19. Natural diet of coral-excavating sponges consists mainly of dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; de Goeij, Jasper M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Mulders, Yannick; van der Ent, Esther; Ribes, Marta; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2014-01-01

    Coral-excavating sponges are the most important bioeroders on Caribbean reefs and increase in abundance throughout the region. This increase is commonly attributed to a concomitant increase in food availability due to eutrophication and pollution. We therefore investigated the uptake of organic matter by the two coral-excavating sponges Siphonodictyon sp. and Cliona delitrix and tested whether they are capable of consuming dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as part of their diet. A device for simultaneous sampling of water inhaled and exhaled by the sponges was used to directly measure the removal of DOC and bacteria in situ. During a single passage through their filtration system 14% and 13% respectively of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the inhaled water was removed by the sponges. 82% (Siphonodictyon sp.; mean ± SD; 13 ± 17 μmol L(-1)) and 76% (C. delitrix; 10 ± 12 μmol L(-1)) of the carbon removed was taken up in form of DOC, whereas the remainder was taken up in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC; bacteria and phytoplankton) despite high bacteria retention efficiency (72 ± 15% and 87 ± 10%). Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix removed DOC at a rate of 461 ± 773 and 354 ± 562 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Bacteria removal was 1.8 ± 0.9 × 10(10) and 1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(10) cells h(-1), which equals a carbon uptake of 46.0 ± 21.2 and 42.5 ± 14.0 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Therefore, DOC represents 83 and 81% of the TOC taken up by Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix per hour. These findings suggest that similar to various reef sponges coral-excavating sponges also mainly rely on DOC to meet their carbon demand. We hypothesize that excavating sponges may also benefit from an increasing production of more labile algal-derived DOC (as compared to coral-derived DOC) on reefs as a result of the ongoing coral-algal phase shift.

  20. Derivation of the physical equations solved in the inertial confinement stability code DOC. Informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannapieco, A.J.; Cranfill, C.W.

    1978-11-01

    There now exists an inertial confinement stability code called DOC, which runs as a postprocessor. DOC (a code that has evolved from a previous code, PANSY) is a spherical harmonic linear stability code that integrates, in time, a set of Lagrangian perturbation equations. Effects due to real equations of state, asymmetric energy deposition, thermal conduction, shock propagation, and a time-dependent zeroth-order state are handled in the code. We present here a detailed derivation of the physical equations that are solved in the code

  1. Derivation of the physical equations solved in the inertial confinement stability code DOC. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, A.J.; Cranfill, C.W.

    1978-11-01

    There now exists an inertial confinement stability code called DOC, which runs as a postprocessor. DOC (a code that has evolved from a previous code, PANSY) is a spherical harmonic linear stability code that integrates, in time, a set of Lagrangian perturbation equations. Effects due to real equations of state, asymmetric energy deposition, thermal conduction, shock propagation, and a time-dependent zeroth-order state are handled in the code. We present here a detailed derivation of the physical equations that are solved in the code.

  2. Investigations of freezing and cold storage for the analysis of peatland dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mike; Freeman, Chris; Gauci, Vincent; Lebron, Inma; Evans, Chris D

    2015-07-01

    Although measured rates of biological degradation of DOC are typically low under dark conditions, it is assumed that water samples must be analysed soon after collection to provide an accurate measure of DOC concentration and UV-visible absorbance. To examine the impact of storage on DOC quality and quantity, we took water samples from an ombrotrophic peatland, and stored them in the dark at 4 °C for 138-1082 days. A median of 29% of DOC was lost during storage, but losses of absorbance at 254 nm were less. DOC loss followed a first-order exponential decay function, and was dependent on storage time. DOC half-life was calculated as 1253 days. Specific absorbance at 254 nm suggested that samples containing more aromatic DOC were more resistant to degradation, although time functioned as the primary control. Samples from two fens showed that loss of absorbance was greater at 400 nm rather than 254 nm, after 192 days storage, suggesting that non-aromatic DOC is preferentially degraded. These results suggest that samples can be stored for several months before losses of DOC become detectable, and that it is possible to back-calculate initial DOC concentrations in long-term stored samples based on known decay rates. Freeze/thaw experiments using samples from a range of peatlands suggested that DOC concentration was mostly unaffected by the process, but DOC increased 37% in one sample. Freezing had unpredictable and sometimes strong effects on absorbance, SUVA and E ratios, therefore freezing is not recommended as a method of preservation for these analyses.

  3. Effect of light and nutrient availability on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by Caribbean turf algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; den Haan, Joost; Visser, Petra M; Vermeij, Mark J A; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2016-03-22

    Turf algae increasingly dominate benthic communities on coral reefs. Given their abundance and high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release rates, turf algae are considered important contributors to the DOC pool on modern reefs. The release of photosynthetically fixed carbon as DOC generally, but not always, increases with increased light availability. Nutrient availability was proposed as an additional factor to explain these conflicting observations. To address this proposed but untested hypothesis, we documented the interactive contributions of light and nutrient availability on the release of DOC by turf algae. DOC release rates and oxygen production were quantified in incubation experiments at two light levels (full and reduced light) and two nutrient treatments (natural seawater and enriched seawater). In natural seawater, DOC release at full light was four times higher than at reduced light. When nutrients were added, DOC release rates at both light levels were similar to the natural seawater treatment at full light. Our results therefore show that low light in combination with low nutrient availability reduces the release of DOC by turf algae and that light and nutrient availability interactively determine DOC release rates by this important component of Caribbean reef communities.

  4. Testing seasonal and long-term controls of streamwater DOC using empirical and process-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futter, Martyn N; de Wit, Heleen A

    2008-12-15

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters are increasing across Europe and parts of North America. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these increases including reductions in acid deposition, change in frequency of winter storms and changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. We used two modelling approaches to identify the mechanisms responsible for changing surface water DOC concentrations. Empirical regression analysis and INCA-C, a process-based model of stream-water DOC, were used to simulate long-term (1986--2003) patterns in stream water DOC concentrations in a small boreal stream. Both modelling approaches successfully simulated seasonal and inter-annual patterns in DOC concentration. In both models, seasonal patterns of DOC concentration were controlled by hydrology and inter-annual patterns were explained by climatic variation. There was a non-linear relationship between warmer summer temperatures and INCA-C predicted DOC. Only the empirical model was able to satisfactorily simulate the observed long-term increase in DOC. The observed long-term trends in DOC are likely to be driven by in-soil processes controlled by SO4(2-) and Cl(-) deposition, and to a lesser extent by temperature-controlled processes. Given the projected changes in climate and deposition, future modelling and experimental research should focus on the possible effects of soil temperature and moisture on organic carbon production, sorption and desorption rates, and chemical controls on organic matter solubility.

  5. Direct analysis of δ13C and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in environmental samples by TOC-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cerli, Chiara; Federherr, Eugen; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in carbon cycling in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Stable isotope analysis (delta 13C) of DOC could provide valuable insights in its origin, fluxes and environmental fate. Precise and routine analysis of delta 13C and DOC concentration are therefore highly desirable. A promising, new system has been developed for this purpose, linking a high-temperature combustion TOC analyzer trough an interface with a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Elementar group, Hanau, Germany). This TOC-IRMS system enables simultaneous stable isotope (bulk delta 13C) and concentration analysis of DOC, with high oxidation efficiency by high-temperature combustion for complex mixtures as natural DOC. To give delta 13C analysis by TOC-IRMS the necessary impulse for broad-scale application, we present a detailed evaluation of its analytical performance for realistic and challenging conditions inclusive low DOC concentrations and environmental samples. High precision (standard deviation, SD predominantly TOC-IRMS and conventional EA-IRMS) were achieved by TOC-IRMS for a broad diversity of DOC solutions. This precision is comparable or even slightly better than that typically reported for EA-IRMS systems, and improves previous techniques for δ13C analysis of DOC. Simultaneously, very good precision was obtained for DOC concentration measurements. Assessment of natural abundance and slightly 13C enriched DOC, a wide range of concentrations (0.2-150 mgC/L) and injection volumes (0.05-3 ml), demonstrated good analytical performance with negligible memory effects, no concentration/volume effects and a wide linearity. Low DOC concentrations (TOC-IRMS was successfully applied to analyze DOC from diverse terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments (SD TOC-IRMS performs fast and reliable analysis of DOC concentration and δ13C in aqueous samples, without any pre-concentration/freeze-drying. Flexible usage is highlighted by

  6. Mineralocorticoid hypertension and hypokalaemia induced by posaconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Boughton, Charlotte; Taylor, David; Ghataore, Lea; Taylor, Norman; Whitelaw, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    Summary We describe severe hypokalaemia and hypertension due to a mineralocorticoid effect in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome taking posaconazole as antifungal prophylaxis. Two distinct mechanisms due to posaconazole are identified: inhibition of 11β hydroxylase leading to the accumulation of the mineralocorticoid hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and secondly, inhibition of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), as demonstrated by an elevated serum cortisol-to-cortison...

  7. TOC/DOC: "It Has Changed the Way I Do Science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kimberly; Roth, Dana L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a user-based automated service developed at the California Institute of Technology that combines access to journal article databases with an in-house document delivery system. TOC/DOC (Tables of Contents/Document Delivery) has undergone a conceptual change from a catalog of locally-held journal articles to a broader, more retrospective…

  8. The Fic protein Doc uses an inverted substrate to phosphorylate and inactivate EF-Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Roa, Daniel; Garcia-Pino, Abel; De Gieter, Steven; van Nuland, Nico A J; Loris, Remy; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2013-12-01

    Fic proteins are ubiquitous in all of the domains of life and have critical roles in multiple cellular processes through AMPylation of (transfer of AMP to) target proteins. Doc from the doc-phd toxin-antitoxin module is a member of the Fic family and inhibits bacterial translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that, in contrast to having AMPylating activity, Doc is a new type of kinase that inhibits bacterial translation by phosphorylating the conserved threonine (Thr382) of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu, rendering EF-Tu unable to bind aminoacylated tRNAs. We provide evidence that EF-Tu phosphorylation diverged from AMPylation by antiparallel binding of the NTP relative to the catalytic residues of the conserved Fic catalytic core of Doc. The results bring insights into the mechanism and role of phosphorylation of EF-Tu in bacterial physiology as well as represent an example of the catalytic plasticity of enzymes and a mechanism for the evolution of new enzymatic activities.

  9. Exploring the Roles of Google.doc and Peer e-Tutors in English Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yang, Shu Ching

    2013-01-01

    This study explored college students' experiences with and perceptions of integrating both the Google.doc and peer e-tutors into an English writing course. This socio-cultural study employed online collaborative learning mechanisms with an attempt to develop students' English writing skills and motivation over the course of one year. Participants…

  10. Adsorption and bioadsorption of granular activated carbon (GAC) for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, W; Ngo, H H; Kim, S H; Guo, W S; Hagare, P

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the performances of GAC adsorption and GAC bioadsorption in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal were investigated with synthetic biologically treated sewage effluent (BTSE), synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE), real BTSE and real PTSE. The main aims of this study are to verify and compare the efficiency of DOC removal by GAC (adsorption) and acclimatized GAC (bioadsorption). The results indicated that the performance of bioadsorption was significantly better than that of adsorption in all cases, showing the practical use of biological granular activated carbon (BGAC) in filtration process. The most significance was observed at a real PTSE with a GAC dose of 5g/L, having 54% and 96% of DOC removal by adsorption and bioadsorption, respectively. In addition, it was found that GAC adsorption equilibrium was successfully predicted by a hybrid Langmuir-Freundlich model whilst integrated linear driving force approximation (LDFA)+hybrid isotherm model could describe well the adsorption kinetics. Both adsorption isotherm and kinetic coefficients determined by these models will be useful to model the adsorption/bioadsorption process in DOC removal of BGAC filtration system.

  11. Speciation of Se and DOC in soil solution and their relation to Se bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Vega, Flora Alonso; Supriatin, Supriatin; Bussink, Wim; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2011-01-01

    A 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction is often used to asses the bioavailability of plant nutrients in soils. However, almost no correlation was found between selenium (Se) in the soil extraction and Se content in grass. The recently developed anion Donnan membrane technique was used to analyze chemical speciation of Se in the 0.01 M CaCl(2) extractions of grassland soils and fractionation of DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The results show that most of Se (67-86%) in the extractions (15 samples) are colloidal-sized Se. Only 13-34% of extractable Se are selenate, selenite and small organic Se (<1 nm). Colloidal Se is, most likely, Se bound to or incorporated in colloidal-sized organic matter. The dominant form of small Se compounds (selenate, selenite/small organic compounds) depends on soil. A total of 47-85% of DOC is colloidal-sized and 15-53% are small organic molecules (<1 nm). In combination with soluble S (sulfur) and/or P (phosphor), concentration of small DOC can explain most of the variability of Se content in grass. The results indicate that mineralization of organic Se is the most important factor that controls Se availability in soils. Competition with sulfate and phosphate needs to be taken into account. Further research is needed to verify if concentration of small DOC is a good indicator of mineralization of soil organic matter.

  12. Diurnal and seasonal DOC and POC variability in the land-locked sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Szymczycha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter is a minor yet important component of the marine environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the diurnal and seasonal changes in dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively. Thus, DOC and POC as well as chlorophyll a (Chl a, δ13C, NO3−, NO2−, NH4+, PO43−, salinity, pH, and temperature were regularly measured in samples collected for 24 h (2-h resolution in the Gdańsk Deep (54°44.730′N, 19°08.531′E at three water depths (1, 10, and 40 m during sampling campaigns in 2011 (May, 2014 (May, and 2015 (January, March, May, July, September, November. Seasonal variations in DOC and POC followed the seasonality of Chl a (proportional trend and nutrients (reverse trend concentrations. Diurnal oscillations were detected in six out of the eight measurement series. The strongest diurnal variability in both POC and DOC occurred in May 2011 and March 2015, when phytoplankton activity was highest (high Chl a. The surprisingly low δ13C values (range: −28‰ to −24‰ measured over the course of the study revealed the gaps in our knowledge of the isotopic characteristics of terrestrial- vs. marine-derived particulate organic matter.

  13. Using Project-Based Learning and Google Docs to Support Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Amy

    2014-01-01

    A graduate course, ETEC543 ("Technology and Learning I"), was revised to better serve increasing new student population, international students, in an academic program. Project-based learning, Google Docs, and instructional strategies fostering diversity and critical thinking were incorporated into the course redesign. Observations,…

  14. 15 CFR 20.1 - The purpose of DOC's age discrimination regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 20... basis of age in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance. The Act and the general... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The purpose of DOC's age...

  15. A mobile water analysis laboratory for the study of stream nutrient and DOC dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria Roman, Y.; Pullin, M. J.; Schwingle, R.; Gabrielsen, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and composition in streams vary with season and in response to hydrologic events. Periodic grab sampling can capture some of this variation, but has also been shown to miss high flow events. Sampling during winter, during thunderstorms, and at night is difficult and sometimes hazardous. For these reasons, we have developed a mobile laboratory that autonomously determines pH, Eh, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, DOC, DIC, as well as DOC fluorescence and absorbance continuously on a minutes timescale. The laboratory includes a Labview operated computer system that allows remote control and interaction with pumps, pressure, temperature, and flow sensors as well as the analytical instruments. Climate control allows for operation in winter. The design and operation of this laboratory will be presented. We will also discuss example data showing diurnal changes and responses to hydrologic events in DOC quantity and quality in the East Fork of the Jemez River, New Mexico.

  16. Algorithm Development and Validation for Satellite-Derived Distributions of DOC and CDOM in the US Middle Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2007-01-01

    In coastal ocean waters, distributions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) vary seasonally and interannually due to multiple source inputs and removal processes. We conducted several oceanographic cruises within the continental margin of the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) to collect field measurements in order to develop algorithms to retrieve CDOM and DOC from NASA's MODIS-Aqua and SeaWiFS satellite sensors. In order to develop empirical algorithms for CDOM and DOC, we correlated the CDOM absorption coefficient (a(sub cdom)) with in situ radiometry (remote sensing reflectance, Rrs, band ratios) and then correlated DOC to Rrs band ratios through the CDOM to DOC relationships. Our validation analyses demonstrate successful retrieval of DOC and CDOM from coastal ocean waters using the MODIS-Aqua and SeaWiFS satellite sensors with mean absolute percent differences from field measurements of cdom)(355)1,6 % for a(sub cdom)(443), and 12% for the CDOM spectral slope. To our knowledge, the algorithms presented here represent the first validated algorithms for satellite retrieval of a(sub cdom) DOC, and CDOM spectral slope in the coastal ocean. The satellite-derived DOC and a(sub cdom) products demonstrate the seasonal net ecosystem production of DOC and photooxidation of CDOM from spring to fall. With accurate satellite retrievals of CDOM and DOC, we will be able to apply satellite observations to investigate interannual and decadal-scale variability in surface CDOM and DOC within continental margins and monitor impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities on coastal ecosystems.

  17. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Guenet, Bertrand; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Bastrikov, Vladislav; De Vos, Bruno; Gielen, Bert; Gleixner, Gerd; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Kaiser, Klaus; Kothawala, Dolly; Lauerwald, Ronny; Peñuelas, Josep; Schrumpf, Marion; Vicca, Sara; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walmsley, David; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2018-03-01

    Current land surface models (LSMs) typically represent soils in a very simplistic way, assuming soil organic carbon (SOC) as a bulk, and thus impeding a correct representation of deep soil carbon dynamics. Moreover, LSMs generally neglect the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from soils to rivers, leading to overestimations of the potential carbon sequestration on land. This common oversimplified processing of SOC in LSMs is partly responsible for the large uncertainty in the predictions of the soil carbon response to climate change. In this study, we present a new soil carbon module called ORCHIDEE-SOM, embedded within the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which is able to reproduce the DOC and SOC dynamics in a vertically discretized soil to 2 m. The model includes processes of biological production and consumption of SOC and DOC, DOC adsorption on and desorption from soil minerals, diffusion of SOC and DOC, and DOC transport with water through and out of the soils to rivers. We evaluated ORCHIDEE-SOM against observations of DOC concentrations and SOC stocks from four European sites with different vegetation covers: a coniferous forest, a deciduous forest, a grassland, and a cropland. The model was able to reproduce the SOC stocks along their vertical profiles at the four sites and the DOC concentrations within the range of measurements, with the exception of the DOC concentrations in the upper soil horizon at the coniferous forest. However, the model was not able to fully capture the temporal dynamics of DOC concentrations. Further model improvements should focus on a plant- and depth-dependent parameterization of the new input model parameters, such as the turnover times of DOC and the microbial carbon use efficiency. We suggest that this new soil module, when parameterized for global simulations, will improve the representation of the global carbon cycle in LSMs, thus helping to constrain the predictions of the future SOC response to global

  18. panMetaDocs, eSciDoc, and DOIDB - an infrastructure for the curation and publication of file-based datasets for 'GFZ Data Services'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Klump, Jens

    2016-04-01

    With the foundation of DataCite in 2009 and the technical infrastructure installed in the last six years it has become very easy to create citable dataset DOIs. Nowadays, dataset DOIs are increasingly accepted and required by journals in reference lists of manuscripts. In addition, DataCite provides usage statistics [1] of assigned DOIs and offers a public search API to make research data count. By linking related information to the data, they become more useful for future generations of scientists. For this purpose, several identifier systems, as ISBN for books, ISSN for journals, DOI for articles or related data, Orcid for authors, and IGSN for physical samples can be attached to DOIs using the DataCite metadata schema [2]. While these are good preconditions to publish data, free and open solutions that help with the curation of data, the publication of research data, and the assignment of DOIs in one software seem to be rare. At GFZ Potsdam we built a modular software stack that is made of several free and open software solutions and we established 'GFZ Data Services'. 'GFZ Data Services' provides storage, a metadata editor for publication and a facility to moderate minted DOIs. All software solutions are connected through web APIs, which makes it possible to reuse and integrate established software. Core component of 'GFZ Data Services' is an eSciDoc [3] middleware that is used as central storage, and has been designed along the OAIS reference model for digital preservation. Thus, data are stored in self-contained packages that are made of binary file-based data and XML-based metadata. The eSciDoc infrastructure provides access control to data and it is able to handle half-open datasets, which is useful in embargo situations when a subset of the research data are released after an adequate period. The data exchange platform panMetaDocs [4] makes use of eSciDoc's REST API to upload file-based data into eSciDoc and uses a metadata editor [5] to annotate the files

  19. Direct DOC and nitrate determination in water using dual pathlength and second derivative UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Jean; Thomas, Olivier; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Marie-Florence

    2017-01-01

    UV spectrophotometry is largely used for water and wastewater quality monitoring. The measurement/estimation of specific and aggregate parameters such as nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is possible with UV spectra exploitation, from 2 to multi wavelengths calibration. However, if nitrate determination from UV absorbance is known, major optical interferences linked to the presence of suspended solids, colloids or dissolved organic matter limit the relevance of UV measurement for DOC assessment. A new method based on UV spectrophotometric measurement of raw samples (without filtration) coupling a dual pathlength for spectra acquisition and the second derivative exploitation of the signal is proposed in this work. The determination of nitrate concentration is carried out from the second derivative of the absorbance at 226 nm corresponding at the inflexion point of nitrate signal decrease. A short optical pathlength can be used considering the strong absorption of nitrate ion around 210 nm. For DOC concentration determination the second derivative absorbance at 295 nm is proposed after nitrate correction. Organic matter absorbing slightly in the 270-330 nm window, a long optical pathlength must be selected in order to increase the sensitivity. The method was tested on several hundred of samples from small rivers of two agricultural watersheds located in Brittany, France, taken during dry and wet periods. The comparison between the proposed method and the standardised procedures for nitrate and DOC measurement gave a good adjustment for both parameters for ranges of 2-100 mg/L NO3 and 1-30 mg/L DOC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A transcriptional coregulator, SPIN·DOC, attenuates the coactivator activity of Spindlin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Narkhyun; Gao, Min; Li, Xu; Premkumar, Tolkappiyan; Sbardella, Gianluca; Chen, Junjie; Bedford, Mark T

    2017-12-22

    Spindlin1 (SPIN1) is a transcriptional coactivator with critical functions in embryonic development and emerging roles in cancer. SPIN1 harbors three Tudor domains, two of which engage the tail of histone H3 by reading the H3-Lys-4 trimethylation and H3-Arg-8 asymmetric dimethylation marks. To gain mechanistic insight into how SPIN1 functions as a transcriptional coactivator, here we purified its interacting proteins. We identified an uncharacterized protein (C11orf84), which we renamed SPIN1 docking protein (SPIN·DOC), that directly binds SPIN1 and strongly disrupts its histone methylation reading ability, causing it to disassociate from chromatin. The Spindlin family of coactivators has five related members (SPIN1, 2A, 2B, 3, and 4), and we found that all of them bind SPIN·DOC. It has been reported previously that SPIN1 regulates gene expression in the Wnt signaling pathway by directly interacting with transcription factor 4 (TCF4). We observed here that SPIN·DOC associates with TCF4 in a SPIN1-dependent manner and dampens SPIN1 coactivator activity in TOPflash reporter assays. Furthermore, knockdown and overexpression experiments indicated that SPIN·DOC represses the expression of a number of SPIN1-regulated genes, including those encoding ribosomal RNA and the cytokine IL1B. In conclusion, we have identified SPIN·DOC as a transcriptional repressor that binds SPIN1 and masks its ability to engage the H3-Lys-4 trimethylation activation mark. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Cross-regional prediction of long-term trajectory of stream water DOC response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Laudon; J.M. Buttle; S.K. Carey; J.J. McDonnell; K.J. McGuire; J. Seibert; J. Shanley; C. Soulsby; D. Tetzlaff

    2012-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus about how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is regulated. Here we combine recent literature data from 49 catchments with detailed stream and catchment process information from nine well established research catchments at mid- to high latitudes to examine the question of how climate controls stream water DOC. We show for...

  2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in UK soils and the influence of soil, vegetation type and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Leon J L; Shotbolt, Laura; Ashmore, Mike R

    2012-06-15

    Given the lack of studies which measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) over long periods, especially in non-forest habitat, the aim of this study was to expand the existing datasets with data of mainly non-forest sites that were representative of the major soil and habitat types in the UK. A further aim was to predict DOC concentrations from a number of biotic and abiotic explanatory variables such as rainfall, temperature, vegetation type and soil type in a multivariate way. Pore water was sampled using Rhizon or Prenart samplers at two to three week intervals for 1 year. DOC, pH, organic carbon, carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratios of soils and slope were measured and data on vegetation, soil type, temperature and precipitation were obtained. The majority of the variation in DOC concentrations between the UK sites could be explained by simple empirical models that included annual precipitation, and soil C:N ratio with precipitation being negatively related to DOC concentrations and C:N ratio being positively related to DOC concentrations. Our study adds significantly to the data reporting DOC concentrations in soils, especially in grasslands, heathlands and moorlands. Broad climatic and site factors have been identified as key factors influencing DOC concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpression of DOC-1R inhibits cell cycle G1/S transition by repressing CDK2 expression and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Xing; Gao, Jinlan; Shi, Xiuyan; Hu, Xihua; Wang, Shusen; Luo, Yang

    2013-01-01

    DOC-1R (deleted in oral cancer-1 related) is a novel putative tumor suppressor. This study investigated DOC-1R antitumor activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry, BrdU incorporation and CDK2 kinase assays in DOC-1R overexpressing HeLa cells. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect underlying molecular changes in these cells. The interaction between DOC-1R and CDK2 proteins was assayed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation-Western blot assays. The data showed that DOC-1R overexpression inhibited G1/S phase transition, DNA replication and suppressed CDK2 activity. Molecularly, DOC-1R inhibited CDK2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and there were decreased levels of G1-phase cyclins (cyclin D1 and E) and elevated levels of p21, p27, and p53 proteins. Meanwhile, DOC-1R associated with CDK2 and inhibited CDK2 activation by obstructing its association with cyclin E and A. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation.

  4. Cold storage as a method for the long-term preservation of tropical dissolved organic carbon (DOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cook

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC may represent an important loss for terrestrial carbon stores in the tropics. However, there is currently limited guidance on the preservation of tropical water samples for DOC analysis. Commonly employed preservation techniques such as freezing or acidification can limit degradation but may also alter sample properties, complicating DOC analysis. We examined the effects of cold storage at 4 °C on DOC concentration and quality in water samples collected from a tropical peat catchment. Samples were stored in the dark at 4 °C for periods of 6–12 weeks. Freeze/thaw experiments were also made. Mean DOC concentrations in samples stored for six weeks at 4 °C were 6.1 % greater than in samples stored at ambient room temperature (33 °C over the same period. Changes in DOC concentrations, in two sample sets, during cold storage were 2.25 ± 2.9 mg L-1 (8 % to 2.69 ± 1.4 mg L-1 (11 % over a 12-week period. Freeze/thaw resulted in alterations in the optical properties of samples, and this in turn altered the calculated DOC concentrations by an average of 10.9 %. We conclude that cold storage at 4 °C is an acceptable preservation method for tropical DOC water samples, for moderate time periods, and is preferable to freezing or storage at ambient temperatures.

  5. panMetaDocs, eSciDoc, and DOIDB—An Infrastructure for the Curation and Publication of File-Based Datasets for GFZ Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ulbricht

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences is the national laboratory for Geosciences in Germany. As part of the Helmholtz Association, providing and maintaining large-scale scientific infrastructures are an essential part of GFZ activities. This includes the generation of significant volumes and numbers of research data, which subsequently become source materials for data publications. The development and maintenance of data systems is a key component of GFZ Data Services to support state-of-the-art research. A challenge lies not only in the diversity of scientific subjects and communities, but also in different types and manifestations of how data are managed by research groups and individual scientists. The data repository of GFZ Data Services provides a flexible IT infrastructure for data storage and publication, including minting of digital object identifiers (DOI. It was built as a modular system of several independent software components linked together through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs provided by the eSciDoc framework. Principal application software are panMetaDocs for data management and DOIDB for logging and moderating data publications activities. Wherever possible, existing software solutions were integrated or adapted. A summary of our experiences made in operating this service is given. Data are described through comprehensive landing pages and supplementary documents, like journal articles or data reports, thus augmenting the scientific usability of the service.

  6. Impact of catchment geophysical characteristics and climate on the regional variability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2014-08-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a recognized indicator of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters. The aim of this paper is twofold: to evaluate the impact of geophysical characteristics, climate and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters and, to develop a statistical model to estimate the regional variability of these concentrations. In this study, multilevel statistical analysis was used to achieve three specific objectives: (1) evaluate the influence of climate and geophysical characteristics on DOC concentrations in surface waters; (2) compare the influence of geophysical characteristics and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters; and (3) develop a model to estimate the most accurate DOC concentrations in surface waters. The case study involved 115 catchments from surface waters in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Results showed that mean temperatures recorded 60 days prior to sampling, total precipitation 10 days prior to sampling and percentages of wetlands, coniferous forests and mixed forests have a significant positive influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. The catchment mean slope had a significant negative influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. Water type (lake or river) and deciduous forest variables were not significant. The ecological zones had a significant influence on DOC concentrations. However, geophysical characteristics (wetlands, forests and slope) estimated DOC concentrations more accurately. A model describing the variability of DOC concentrations was developed and can be used, in future research, for estimating DBPs in drinking water as well evaluating the impact of climate change on the quality of surface waters and drinking water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through stormwater basins designed for groundwater recharge in urban area: Assessment of retention efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Simon, Laurent; Maazouzi, Chafik; Foulquier, Arnaud; Delolme, Cécile; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been developed in many countries to limit the risk of urban flooding and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge in urban areas. The environmental performances of MAR systems like infiltration basins depend on the efficiency of soil and vadose zone to retain stormwater-derived contaminants. However, these performances need to be finely evaluated for stormwater-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can affect groundwater quality. Therefore, this study examined the performance of MAR systems to process DOM during its transfer from infiltration basins to an urban aquifer. DOM characteristics (fluorescent spectroscopic properties, biodegradable and refractory fractions of dissolved organic carbon -DOC-, consumption by micro-organisms during incubation in slow filtration sediment columns) were measured in stormwater during its transfer through three infiltration basins during a stormwater event. DOC concentrations sharply decreased from surface to the aquifer for the three MAR sites. This pattern was largely due to the retention of biodegradable DOC which was more than 75% for the three MAR sites, whereas the retention of refractory DOC was more variable and globally less important (from 18% to 61% depending on MAR site). Slow filtration column experiments also showed that DOC retention during stormwater infiltration through soil and vadose zone was mainly due to aerobic microbial consumption of the biodegradable fraction of DOC. In parallel, measurements of DOM characteristics from groundwaters influenced or not by MAR demonstrated that stormwater infiltration increased DOC quantity without affecting its quality (% of biodegradable DOC and relative aromatic carbon content -estimated by SUVA254-). The present study demonstrated that processes occurring in soil and vadose zone of MAR sites were enough efficient to limit DOC fluxes to the aquifer. Nevertheless, the enrichments of DOC concentrations measured in groundwater below

  8. 1109.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yellow solid, M. P. 121-123 °C, [α]D -13.7 (c 1.0, CHCl3); the title compound was prepared according to the general procedure, as described above in (281 mg), 83% yield. HPLC: 71 % ee. [Determined by chiral HPLC with Whelk-O1 (25 cm x 4.6 mm), 10% EtOH/Hexane, Flow rate 1.0 mL/min, = 245 nm; tR (major) = 29.6 ...

  9. 513.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All reactions were performed in oven-dried glassware under nitrogen atmosphere. Analytical thin layer chromatography (TLC) was performed on silica gel plates and ... GC was recorded on GC-17A Gas Chromatograph SHIMADZU system ... New compounds 2c, 2d and 2n are well characterized by complete physical and ...

  10. Characterisation of DOC and its relation to the deep terrestrial biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Sachse, Anke; Horsfield, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The deep subsurface is populated by a large number of microorganisms playing a pivotal role in the carbon cycling. The question arises as to the origin of the potential carbon sources that support deep microbial communities and their possible interactions within the deep subsurface. As the carbon sources need to be dissolved in formation fluids to become available to microorganisms, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) needs further characterisation as regards concentration, structural as well as molecular composition and origin. The Malm carbonates in the Molasse basin of southern Germany are of large economic potential as they are targets for both hydrocarbon and geothermal exploration (ANDREWS et al., 1987). Five locations that differ in their depth of the Malm aquifer between 220 m and 3445 m below surface have been selected for fluid sampling. The concentration and the isotopic composition of the DOC have been determined. To get a better insight into the structural composition of the DOC, we also applied size exclusion chromatography and quantified the amount of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) by ion chromatography. With increasing depth of the aquifer the formation fluids show increasing salinity as chloride concentrations increase from 2 to 300 mg/l and also the composition of the DOC changes. Water samples from greater depth (>3000 m) showed that the DOC mainly consists of LMWOA (max. 83 %) and low percentages of neutral compounds (alcohols, aldehyde, ketones, amino acids) as well as "building blocks". Building blocks have been described to be the oxidation intermediates from humic substances to LMWOA. With decreasing depth of the aquifer, the DOC of the fluid becomes increasingly dominated by neutral compounds and the percentage of building blocks increases to around 27%. The fluid sample from 220 m depth still contains a small amount of humic substances. The DOC of formation fluids in some terrestrial sediments may originate from organic

  11. Mechanized sephadex LH-20 multiple column chromatography as a prerequisite to automated multi-steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippell, W.G.; Bidlingmaier, F.; Knorr, D.

    1977-01-01

    In order to establish a procedure for the simultaneous determination of all major corticosteroid hormones and their immediate biological precursors in the same plasma sample, two different mechanized methods for the simultaneous isolation of aldosterone (A), corticosterone (B), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), 11-deoxycorticol (S), cortisol (F), and cortisone (E) from the methylene chloride extracts of 0.1 to 2.0 ml plasma samples have been developed. In both methods, eluate fractions of each of the isolated steroids are automatically pooled and collected from all parallel columns by one programmable linear fraction collector. Due to the high reproducibility of the elution patterns both between different parallel columns and between 30 to 40 consecutive elutions, mean recoveries of tritiated steroids including extraction are 60 to 84% after a single elution and still over 50% after an additional chromatography on 40cm LH-20 colums, with coefficients of variation below 15%. Thus, the eight steroids can be completely isolated from each of ten plasma extracts within 3 to 4 hours, yielding 80 samples readily prepared for subsequent quantitation by radioimmunoassay. (orig./AJ) [de

  12. Fido, a novel AMPylation domain common to fic, doc, and AvrB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Kinch

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secreted effector VopS contains a fic domain that covalently modifies Rho GTPase threonine with AMP to inhibit downstream signaling events in host cells. The VopS fic domain includes a conserved sequence motif (HPFx[D/E]GN[G/K]R that contributes to AMPylation. Fic domains are found in a variety of species, including bacteria, a few archaea, and metazoan eukaryotes.We show that the AMPylation activity extends to a eukaryotic fic domain in Drosophila melanogaster CG9523, and use sequence and structure based computational methods to identify related domains in doc toxins and the type III effector AvrB. The conserved sequence motif that contributes to AMPylation unites fic with doc. Although AvrB lacks this motif, its structure reveals a similar topology to the fic and doc folds. AvrB binds to a peptide fragment of its host virulence target in a similar manner as fic binds peptide substrate. AvrB also orients a phosphate group from a bound ADP ligand near the peptide-binding site and in a similar position as a bound fic phosphate.The demonstrated eukaryotic fic domain AMPylation activity suggests that the VopS effector has exploited a novel host posttranslational modification. Fic domain-related structures give insight to the AMPylation active site and to the VopS fic domain interaction with its host GTPase target. These results suggest that fic, doc, and AvrB stem from a common ancestor that has evolved to AMPylate protein substrates.

  13. Four-year-BS-position-paper.pdf | misc docs | academy | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; academy; misc docs; Four-year-BS-position-paper.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of ...

  14. TogoDoc server/client system: smart recommendation and efficient management of life science literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2010-12-13

    In this paper, we describe a server/client literature management system specialized for the life science domain, the TogoDoc system (Togo, pronounced Toe-Go, is a romanization of a Japanese word for integration). The server and the client program cooperate closely over the Internet to provide life scientists with an effective literature recommendation service and efficient literature management. The content-based and personalized literature recommendation helps researchers to isolate interesting papers from the "tsunami" of literature, in which, on average, more than one biomedical paper is added to MEDLINE every minute. Because researchers these days need to cover updates of much wider topics to generate hypotheses using massive datasets obtained from public databases or omics experiments, the importance of having an effective literature recommendation service is rising. The automatic recommendation is based on the content of personal literature libraries of electronic PDF papers. The client program automatically analyzes these files, which are sometimes deeply buried in storage disks of researchers' personal computers. Just saving PDF papers to the designated folders makes the client program automatically analyze and retrieve metadata, rename file names, synchronize the data to the server, and receive the recommendation lists of newly published papers, thus accomplishing effortless literature management. In addition, the tag suggestion and associative search functions are provided for easy classification of and access to past papers (researchers who read many papers sometimes only vaguely remember or completely forget what they read in the past). The TogoDoc system is available for both Windows and Mac OS X and is free. The TogoDoc Client software is available at http://tdc.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/, and the TogoDoc server is available at https://docman.dbcls.jp/pubmed_recom.

  15. G-DOC: A Systems Medicine Platform for Personalized Oncology1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Subha; Gusev, Yuriy; Harris, Michael; Tanenbaum, David M; Gauba, Robinder; Bhuvaneshwar, Krithika; Shinohara, Andrew; Rosso, Kevin; Carabet, Lavinia A; Song, Lei; Riggins, Rebecca B; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Wang, Yue; Byers, Stephen W; Clarke, Robert; Weiner, Louis M

    2011-01-01

    Currently, cancer therapy remains limited by a “one-size-fits-all” approach, whereby treatment decisions are based mainly on the clinical stage of disease, yet fail to reference the individual's underlying biology and its role driving malignancy. Identifying better personalized therapies for cancer treatment is hindered by the lack of high-quality “omics” data of sufficient size to produce meaningful results and the ability to integrate biomedical data from disparate technologies. Resolving these issues will help translation of therapies from research to clinic by helping clinicians develop patient-specific treatments based on the unique signatures of patient's tumor. Here we describe the Georgetown Database of Cancer (G-DOC), a Web platform that enables basic and clinical research by integrating patient characteristics and clinical outcome data with a variety of high-throughput research data in a unified environment. While several rich data repositories for high-dimensional research data exist in the public domain, most focus on a single-data type and do not support integration across multiple technologies. Currently, G-DOC contains data from more than 2500 breast cancer patients and 800 gastrointestinal cancer patients, G-DOC includes a broad collection of bioinformatics and systems biology tools for analysis and visualization of four major “omics” types: DNA, mRNA, microRNA, and metabolites. We believe that G-DOC will help facilitate systems medicine by providing identification of trends and patterns in integrated data sets and hence facilitate the use of better targeted therapies for cancer. A set of representative usage scenarios is provided to highlight the technical capabilities of this resource. PMID:21969811

  16. TogoDoc server/client system: smart recommendation and efficient management of life science literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Iwasaki

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a server/client literature management system specialized for the life science domain, the TogoDoc system (Togo, pronounced Toe-Go, is a romanization of a Japanese word for integration. The server and the client program cooperate closely over the Internet to provide life scientists with an effective literature recommendation service and efficient literature management. The content-based and personalized literature recommendation helps researchers to isolate interesting papers from the "tsunami" of literature, in which, on average, more than one biomedical paper is added to MEDLINE every minute. Because researchers these days need to cover updates of much wider topics to generate hypotheses using massive datasets obtained from public databases or omics experiments, the importance of having an effective literature recommendation service is rising. The automatic recommendation is based on the content of personal literature libraries of electronic PDF papers. The client program automatically analyzes these files, which are sometimes deeply buried in storage disks of researchers' personal computers. Just saving PDF papers to the designated folders makes the client program automatically analyze and retrieve metadata, rename file names, synchronize the data to the server, and receive the recommendation lists of newly published papers, thus accomplishing effortless literature management. In addition, the tag suggestion and associative search functions are provided for easy classification of and access to past papers (researchers who read many papers sometimes only vaguely remember or completely forget what they read in the past. The TogoDoc system is available for both Windows and Mac OS X and is free. The TogoDoc Client software is available at http://tdc.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/, and the TogoDoc server is available at https://docman.dbcls.jp/pubmed_recom.

  17. Google Docs as a Tool for Collaborative Writing in the Middle School Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Yanan Fan; Megan P Woodrich

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: In this study, the authors examine how an online word processing tool can be used to encourage participation among students of different language back-grounds, including English Language Learners. To be exact, the paper discusses whether student participation in anonymous collaborative writing via Google Docs can lead to more successful products in a linguistically diverse eighth-grade English Language Arts classroom. Background: English Language Learners (ELLs) make up a con...

  18. Careers and Networking: Professional Development for Graduate Students and Post-docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Boiteau, R.; Bottjer, D.; De Leo, F. C.; Hawko, N.; Ilikchyan, I.; Bruno, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Established in 2006 by the National Science Foundation, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institutional Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawai i. One of C-MORE's missions is to provide graduate students and post-docs with state-of-the-art training, which primarily occurs through laboratory- and field-based research. Additionally, C-MORE offers a Professional Development Training Program (PDTP) to help students and post-docs develop a range of "soft" skills such as science communication, leadership, proposal writing, teaching and mentoring (Bruno et al, 2013). The PDTP not only provides professional development training to graduate students and post-docs, but also encourages these young scientists to take leadership of their training. The Professional Development Organizing Committee (PDOC), composed of students and post-docs across the various C-MORE institutions, works closely with the Education Office to implement the eight core PDTP modules as well as 'on-demand' workshops. In February 2013, we organized a workshop to promote networking and foster scientific collaborations among C-MORE graduate students and post-doctoral researchers at the seven partner institutions: the University of Hawaii, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Oregon State University, University of California Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and Columbia University. The workshop was held in New Orleans in conjunction with the 2013 ASLO/ Ocean Sciences national meeting. In this paper, we will describe the student-led planning process, the workshop itself, and evaluation results. We will also present examples of some of the collaborations that resulted from this workshop.

  19. Distinct expression of alkaline phosphatase activity in epilimnetic bacteria: Implication for persistent DOC consumption in a P-limited reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y.; Kao, S.; Shiah, F.

    2013-12-01

    In a P-deficient system, P availability usually controls the microbial activity and thus the ecosystem function. Thingstad et al. (1997) first addressed a 'Malfunctioning Microbial-loop' theory, which stated that low bacterial production (BP) caused by insufficient nutrient supply would result in DOC accumulation in an oligotrophic ecosystem. In this study we re-examined the theory by conducting seasonal patterns and correlations among soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) and DOC, microbial abundances (picocyanobacteria, bacteria, and heterotrophic nanoflagellate; HNF) and activities (primary production, bacterial production, and alkaline phosphatase activity; APA) coupled with enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF) assays on bacterioplankton in a subtropical reservoir sharing the common features, nitrate-replete and P-deficient, with most natural freshwater system during Oct 2007-Oct 2008. Persistently high APA was recorded during most of time, implying that the system was P-deficient. Size fractionated APA and ELF assay revealed that bacteria were the major APA contributor. However, significantly low epilimnion DOC was recorded during the stratified summer season accompanying with high BP and APA as well as high PP, implying that heterotrophic bacteria can well sustain in P-deficient system by utilizing DOP to rapidly lower down DOC under relatively high PP. Such findings oppose the 'Malfunctioning Microbial-loop' theory. On the other hand, strong epilimnetic DOC accumulation occurred in Oct 2007 under low light and low PP condition accompanying with high abundance of HNF, implying that HNF grazing may contribute to a certain degree of DOC accumulation. Correlation matrix supported our suggestions. This study testified the DOC dynamics in P-deficient ecosystem are tightly coupled with the source (PP and grazing) and sink (BP). We also suggested that in SRP-limited freshwater systems bacteria are capable of breaking down autochthonous DOC to reduce the chance of DOC

  20. The role of forest type in the variability of DOC in atmospheric deposition at forest plots in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisci, S; Rogora, M; Marchetto, A; Dichiaro, F

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was studied in atmospheric deposition samples collected on a weekly basis in 2005-2009 at 10 forest plots in Italy. The plots covered a wide range of geographical attributes and were representative of the main forest types in Italy. Both spatial and temporal variations in DOC concentrations and fluxes are discussed, with the aim of identifying the main factors affecting DOC variability. DOC concentration increased from bulk to throughfall and stemflow water samples at all sites, as an effect of leaching from leaves and branches, going from 0.7-1.7 mg C L(-1) in bulk samples to 1.8-15.8 mg C L(-1) in throughfall and 4.2-10.7 mg C L(-1) in stemflow, with striking differences among the various plots. Low concentrations were found in runoff (0.5-2.0 mg C L(-1)), showing that the export of DOC via running waters was limited. The seasonality of DOC in throughfall samples was evident, with the highest concentration in summer when biological activity is at a maximum, and minima in winter due to limited DOC production and leaching. Statistical analysis revealed that DOC had a close relationship with organic and total nitrogen, and with nutrient ions, and a negative correlation with precipitation amount. Forest type proved to be a major factor affecting DOC variability: concentration and, to a lesser extent, fluxes were lower in stands dominated by deciduous species. The character of evergreens, and the size and shape of their leaves and needles, which regulate the interception mechanism of dry deposition, are mainly responsible for this.

  1. Degree of contribution (DoC) feature selection algorithm for structural brain MRI volumetric features in depression detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipli, Kuryati; Kouzani, Abbas Z

    2015-07-01

    Accurate detection of depression at an individual level using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) remains a challenge. Brain volumetric changes at a structural level appear to have importance in depression biomarkers studies. An automated algorithm is developed to select brain sMRI volumetric features for the detection of depression. A feature selection (FS) algorithm called degree of contribution (DoC) is developed for selection of sMRI volumetric features. This algorithm uses an ensemble approach to determine the degree of contribution in detection of major depressive disorder. The DoC is the score of feature importance used for feature ranking. The algorithm involves four stages: feature ranking, subset generation, subset evaluation, and DoC analysis. The performance of DoC is evaluated on the Duke University Multi-site Imaging Research in the Analysis of Depression sMRI dataset. The dataset consists of 115 brain sMRI scans of 88 healthy controls and 27 depressed subjects. Forty-four sMRI volumetric features are used in the evaluation. The DoC score of forty-four features was determined as the accuracy threshold (Acc_Thresh) was varied. The DoC performance was compared with that of four existing FS algorithms. At all defined Acc_Threshs, DoC outperformed the four examined FS algorithms for the average classification score and the maximum classification score. DoC has a good ability to generate reduced-size subsets of important features that could yield high classification accuracy. Based on the DoC score, the most discriminant volumetric features are those from the left-brain region.

  2. Local and regional scale exchanges of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between tidal wetlands and their adjacent coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, C. L.; Joshi, I.; Lebrasse, M. C.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Bianchi, T. S.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; D'Sa, E. J.; He, R.; Ko, D.; Arellano, A.; Ward, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of blue carbon from tidal wetlands to the coastal ocean in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) represents a terrestrial-aquatic linkage of increasing importance. DOC flux results will be presented from local (tidal creek) and regional (bays) scale studies in which various combinations of field observations, ocean-color satellite observations, and the outputs of high-resolution hydrodynamic models were used to estimate DOC export. The first project was located in Bald Head Creek, a tributary to the Cape Fear River estuary in eastern North Carolina (NC). DOC fluxes were computed using a bathymetric data collected via unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and a numerical hydrodynamic model (SCHISM) based on the relationships between colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption, DOC concentration, and salinity taken from field observations. Model predictions estimated an annual net export of DOC at 54 g C m-2 yr-1 from the tidal creek to the adjacent estuary. Carbon stable isotope (δ13C) values were used to estimate the contribution of wetland carbon to this export. In the second project, DOC fluxes from the Apalachicola Bay, FL, Barataria Bay, LA, were based on the development of algorithms between DOC and CDOM absorption derived from the VIIRS ocean color sensor. The Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) was used to compute salt flux estimates from each bay to the Louisiana-Texas shelf. The relationship between salinity and CDOM was used to estimate net annual DOC exports of 8.35 x 106 g C m-2 y-1 (Apalachicola Bay) and 7.14 x 106 g C m-2 yr-1 (Barataria Bay). These values approximate 13% and 9% of the annual loads of DOC from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, respectively. CDOM and lignin were used in a mixing model to estimate wetland-derived DOC were 2% for Apalachicola Bay and 13% for Barataria Bay, the latter having one of the highest rates of relative sea level rise in North America. Results from our project demonstrated the utility

  3. Does wildfire cause cascading effects on aquatic C cycling? A study of soil, well and lake DOC composition and bio/photolability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefeldt, D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Devito, K. J.; Blodau, C.

    2012-12-01

    In May 2011 a wildfire broke out north of Utikuma Lake in central Alberta, Canada, which eventually burned an area of ~880 km2. Wildfire alters soil properties, potentially altering the chemical composition of terrestrial DOC that reaches downstream aquatic environments. In order to study the potential effects of wildfire on lake carbon cycling, we sampled and incubated DOC from soil samples (n=52), wells (n=35) and lakes (n=32) from within and outside the recent fire perimeter. We incubated the DOC samples under both dark and UV conditions to assess both bio- and photolability, and followed DOC composition throughout the incubations by measuring DOC absorbing and fluorescing properties. A strong effect of wildfire was found among DOC samples leached from surface peatland and upland soils - with fire yielding increased DOC aromaticity associated with decreased biodegradability but also increased photolability. Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence matrices revealed distinct regions that were associated with DOC leached from charred soils, potentially linked to their lower biodegradability. Dark and UV conditions gave rise to very different trajectories of changes to DOC composition throughout incubations, with preferential losses of non-aromatic DOC under dark conditions and aromatic DOC under UV conditions. The DOC composition index that was found to best predict both DOC bio- and photolability was specific UV absorbance, which is also a very simple and quick index to measure. For lakes, we found that the primary influences on DOC composition and bio-/photolability was linked to lake size and hydrogeological setting (whether located on a lacustrine clay plain or in a moraine/outwash region) that controls groundwater influence and the hydrological connectivity to adjacent peatlands. Further analysis of well and lake water incubations will be used to detect whether wildfire can be detected to have a subtle secondary effect on DOC composition and lability or if

  4. Viscosity changes of riparian water controls diurnal fluctuations of stream-flow and DOC concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in stream-flow are commonly explained as being triggered by the daily evapotranspiration cycle in the riparian zone, leading to stream flow minima in the afternoon. While this trigger effect must necessarily be constrained by the extent of the growing season of vegetation, we here show evidence of daily stream flow maxima in the afternoon in a small headwater stream during the dormant season. We hypothesize that the afternoon maxima in stream flow are induced by viscosity changes of riparian water that is caused by diurnal temperature variations of the near surface groundwater in the riparian zone. The patterns were observed in the Weierbach headwater catchment in Luxembourg. The catchment is covering an area of 0.45 km2, is entirely covered by forest and is dominated by a schistous substratum. DOC concentration at the outlet of the catchment was measured with the field deployable UV-Vis spectrometer spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH) with a high frequency of 15 minutes over several months. Discharge was measured with an ISCO 4120 Flow Logger. During the growing season, stream flow shows a frequently observed diurnal pattern with discharge minima in the afternoon. During the dormant season, a long dry period with daily air temperature amplitudes of around 10 ° C occurred in March and April 2014, with discharge maxima in the afternoon. The daily air temperature amplitude led to diurnal variations in the water temperature of the upper 10 cm of the riparian zone. Higher riparian water temperatures cause a decrease in water viscosity and according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, the volumetric flow rate is inversely proportional to viscosity. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the viscosity changes of water, we calculated higher flow rates of near surface groundwater through the riparian zone into the stream in the afternoon which explains the stream flow maxima in the afternoon. With the start of the growing season, the viscosity

  5. CDOM fluorescence as a proxy of DOC concentration in natural waters : a comparison of four contrasting tropical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle Newall, Emma; Hulot, F. D.; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Merroune, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence or absorption is often proposed as a rapid alternative to chemical methods for the estimation of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in natural waters. However, the robustness of this method across a wide range of systems remains to be shown. We measured CDOM fluorescence and DOC concentration in four tropical freshwater and coastal environments (estuary and coastal, tropical shallow lakes, water from the freshwater lens ...

  6. Long-term environmental drivers of DOC fluxes: Linkages between management, hydrology and climate in a subtropical coastal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Peter; Briceño, Henry; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    Urban and agricultural development of the South Florida peninsula has disrupted historic freshwater flow in the Everglades, a hydrologically connected ecosystem stretching from central Florida to the Gulf of Mexico, USA. Current system-scale restoration efforts aim to restore natural hydrologic regimes to reestablish pre-drainage ecosystem functioning through increased water availability, quality and timing. Aquatic transport of carbon in this ecosystem, primarily as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling and food-web dynamics, and will be affected both by water management policies and climate change. To better understand DOC dynamics in South Florida estuaries and how hydrology, climate and water management may affect them, 14 years of monthly data collected in the Shark River estuary were used to examine DOC flux dynamics in a broader environmental context. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to long-term datasets for hydrology, water quality and climate to untangle the interconnected environmental drivers that control DOC export at monthly and annual scales. DOC fluxes were determined to be primarily controlled by hydrology but also by seasonality and long-term climate patterns and episodic weather events. A four-component model (salinity, rainfall, inflow, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) capable of predicting DOC fluxes (R2 = 0.84, p water management and salinity.

  7. Jevgenij V. Doc: We do not want to build a monument at Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the interview with the General Manager of Inter RAO JES - Jevgenij V. Doc is published. Inter RAO JES applies for the privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne (Slovak Electric - SE). According to the General Manager of Inter RAO JES, the company does not need a foreign partner to provide financial support after the privatisation of SE, but rather it requires a political support. Plans about Bohunice NPP and of completion of the Mochovce NPP as well as of privatisation of the SE by the Inter RAO JES are presented

  8. Temporal-spatial variation of DOC concentration, UV absorbance and the flux estimation in the Lower Dagu River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Min; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue; Kong, Fanting

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component for both carbon cycle and energy balance. The concentration, UV absorbance, and export flux of DOC in the natural environment dominate many important transport processes. To better understand the temporal and spatial variation of DOC, 7 sites along the Lower Dagu River were chosen to conduct a comprehensive measurement from March 2013 to February 2014. Specifically, water samples were collected from the Lower Dagu River between the 26th and 29th of every month during the experimental period. The DOC concentration (CDOC) and UV absorbance were analyzed using a total organic carbon analyzer and the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum, and the DOC export flux was estimated with a simple empirical model. The results showed that the CDOC of the Lower Dagu River varied from 1.32 to 12.56 mg/L, consistent with global rivers. The CDOC and UV absorbance showed significant spatial variation in the Dagu River during the experiential period because of the upstream natural processes and human activities in the watershed. The spatial variation is mainly due to dam or reservoir constructions, riverside ecological environment changes, and non-point source or wastewater discharge. The seasonal variation of CDOC was mainly related to the source of water DOC, river runoff, and temperature, and the UV absorbance and humification degree of DOC had no obvious differences among months ( P<0.05). UV absorbance was applied to test the CDOC in Lower Dagu River using wave lengths of 254 and 280 nm. The results revealed that the annual DOC export flux varied from 1.6 to 3.76 × 105 g C/km2/yr in a complete hydrological year, significantly lower than the global average. It is worth mentioning that the DOC export flux was mainly concentrated in summer (˜90% of all-year flux in July and August), since the runoff in the Dagu River took place frequently in summer. These observations implied environment change could bring the temporal

  9. Winter Ground Temperatures Control Snowmelt DOC Export From a Discontinuous Permafrost Watershed: A Multi-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    For discontinuous and continuous permafrost watersheds, the largest mass flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurs during the snowmelt period. During this time, available allochtonous organic carbon that has accumulated over the winter in frozen organic soils is rapidly flushed to the basin outlet. While this process has been observed now in many river systems of different size and location, there have been few inter-annual reports on the mass of DOC loss and the factors controlling its variability during freshet. Hydrological and DOC fluxes were recorded for the 2002, 2003 and 2006 snowmelt season with supplementary over-winter data for an 8 square kilometer sub-basin (Granger Basin) of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. Granger Basin is an alpine catchment above treeline underlain with discontinuous permafrost (approximately 70 %) and has widespread surface organic soils up to 0.4 m in thickness. Pre-melt snow water equivalent varied widely throughout the basin, yet was greatest in 2006, followed by 2002 and 2003. Ground temperatures were notably colder throughout the 2003 winter compared with 2006 and 2002. For all years, discharge began in mid-May, and was a continuous event in 2002 and 2006. In 2003 four distinct melt-periods were observed due to rising and falling temperatures. During freshet, stream DOC concentration increased rapidly from 15 mg C/L on the first ascending limb of the hydrograph in each year. In 2003, DOC was largely flushed from the catchment several weeks prior to peak freshet. DOC concentration in wells and piezometers followed a similar pattern to streamflow DOC, with 2003 groundwater DOC concentrations less than 2002 and 2006. The total mass flux of DOC during freshet was 0.85, 0.45 and 1.01 g C/m2 for 2002, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Despite differences in pre-melt snow accumulation, the timing of melt and the volume of discharge, it appears that spring DOC export is largely controlled by over-winter ground

  10. panMetaDocs and DataSync - providing a convenient way to share and publish research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years research institutions, geological surveys and funding organizations started to build infrastructures to facilitate the re-use of research data from previous work. At present, several intermeshed activities are coordinated to make data systems of the earth sciences interoperable and recorded data discoverable. Driven by governmental authorities, ISO19115/19139 emerged as metadata standards for discovery of data and services. Established metadata transport protocols like OAI-PMH and OGC-CSW are used to disseminate metadata to data portals. With the persistent identifiers like DOI and IGSN research data and corresponding physical samples can be given unambiguous names and thus become citable. In summary, these activities focus primarily on 'ready to give away'-data, already stored in an institutional repository and described with appropriate metadata. Many datasets are not 'born' in this state but are produced in small and federated research projects. To make access and reuse of these 'small data' easier, these data should be centrally stored and version controlled from the very beginning of activities. We developed DataSync [1] as supplemental application to the panMetaDocs [2] data exchange platform as a data management tool for small science projects. DataSync is a JAVA-application that runs on a local computer and synchronizes directory trees into an eSciDoc-repository [3] by creating eSciDoc-objects via eSciDocs' REST API. DataSync can be installed on multiple computers and is in this way able to synchronize files of a research team over the internet. XML Metadata can be added as separate files that are managed together with data files as versioned eSciDoc-objects. A project-customized instance of panMetaDocs is provided to show a web-based overview of the previously uploaded file collection and to allow further annotation with metadata inside the eSciDoc-repository. PanMetaDocs is a PHP based web application to assist the creation of metadata in

  11. Enseñanza individual a través de Skype y Google Docs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Łazor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta ideas para clases on-line utilizando Google Docs ySkype. En la parte teórica se explica el concepto de enseñanza virtual asincrónica ysincrónica. Se comentan las ventajas e inconvenientes de ambos modos de enseñanza.Los ejercicios prácticos utilizan sobre todo los métodos y herramientas sincrónicos ytienen el propósito de utilizar varias aplicaciones de Google Docs. Todas las tareas seadaptan a diferentes estilos de aprendizaje. La primera está relacionada con recordar yrepetir colocaciones y expresiones. En el segundo ejercicio se utiliza una fotografía y sela etiqueta aprovechando la opción dada por Google Drawing. En la tercera tarea seaplican tanto las estrategias de e-learning sincrónico como asincrónico y consiste en lacorrección on-line de una tarea previamente escrita. La última tarea implica la búsquedaen internet de una página web y la simulación de un intercambio de e-mails con elpropietario de un piso.

  12. Enseñanza individual a través de Skype y Google Docs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Łazor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta ideas para clases on-line utilizando Google Docs y Skype. En la parte teórica se explica el concepto de enseñanza virtual asincrónica y sincrónica. Se comentan las ventajas e inconvenientes de ambos modos de enseñanza.Los ejercicios prácticos utilizan sobre todo los métodos y herramientas sincrónicos y tienen el propósito de utilizar varias aplicaciones de Google Docs. Todas las tareas se adaptan a diferentes estilos de aprendizaje. La primera está relacionada con recordar y repetir colocaciones y expresiones. En el segundo ejercicio se utiliza una fotografía y se la etiqueta aprovechando la opción dada por Google Drawing. En la tercera tarea se aplican tanto las estrategias de e-learning sincrónico como asincrónico y consiste en la corrección on-line de una tarea previamente escrita. La última tarea implica la búsqueda en internet de una página web y la simulación de un intercambio de e-mails con el propietario de un piso.

  13. DOC and DON Dynamics along the Bagmati Drainage Network in Kathmandu Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, M. P.; McDowell, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    We studied organic matter dynamics and inorganic chemistry of the Bagmati River in Kathmandu valley, Nepal, to understand the influence of human and geochemical processes on chemical loads along the drainage system. Population density appears to be the most fundamental control on the chemistry of surface waters within the Bagmati drainage system. DOC concentration increases 10-fold with distance downstream (from 2.38 to 23.95 mg/L) and shows a strong relationship with human population density. The composition of river water (nutrients, Cl) suggests that sewage effluent to the river has a major effect on water quality. Concentrations were highest during summer, and lowest during the winter monsoon season. In contrast to DOC, DON concentration shows surprisingly little variation, and tends to decrease in concentration with distance downstream. Ammonium contributes almost all nitrogen in the total dissolved nitrogen fraction and the concentration of nitrate is negligible, probably due to rapid denitrification within the stream channel under relatively low-oxygen conditions. Decreases in sulfate along the stream channel may also be due to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide due to the heavy organic matter loading. Water quality is unacceptable for any use and the whole ecosystem is severely affected within the urban areas. Based on a comparison of downstream and upstream water quality, it appears that human activities along the Bagmati, principally inputs of human sewage, are largely responsible for the changes in surface water chemistry within Kathmandu valley.

  14. Sources and fate of organic (DOC, POC, CDOM) and inorganic (DIC) carbon in a mangrove dominated estuary (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.; Michaud, E.; Vantrepotte, V.; Aller, R. C.; Morvan, S.; Thouzeau, G.

    2016-12-01

    We studied the mangrove dominated Sinnamary estuarine system in French Guiana during the dry and wet seasons in 2015 to examine the sources, transport and fate of surface water DOC, POC and DIC along the salinity gradient and the effect of tidal fluctuations on carbon dynamics. Elemental ratios, stable isotopes and optical properties (absorption) were applied as proxies to delineate the sources and molecular structure of the organic carbon. Results showed that during the wet season there were significant net inputs of POC and DOC along the salinity gradient from mangroves and enhanced surface runoff. Time series performed during the dry season at a station in channel water adjacent to mangroves revealed mangrove-derived export and exchanges of DOC and POC during the ebb and marine algae import during the flood. DOC was the dominant form of carbon in both seasons with DOC:POC ratios typically between 13 and 40. Both δ13DOC and CDOM descriptors (e.g., S275-295 and a*412) confirmed mangrove litter leaching to be the primary contributor of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in the wet season which was replaced by marine phytoplanktonic OC during transport offshore in the dry season. CDOM aromaticity is lower in the dry season as mangrove inputs decrease. POC showed similar trends as DOC, with maximum contributions of terrestrial litter in the river and mixing zone, and in situ production dominant in the marine zone. The entire estuary is heterotrophic, exhibiting high pCO2 (837-5575µatm) and oxygen undersaturation (59-86%) in both seasons, and substantial CO2 emission fluxes (278-3671mmol m-2 d-1). Intense local remineralization and laterally transported CO2 originating from mangrove benthic respiration could account for the water column pCO2 enrichment during low tide and night time. Keywords: Organic carbon, stable isotopes, CDOM, pCO2, mangrove, French Guiana

  15. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B

    2009-06-01

    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  16. Deconstructing the Effects of Flow on DOC, Nitrate, and Major Ion Interactions Using a High-Frequency Aquatic Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L. E.; Shattuck, M. D.; Snyder, L. E.; Potter, J. D.; McDowell, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Streams provide a physical linkage between land and downstream river networks, delivering solutes derived from multiple catchment sources. We analyzed high-frequency time series of stream solutes to characterize the timing and magnitude of major ion, nutrient, and organic matter transport over event, seasonal, and annual timescales as well as to assess whether nitrate (NO3-) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transport are coupled in catchments, which would be expected if they are subject to similar biogeochemical controls throughout the watershed. Our data set includes in situ observations of NO3-, fluorescent dissolved organic matter (DOC proxy), and specific conductance spanning 2-4 years in 10 streams and rivers across New Hampshire, including observations of nearly 700 individual hydrologic events. We found a positive response of NO3- and DOC to flow in forested streams, but watershed development led to a negative relationship between NO3- and discharge, and thus a decoupling of the overall NO3- and DOC responses to flow. On event and seasonal timescales, NO3- and DOC consistently displayed different behaviors. For example, in several streams, FDOM yield was greatest during summer storms while NO3- yield was greatest during winter storms. Most streams had generalizable storm NO3- and DOC responses, but differences in the timing of NO3- and DOC transport suggest different catchment sources. Further, certain events, including rain-on-snow and summer storms following dry antecedent conditions, yielded disproportionate NO3- responses. High-frequency data allow for increased understanding of the processes controlling solute variability and will help reveal their responses to changing climatic regimes.

  17. Drainage in Shallow Peatlands of Marginal Upland Landscapes: DOC Losses from High Flow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Gatis, N.; Benaud, P.; Brazier, R.

    2013-12-01

    ) and finally headwater catchment-scales. Flow monitoring has been in place at all scales since November 2010. Flow-proportional water samples were collected during a range of events throughout winter 2011 to 2013 and analysed for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and colour, as these variables were identified as critical, both in terms of carbon cycling and for costly water treatment that currently takes place downstream. DOC fluxes were examined temporarily and spatially in relation to season, drain sizes, and magnitude/frequency of event. First results show higher DOC concentrations during rain events occurring in the summer compared to winter times, due to generally drier conditions. DOC fluxes per 24h rain events reach up to 3g/m2. Such measurements are used to evaluate annual DOC losses at the scale of the whole catchment. This will help improving our understanding of carbon losses and fluxes in streams from damaged peatlands, and further estimate the impact on the supply of ecosystem services, and the potential for improvement that can be expected following restoration.

  18. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment

  19. Development and psychometric properties of the Shared Decision Making Questionnaire--physician version (SDM-Q-Doc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Isabelle; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Buchholz, Angela; Härter, Martin

    2012-08-01

    To develop and psychometrically test a brief instrument for assessing the physician's perspective of the shared decision-making process in clinical encounters. We adapted the 9-item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) for patients to generate a new version for physicians (SDM-Q-Doc). The physician version was tested in clinical encounters between 29 physicians and 324 patients in German outpatient care contexts. Analyses of the extent to which the instrument was accepted, the reliability of the instrument, and the factorial structure of the scale were performed. Physicians showed a high level of acceptance toward the SDM-Q-Doc. Item discrimination parameters were above .4 for all but one item. An analysis of internal consistency yielded a Cronbach's α of .88. Factor analysis confirmed a one-dimensional structure. The results of this study suggest that the SDM-Q-Doc is a well-accepted and reliable instrument for assessing the physician's perspective during SDM processes in clinical encounters. To our knowledge, the SDM-Q-Doc is the first psychometrically tested scale available for assessing the physician's perspective. The SDM-Q-Doc can be used in studies that analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of SDM and as a quality indicator in quality assurance programs and health service assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of SDM-Q-Doc Questionnaire to measure shared decision-making physician's perspective in oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, C; Ferrando, P J; Carmona-Bayonas, A; Lorenzo-Seva, U; Jara, C; Beato, C; García, T; Ramchandani, A; Castelo, B; Muñoz, M M; Garcia, S; Higuera, O; Mangas-Izquierdo, M; Jimenez-Fonseca, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire-Physician version (SDM-Q-Doc) in a sample of medical oncologists who provide adjuvant treatment to patients with non-metastatic resected cancer and the correlations between the total SDM-Q-Doc score and physician satisfaction with the information provided. Prospective, observational and multicenter study in which 32 medical oncologists and 520 patients were recruited. The psychometric properties, dimensionality, and factor structure of the SDM-Q-Doc were assessed. Exploratory factor analyses suggested that the most likely solution was two-dimensional, with two correlated factors: one factor regarding information and another one about treatment. Confirmatory factor analysis based on cross-validation showed that the fitted two-dimensional solution provided the best fit to the data. Reliability analyses revealed good accuracy for the derived scores, both total and sub-scale, with estimates ranging from 0.81 to 0.89. The results revealed significant correlations between the total SDM-Q-Doc score and physician satisfaction with the information provided (p Doc showed good psychometric properties and could be a helpful tool that examines physician's perspective of SDM and as an indicator of quality and satisfaction in patients with cancer.

  1. 'Ike Wai Professional Development Model for Students and Post-docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    'Ike Wai: Securing Hawaii's Water Future, funded by NSF EPSCoR, is an interdisciplinary research collaboration among geophysicists, geochemists, engineers, microbiologists, computational modelers, data scientists and social scientists. Key questions include: How much water is there? How does it flow? How long will it last? Undergraduate students, graduate students and post-docs are actively involved in the research, and their professional development is a key part of the project. An underlying principle is that students assume responsibility for their own learning and professional development. Based on the model created by the NSF Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) (Bruno et al, 2008; Guannel et al 2014, Bottjer et al 2014), the 'Ike Wai professional development program includes (1) Leadership. Each student and post-doc creates an Individualized Professional Development plan, which includes leadership training (provided by external facilitators) and assuming leadership roles (such as developing and implementing trainings for their peers). (2) EDventures. Based on the C-MORE model, EDventures combines proposal-writing training with the incentive of seed money. Rather than providing training a priori, the EDventures model encourages students and post-docs to write a proposal based on guidelines provided. Training occurs during a two-stage review stage: proposers respond to panel reviews and resubmit their proposal within a single review cycle. C-MORE EDventures alumni self-report statistically significant confidence gains on all questions posed. Their subsequent proposal success is envious: of the 12 proposals submitted by to NSF, 50% were funded. (Wood Charlson & Bruno, 2015) (3) Layered Mentoring Network. All ´Ike Wai participants serve as both mentor and mentee. Students are matched with a non-research mentor in addition to their advisor to promote a holistic approach to career development. They will also serve as mentors to more

  2. Tracing river runoff and DOC over the East Siberian Shelf using in situ CDOM measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Svetlana; Semiletov, Igor; Pipko, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The Great Siberian Rivers integrate meteorological and hydrological changes in their watersheds and play a significant role in the physical and biogeochemical regime of the Arctic Ocean through transport of fresh water (FW) and carbon into the sea. Since 1994, the Laboratory of Arctic Research POI in cooperation with the IARC UAF investigate the fresh water and carbon fluxes in the Siberian Arctic land-shelf system with the special emphasize in the East Siberian Arctic shelf (ESAS) which represents the widest and shallowest continental shelf in the World Ocean, yet it is still poorly explored. The East Siberian Sea is influenced by water exchange from the eastern Laptev Sea (where local shelf waters are diluted mostly by Lena River discharge) and by inflow of Pacific waters from the Chukchi Sea. This region is characterized by the highest rate of coastal erosion and significant volume of the riverine discharge and exhibits the largest gradients in all oceanographic parameters observed for the entire Arctic Ocean. Here we demonstrate a connection among Chromophoric (or Colored) Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) which represents the colored fraction of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), salinity, and pCO2. Our data have documented strong linear correlations between salinity and CDOM in the near shore zone strongly influenced by riverine runoff. Correlation coefficient between CDOM and salinity in surface waters was equal to -0.94, -0.94 and -0.95 for surface water stations in September of 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Combined analysis of CDOM and DOC data demonstrated a high degree of correlation between these parameters (r=0.96). Such close connection between these characteristics of waters in this region makes it possible to restore the distribution of DOC according to our original CDOM data of the profiling systems, such as CTD-Seabird equipped by WETStar CDOM fluorimeter. It is shown that the CDOM can be used as a conservative tracer to follow the transport and

  3. C-MORE Professional Development Training Program for Graduate Students and Post-Docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; DeLeo, F.; Bottjer, D.; Jungbluth, S.; Burkhardt, B.; Hawco, N.; Boiteau, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a National Science Foundation-sponsored Science and Technology Center. C-MORE comprises six partner institutions: University of Hawaii (headquarters), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Oregon State University, University of California at Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. C-MORE's Professional Development Training Program is aimed at equipping graduate students and post-docs at all six institutions with the skills and experiences needed to maximize their potential and succeed in their professional careers. This program is administered through the C-MORE Education Office and was developed in close collaboration with graduate students, post-docs, and faculty. This program has formal but flexible requirements. There is only one required module (Outreach). The seven optional modules include: Science Communication, Leadership, Mentoring, Teaching, Research Exchange, Diversity and Proposal Writing. Masters students choose three optional modules; Ph.D. students and post-docs choose five. Most modules consist of a training component, followed by a practical component. All participants will are expected to complete program evaluations. Below are some examples of program offerings: Science Communication Module In partnership with the Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea, C-MORE organized three Science Communication workshops at the University of Hawaii, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. These workshops train participants to distill their research into language that is free of jargon and accessible to a general audience. After the training, participants are asked to produce a communication product based on their research, such as a magazine article, press release, podcast or a blog. Diversity Module To date, C-MORE has organized three teleconferences on diversity, attended by

  4. Google Docs as a Tool for Collaborative Writing in the Middle School Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Fan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In this study, the authors examine how an online word processing tool can be used to encourage participation among students of different language back-grounds, including English Language Learners. To be exact, the paper discusses whether student participation in anonymous collaborative writing via Google Docs can lead to more successful products in a linguistically diverse eighth-grade English Language Arts classroom. Background: English Language Learners (ELLs make up a considerable portion of elementary and secondary public school students, as language and ethnic diversity has become the norm in the United States. The research literature finds that ELLs are statistically behind their monolingual peers on such key language and academic development indicators as writing. Educators and researchers then turn to collaborative writing with the assistance of online technology. Although it is shown in literature to be a worthwhile endeavor for students of all ages and ability levels, no studies have investigated the differences it makes, namely, in comparison to traditional face-to-face collaboration in the classroom, and to anonymous online collaboration in the virtual space. Methodology: Through face-to-face, online, and anonymous writing activities, a rubric, and a survey, this quantitative study asks if anonymous collaborative writing, com-pared to other modalities, equalizes participation among students of varying language fluencies, and if anonymous collaborative writing, compared to other modalities, affect student comfort levels. Contribution: This builds on research of online collaborative writing tools and suggests that using such tools (Google Docs in particular is beneficial, especially for students who are building their language abilities. The study further reveals varied degree of success and student comfort level in participating writing tasks in three modalities. Findings: We ascertain that students of varying language

  5. Production and decomposition of new DOC by marine plankton communities: carbohydrates, refractory components and nutrient limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, T.; Søndergaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation and biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved and particulate combined neutral sugars (DCNS, PCNS) were followed during a period of 22 days in experimental marine phytoplankton incubations. Five different growth regimes were established in 11 m(3) coastal...... in the mesocosms with diatoms dominating could be explained by DCNS, while only 6% was explained in the mesocosms with few diatoms. PCNS composition was similar in all mesocosms and with dominance of glucose and mannose, while DCNS were more evenly distributed with the following mole percentages fucose 15......, rhamnose 14, arabinose 6, galactose 27, glucose 20 and mannose 18%. The DCNS composition did not reflect the PCNS composition at any time during the experiment. Accumulated DCNS were quickly degraded and only 1% of the new RDOC was explained by DCNS. RDOC accumulated after day #17 in the two mesocosms...

  6. ICF-DOC: the ICF dedicated checklist for evaluating functioning and disability in people with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Covelli, Venusia; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Raggi, Alberto; Sattin, Davide

    2014-09-01

    Clinicians need a comprehensive description of patients' functioning state to capture the complex interaction between symptoms and environmental factors, and to determine the actual level of functioning in patients in a vegetative state or a minimally conscious state. The aim of this study is to develop an International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) checklist for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) so as to capture and describe, with a tailored list of categories, the most common health, disability, and functioning issues of adult patients with DOC. The WHO ICF checklist was used as a basis for collecting data. This was an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted in 69 Italian centers. Specific methodological procedures were used to identify the most appropriate categories for DOC patients to be added to or deleted from the ICF checklist so as to develop the ICF-DOC checklist. A total of 566 adult patients were enrolled: 398 in a vegetative state and 168 in a minimally conscious state. A total of 127 ICF categories reached the threshold of 20% concerning the presence of a problem: 37 categories from the body functions chapter, 13 from the body structures chapter, 46 from the activities and participations chapter, and 31 from the environmental factors chapter. ICF categories identified in this study can be useful guidelines for clinicians and researchers to collect data on functioning and disability of adult patients with DOC. The new ICF-DOC checklist allows monitoring of the effects of interventions on functional areas and possible changes in each patient in follow-up studies.

  7. Mapping Surface Water DOC in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using CDOM Absorption Coefficients and Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.

  8. Fluorescence measured in situ as a proxy of CDOM absorption and DOC concentration in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kowalczuk; Monika Zabłocka; Sławomir Sagan; Karol Kuliński

    2010-01-01

    This study presents results from field surveys performed in 2008 and 2009 in the southern Baltic in different seasons. The main goal of these measurements was to identify the empirical relationships between DOM optical properties and DOC. CDOM absorption and fluorescence and DOC concentrations were measured during thirteen research cruises. The values of the CDOM absorption coefficient at 370 nm aCDOM(370) ranged from 0.70 m-1 to 7.94 m-1, and CDOM fluorescence intensities (ex./em. 370/460) I...

  9. The design of PoliDocs: a web information system for the disclosure of Dutch parliamentary publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielissen, T.; Marx, M.

    2009-01-01

    The development of PoliDocs.nl, a Web Information System for the disclosure of Dutch parliamentary publications, is an effort to improve the disclosure of parliamentary publications in The Netherlands. The data is distributed over three sources and is available through different Web Information

  10. Integrated bicarbonate-form ion exchange treatment and regeneration for DOC removal: Model development and pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Boyer, Treavor H

    2017-05-15

    The application of bicarbonate-form anion exchange resin and sodium bicarbonate salt for resin regeneration was investigated in this research is to reduce chloride ion release during treatment and the disposal burden of sodium chloride regeneration solution when using traditional chloride-form ion exchange (IX). The target contaminant in this research was dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The performance evaluation was conducted in a completely mixed flow reactor (CMFR) IX configuration. A process model that integrated treatment and regeneration was investigated based on the characteristics of configuration. The kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed to obtain required parameters for the process model. The pilot plant tests were conducted to validate the model as well as provide practical understanding on operation. The DOC concentration predicted by the process model responded to the change of salt concentration in the solution, and showed a good agreement with pilot plant data with less than 10% difference in terms of percentage removal. Both model predictions and pilot plant tests showed over 60% DOC removal by bicarbonate-form resin for treatment and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration, which was comparable to chloride-form resin for treatment and sodium chloride for regeneration. Lastly, the DOC removal was improved by using higher salt concentration for regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence and simulation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water: A simple prediction method based on DOC and mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Could combined sleep and pain evaluation be useful in the diagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DOC)? Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Irene; Naro, Antonino; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Leo, Antonino; Muscarà, Nunzio; De Salvo, Simona; Silvestri, Rosalia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) is still challenging. Indeed, ~ 40% of patients in vegetative state (VS) are misdiagnosed, suggesting the need of more appropriate diagnostic tools. Emerging data are showing that EEG, including sleep structure evaluation and multimodal evoked potential recording could be helpful in DOC diagnosis. Moreover, pain perception evaluation could further increase diagnosis accuracy in such individuals. Fourteen individuals with DOC, due to severe brain injury, were enrolled and admitted to the Intensive Neurorehabilitation Unit of the Research Institute. All patients were evaluated by means of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, a 24(hh)-polysomnography and a Laser Evoked Potential (LEP) paradigm. Clinically-defined patients in Minimally Consciousness State showed a more preserved sleep structure, physiologic hypnic figures and preserved REM/NREM sleep distribution than subjects in VS. LEP showed increased latencies and reduced amplitudes and were also detectable in patients with more structured sleep. The data support previous findings concerning the importance of sleep study in DOC diagnosis, with more specific neurophysiological paradigms. Interestingly, the findings shed some light on the possible correlations among global brain connectivity, sleep structure and pain perception, which are related to the activity of the wide thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical networks underlying consciousness.

  13. Using Google Docs to Enhance the Teacher Work Sample: Building e-Portfolios for Learning and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugino, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The use of teaching portfolios in teacher education programs is a widely accepted practice. This article describes how a traditional teacher work sample was transformed using the online platform, Google Docs. The use of online digital portfolios may help to satisfy both the need to evaluate teacher candidates' performance in special education…

  14. Simulation of low temperature combustion mechanism of different combustion-supporting agents in close-coupled DOC and DPF system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Penghao; Li, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wen; He, Li; Wu, Yue

    2018-07-01

    In the coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particular Filter (DPF) system, soot cannot be completely removed by only using the passive regeneration. And DPF active regeneration is necessary. The research method in this paper is to spray different kinds of combustion-supporting agents to the DOC in the front of the DPF. Therefore, the low temperature combustion mechanism of different kinds of combustion-supporting agents in DOC was studied, in order to grasp the law of combustion in DOC, and the influence of follow-up emission on DPF removal of soot. During the study, CH 4 H 2 mixture and diesel (n-heptane + toluene) were used as combustion-supporting agents respectively. The simplified mechanisms of two kinds of gas mixtures used as the combustion-supporting agents in DPF have been constructed and testified in the paper. In this paper, the combustion and emission conditions of the two combustion-supporting agents were analyzed so as to meet the practical requirements of different working conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Constructivist Approach to Web-Based EFL Learning: Collaboration, Motivation, and Perception on the Use of Google Docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sarah Hsueh-Jui; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the differences in motivation, vocabulary gain, and perceptions on using or the Google Docs between individual and collaborative learning at a tertiary level. Two classes of English-as-a-Foreign Language (EFL) students were recruited and each class was randomly assigned into one of the two groups--individuals or…

  16. Exploring the Effects of Employing Google Docs in Collaborative Concept Mapping on Achievement, Concept Representation, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Chia-Hu; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Ke-Chou

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Docs in collaborative concept mapping (CCM) by comparing it with a paper-and-pencil approach. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a physics course. The control group drew concept maps using the paper-and-pencil method and face-to-face discussion, whereas the experimental group…

  17. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil extracts investigated by FT-ICR-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Steffen, D.; Jablonowski, N. D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting usually increases the release of xenobiotics like pesticides present in agricultural soils. Besides the effect on the release of two aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues we focus on the characterisation of simultaneously remobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to gain new insights into structure and stability aspects of soil organic carbon fractions. The test soil (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) was obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45°C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (2000 g). This extraction procedure was repeated several individual times, for both setups. The first three individual extractions, respectively were used for further investigations. Salt was removed from samples prior analysis because of a possible quench effect in the electrospray (ESI) source by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Chromabond C18 Hydra-cartridges (Macherey-Nagel) and methanol as backextraction solvent. The so preconcentrated and desalted samples were introduced by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for complex natural systems attributed by their outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (≤ 1ppm) by simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds and was successful applied for the investigations of natural organic matter (NOM) different sources like marine and surface water, soil, sediment, bog and crude oil

  18. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 2: changes in DOC productivity over four decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, B; Yallop, A R

    2010-11-15

    Increasing DOC concentrations in surface waters have been observed across parts of Europe and North America over the past few decades. Most proposed explanations for these widespread trends invoke climate change or reductions in sulphate deposition. However, these factors do not seem apposite to explain either the fine-scale (within kilometres) or regional-scale spatial variation in DOC concentrations observed across the UK. We have reconstructed DOC concentrations and land use for one North Pennine and five South Pennine catchments (UK), located in three discrete areas, over the last four decades. Rainfall, temperature and sulphate deposition data, where available, were also collated and the potential influence of these factors on surface water DOC concentrations was assessed. Four of the six catchments examined showed highly significant (pDOC (hDOC) concentrations in drainage waters over the period 1990-2005. Changes in temperature and sulphate deposition may explain 20-30% of this trend in these four catchments. However, the rapid expansion of new moorland burn on blanket peat can explain a far greater degree (>80%) of the change in hDOC. Far smaller increases in hDOC (10-18%) were identified for the two remaining catchments. These two sites experienced similar changes in sulphur deposition and temperature to those that had seen largest increases in DOC, but contained little or no moorland burn management on blanket peat. This study shows that regional-scale factors undoubtedly underlie some of the recent observed increases in drainage humic coloured DOC. However, changes in land management, in this case the extensive use of fire management on blanket peat, are a far more important driver of increased hDOC release from upland catchments in some parts of the UK. It suggests that the recent rapid increase in the use of burning on blanket peat moorland has implications for ecosystem services and carbon budgets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation-aid treatment on the reduction of trihalomethanes precursors from high DOC and hardness water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrnourmohamadi, Mehrnaz; Gorczyca, Beata

    2015-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation aid on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the water with a high level of DOC (13.8 mgL(-1)) and calcium hardness (270 mgL(-1)) CaCO3. Natural water collected from the Assiniboine River (Manitoba, Canada) was used in this study. Effectiveness of ozone treatment was evaluated by measurement of DOC, DOC fractions, UV254, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additionally, zeta potential and dissolved calcium concentration were measured to discern the mechanism of ozone reactions. Results indicated that 0.8 mg O3/mg DOC ozone stand-alone can cause up to 86% UV254 reduction and up to 27% DOC reduction. DOC fractionation results showed that ozone can change the composition of DOC in the water samples, converting the hydrophobic fractions into hydrophilic ones and resulting in the reduction of THMFP. Also, ozone caused a decrease in particle stability and dissolved calcium concentration. These simultaneous ozonation effects caused improved water flocculation and enhanced removal of DOC. This resulted in reduction of the coagulant dosage when ozone doses higher than 0.2 mg O3/mg DOC were applied prior to coagulation with ferric sulfate. Also, pre-ozonation-coagulation process achieved preferential THMFP removal for all of the ozone doses tested (0-0.8 mg O3/mg DOC), leading to a lower specific THMFP in pre-ozonated-coagulated waters than in the corresponding ozonated waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Master function for the solid:solution equilibrium of DOC in taiga and tundra soils of N. Russia: experimental and modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, M. R.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Meeussen, J. C. L.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The formation and degradation of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in arctic environments is intensively investigated, in the context of DOC loading of arctic rivers and seas as well as climate change. However, chemical interaction studies are more scarce, in particular those involving modeling. We investigated DOC interactions in N. Russian taiga and tundra soils, and found that water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) comprises only a small fraction of total organic carbon, whereas DOC is again a small fraction of WEOC. The chemical composition of DOC in terms of humic, fulvic, and hydrophilic acids, the concentrations of dominant cations such as Ca and Al, and the solid iron oxide contents appear to differ profoundly for different soil horizons, as well as between taiga and tundra soils. To reconcile these differences, we processed the data with a simple Freundlich model and with advanced LCD (Ligand and Charge Distribution) modeling of DOC interactions. In the LCD modeling, a combination is made of advances such as CD-MUSIC, and Nica-Donnan approaches, that are implemented in the software ORCHESTRA (though adjusted for computational stability by us). To avoid fitting without good foundation, use is made of the generic parameterization of LCD in combination with measured, site-specific chemical data such as concentrations. We observe that the soil samples from both regions, soil types and horizons can be described with a single DOC sorption Freundlich isotherm. More interestingly, for the same set of samples, the LCD modeling enables us to cast DOC sorption into a single Master Function, that takes iron oxide content and Al and Ca concentrations of soil samples into account in a purely predictive way. Based on this Master Function, it is feasible to assess how DOC is sorbed onto the solid surface. In combination with DOC production and degradation models, our results provide a more balanced instrument to address changes in DOC loading to surface waters due to

  1. Hydrologic and forest management controls on DOC dynamics in the small watersheds of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, K.; Jones, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export from hillslopes to streams is an important component of the carbon cycle of a catchment and may be a critical source of energy for the aquatic food web in receiving waters. Using a long-term record of DOC and other dissolved nutrients and elements from paired watersheds from the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon, we explored hydrologic, climatic, and land-use controls on seasonal and inter-annual patterns of DOC flux in a seasonally dry ecosystem. Seasonal patterns of DOC flux demonstrated source limitations to DOC export, with DOC concentrations highest immediately following the first rains after a dry summer, and lowest after winter rains. In contrast, more geochemically-controlled elements showed simple dilution-concentration patterns with no seasonal hysteresis. Inter-annual patterns of DOC flux, however, did not provide evidence of source limitation, with DOC flux within a watershed tightly correlated to total discharge but not temperature. Among watersheds, forest harvest, even over 50 years ago, significantly reduced DOC flux but not fluxes of other elements including N; this response was linked to the loading of coarse woody debris to the forest floor. Chemical fingerprinting of DOC revealed that old-growth watersheds had higher fluxes of DOC characteristic of forest floor organic materials, likely delivered to streams through more surficial preferential flow pathways not subject to microbial alteration, respiration, or sorption losses. Taken together these results suggest that the biogeochemical composition of forested streams reflects both current hydrologic patterns and also processes that occurred many decades ago within the catchment.

  2. Experimental study on the particulate matter and nitrogenous compounds from diesel engine retrofitted with DOC+CDPF+SCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Lou, Diming; Tan, Piqiang; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations will mandate the retrofit of after-treatment devices for in-use diesel vehicles, in order to reduce their substantial particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions. In this paper, a combination of DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), CDPF (catalytic diesel particulate filter) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction) retrofit for a heavy-duty diesel engine was employed to perform experiment on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the particulate matter emissions including particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), particle size distributions and nitrogenous compounds emissions including NOX, nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOX, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) slip. In addition, the urea injection was also of our concern. The results showed that the DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit almost had no adverse effect on the engine power and fuel consumption. Under the test loads, the upstream DOC and CDPF reduced the PN and PM by an average of 91.6% and 90.9%, respectively. While the downstream SCR brought about an average decrease of 85% NOX. Both PM and NOX emission factors based on this retrofit were lower than China-Ⅳ limits (ESC), and even lower than China-Ⅴ limits (ESC) at medium and high loads. The DOC and CDPF changed the particle size distributions, leading to the increase in the proportion of accumulation mode particles and the decrease in the percentage of nuclear mode particles. This indicates that the effect of DOC and CDPF on nuclear mode particles was better than that of accumulation mode ones. The upstream DOC could increase the NO2/NOX ratio to 40%, higher NO2/NOX ratio improved the efficiency of CDPF and SCR. Besides, the N2O emission increased by an average of 2.58 times after the retrofit and NH3 slip occurred with the average of 26.7 ppm. The rate of urea injection was roughly equal to 8% of the fuel consumption rate. The DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit was proved a feasible and effective measurement in terms

  3. Fluorescence measured in situ as a proxy of CDOM absorption and DOC concentration in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kowalczuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents results from field surveys performed in 2008 and 2009 in the southern Baltic in different seasons. The main goal of these measurements was to identify the empirical relationships between DOM optical properties and DOC. CDOM absorption and fluorescence and DOC concentrations were measured during thirteen research cruises. The values of the CDOM absorption coefficient at 370 nm aCDOM(370 ranged from 0.70 m-1 to 7.94 m-1, and CDOM fluorescence intensities (ex./em. 370/460 IFl, expressed in quinine sulphate equivalent units, ranged from 3.88 to 122.97 (in filtered samples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations ranged from 266.7 to 831.7 µM C. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity measured in the filtered samples and the CDOM absorption coefficient aCDOM(370, R2 = 0.87. There was much more scatter in the relationship between the fluorescence intensity measured in situ (i.e. in unprocessed water samples and the CDOM absorption coefficient aCDOM(370, resulting in a slight deterioration in the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.85. This indicated that the presence of particles could impact fluorometer output during in situ deployment. A calibration experiment was set up to quantify particle impact on the instrument output in raw marine water samples relative to readings from filtered samples. The bias calculated for the absolute percentage difference between fluorescence intensities measured in raw and filtered water was low (-2.05%, but the effect of particle presence expressed as the value of the RMSE was significant and was as high as 35%. Both DOM fluorescence intensity (in raw water and filtered samples and the CDOM absorption coefficient aCDOM(370 are highly correlated with DOC concentration. The relationship between DOC and the CDOM absorption coefficient aCDOM(370 was better (R2 = 0.76 than the relationship between DOC and the respective fluorescence intensities

  4. In Situ Stoichiometry in a Large River: Continuous Measurement of Doc, NO3 and PO4 in the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, B. D.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Saraceno, J.

    2011-12-01

    Studying controls on geochemical processes in rivers and streams is difficult because concentration and composition often changes rapidly in response to physical and biological forcings. Understanding biogeochemical dynamics in rivers will improve current understanding of the role of watershed sources to carbon cycling, river and stream ecology, and loads to estuaries and oceans. Continuous measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3-) and soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) concentrations are now possible, along with some information about DOC composition. In situ sensors designed to measure these constituents provide high frequency, real-time data that can elucidate hydrologic and biogeochemical controls which are difficult to detect using more traditional sampling approaches. Here we present a coupled approach, using in situ optical instrumentation with discharge measurements to provide quantitative estimates of constituent loads to investigate C, NO3- and SRP sources and processing in the Sacramento River, CA, USA. Continuous measurement of DOC concentration was conducted by use of a miniature in situ fluorometer (Turner Designs Cyclops) designed to measure chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) over the course of an entire year. Nitrate was measured concurrently using a Satlantic SUNA and phosphate was measured using a WETLabs model Cycle-P instrument for a two week period in July 2011. Continuous measurement from these instruments paired with continuous measurement of physical water quality variables such as temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, were used to investigate physical and chemical dynamics of DOC, NO3-, SRP over varying time scales. Deploying these instruments at pre-existing USGS discharge gages allowed for calculation of instantaneous and integrated constituent fluxes, as well as filling in gaps in our understanding biogeochemical processes and transport. Results from the study

  5. Modeling the Space-Time Destiny of Pan-Arctic Permafrost DOC in a Global Land Surface Model: Feedback Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S.; Lauerwald, R.; Guenet, B.; Zhu, D.; Ciais, P.

    2017-12-01

    Most global climate models do not represent the unique permafrost soil environment and its respective processes. This significantly contributes to uncertainty in estimating their responses, and that of the planet at large, to warming. Here, the production, transport and atmospheric release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from high-latitude permafrost soils into inland waters and the ocean is explicitly represented for the first time in the land surface component (ORCHIDEE-MICT) of a CMIP6 global climate model (IPSL). This work merges two models that are able to mechanistically simulate complex processes for 1) snow, ice and soil phenomena in high latitude environments, and 2) DOC production and lateral transport through soils and the river network, respectively, at 0.5° to 2° resolution. The resulting model is subjected to a wide range of input forcing data, parameter testing and contentious feedback phenomena, including microbial heat generation as the active layer deepens. We present results for the present and future Pan-Arctic and Eurasia, with a focus on the Lena and Mackenzie River basins, and show that soil DOC concentrations, their riverine transport and atmospheric evasion are reasonably well represented as compared to observed stocks, fluxes and seasonality. We show that most basins exhibit large increases in DOC transport and riverine CO2 evasion across the suite of RCP scenarios to 2100. We also show that model output is strongly influenced by choice of input forcing data. The riverine component of what is known as the `boundless carbon cycle' is little-recognized in global climate modeling. Hydrological mobilization to the river network results either in sedimentary settling or atmospheric `evasion', presently amounting to 0.5-1.8 PgC yr-1. Our work aims at filling in these knowledge gaps, and the response of these DOC-related processes to thermal forcing. Potential feedbacks owing to such a response are of particular relevance, given the magnitude

  6. Biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature effects on leachate: DOC characteristics and nitrate losses from a Brazilian Cerrado Arenosol mixed with agricultural waste biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speratti, Alicia B; Johnson, Mark S; Sousa, Heiriane Martins; Dalmagro, Higo J; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães

    2018-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from Brazilian Cerrado Arenosols can lead to carbon (C) losses and lower soil fertility, while excessive nutrient, e.g. nitrate (NO 3 - ), leaching can potentially cause water contamination. As biochar has been shown to stabilize C and retain soil nutrients, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test different biochars' contributions to DOC and NO 3 - leaching from a sandy soil. Biochars were made from four local agricultural waste feedstocks (cotton residue, swine manure, eucalyptus sawmill residue, sugarcane filtercake) pyrolysed at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Biochar was mixed with soil at 5% weight in pots and maize seeds planted. Leachate was collected weekly for six weeks and analyzed for DOC and NO 3 - concentrations, while fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to interpret DOC characteristics. Cotton and swine manure biochar treatments had higher DOC and NO 3 - losses than eucalyptus biochar, filtercake biochar, and control treatments. Cotton and swine manure biochar treatments at high temperatures lost mostly terrestrial, humified DOC, while swine manure, filtercake, and eucalyptus biochars at low temperatures lost mostly labile, microbially-derived DOC. Through the practical use of fluorescence spectroscopy, our study identified filtercake and eucalyptus biochars as most promising for retaining DOC and NO 3 - in a Cerrado Arenosol, potentially reducing stable C and nutrient losses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Mixed Methods Analysis of the Effect of Google Docs Environment on EFL Learners' Writing Performance and Causal Attributions for Success and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedrezaie, Zari Sadat; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shahriari, Hesamoddin; Fatemi, Hazar Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of writing process in Google Docs environment on Iranian EFL learners' writing performance. It also examined students' perceptions towards the effects of Google Docs and their perceived causes of success or failure in writing performance. In this regard, 48 EFL students were chosen based on their IELTs writing…

  8. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation of the DocCom online module: communication for teamwork 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tatiane Angélica Phelipini; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Grosseman, Suely; González, Alberto Durán

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.

  9. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation of the DocCom online module: communication for teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Angélica Phelipini Borges

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.

  10. Documenting Climate Models and Simulations: the ES-DOC Ecosystem in Support of CMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, C. L.; Guilyardi, E.

    2017-12-01

    The results of climate models are of increasing and widespread importance. No longer is climate model output of sole interest to climate scientists and researchers in the climate change impacts and adaptation fields. Now non-specialists such as government officials, policy-makers, and the general public, all have an increasing need to access climate model output and understand its implications. For this host of users, accurate and complete metadata (i.e., information about how and why the data were produced) is required to document the climate modeling results. Here we describe the ES-DOC community-govern project to collect and make available documentation of climate models and their simulations for the internationally coordinated modeling activity CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 6). An overview of the underlying standards, key properties and features, the evolution from CMIP5, the underlying tools and workflows as well as what modelling groups should expect and how they should engage with the documentation of their contribution to CMIP6 is also presented.

  11. Non-linear, connectivity and threshold-dominated runoff-generation controls DOC and heavy metal export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, Christian; Broder, Tanja; Biester, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils act as important carbon sinks, but they also release large amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the aquatic system. The DOC export is strongly tied to the export of soluble heavy metals. The accumulation of potentially toxic substances due to anthropogenic activities, and their natural export from peat soils to the aquatic system is an important health and environmental issue. However, limited knowledge exists as to how much of these substances are mobilized, how they are mobilized in terms of flow pathways and under which hydrometeorological conditions. In this study, we report from a combined experimental and modelling effort to provide greater process understanding from a small, lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. We developed a minimally parameterized, but process-based, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model applied to simulate detailed hydrometric and biogeochemical data. The model was based on an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC-processing based on stream-DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data (not used for calibration as an independent model test) for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. We found that Pb and As mobilization can be efficiently predicted from DOC transport alone, but Pb showed a significant non-linear relationship with DOC, while As was linearly related to DOC. The relatively parsimonious model (nine calibrated parameters in total) showed the importance of non-linear and rapid near-surface runoff-generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time - as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity, but

  12. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a

  13. Determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters by sequential injection spectrophotometry with on-line UV photo-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue-Ngeun, Orawan; Sandford, Richard C.; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; McKelvie, Ian D.; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) method for the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters is presented. For DIC measurement on-line sample acidification (sulphuric acid, pH 2 which subsequently diffused through a PTFE membrane into a basic, cresol red acceptor stream. The CO 2 increased the concentration of the acidic form of the cresol red indicator, with a resultant decrease in absorbance at 570 nm being directly proportional to DIC concentration. DIC + DOC was determined after on-line sample irradiation (15 W low power UV lamp) coupled with acid-peroxydisulfate digestion, with the subsequent detection of CO 2 as described above. DOC was determined by subtraction of DIC from (DIC + DOC). Analytical figures of merit were linear ranges of 0.05-5.0 mg C L -1 for both DIC and DIC + DOC, with typical R.S.D.s of less than 7% (0.05 mg C L -1 -5.3% for DIC and 6.6% for DIC + DOC; 4.0 mg C L -1 -2.6% for DIC and 2.4% for DIC + DOC, n = 3) and an LOD (blank + 3S.D.) of 0.05 mg C L -1 . Sample throughput for the automated system was 8 h -1 for DIC and DOC with low reagent consumption (acid/peroxydisulfate 200 μL per DIC + DOC analysis). A range of model carbon compounds and Tamar River (Plymouth, UK) samples were analysed for DIC and DOC and the results showed good agreement with a high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) reference method (t-test, P = 0.05)

  14. Determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters by sequential injection spectrophotometry with on-line UV photo-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tue-Ngeun, Orawan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sandford, Richard C. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drakes Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rsandford@plymouth.ac.uk; Jakmunee, Jaroon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Grudpan, Kate [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); McKelvie, Ian D. [Water Studies Centre, School of Chemistry, Monash University, P.O. Box 23, Clayton Campus, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Worsfold, Paul J. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drakes Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-04

    An automated sequential injection (SI) method for the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters is presented. For DIC measurement on-line sample acidification (sulphuric acid, pH < 2), converted DIC to CO{sub 2} which subsequently diffused through a PTFE membrane into a basic, cresol red acceptor stream. The CO{sub 2} increased the concentration of the acidic form of the cresol red indicator, with a resultant decrease in absorbance at 570 nm being directly proportional to DIC concentration. DIC + DOC was determined after on-line sample irradiation (15 W low power UV lamp) coupled with acid-peroxydisulfate digestion, with the subsequent detection of CO{sub 2} as described above. DOC was determined by subtraction of DIC from (DIC + DOC). Analytical figures of merit were linear ranges of 0.05-5.0 mg C L{sup -1} for both DIC and DIC + DOC, with typical R.S.D.s of less than 7% (0.05 mg C L{sup -1}-5.3% for DIC and 6.6% for DIC + DOC; 4.0 mg C L{sup -1}-2.6% for DIC and 2.4% for DIC + DOC, n = 3) and an LOD (blank + 3S.D.) of 0.05 mg C L{sup -1}. Sample throughput for the automated system was 8 h{sup -1} for DIC and DOC with low reagent consumption (acid/peroxydisulfate 200 {mu}L per DIC + DOC analysis). A range of model carbon compounds and Tamar River (Plymouth, UK) samples were analysed for DIC and DOC and the results showed good agreement with a high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) reference method (t-test, P = 0.05)

  15. Decreasing DOC trends in soil solution along the hillslopes at two IM sites in southern Sweden--geochemical modeling of organic matter solubility during acidification recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Bringmark, Lage

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies report increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the last two decades in boreal lakes and streams in Europe and North America. Recently, a hypothesis was presented on how various spatial and temporal factors affect the DOC dynamics. It was concluded that declining sulphur deposition and thereby increased DOC solubility, is the most important driver for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters. If this recovery hypothesis is correct, the DOC levels should increase both in the soil solution as well as in the surrounding surface waters as soil pH rises and the ionic strength declines due to the reduced input of SO(4)(2-) ions. In this project a geochemical model was set up to calculate the net humic charge and DOC solubility trends in soils during the period 1996-2007 at two integrated monitoring sites in southern Sweden, showing clear signs of acidification recovery. The Stockholm Humic Model was used to investigate whether the observed DOC solubility is related to the humic charge and to examine how pH and ionic strength influence it. Soil water data from recharge and discharge areas, covering both podzols and riparian soils, were used. The model exercise showed that the increased net charge following the pH increase was in many cases counteracted by a decreased ionic strength, which acted to decrease the net charge and hence the DOC solubility. Thus, the recovery from acidification does not necessarily have to generate increasing DOC trends in soil solution. Depending on changes in pH, ionic strength and soil Al pools, the trends might be positive, negative or indifferent. Due to the high hydraulic connectivity with the streams, the explanations to the DOC trends in surface waters should be searched for in discharge areas and peat lands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  17. Evaluation of Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon Concentrations (DIC, DOC and Their Isotopic Compositions (δ 13C-DOC, δ 13C-DIC in Water Resources of the Karde Catchment (North of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mohammadzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the variations of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC, DOC concentrations and their isotopic compositions (δ13C- DIC, δ13C- DOC were evaluated in both surface and ground water resources in the Karde catchment area (with an area of about 547 Km2, located in the North of Mashhad. To identify the sources of the dissolved carbon (DIC and DOC, samples were collected in June 2011 from surface and ground water resources (river, dam’s lake, springs, wells, and Qanat and from depths of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 meters of Karde dam lakeat a point located near the dam outlet. Field parameters (T, EC, and TDS were measured during sampling. All measurements were performed in the G.G. Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory at the University of Ottawa, Canada. The concentrations and isotopic compositions of DIC and DOC were determined using TCA and CF-IRMS instruments, respectively. Based on the results obt 1-دانشیار،مرکزتحقیقاتآبهایزیرزمینی متآب،دانشکدهعلوم،دانشگاهفردوسی مشهد،،مشهد، ایران 2- دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشدهیدروژئولوژی، مرکزتحقیقاتآبهایزیرزمینی متآب،دانشکده علوم،دانشگاهفردوسیمشهد، مشهد، ایران *نویسنده مسئول، پست الکترونیکی:mohammadzadeh@um.ac.ir           ained, the average values of DIC are 54.1 mg/l and 66.8 mg/l in the surface and ground water resources in the Karde catchment area, respectively; the average values of DOC are 2.2 mg/l and 0.45 mg/l; the average values of δ13C-DIC are -7‰ and -11 ‰; and the average values of δ13C-DOC are -31.6‰ and -29.5 ‰, respectively. In general, the concentrations of DIC, DOC, and their isotopic compositions (δ13C-DIC, δ13C-DOC are different in the various water resources (surface and ground water in the catchment and the major source of dissolved carbon in the catchment area is

  18. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  19. Learning to Be a More Effective Research Mentor for Your Trainees: Undergraduates to Post-docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric; Mathieu, R.; Pfund, C.; Branchaw, J.; UW-Madison Research Mentor Training Development Team

    2010-01-01

    How do you effectively mentor individuals at different stages of their careers? Can you learn to become a more effective mentor through training? Does one size fit all? Are you ready to address the NSF's new requirement about mentoring post-docs in your next proposal? For many academics, typical answers to these questions include, "I try to make adjustments based on the trainee, but I don't have a specific plan” "Yeah, I'd better start thinking about that” and "There's training?” Scientists often are not trained for their crucial role of mentoring the next generation. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed, field tested, and publically released research mentor training materials for several STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) disciplines, including astronomy, to help fill this gap and improve the educational experience and ultimate success of research trainees at several career stages, from high school students to post-doctoral scholars. While initially aimed at the mentoring of undergraduate researchers at research extensive institutions, the topics are broad enough (e.g., expectations, communication, understanding, diversity, ethics, independence) to be applicable to mentoring in a wide range of project-based educational activities. Indeed, these materials have been modified, only modestly, to prepare graduate students and undergraduates to mentor high school students. In this session, we will describe the UW-Madison research mentor training seminar and illustrate how the training can be adapted and implemented. We will introduce an interactive "shopping cart” style website which allows users to obtain the materials and instructions on how to run the program at their institution. Most of the session will be devoted to an interactive implementation of elements of research mentor training using small discussion groups. Participants will experience the training seminar in practice, come face-to-face with some common mentoring

  20. Becoming a More Effective Research Mentor for Your Trainees: Undergraduates to Post-docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric J.; Mathieu, R.; Pfund, C.; Branchaw, J.; UW-Madison Research Mentor Training Development Team

    2010-05-01

    How do you effectively mentor individuals at different stages of their careers? Can you learn to become a more effective mentor through training? Does one size fit all? Are you ready to address the NSF's new requirement about mentoring post-docs in your next proposal? For many academics, typical answers to these questions include, "I try to make adjustments based on the trainee, but I don't have a specific plan” "Yeah, I'd better start thinking about that” and "There's training?” Scientists often are not trained for their crucial role of mentoring the next generation. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed, field tested, and publicly released research mentor training materials for several STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) disciplines, including astronomy, to help fill this gap and improve the educational experience and ultimate success of research trainees at several career stages, from high school students to post-doctoral scholars. While initially aimed at the mentoring of undergraduate researchers at research extensive institutions, the topics are broad enough (e.g., expectations, communication, understanding, diversity, ethics, independence) to be applicable to mentoring in a wide range of project-based educational activities. Indeed, these materials have been modified, only modestly, to prepare graduate students and undergraduates to mentor high school students. In this session, we will describe the UW-Madison research mentor training seminar and illustrate how the training can be adapted and implemented. We will introduce an interactive "shopping cart” style website which allows users to obtain the materials and instructions on how to run the program at their institution. Most of the session will be devoted to an interactive implementation of elements of research mentor training using small discussion groups. Participants will experience the training seminar in practice, come face-to-face with some common mentoring

  1. Determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The DOC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Sarah J; Dyson, Lisa; Clark, Laura; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J; Cooper, Brendan G; Kearney, Matt; Laughey, William; Raghunath, Raghu; Steele, Lisa; Rhodes, Rebecca; Adamson, Joy

    2018-06-01

    Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires. Current smokers aged 35 or more were invited to undertake a series of case-finding tools, which comprised lung function tests (specifically, spirometry, microspirometry, peak flow meter, and WheezoMeter) and several case-finding questionnaires. The effectiveness of these tests, individually or in combination, to identify small airways obstruction was evaluated against the gold standard of spirometry, with the quality of spirometry tests assessed by independent overreaders. The study was conducted with general practices in the Yorkshire and Humberside area, in the UK. Six hundred eighty-one individuals met the inclusion criteria, with 444 participants completing their study appointments. A total of 216 (49%) with good-quality spirometry readings were included in the analysis. The most effective case-finding tools were found to be the peak flow meter alone, the peak flow meter plus WheezoMeter, and microspirometry alone. In addition to the main analysis, where the severity of airflow obstruction was based on fixed ratios and percent of predicted values, sensitivity analyses were conducted by using lower limit of normal values. This research informs the choice of test for COPD identification; case-finding by use of the peak flow meter or microspirometer could be used routinely in primary care for suspected COPD patients. Only those testing positive to these tests would move on to full spirometry, thereby reducing unnecessary spirometric testing. © 2018 John Wiley

  2. Cycling of DOC and DON by Novel Heterotrophic and Photoheterotrophic Bacteria in the Ocean: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2008-12-09

    The flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) through aquatic bacterial communities is a major process in carbon cycling in the oceans and other aquatic systems. Our work addressed the general hypothesis that the phylogenetic make-up of bacterial communities and the abundances of key types of bacteria are important factors influencing the processing of DOM in aquatic ecosystems. Since most bacteria are not easily cultivated, the phylogenetic diversity of these microbes has to be assessed using culture-independent approaches. Even if the relevant bacteria were cultivated, their activity in the lab would likely differ from that under environmental conditions. This project found variation in DOM uptake by the major bacterial groups found in coastal waters. In brief, the data suggest substantial differences among groups in the use of high and molecular weight DOM components. It also made key discoveries about the role of light in affecting this uptake especially by cyanobacteria. In the North Atlantic Ocean, for example, over half of the light-stimulated uptake was by the coccoid cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, with the remaining uptake due to Synechococcus and other photoheterotrophic bacteria. The project also examined in detail the degradation of one organic matter component, chitin, which is often said to be the second most abundant compound in the biosphere. The findings of this project contribute to our understanding of DOM fluxes and microbial dynamics supported by those fluxes. It is possible that these findings will lead to improvements in models of the carbon cycle that have compartments for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the largest pool of organic carbon in the oceans.

  3. Professor ou tutor: uma linha tênue na docência em EAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Brust Hackmayer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a natureza docente do trabalho de tutoria na Educação a Distância (EAD, utilizando, como referência, os documentos oficiais do Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC (Brasil, 2007 sobre as funções do tutor e as avaliações que os tutores do Centro de Educação Superior a Distância do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CEDERJ fazem de sua prática. Contextualiza a pesquisa, abordando questões teóricas relativas à docência na EAD, a qual envolve vários profissionais em sua atuação, incluindo o tutor. Revela que até o momento inexiste um termo que defina o papel do tutor no trabalho com a EAD, papel este que se torna cada vez maior e mais indefinido. Mostra que, embora tenha, reconhecidamente, uma função importante e determinante nos cursos a distância, o tutor ainda é um profissional que carece de perfil profissiográfico, que lhe confira uma formação definida e um espaço determinado na modalidade. O artigo revela, ainda, que cresce a necessidade de estudos que indiquem quais as suas principais funções, sua identidade profissional e, sobretudo, a caracterização de sua atuação docente na EAD. Analisa as respostas do questionário aplicado aos 38 tutores do CEDERJ/UERJ, no curso de Licenciatura em Pedagogia e, finalmente, conclui que os tutores são unânimes em considerar sua atuação como docente, embora não sejam reconhecidos nem remunerados como tal pela instituição onde atuam.

  4. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  5. The response of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the ecosystem carbon balance to experimental drought in a temperate shrubland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, A.; Emmett, B.A.; Williams, D.

    2010-01-01

    in northeast Wales, we have carried out an annual drought treatment for 8 years, reducing levels of annual rainfall by 23% on average (1999–2007) through the use of automated roofs, which prevent rain falling on experimental plots between June and September annually. Following 5 years of repeated summer...... drainage of water from the drought-treated soils resulted in an overall decrease of 9% in total DOC export. Calculating the carbon (C) balance for the below-ground component of the ecosystem reveals that DOC represents 3% of gross C export. Previous studies at the site have demonstrated large increases...... in soil respiration resulting from the repeated drought treatment. By including data presented here with other C fluxes and pool measurements from the site, we demonstrate that soil carbon is accumulating by 126 g C m−2 year−1 in the control plots, but decreasing by 18 g C m2 year−1 in the drought plots...

  6. Comparison of single-step and two-step purified coagulants from Moringa oleifera seed for turbidity and DOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Ghebremichael, K; Beltrán-Heredia, J

    2010-08-01

    The coagulant proteins from Moringa oleifera purified with single-step and two-step ion-exchange processes were used for the coagulation of surface water from Meuse river in The Netherlands. The performances of the two purified coagulants and the crude extract were assessed in terms of turbidity and DOC removal. The results indicated that the optimum dosage of the single-step purified coagulant was more than two times higher compared to the two-step purified coagulant in terms of turbidity removal. And the residual DOC in the two-step purified coagulant was lower than in single-step purified coagulant or crude extract. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of ocean acidification and hydrodynamic conditions on carbon metabolism and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes in seagrass populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocío; Hernández, Ignacio; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Brun, Fernando G

    2018-01-01

    Global change has been acknowledged as one of the main threats to the biosphere and its provision of ecosystem services, especially in marine ecosystems. Seagrasses play a critical ecological role in coastal ecosystems, but their responses to ocean acidification (OA) and climate change are not well understood. There have been previous studies focused on the effects of OA, but the outcome of interactions with co-factors predicted to alter during climate change still needs to be addressed. For example, the impact of higher CO2 and different hydrodynamic regimes on seagrass performance remains unknown. We studied the effects of OA under different current velocities on productivity of the seagrass Zostera noltei, using changes in dissolved oxygen as a proxy for the seagrass carbon metabolism, and release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a four-week experiment using an open-water outdoor mesocosm. Under current pH conditions, increasing current velocity had a positive effect on productivity, but this depended on shoot density. However, this positive effect of current velocity disappeared under OA conditions. OA conditions led to a significant increase in gross production rate and respiration, suggesting that Z. noltei is carbon-limited under the current inorganic carbon concentration of seawater. In addition, an increase in non-structural carbohydrates was found, which may lead to better growing conditions and higher resilience in seagrasses subjected to environmental stress. Regarding DOC flux, a direct and positive relationship was found between current velocity and DOC release, both under current pH and OA conditions. We conclude that OA and high current velocity may lead to favourable growth scenarios for Z. noltei populations, increasing their productivity, non-structural carbohydrate concentrations and DOC release. Our results add new dimensions to predictions on how seagrass ecosystems will respond to climate change, with important implications for the

  8. Effects of gamma-sterilization on DOC, uranium and arsenic remobilization from organic and microbial rich stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, Joerg; Weiske, Arndt; Dudel, E. Gert

    2011-01-01

    Organic-rich sediments are known to be effective accumulators for uranium and arsenic. Much is known about the capacity for metal or metalloid fixation by microbes and organic compounds as well as inorganic sediment particles. Experiments investigating the effect of microbes on the process of metal fixation in sediments require sterilized sediments as control treatment which is often realized by gamma-sterilization. Only few studies show that gamma-sterilization has an effect on the remobilization of metal and metalloids and on their physico-chemical properties. These studies deal with sediments with negligible organic content whereas almost nothing is known about organic-rich sediments including a probably high microbial activity. In view of this, we investigated the effect of gamma-sterilization of organic-rich sediments on uranium and arsenic fixation and release. After ten days within an exposure experiment we found a significant higher remobilization of uranium and arsenic in sterile compared to unsterile treatments. In line with these findings the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), manganese, and iron increased to even significantly higher concentration in the sterile compared to unsterile treatment. Gamma-sterilization seems to change the physico-chemical properties of organic-rich sediments. Microbial activity is effectively eliminated. From increased DOC concentrations in overlaying water it is concluded that microbes are eventually killed with leaching of cellular compounds in the overlaying water. This decreases the adsorption capacity of the sediment and leads to enhanced uranium and arsenic remobilization. - Research highlight s : →Remobilization of uranium and arsenic is higher in gamma-sterile treatments. →DOC mobilization is also higher in sterilized treatment. →Adsorption capacity in sediments is reduced by release of DOC.

  9. Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tom; Huang, Jin; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA. © 2013.

  10. Influence of fresh water, nutrients and DOC in two submarine-groundwater-fed estuaries on the west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aisling M; Cave, Rachel R

    2012-11-01

    Coastal fresh water sources, which discharge to the sea are expected to be directly influenced by climate change (e.g. increased frequency of extreme weather events). Sea-level rise and changes in rainfall patterns, changes in demand for drinking water and contamination caused by population and land use change, will also have an impact. Coastal waters with submarine groundwater discharge are of particular interest as this fresh water source is very poorly quantified. Two adjacent bays which host shellfish aquaculture sites along the coast of Co. Galway in the west of Ireland have been studied to establish the influence of fresh water inputs on nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in each bay. Neither bay has riverine input and both are underlain by the karst limestone of the Burren and are susceptible to submarine groundwater discharge. Water and suspended matter samples were collected half hourly over 13 h tidal cycles over several seasons. Water samples were analysed for nutrients and DOC, while suspended matter was analysed for organic/inorganic content. Temperature and salinity measurements were recorded during each tidal station by SBE 37 MicroCAT conductivity/temperature sensors. Long-term mooring data were used to track freshwater input for Kinvara and Aughinish Bays and compare it with rainfall data. Results show that Kinvara Bay is much more heavily influenced by fresh water input than Aughinish Bay, and this is a strong source of fixed nitrogen to Kinvara Bay. Only during flood events is there a significant input of inorganic nitrogen from fresh water to Aughinish Bay, such as in late November 2009. Fresh water input does not appear to be a significant source of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) to either bay, but is a source of DOC to both bays. C:N ratios of DOC/DON show a clear distinction between marine and terrestrially derived dissolved organic material. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Representation of riverine DOC within a GCM: First framework for coupling soil carbon and lateral hydrology in MPI-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, V.; Gehlot, S.; Hagemann, S.

    2017-12-01

    The current state of the art General Circulation Models (GCMs) do not consider the lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from land to ocean via rivers/streams and the global carbon budget is primarily evaluated based only on vertical gas exchange processes between land or ocean carbon reservoirs. In high latitudes, the permafrost plays an important role in contributing to riverine organic carbon. Moreover, the vertical gas exchange processes are active during the lateral riverine carbon transport but are not considered in the impact of thawing permafrost on global climate. The interplay between permafrost and lateral hydrology is a substantial factor impacting the organic carbon inflow to the Arctic and its associated atmospheric exchange. In this research, we propose a framework of coupling the soil carbon transport via rivers using the hydrological discharge scheme (HD-Model) of MPI-ESM (Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model). The soil carbon classification is based on the solubility (YASSO soil carbon pools) and their subsequent attribution to the dissolved organic carbon via runoff (fast carbon pool) and baseflow (slow carbon pool). The HD-model, which simulates the river discharge for all land areas at a resolution of 0.5 degree, will be modified with inclusion of the DOC as tracer over test areas. Evaluation of DOC transport scheme is intended at reservoir level via available site measurements. The analysis will include global river networks for organic carbon transport with focus on permafrost and high latitude areas. Decomposition of DOC en-route land to ocean via vertical gas exchange processes will be included.

  12. What advice is given to newly qualified doctors on Twitter? An analysis of #TipsForNewDocs tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammed Ahmed; McKechnie, Doug; Gill, Deborah

    2018-07-01

    Twitter is a social media platform on which users post very brief messages that can be rapidly communicated across wide geographical areas and audiences. Many doctors use Twitter for personal as well as professional communications and networking. The #TipsForNewDocs hashtag is used on Twitter to give advice to newly qualified doctors as they commence their careers. This study explores the nature and focus of such advice. An analysis of Twitter activity containing the #TipsForNewDocs hashtag was performed using Symplur health care analytics software. Tweets sent during a peak 48-hour period in 2016 (immediately preceding the first day of work for newly qualified UK doctors) were studied. The geographical locations and professional backgrounds of participants were categorised and the content of tweets was subjected to thematic analysis. During 1 and 2 August 2016, 661 unique #TipsForNewDocs tweets were posted. A total of 621 (94.0%) were posted by people in the UK; 522 (79.0%) were posted by doctors, and the remainder by allied health care professionals and patients. The majority of included tweets focused on aspects of professional development, improving personal or professional knowledge, particularly tacit knowledge, and developing 'know-how'. These aspects of professional knowledge have previously been described as fundamental to professional education and training. However, a significant subset of tweets focused on accelerating socialisation into the profession, an essential step in joining a professional community. The tweets relating to socialisation were often humorous and colloquial in nature. Despite their brief and often jocular nature, #TipsForNewDocs tweets provided meaningful advice for newcomers to the profession, often focusing on tacit learning and professional socialisation. Hashtag-driven enquiries can be a valuable and time-efficient way of accessing and sharing tacitly held knowledge. Social media content analysis can provide valuable insights

  13. Effects of ocean acidification and hydrodynamic conditions on carbon metabolism and dissolved organic carbon (DOC fluxes in seagrass populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G Egea

    Full Text Available Global change has been acknowledged as one of the main threats to the biosphere and its provision of ecosystem services, especially in marine ecosystems. Seagrasses play a critical ecological role in coastal ecosystems, but their responses to ocean acidification (OA and climate change are not well understood. There have been previous studies focused on the effects of OA, but the outcome of interactions with co-factors predicted to alter during climate change still needs to be addressed. For example, the impact of higher CO2 and different hydrodynamic regimes on seagrass performance remains unknown. We studied the effects of OA under different current velocities on productivity of the seagrass Zostera noltei, using changes in dissolved oxygen as a proxy for the seagrass carbon metabolism, and release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in a four-week experiment using an open-water outdoor mesocosm. Under current pH conditions, increasing current velocity had a positive effect on productivity, but this depended on shoot density. However, this positive effect of current velocity disappeared under OA conditions. OA conditions led to a significant increase in gross production rate and respiration, suggesting that Z. noltei is carbon-limited under the current inorganic carbon concentration of seawater. In addition, an increase in non-structural carbohydrates was found, which may lead to better growing conditions and higher resilience in seagrasses subjected to environmental stress. Regarding DOC flux, a direct and positive relationship was found between current velocity and DOC release, both under current pH and OA conditions. We conclude that OA and high current velocity may lead to favourable growth scenarios for Z. noltei populations, increasing their productivity, non-structural carbohydrate concentrations and DOC release. Our results add new dimensions to predictions on how seagrass ecosystems will respond to climate change, with important

  14. Spatial patterns of DOC concentration and DOM optical properties in a Brazilian tropical river-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmagro, Higo J.; Johnson, Mark S.; de Musis, Carlo R.; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Graesser, Jordan; Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo B.; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2017-08-01

    The Cerrado (savanna) and Pantanal (wetland) biomes of Central Western Brazil have experienced significant development activity in recent decades, including extensive land cover conversion from natural ecosystems to agriculture and urban expansion. The Cuiabá River transects the Cerrado biome prior to inundating large areas of the Pantanal, creating one of the largest biodiversity hot spots in the world. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the optical absorbance and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from 40 sampling locations spanning Cerrado and Pantanal biomes during wet and dry seasons. In the upper, more agricultural region of the basin, DOC concentrations were highest in the rainy season with more aromatic and humified DOM. In contrast, DOC concentrations and DOM optical properties were more uniform for the more urbanized middle region of the basin between wet and dry seasons, as well as across sample locations. In the lower region of the basin, wet season connectivity between the river and the Pantanal floodplain led to high DOC concentrations, a fourfold increase in humification index (HIX) (an indicator of DOM humification), and a 50% reduction in the spectral slope (SR). Basin-wide, wet season values for SR, HIX, and FI (fluorescence index) indicated an increasing representation of terrestrially derived DOM that was more humified. Parallel factor analysis identified two terrestrially derived components (C1 and C2) representing 77% of total fluorescing DOM (fDOM). A third, protein-like fDOM component increased markedly during the wet season within the more urban-impacted region.

  15. Temporal and spatial variation in Hg accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): possible influences of DOC and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Lisa D; Evans, Douglas; Dillon, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are filter feeders located near the base of the foodweb and these animals are able to utilize a variety of carbon sources that may also vary seasonally. We conducted both a spatial and a temporal study in order to test the hypotheses: (1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations influence Hg accumulation in zebra mussels sampled from a series of lakes and (2) seasonal variations in diet influence Hg accumulation. In the spatial study, we found a significant negative relationship between Hg concentrations and DOC concentrations, suggesting an influence of DOC on Hg bioaccumulation. In the temporal study, we used stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) as ecological tools to provide a temporally integrated description of the feeding ecology of zebra mussels. Both δ(15)N and δ(13)C varied seasonally in a similar manner: more depleted values occurred in the summer and more enriched values occurred in the fall. Mercury concentrations also varied significantly over the year, with highest concentrations occurring in the summer, followed by a progressive decrease in concentrations into the fall. The C/N ratio of zebra mussels also varied significantly over the year with the lowest values occurring mid-summer and then values increased in the fall and winter, suggesting that there was significant variation in lipid stores. These results indicate that in addition to any effect of seasonal dietary changes, seasonal variation in energy stores also appeared to be related to Hg levels in the zebra mussels. Collectively results from this study suggest that DOC concentrations, seasonal variation in diet and seasonal depletion of energy stores are all important variables to consider when understanding Hg accumulation in zebra mussels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Light absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary during a flood season: implication for DOC estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Shen, Fang; Li, Xiuzhen

    2014-11-01

    Light absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary were investigated during the summer of 2013. CDOM absorption showed a substantial portion of the total absorption and clearly dominant among most investigation stations. It generally decreased from the northwest to the southeast, which controlled by physical mixing of fresh water and seawater as was indicated by a conservative behaviour of CDOM. CDOM absorption sharply increased during phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also peaked during blooms period. However, DOC exhibited a more complex behavior relative to a simple conservative mixing, possibly attributed to multiple origins of DOC. CDOM absorption and DOC co-varied to some degree, implying a potential way of DOC estimation from CDOM absorption. However, more detailed information such as CDOM and DOC composition and more validation data were required to obtain a stable CDOM - DOC pattern. Lastly, empirical algorithms with limited data were developed to retrieve CDOM absorption. Further validation of the algorithms were needed when they were to be commonly applied.

  17. Increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Central European streams is driven by reductions in ionic strength rather than climate change or decreasing acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; McDowell, William H; Oulehle, Filip

    2009-06-15

    Temporal trends in DOC concentration and flux were investigated at two geochemically distinct forested catchments in western Czech Republic. Mean discharge-weighted DOC concentrations averaged 18.8 mg L(-1) at the acidic Lysina catchment, and 20.2 mg L(-1) at base-rich and well-buffered Pluhuv Bor. Between 1993 and 2007 DOC in streamwater increased significantly in both catchments: the mean annual increase was 0.42 mg L(-1) yr(-1) (p DOC were correlated with only modest increases in stream pH in both catchments, but large declines in ionic strength (IS), that resulted from declining atmospheric deposition. Neither catchment has undergone changes in soil-water pH, yet DOC concentrations tripled in the soil-water of both catchments. We conclude that changes in ionic strength of soil-water and streamwater, rather than acidity, are the primary drivers of changes in streamwater DOC in this region. Temperature, precipitation and discharge show no statistically significant trends during the study period, suggesting that climate change has played no role in the changes in DOC that we have observed.

  18. Organic carbon budget for the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: major role of DOC in mesopelagic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Falcón, Yeray; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Pérez-Hernández, María Dolores; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Mason, Evan; Arístegui, Javier

    2017-08-31

    Transports of suspended particulate (POC susp ) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon are inferred from a box-model covering the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Corresponding net respiration rates (R) are obtained from a net organic carbon budget that is based on the transport estimates, and includes both vertical and lateral fluxes. The overall R in the mesopelagic layer (100-1500 m) is 1.6 ± 0.4 mmol C m -2 d -1 . DOC accounts for up to 53% of R as a result of drawdown of organic carbon within Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) that is entrained into sinking Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) that leads to formation of Mediterranean water (MW) at intermediate depths (~900 m). DOC represents 90% of the respired non-sinking organic carbon. When converted into oxygen units, the computed net respiration rate represents less than half the oxygen utilization rates (OUR) reported for the mesopelagic waters of the subtropical North Atlantic. Mesoscale processes in the area, not quantified with our approach, could account in part for the OUR differences observed between our carbon budget and other published studies from the North Atlantic, although seasonal or interannual variability could also be responsible for the difference in the estimates.

  19. Mobilisation and immobilisation of uranium-DOC-species in three waste dumps in the district of Schlema/Alberoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The modelling of geochemical processes needs the detailed and comprehensive knowledge of all chemical interactions which are able to exist in the flow path of waste dumps, soils and aquifer. This includes the adsorption, displacement and transport of heavy metal species of fulvic and humic acids which represent the main amount of DOC in the liquid / solid system of flow path. Comparative measurements of DOC concentrations in the input and output flow at the three waste dumps in the district Schlema / Alberoda have indicated that DOC is produced and / or supplied within of waste dumps. The speciation of heavy metal compounds of fulvic and humic acids was realized by means of two methods (sequential chromatographic analysis SCA; ions focussed electrophoresis IFE). Between 5 and 20% of uranium in the flow path exist in the form of fulvic and humic acids species in which the bond of uranium is permanently. Their distribution coefficients are strongly correlated with the pH values of the several geochemical systems. (orig.) [de

  20. Light absorption properties of CDOM in the Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters: An alternative approach for DOC estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Shen, Fang; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    Field measurements of CDOM absorption properties and DOC concentrations were collected in the Changjiang estuarine and coastal waters from 2011 to 2013. CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm (ag (355)) was found to be inversely correlated with salinity, with Pearson's coefficients r of -0.901 and -0.826 for summer and winter observations, respectively. Analysis results of the relationships between salinity and CDOM optical properties (i.e., absorption coefficient and spectral slope) suggested that terrigenous inputs dominated CDOM sources in the Changjiang estuary, but the proportion of terrigenous CDOM declined with increasing salinity. The level of CDOM in the Changjiang estuary was lower compared to some of the major estuaries in the world, which could be attributed to several controlling factors such as vegetation cover in the drainage basin, the origin of recharged streams and high sediment load in the Changjiang estuary. We further evaluated the relationships between CDOM and DOC and their mixing behavior among world's major estuaries. An empirical model was finally developed to estimate DOC concentration from ag (355) and spectral slope S275-295 using a non-linear regression. This empirical relationship was calibrated using the Cal dataset, and was validated with the Val dataset, resulting in an acceptable error with the R2 of 0.746, the RMSE of 20.99 μmol/L and the rMAD of 14.46%.

  1. Abundance, stable isotopic composition, and export fluxes of DOC, POC, and DIC from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yihua; Guo, Laodong; Wang, Xuri; Aiken, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Sources, abundance, isotopic compositions, and export fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved and colloidal organic carbon (DOC and COC), and particulate organic carbon (POC), and their response to hydrologic regimes were examined through monthly sampling from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006–2008. DIC was the most abundant carbon species, followed by POC and DOC. Concentration and δ13C of DIC decreased with increasing river discharge, while those of DOC remained fairly stable. COC comprised 61 ± 3% of the bulk DOC with similar δ13C abundances but higher percentages of hydrophobic organic acids than DOC, suggesting its aromatic and diagenetically younger status. POC showed peak concentrations during medium flooding events and at the rising limb of large flooding events. While δ13C-POC increased, δ15N of particulate nitrogen decreased with increasing discharge. Overall, the differences in δ13C between DOC or DIC and POC show an inverse correlation with river discharge. The higher input of soil organic matter and respired CO2 during wet seasons was likely the main driver for the convergence of δ13C between DIC and DOC or POC, whereas enhanced in situ primary production and respiration during dry seasons might be responsible for their isotopic divergence. Carbon export fluxes from the Mississippi River were estimated to be 13.6 Tg C yr−1 for DIC, 1.88 Tg C yr−1 for DOC, and 2.30 Tg C yr−1 for POC during 2006–2008. The discharge-normalized DIC yield decreased during wet seasons, while those of POC and DOC increased and remained constant, respectively, implying variable responses in carbon export to the increasing discharge.

  2. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  3. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  4. UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy as a proxy for peatland dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality: considerations on wavelength and absorbance degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mike; Evans, Chris D; Fenner, Nathalie; Freeman, Chris; Gough, Rachel; Jones, Timothy G; Lebron, Inma

    2014-05-01

    Absorbance in the UV or visible spectrum (UV-vis) is commonly used as a proxy for DOC concentrations in waters draining upland catchments. To determine the appropriateness of different UV-vis measurements we used surface and pore water samples from two Welsh peatlands in four different experiments: (i) an assessment of single wavelength proxies (1 nm increments between 230-800 nm) for DOC concentration demonstrated that 254 nm was more accurate than 400 nm. The highest R(2) values between absorbance and DOC concentration were generated using 263 nm for one sample set (R(2) = 0.91), and 230 nm for the other three sample sets (respective R(2) values of 0.86, 0.81, and 0.93). (ii) A comparison of different DOC concentration proxies, including single wavelength proxies, a two wavelength model, a proxy using phenolic concentration, and a proxy using the area under a UV spectrum at 250-350 nm. It was found that both a single wavelength proxy (≤263 nm) and a two wavelength model performed well for both pore water and surface water. (iii) An evaluation of the E2 : E3, E2 : E4, E4 : E6 ratios, and SUVA (absorbance at 254 nm normalised to DOC concentration) as indicators of DOC quality showed that the E4 : E6 ratio was subject to extensive variation over time, and was highly correlated between surface water and pore water, suggesting that it is a useful metric to determine temporal changes in DOC quality. (iv) A repeated weekly analysis over twelve weeks showed no consistent change in UV-vis absorbance, and therefore an inferred lack of degradation of total DOC in samples that were filtered and stored in the dark at 4 °C.

  5. Rapid response of hydrological loss of DOC to water table drawdown and warming in Zoige peatland: results from a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xue-Dong; Zhai, Sheng-Qiang; Kang, Bing; Hu, Ya-Lin; Hu, Li-Le

    2014-01-01

    A large portion of the global carbon pool is stored in peatlands, which are sensitive to a changing environment conditions. The hydrological loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is believed to play a key role in determining the carbon balance in peatlands. Zoige peatland, the largest peat store in China, is experiencing climatic warming and drying as well as experiencing severe artificial drainage. Using a fully crossed factorial design, we experimentally manipulated temperature and controlled the water tables in large mesocosms containing intact peat monoliths. Specifically, we determined the impact of warming and water table position on the hydrological loss of DOC, the exported amounts, concentrations and qualities of DOC, and the discharge volume in Zoige peatland. Our results revealed that of the water table position had a greater impact on DOC export than the warming treatment, which showed no interactive effects with the water table treatment. Both DOC concentration and discharge volume were significantly increased when water table drawdown, while only the DOC concentration was significantly promoted by warming treatment. Annual DOC export was increased by 69% and 102% when the water table, controlled at 0 cm, was experimentally lowered by -10 cm and -20 cm. Increases in colored and aromatic constituents of DOC (measured by Abs(254 nm), SUVA(254 nm), Abs(400 nm), and SUVA(400 nm)) were observed under the lower water tables and at the higher peat temperature. Our results provide an indication of the potential impacts of climatic change and anthropogenic drainage on the carbon cycle and/or water storage in a peatland and simultaneously imply the likelihood of potential damage to downstream ecosystems. Furthermore, our results highlight the need for local protection and sustainable development, as well as suggest that more research is required to better understand the impacts of climatic change and artificial disturbances on peatland degradation.

  6. Association of ABCB1, β tubulin I, and III with multidrug resistance of MCF7/DOC subline from breast cancer cell line MCF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Zhai, Baoping; Zhi, Hui; Li, Yuhong; Jia, Linjiao; Ding, Chao; Zhang, Bin; You, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Docetaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced breast cancer. The development of chemoresistance or multidrug resistance (MDR), however, results in breast cancer chemotherapy failure. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying docetaxel-resistance in treatment of breast cancer. The docetaxel-resistant subline MCF7/DOC, derived from the parental sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF7, was established by intermittent exposure to moderate concentrations of docetaxel, followed by examination of its phenotypes. The MCF7/DOC subline showed cross resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-Fu. Compared to the parental MCF7, MCF7/DOC cells were enlarged with heterogeneous sizes and a cobblestone and polygonal appearance. They were arrested at G2/M phase and proliferated slowly. The colony formation potential of MCF7/DOC in soft agar was significantly increased. MCF7/DOC cells showed reduced intracellular accumulation and increased efflux of rhodamine 123. The mRNA expression level of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, i.e., ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and β tubulin isotypes were characterized by quantitative PCR. High-level expression of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mRNA in MCF7/DOC was detected. Downregulation of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mediated by three combined siRNAs resulted in stronger growth inhibition of MCF7/DOC than inhibition of the expression of individual genes. ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin might contribute to the MDR of MCF7/DOC and be potential therapeutic targets for overcoming MDR of breast cancer.

  7. Delivery of adjuvant sequential dose-dense FEC-Doc to patients with breast cancer is feasible, but dose reductions and toxicity are dependent on treatment sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildiers, H; Dirix, L; Neven, P; Prové, A; Clement, P; Squifflet, P; Amant, F; Skacel, T; Paridaens, R

    2009-03-01

    This study prospectively investigates the impact of dose densification and altering sequence of fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide [FEC(100)] and docetaxel [Doc] on dose delivery and tolerability of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. 117 patients with high-risk primary operable breast cancer were randomized (1:1:2:2) to conventional (three cycles of 3-weekly FEC(100) then three cycles of 3-weekly Doc 100 mg/m(2) or reverse sequence) or dose-dense (dd) treatment (four 10- to 11-day cycles of FEC(75) then four 2-weekly cycles of Doc 75 mg/m(2), or the reverse). In the dd arms, pegfilgrastim was given on day 2 of each cycle, but only as secondary prophylaxis in conventional arms. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients completing intended cycles at relative dose intensity >or=85% and this was achieved by 95% of patients in each group except for the ddDoc-->FEC group (90%). Dose intensity in the dd arms increased by 48% for FEC and 11% for docetaxel, compared with the conventional arms (both P Doc dose reductions were more frequent with dd treatment and when Doc was given after FEC. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was significantly more frequent with conventional treatment, while fatigue and hand-foot syndrome were numerically more common with dd treatment, particularly when Doc was given after FEC. Discussion Delivery of adjuvant sequential ddFEC and Doc is feasible with growth factor support, and chemotherapy sequence appeared to affect delivery of target doses and toxicity.

  8. Effect of moisture and temperature variation on DOC release from a peatland: conflicting results from laboratory, field and historical data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Michael D; Eimers, M Catherine; Watmough, Shaun A

    2011-03-01

    Peatlands are large repositories of atmospheric carbon and concern has been raised over the stability of this carbon store because increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have been observed in peatland drainage waters. A number of potential causes have been proposed in the literature, and conflicting results among studies conducted at different spatial and temporal scales suggest that the methodological approach may be an important confounding factor. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of moisture and temperature on DOC release from a south-central Ontario peatland during the fall (a major export period) following three commonly used approaches: laboratory microcosms, an intensive field study and analysis of long-term data (1980-2008). The effect of variations in temperature and moisture differed among microcosm, field study and analysis of the long-term record. Water content was important at the microcosm scale as DOC concentration and aromaticity increased with peat water-saturation. Drought caused a decrease in DOC concentration and pH, and an increase in sulphate and base cation concentrations. In contrast, the field study indicated that DOC concentration was strongly associated with temperature, and weakly correlated (negatively) with stream discharge. Average fall DOC concentration (but not export) increased over the 29 year record, and was correlated with fall discharge and precipitation (negative) and summer precipitation and fall stream pH (positive). As no common strong predictor of fall DOC was found at three scales of investigation at a single, well-studied site, it may be unreasonable to expect to identify a universal driver behind the widespread increase in DOC concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Resuspension of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated field sediment: release to the water column and determination of site-specific K DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L; Lohmann, Rainer; Burgess, Robert M; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G

    2011-02-01

    Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund site (Massachusetts, USA), contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were resuspended under different water column redox conditions: untreated, oxidative, and reductive. The partitioning of PCBs to the overlying water column was measured with polyethylene samplers and compared to partitioning without resuspension. Greater concentrations of total aqueous (freely dissolved + dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-associated) PCBs were found in all resuspended treatments for PCBs with mid-range K(OW)s, but no difference was observed in total aqueous concentrations among different redox conditions. The magnitude of increased concentrations depended on resuspension time and congener K(OW), but ranged from approximately one to eight times those found without resuspension. In a parallel study, DOC was flocculated and removed from smaller-scale NBH sediment resuspensions. In situ K(DOC)s were determined and used to calculate freely dissolved and DOC-associated fractions of the increase in total aqueous PCB concentrations due to resuspension. The importance of DOC-associated PCBs increased with increasing K(OW). In situ K(DOC)s were approximately one to two orders of magnitude greater than those calculated with a commonly used linear free energy relationship (LFER). The present study demonstrates that resuspension of contaminated sediments releases PCBs to the water column, of which a significant fraction are DOC-associated (e.g., 28, 65, and 90% for PCBs 28, 66, and 110, respectively). Results also imply that site-specific PCB K(DOC)s are superior to those calculated with generic LFERs. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Rapid response of hydrological loss of DOC to water table drawdown and warming in Zoige peatland: results from a mesocosm experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Dong Lou

    Full Text Available A large portion of the global carbon pool is stored in peatlands, which are sensitive to a changing environment conditions. The hydrological loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC is believed to play a key role in determining the carbon balance in peatlands. Zoige peatland, the largest peat store in China, is experiencing climatic warming and drying as well as experiencing severe artificial drainage. Using a fully crossed factorial design, we experimentally manipulated temperature and controlled the water tables in large mesocosms containing intact peat monoliths. Specifically, we determined the impact of warming and water table position on the hydrological loss of DOC, the exported amounts, concentrations and qualities of DOC, and the discharge volume in Zoige peatland. Our results revealed that of the water table position had a greater impact on DOC export than the warming treatment, which showed no interactive effects with the water table treatment. Both DOC concentration and discharge volume were significantly increased when water table drawdown, while only the DOC concentration was significantly promoted by warming treatment. Annual DOC export was increased by 69% and 102% when the water table, controlled at 0 cm, was experimentally lowered by -10 cm and -20 cm. Increases in colored and aromatic constituents of DOC (measured by Abs(254 nm, SUVA(254 nm, Abs(400 nm, and SUVA(400 nm were observed under the lower water tables and at the higher peat temperature. Our results provide an indication of the potential impacts of climatic change and anthropogenic drainage on the carbon cycle and/or water storage in a peatland and simultaneously imply the likelihood of potential damage to downstream ecosystems. Furthermore, our results highlight the need for local protection and sustainable development, as well as suggest that more research is required to better understand the impacts of climatic change and artificial disturbances on peatland degradation.

  11. Mechanized Sephadex LH-20 multiple column chromatography as a prerequisite for automated multi-steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippell, W.G.; Bidlingmaier, F.; Knorr, D.

    1978-01-01

    To establish a procedure for the simultaneous determination of all major corticosteroid hormones and their immediate biological precursors in the same plasma sample, two different mechanized methods for the simultaneous isolation of aldosterone (A), corticosterone (B), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), 11-deoxycortisol (S), cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) from the methylene chloride extracts of 0.1 to 2.0ml plasma samples have been developed. In method I, steroids are separated with methylene chloride:methanol=98:2 as solvent system on 60-cm Sephadex LH-20 columns, up to eight of which are eluted in parallel using a multi-channel peristaltic pump and individual flow-rate control (40ml/h) by capillary valves and micro-flowmeters. Method II, on the other hand, utilizes the same solvent system on ten 75-cm LH-20 columns which are eluted in reversed flow simultaneously by a ten-channel, double-piston pump that precisely maintains an elution flow rate of 40ml/h in every column. In both methods, eluate fractions of each of the isolated steroids are automatically pooled and collected from all parallel columns by one programmable linear fraction collector. As a result of the high reproducibility of the elution patterns, both between different parallel columns and between 30 to 40 consecutive elutions, mean recoveries of tritiated steroids including extraction are 60 to 84% after a single separation and still over 50% after an additional separation on 40-cm LH-20 columns, with coefficients of variation below 15% (method II). Thus, the eight steroids can be completely isolated from each of ten plasma extracts within 3 to 4 hours, yielding 80 samples readily prepared for subsequent quantitation by radioimmunoassay. (author)

  12. Seasonal estimates of DOC standing stocks in Apalachicola Bay estuary: Towards a better understanding using field, ocean color and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, E. J.; Joshi, I.; Osburn, C. L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Ko, D. S.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Arellano, A.; Ward, N.

    2016-12-01

    Apalachicola Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary located in Florida's panhandle, is well known for its water quality and oyster yields. We present the use of combined field and ocean color satellite observations and the outputs of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model to study the influence of physical processes on the distribution and the transport of terrestrially derived CDOM and DOC to shelf waters during the spring and fall of 2015. Determination of DOC stocks were based on the development of a CDOM algorithm (R2 = 0.87, N = 9) for the VIIRS ocean color sensor, and the assessment of CDOM - DOC relationships (R2 = 0.88, N = 13 in March; R2 = 0.83, N = 24 in November) for the Apalachicola Bay. Satellite-derived CDOM and DOC maps together with model-based salinity distributions revealed their spatial extent, sources and transport to the shelf water. Furthermore, strong seasonal influence on DOM distribution in the bay was associated with inputs from Apalachicola and Carrabelle Rivers and the surrounding marshes. Estimates of DOC standing stocks in the bay obtained using ocean color data and high-resolution bathymetry showed relatively higher stocks in November ( 3.71 × 106 kg C, 560 km2) than in March ( 4.07 × 106 kg C, 560 km2) despite lower river discharge in dry season. Results of DOC flux estimates from the bay to coastal waters will also be presented.

  13. The first insight into the metabolite profiling of grapes from three Vitis vinifera L. cultivars of two controlled appellation (DOC) regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, António; Martins, Viviana; Noronha, Henrique; Eiras-Dias, José; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-03-10

    The characterization of the metabolites accumulated in the grapes of specific cultivars grown in different climates is of particular importance for viticulturists and enologists. In the present study, the metabolite profiling of grapes from the cultivars, Alvarinho, Arinto and Padeiro de Basto, of two Portuguese Controlled Denomination of Origin (DOC) regions (Vinho Verde and Lisboa) was investigated by gas chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and an amino acid analyzer. Primary metabolites, including sugars, organic acids and amino acids, and some secondary metabolites were identified. Tartaric and malic acids and free amino acids accumulated more in grapes from vines of the DOC region of Vinho Verde than DOC Lisboa, but a principal component analysis (PCA) plot showed that besides the DOC region, the grape cultivar also accounted for the variance in the relative abundance of metabolites. Grapes from the cultivar, Alvarinho, were particularly rich in malic acid and tartaric acids in both DOC regions, but sucrose accumulated more in the DOC region of Vinho Verde.

  14. The First Insight into the Metabolite Profiling of Grapes from Three Vitis vinifera L. Cultivars of Two Controlled Appellation (DOC Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the metabolites accumulated in the grapes of specific cultivars grown in different climates is of particular importance for viticulturists and enologists. In the present study, the metabolite profiling of grapes from the cultivars, Alvarinho, Arinto and Padeiro de Basto, of two Portuguese Controlled Denomination of Origin (DOC regions (Vinho Verde and Lisboa was investigated by gas chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS and an amino acid analyzer. Primary metabolites, including sugars, organic acids and amino acids, and some secondary metabolites were identified. Tartaric and malic acids and free amino acids accumulated more in grapes from vines of the DOC region of Vinho Verde than DOC Lisboa, but a principal component analysis (PCA plot showed that besides the DOC region, the grape cultivar also accounted for the variance in the relative abundance of metabolites. Grapes from the cultivar, Alvarinho, were particularly rich in malic acid and tartaric acids in both DOC regions, but sucrose accumulated more in the DOC region of Vinho Verde.

  15. A MIXED METHODS ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF GOOGLE DOCS ENVIRONMENT ON EFL LEARNERS’ WRITING PERFORMANCE AND CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Sadat SEYYEDREZAIE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of writing process in Google Docs environment on Iranian EFL learners’ writing performance. It also examined students’ perceptions towards the effects of Google Docs and their perceived causes of success or failure in writing performance. In this regard, 48 EFL students were chosen based on their IELTs writing test scores. During the treatment, the students were taught how to write a formal five-paragraph essay in the class, but they were supposed to practice writing process and give feedback to their peers’ essays through Google Docs. At the end of the treatment phase, the participants received another sample of IELTs writing test (posttest. Moreover, 20 participants were interviewed for their perceptions regarding the causes for their success and failure and the influence of Google Docs on their writing performance. The analysis of a Paired-Sample t-test revealed that Google Docs played an effective role in improving students’ writing performance. In addition, the analysis of interview revealed that the students perceived both internal and external causes for their success and failure; but in case of failure, internal factors were cited more often than external ones. Also, it was revealed that students generally showed positive attitude towards the implication of Google Docs as a factor leading to success in their writing performance.

  16. Processos formativos nas licenciaturas: desafios da e na docência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pires Vargas Bolzan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo discutimos a respeito da formação de professores na educação superior a partir da compreensão dos processos formativos que propiciam sua dinâmica. O estudo desenvolveu-se a partir da abordagem qualitativo-narrativa, de cunho sociocultural; foi realizado com professores e estudantes das licenciaturas de uma universidade pública e de uma instituição de ensino superior comunitária do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi compreender as concepções sobre aprendizagem docente de professores em formação inicial e de formadores, e como essas concepções implicam os processos formativos da docência. Consideramos que os trajetos formativos assumidos representam o modo com o qual o perfil profissional vai se desenhando e como as vivências formativas emergem diante do desafio de (recontextualizar a profissão. Palavras-chave: Processos formativos. Formação inicial. Professores/formadores. Educação superior. Aprendizagem docente.    Abstract: In this article we discuss about teacher training in higher education from the understanding of the training processes which provide its dynamics. The study was developed from a narrative qualitative approach, as a sociocultural initiative performed by teachers and students of graduation courses from a public university and a community higher education institution in the country area of Rio Grande do Sul. Our objective was to understand the conceptions about teacher learning of teachers in their initial education and also teacher trainers, and how these conceptions imply in training processes of teachers. We understood that the formative paths can represent the way a professional profile is built and how formative experiences emerge in the light of the challenge of recontextualise the profession. Keywords: Training processes. Initial education. Teachers/teacher trainers. Higher education. Teacher learning.    Resumen: En este artículo discutimos acerca de la

  17. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  18. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  19. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  20. Cycling of 7Be and 210Pb in a high DOC, shallow, turbid estuary of south-east Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, M.; Ravichandran, M.; Bianchi, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Sabine-Neches estuary is a shallow, turbid estuary in south-east Texas with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The sediment inventory of 210 Pb and 239 , 240 Pu indicates that only a fraction of the particle-associated nuclides that reach the estuary were retained in the sediment. To better understand the cause for this low-sediment inventory of particle-reactive nuclides, 7 Be and 210 Pb concentrations have been measured in the dissolved and particulate phases, in addition to the DOC and suspended particle concentrations. The ratios of dissolved to particulate concentrations of 7 Be and 210 Pb were generally higher than in most other coastal waters. The dissolved residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb (accounting for riverine input) varied between 0.6 and 9.6 days and 1.7 and 9.8 days, respectively. Distribution coefficients (Kd) ranged between 1500 and 87 100 cm 3 g -1 for 7 Be and 2600 and 37 000 cm 3 g -1 for 210 Pb. These K d s are lower than those reported for most coastal waters. There was no significant correlation between suspended particle concentration and K d of either 7 Be and 210 Pb; this has been observed for many other particle-reactive nuclides, suggesting that particle is not the primary controlling variable for the removal of particle-reactive nuclides in these high DOC waters. The average particle residence time in this estuary is ∼ 2 days. The relatively low K d values, longer dissolved residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb, longer particle residence times and shorter hydraulic residence times compared to other coastal areas, result in only a partial removal of particle-reactive radionuclides in this estuary. (author)

  1. A DOC coagulant, gypsum treatment can simultaneously reduce As, Cd and Pb uptake by medicinal plants grown in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck Soo; Seo, Byoung-Hwan; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Yang, Jae-E; Owens, Gary; Kim, Kwon-Rae

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of gypsum, as a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) coagulator, for the simultaneous immobilization of two heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and one metalloid (As) in agricultural soils near an abandoned mining site was examined. The agricultural soil was defined as long-term contaminated as As (1540mgkg -1 ), Cd (55mgkg -1 ) and Pb (1283mgkg -1 ) concentrations exceeded the Korean guideline values for As (25mgkg -1 ), Cd (4mgkg -1 ), and Pb (200mgkg -1 ). Gypsum was incorporated into the contaminated soil at 3% (w/w). In comparison two commonly using immobilizing agents (lime and compost), together with a mixture (lime+gypsum) were also included in the pot trial for the cultivation of two medical plants (A. gigas and A. macrocephala) and to evaluate the effectiveness of gypsum on As, Cd and Pb immobilization. The results showed that even though pH change-induced immobilizing agents such as lime were more effective than gypsum at immobilizing Cd and Pb, addition of gypsum also effectively reduced heavy metal phytoavailability as indicated by decreases in the concentration of Cd and Pb in medicinal plants. Furthermore, gypsum and gypsum+ lime were also most effective in reducing As concentrations in both plants studied. This was mainly attributed to significant decreases in soil DOC (48-64%) when gypsum and gypsum+lime were applied to the soil. Consequently, it was concluded that enhanced DOC coagulation with gypsum, could be considered as a promising technique for the immobilization of both metals (Cd and Pb) and metalloids (As) in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between product quality and transaction costs with vertical coordination in DOC Rioja wine grape industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernanez-Olmos, M.; Rossell-Martinez, J.; Espitia-Escuer, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between product quality and governance mode choice (market mode, hybrid mode or vertical integration) using the results of a survey of 187 qualified appellation of origin (DOC) Rioja wineries. By estimating a generalized ordered logit, it is concluded that wineries that produce high-quality wines are more likely to vertically integrate than are wineries that produce low-quality wines. Consistent with transaction cost economics, evidence is found that asset specificity and uncertainty are important determinants of vertical integration. Finally, the size of the winery is also an important factor that affects governance mode choice in viticulture. (Author)

  3. eDOC : A collaboration infrastructure to manage knowledge and information on nuclear projects and research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Craeynest, J.M.; Jacquemet, F.; Chermette, D.; Bonneau, S.

    2004-01-01

    One of EU's strategic goals was launched at Lisbon 2000 European summit: becoming the most competitive knowledge economy by 2010. In the field of nuclear technologies, we know that capitalizing knowledge and acquired experience is vital to preserve nuclear equipment's' safe use in the future. Knowledge Management encompasses various domains of business practices, relating to human resources management, information, information technologies, strategy, and accounting. Facing such complex issues, especially in R and D organizations, knowledge management cannot only stand on a few organizational or technical solutions. All functions must be involved to achieve those strategic objectives: management must find realistic incentives and inscribe Knowledge Management as a core management objective (just as Quality Insurance has been). Human Resources departments and education institutes can benefit from new technologies to improve training methods. Research units have to launch knowledge capitalization projects to retrieve, save and transfer critical knowledge, technical skills and know-how. An a-posteriori knowledge saving 'fireman-type' action must be done in the case of major events but we must promote an on-going capitalization effort as well and embed KM into projects and activities management methods. This effort during the project and afterwards is implemented through a perennial information system. This information system should provide a wide range of services for scientific publications and patents management, corporate or local knowledge bases and document repositories, project management and collaboration, rich media authoring, etc. Implementing virtual workspaces with eDOC Research and engineering activities are more and more cross-organizations funded and netlike organized. Furthermore, it is very difficult for project managers to deal with security constraints as they must share but protect knowledge as well. Before sharing information, teams have to share a

  4. eDOC: A collaboration infrastructure to manage knowledge and information on nuclear projects and research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Craeynest, J.M.; Jacquemet, F.; Chermette, D.; Bonneau, S.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief recall of Knowledge Management issues and of the MKSM knowledge modelling method developed and used by the CEA, this paper focuses on the eDOC web collaboration platform designed to support a large range of cross-collaboration needs and a large spectrum of community types (from small units to large European Networks of Excellence). Online community members have different needs : knowing other members and their roles, accessing to reference information and documents, reviewing, annotating and publishing documents or sending information to all or part of members, being informed of events, scheduling shared jobs and manage tasks, discuss some questions using forums, etc. They also want to develop a common identity and portal look and structure customizations are very useful for that purpose. The Information System Department of the CEA has launched the eDOC project to supply a rapid demand growth for those tools. In the CEA, this demand is due to the growing importance and number of internal and external cross-collaborations and alliances with industrial and research partners. After a systematic evaluation campaign of both proprietary and open-source solutions, and after having defined the most pragmatic deployment strategy, we have chosen the Collaborative Portal Server (CPS) edited by Nuxeo. CPS is based on the Zope open-source object-oriented application server. Then we invested to improve functionalities and performances of CPS but also to design and implement a security policy adapted to different types of security requirements and information privacy levels. The eDOC web collaboration infrastructure is now used by 50 projects and this number keeps increasing. The main uses are internal documents repositories (to simplify classical 'Intranet' building and maintaining process) and information repositories (including documents but also events, news, calendar, conferences, etc.) for external collaborations. The 6th European research framework program

  5. Using Eco-hydrologic modeling in the Penobscot River Watershed to explore the role of climate and land use change on DOC concentration and flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, S. F. B. B.; Schaaf, C.; Douglas, E. M.; Huntington, T. G.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Carbon leaches from the terrestrial watersheds to serve as one of the largest sources of marine DOC. Runoff, slope, soil organic matter and land cover characteristics are the primary spatial factors controlling the variability of fluvial Dissolved Organic Carbon fluxes through the catchment. In large, more heterogeneous catchments, streamflow dissolved organic carbon dynamics are regulated by the combined effect of hydrological mechanisms and the proportion of major landscape elements, such as wetland and forested areas. A number of studies have demonstrated that the amount of wetlands, especially peatlands, controls the watershed level transport of DOC in streams.The Penobscot River Watershed is located in north-central Maine and drains into the Gulf of Maine. It is the second largest watershed in New England. The Penobscot River Watershed is primarily forested but also contains extensive bogs, marshes, and wooded swamps.Studying the spatial and temporal changes in DOC export in the Penobscot River Watershed allows us to better understand and detect carbon sinks to carbon source shifts (or vice versa) in northern forested ecosystems.The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System, is a physical process based terrestrial model that has the ability to simulate both the source and transportation of DOC by combining both hydrological and ecological processes. The study is focused on simulating the DOC concentration and flux with RHESSys in the Penobscot River Watershed. The simulated results are compared with field measurements of DOC from the watershed and the model results from the LOADEST and the temporal DOC export patterns are explored. Future changes in the amount of streamflow DOC will also be investigated by using projected land cover and climate change scenarios. Incremental increases in the loss of wetland areas have been implemented to explore the sensitivity of this watershed to wetland loss and progressive changes in forested land cover

  6. Deposition and light absorption characteristics of precipitation dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at three remote stations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Hu, Zhaofu; Han, Xiaowen; Zhang, Guoshuai; Gao, Shaopeng; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-12-15

    The concentrations, depositions and optical properties of precipitation DOC at three remote stations (Nam Co, Lulang and Everest) were investigated in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The results showed that their volume-weighted mean DOC concentrations were 1.05±1.01mgCL -1 , 0.83±0.85mgCL -1 and 0.86±0.91mgCL -1 , respectively, close to those of other remote areas in the world and lower than those of typical polluted urban cities. Combined with precipitation amounts, the DOC depositions at these three stations were calculated to be 0.34±0.32gCm -2 yr -1 , 0.84±0.86gCm -2 yr -1 and 0.16±0.17gCm -2 yr -1 , respectively. The annual DOC deposition in the HTP was approximately 0.94±0.87TgC, the highest and lowest values appeared in the southeastern and northwestern plateau, respectively. The sources of DOC in the precipitation at these three stations were remarkably different, indicating large spatial heterogeneity in the sources of precipitation DOC over the HTP. Nam Co presented combustion sources from South Asia and local residents, Lulang showed biomass combustion source from South Asia, and Everest was mainly influenced by local mineral dust. The values of the MAC DOC at 365nm were 0.48±0.47m 2 g -1 , 0.25±0.15m 2 g -1 , and 0.64±0.49m 2 g -1 , respectively, for the precipitation at the three stations. All of these values were significantly lower than those of corresponding near-surface aerosol samples because precipitation DOC contains more secondary organic aerosol with low light absorption abilities. Additionally, this phenomenon was also observed in seriously polluted urban areas, implying it is universal in the atmosphere. Because precipitation DOC contains information for both particle-bound and gaseous components from the near surface up to the altitude of clouds where precipitation occurs, the MAC DOC of precipitation is more representative than that of near-surface aerosols for a given region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  8. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  9. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  10. Targeted delivery of miR-200c/DOC to inhibit cancer stem cells and cancer cells by the gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Li, Ru-Tian; Qian, Han-Qing; Wei, Jia; Xie, Li; Shen, Jie; Yang, Mi; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Li-Xia; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Liu, Bao-Rui

    2013-09-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are recently discovered as vital obstacles for the successful cancer therapy. Emerging evidences suggest that miR-200c functions as an effective CSCs inhibitor and can restore sensitivity to microtubule-targeting drugs. In the present work, the intelligent gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles (NPs) was set up to co-deliver miR-200c and docetaxel (DOC) to verify their synergetic effects on inhibition of CSCs and non-CSC cancer cells. After tumor cells were treated with miR-200c NPs, miR-200c and its targeted gene class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3)TUBB3 expression were evaluated. The effects of miR-200c/DOC NPs on tumor cell viability, migration and invasion as well as the expression of E-cadherin and CD44 were studied. The antitumor effects of miR-200c/DOC NPs were compared with DOC NPs in xenograft gastric cancer mice. Moreover, the residual tumors after treatment were subcutaneously seeded into nude mice to further investigate the effective maintenance of NPs. We found that the gelatinases-stimuli NPs facilitated miR-200c into cells, achieving sustained miR-200c expression in tumor cells during 9 days. The miR-200c/DOC NPs significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of DOC, possibly by decreasing TUBB3 level, and reversing EMT. The miR-200c NPs achieved high levels of in vivo accumulation and long retention in gastric cancer xenografts after intravenous administration. The miR-200c/DOC NPs prominently suppressed in vivo tumor growth with elevated miR-200c and E-cadherin levels and down-regulated TUBB3 and CD44 expressions. When the residual tumors after miR-200c/DOC NPs treatment were re-transplanted into nude mice, the tumors demonstrated the slowest growth speed. The miR-200c/DOC NPs may provide a promising modality for co-delivery of nucleic acid and drugs to simultaneously inhibit CSCs and non-CSC cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrologic controls on DOC, As and Pb export from a polluted peatland - the importance of heavy rain events, antecedent moisture conditions and hydrological connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2015-08-01

    Bogs can store large amounts of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) from atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic emissions. Pb and As are exported along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from these organic-rich systems, but it is not yet clear which hydrological (pre)conditions favor their export. This study combines a 1-year monitoring of precipitation, bog water level and pore water concentration changes with bog discharge and DOC, iron, As and Pb stream concentrations. From these data, annual DOC, As, and Pb exports were calculated. Concentrations ranged from 5 to 30 mg L-1 for DOC, 0.2 to 1.9 μg L-1 for As, and 1.3 to 12 μg L-1 for Pb, with highest concentrations in late summer. As and Pb concentrations significantly correlated with DOC concentrations. Fluxes depended strongly on discharge, as 40 % of As and 43 % of Pb were exported during 10 % of the time with the highest discharge, pointing out the over-proportional contribution of short-time, high-discharge events to annual As, Pb and DOC export. Exponential increase in element export from the bog is explained by connection of additional DOC, As and Pb pools in the acrotelm during water table rise, which is most pronounced after drought. Pb, As and DOC concentrations in pore water provide evidence of an increase in the soluble Pb pool as soon as the peat layer becomes hydrologically connected, while DOC and As peak concentrations in runoff lag behind in comparison to Pb. Our data indicate a distinct bog-specific discharge threshold of 8 L s-1, which is thought to depend mainly on the bogs size and drainage conditions. Above this threshold, element concentrations do not further increase and discharge becomes diluted. Combining pore water and discharge data shows that As and Pb exports are dependent on not only the amount of precipitation and discharge but also on the frequency and depth of water table fluctuations. Comparing the annual bog As and Pb export with element inventories indicates that As is much more

  12. Chemical and sensory characterization of DOC red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Emanuele; Boulton, Roger B; Thorngate, John H; Frega, Natale G

    2004-06-16

    Monomeric phenols, color and copigmentation parameters, pigments with different chemical structure, tannin, glucose, fructose, glycerol, ethanol, and organic acids were determined in DOC red wines from Marche (Italy), obtained during three different vintages ranging from 1996 to 2000. The intensity of the bitter and astringent tastes of the wines was determined with panel tastings. Lacrima di Morro and Vernaccia di Serrapetrona (obtained from local cultivars) were different from Rosso Piceno, Rosso Piceno Superiore, and Rosso Conero (produced from different percentages of Sangiovese and Montepulciano). Vernaccia, a red, sweet, "spumante" wine, was an outlier. Lacrima showed a low tannin content, a high content of small pigments and phenols, and a high ratio of copigmented color, which persisted after 3 years of aging. The chemical determinations accounted for a high percentage of variability of measured panel astringency, copigmented color, and measured wine absorbance at 520 nm. It was not possible to create a predictive model for bitterness.

  13. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  14. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  15. The physiological response of two green calcifying algae from the Great Barrier Reef towards high dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer

    Full Text Available Increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations associated with ocean acidification can affect marine calcifiers, but local factors, such as high dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations through sewage and algal blooms, may interact with this global factor. For calcifying green algae of the genus Halimeda, a key tropical carbonate producer that often occurs in coral reefs, no studies on these interactions have been reported. These data are however urgently needed to understand future carbonate production. Thus, we investigated the independent and combined effects of DIC (pCO2 402 μatm/ pHtot 8.0 and 996 μatm/ pHtot 7.7 and DOC (added as glucose in 0 and 294 μmol L-1 on growth, calcification and photosynthesis of H. macroloba and H. opuntia from the Great Barrier Reef in an incubation experiment over 16 days. High DIC concentrations significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 130 % and led to net dissolution, but did not affect H. macroloba. High DOC concentrations significantly reduced daily oxygen production of H. opuntia and H. macroloba by 78 % and 43 %, respectively, and significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 70%. Combined high DIC and DOC did not show any interactive effects for both algae, but revealed additive effects for H. opuntia where the combination of both factors reduced dark calcification by 162 % compared to controls. Such species-specific differences in treatment responses indicate H. opuntia is more susceptible to a combination of high DIC and DOC than H. macroloba. From an ecological perspective, results further suggest a reduction of primary production for Halimeda-dominated benthic reef communities under high DOC concentrations and additional decreases of carbonate accretion under elevated DIC concentrations, where H. opuntia dominates the benthic community. This may reduce biogenic carbonate sedimentation rates and hence the buffering capacity against further ocean

  16. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Enrichments (DIC and DOC on the Photosynthesis and Calcification Rates of Two Calcifying Green Algae from a Caribbean Reef Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W Meyer

    Full Text Available Coral reefs worldwide are affected by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and organic carbon (DOC concentrations due to ocean acidification (OA and coastal eutrophication. These two stressors can occur simultaneously, particularly in near-shore reef environments with increasing anthropogenic pressure. However, experimental studies on how elevated DIC and DOC interact are scarce and fundamental to understanding potential synergistic effects and foreseeing future changes in coral reef function. Using an open mesocosm experiment, the present study investigated the impact of elevated DIC (pHNBS: 8.2 and 7.8; pCO2: 377 and 1076 μatm and DOC (added as 833 μmol L-1 of glucose on calcification and photosynthesis rates of two common calcifying green algae, Halimeda incrassata and Udotea flabellum, in a shallow reef environment. Our results revealed that under elevated DIC, algal photosynthesis decreased similarly for both species, but calcification was more affected in H. incrassata, which also showed carbonate dissolution rates. Elevated DOC reduced photosynthesis and calcification rates in H. incrassata, while in U. flabellum photosynthesis was unaffected and thalus calcification was severely impaired. The combined treatment showed an antagonistic effect of elevated DIC and DOC on the photosynthesis and calcification rates of H. incrassata, and an additive effect in U. flabellum. We conclude that the dominant sand dweller H. incrassata is more negatively affected by both DIC and DOC enrichments, but that their impact could be mitigated when they occur simultaneously. In contrast, U. flabellum can be less affected in coastal eutrophic waters by elevated DIC, but its contribution to reef carbonate sediment production could be further reduced. Accordingly, while the capacity of environmental eutrophication to exacerbate the impact of OA on algal-derived carbonate sand production seems to be species-specific, significant reductions can be expected

  17. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Enrichments (DIC and DOC) on the Photosynthesis and Calcification Rates of Two Calcifying Green Algae from a Caribbean Reef Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Friedrich W; Schubert, Nadine; Diele, Karen; Teichberg, Mirta; Wild, Christian; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are affected by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) concentrations due to ocean acidification (OA) and coastal eutrophication. These two stressors can occur simultaneously, particularly in near-shore reef environments with increasing anthropogenic pressure. However, experimental studies on how elevated DIC and DOC interact are scarce and fundamental to understanding potential synergistic effects and foreseeing future changes in coral reef function. Using an open mesocosm experiment, the present study investigated the impact of elevated DIC (pHNBS: 8.2 and 7.8; pCO2: 377 and 1076 μatm) and DOC (added as 833 μmol L-1 of glucose) on calcification and photosynthesis rates of two common calcifying green algae, Halimeda incrassata and Udotea flabellum, in a shallow reef environment. Our results revealed that under elevated DIC, algal photosynthesis decreased similarly for both species, but calcification was more affected in H. incrassata, which also showed carbonate dissolution rates. Elevated DOC reduced photosynthesis and calcification rates in H. incrassata, while in U. flabellum photosynthesis was unaffected and thalus calcification was severely impaired. The combined treatment showed an antagonistic effect of elevated DIC and DOC on the photosynthesis and calcification rates of H. incrassata, and an additive effect in U. flabellum. We conclude that the dominant sand dweller H. incrassata is more negatively affected by both DIC and DOC enrichments, but that their impact could be mitigated when they occur simultaneously. In contrast, U. flabellum can be less affected in coastal eutrophic waters by elevated DIC, but its contribution to reef carbonate sediment production could be further reduced. Accordingly, while the capacity of environmental eutrophication to exacerbate the impact of OA on algal-derived carbonate sand production seems to be species-specific, significant reductions can be expected under future

  18. The physiological response of two green calcifying algae from the Great Barrier Reef towards high dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC) availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Friedrich Wilhelm; Vogel, Nikolas; Teichberg, Mirta; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations associated with ocean acidification can affect marine calcifiers, but local factors, such as high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations through sewage and algal blooms, may interact with this global factor. For calcifying green algae of the genus Halimeda, a key tropical carbonate producer that often occurs in coral reefs, no studies on these interactions have been reported. These data are however urgently needed to understand future carbonate production. Thus, we investigated the independent and combined effects of DIC (pCO2 402 μatm/ pHtot 8.0 and 996 μatm/ pHtot 7.7) and DOC (added as glucose in 0 and 294 μmol L-1) on growth, calcification and photosynthesis of H. macroloba and H. opuntia from the Great Barrier Reef in an incubation experiment over 16 days. High DIC concentrations significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 130 % and led to net dissolution, but did not affect H. macroloba. High DOC concentrations significantly reduced daily oxygen production of H. opuntia and H. macroloba by 78 % and 43 %, respectively, and significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 70%. Combined high DIC and DOC did not show any interactive effects for both algae, but revealed additive effects for H. opuntia where the combination of both factors reduced dark calcification by 162 % compared to controls. Such species-specific differences in treatment responses indicate H. opuntia is more susceptible to a combination of high DIC and DOC than H. macroloba. From an ecological perspective, results further suggest a reduction of primary production for Halimeda-dominated benthic reef communities under high DOC concentrations and additional decreases of carbonate accretion under elevated DIC concentrations, where H. opuntia dominates the benthic community. This may reduce biogenic carbonate sedimentation rates and hence the buffering capacity against further ocean acidification.

  19. Understanding the relationship between DOC and nitrate export and dominant rainfall-runoff processes through long-term high frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, stream sampling protocols for hydro-geochemical parameters were often limited by logistical and technological constraints. While long-term monitoring protocols were typically based on weekly sampling intervals, high frequency sampling was commonly limited to a few single events. In our study, we combined high frequency and long-term measurements to understand the DOC and nitrate behaviour and dynamics for different runoff events and seasons. Our study area is the forested Weierbach catchment (0.47 km2) in Luxembourg. The fractured schist bedrock is covered by cambisol soils. The runoff response of the catchment is characterized by a double peak behaviour. A first discharge peak occurs during or right after a rainfall event (triggered by fast near surface runoff generation processes), while a second delayed peak lasts several days (generated by subsurface flow/ shallow groundwater flow). Peaks in DOC concentrations are closely linked to the first discharge peak, whereas nitrate concentrations follow the second peak. Our observations were carried out with the field deployable instrument spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH). This instrument relies on the principles of UV-Vis spectrometry and measures DOC and nitrate concentrations. The measurements were carried out at a high frequency of 15 minutes in situ in the Weierbach creek for more than two years. In addition, a long-term validation was carried out with data obtained from the analysis of water collected with automatic samplers. The long-term, high-frequency measurements allowed us to calculate a complete and detailed balance of DOC and nitrate export over two years. Transport behaviour of the DOC and nitrate showed different dynamics between the first and second hydrograph peaks. DOC is mainly exported during first peaks, while nitrate is mostly exported during the delayed second peaks. In combination with other measurements in the catchment, the long and detailed observations have

  20. High-frequency DOC and nitrate measurements provide new insights into their export and their relationships to rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, stream sampling protocols for environmental tracers were often limited by logistical and technological constraints. Long-term sampling programs would typically rely on weekly sampling campaigns, while high-frequency sampling would remain restricted to a few days or hours at best. We stipulate that the currently predominant sampling protocols are too coarse to capture and understand the full amplitude of rainfall-runoff processes and its relation to water quality fluctuations. Weekly sampling protocols are not suited to get insights into the hydrological system during high flow conditions. Likewise, high frequency measurements of a few isolated events do not allow grasping inter-event variability in contributions and processes. Our working hypothesis is based on the potential of a new generation of field-deployable instruments for measuring environmental tracers at high temporal frequencies over an extended period. With this new generation of instruments we expect to gain new insights into rainfall-runoff dynamics, both at intra- and inter-event scales. Here, we present the results of one year of DOC and nitrate measurements with the field deployable UV-Vis spectrometer spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH). The instrument measures the absorption spectrum from 220 to 720 nm in situ and at high frequencies and derives DOC and nitrate concentrations. The measurements were carried out at 15 minutes intervals in the Weierbach catchment (0.47 km2) in Luxemburg. This fully forested catchment is characterized by cambisol soils and fractured schist as underlying bedrock. The time series of DOC and nitrate give insights into the high frequency dynamics of stream water. Peaks in DOC concentrations are closely linked to discharge peaks that occur during or right after a rainfall event. Those first discharge peaks can be linked to fast near surface runoff processes and are responsible for a remarkable amount of DOC export. A special characterisation of

  1. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  2. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  4. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  6. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  7. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  8. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  9. DOC1-Dependent Recruitment of NURD Reveals Antagonism with SWI/SNF during Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adone Mohd-Sarip

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NURD complex is a key regulator of cell differentiation that has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. Loss of the NURD subunit Deleted in Oral Cancer 1 (DOC1 is associated with human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs. Here, we show that restoration of DOC1 expression in OSCC cells leads to a reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. This is caused by the DOC1-dependent targeting of NURD to repress key transcriptional regulators of EMT. NURD recruitment drives extensive epigenetic reprogramming, including eviction of the SWI/SNF remodeler, formation of inaccessible chromatin, H3K27 deacetylation, and binding of PRC2 and KDM1A, followed by H3K27 methylation and H3K4 demethylation. Strikingly, depletion of SWI/SNF mimics the effects of DOC1 re-expression. Our results suggest that SWI/SNF and NURD function antagonistically to control chromatin state and transcription. We propose that disturbance of this dynamic equilibrium may lead to defects in gene expression that promote oncogenesis.

  10. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Poleo, Antonio B.S.; Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern; Bishop, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring

  11. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, Hjalmar [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: hjalmar.laudon@sek.slu.se; Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Bishop, Kevin [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring.

  12. Paving the Road for Student Success: Building a Case for Integrated Strategic Planning from Pre-K to Post-Doc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealey, Jarrett; Peterson, Renee; Thompson, Angela; Waters, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The road from prekindergarten (pre-K) to post-doctoral (post-doc) work is riddled with potholes, detours, u-turns, and construction zones. National education initiatives such as No Child Left Behind, the Common Core, Race to the Top, Performance-Based Funding, College Readiness and Completion Acts, and Post-Graduate Gainful Employment Reports…

  13. Bacterioplankton features and its relations with doc characteristics and other limnological variables in Paraná river floodplain environments (PR/MS-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mariana Carolina; Santana, Natália Fernanda; de Azevedo, Júlio César Rodrigues; Pagioro, Thomaz Aurélio

    2011-07-01

    Since the introduction of the Microbial Loop concept, many studies aimed to explain the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aquatic ecosystems. Paraná River floodplain system is a very complex environment where these subjects were little explored. The aim of this work was to characterize bacterial community in terms of density, biomass and biovolume in some water bodies of this floodplain and to verify its temporal variation and its relation with some limnological variables, including some indicators of DOC quality, obtained through Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Bacterial density, biomass and biovolume are similar to those from other freshwater environments and both density and biomass were higher in the period with less rain. The limnological and spectroscopic features that showed any relation with bacterioplankton were the concentrations of N-NH4 and P-PO4, water transparency, and some indicators of DOC quality and origin. The analysis of these relations showed a possible competition between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton for inorganic nutrients and that the DOC used by bacterioplankton is labile and probably from aquatic macrophytes.

  14. Spatial distribution and mobility of organic carbon (POC and DOC) in a coastal Mediterranean environment (Saronikos Gulf, Greece) during 2007-2009 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Florou, Heleny

    2013-08-01

    Particulate (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important parameter for the pollution assessment of coastal marine systems, especially those affected by anthropogenic, domestic, and industrial activities. In the present paper, a similar marine system (Saronikos Gulf) located in the west-central Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was examined, in terms of the temporal and spatial distribution of organic carbon (POC and DOC), with respect to marine sources and pathways. POC was maximum in winter in the Saronikos Gulf, due to the bloom of phytoplankton, whereas in the Elefsis Bay (located in the north side of the Saronikos Gulf) in summer, since phytoplankton grazes in the Bay in the end of summer (except for winter). Approximately 60 % of the bulk DOC of the water column was estimated as non-refractory (labile and semi-labile), due to the major anthropogenic, domestic, and industrial effects of the region and the shallow depths. The spatial distribution of POC and DOC mainly affects the northeastern section of the Gulf, since that region has been accepted major organic discharges for a long time period, in connection to the relatively long renewal times of its waters.

  15. eLearning to enhance physician patient communication: a pilot test of "doc.com" and "WebEncounter" in teaching bad news delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daetwyler, Christof J; Cohen, Diane G; Gracely, Edward; Novack, Dennis H

    2010-01-01

    Physician-patient communication skills help determine the nature and quality of diagnostic information elicited from patients, the quality of the physician's counseling, and the patient's adherence to treatment. In spite of their importance, surveys have demonstrated a wide variability and deficiencies in the teaching of these skills. Describe two specific methodologies for teaching physician-patient communication skills developed at our institution and pilot test them for effectiveness. Between 2004 and 2009 we developed "doc.com," a series of 41 media-rich online modules on all aspects of healthcare communication jointly with the American Academy on Communication in Healthcare. Starting in 2006, we expanded our pre-existing experience with the videoconferencing system "WebOSCE" into the online application "WebEncounter." This new methodology combines practice of communication skills on standardized patients with structured assessment and constructive feedback. We had three randomized groups: controls who did only the assessment parts of a WebOSCE on two occasions, a doc.com group who had doc.com in between the assessment occasions, and a combined group that had both doc.com and a WebEncounter between assessments. We found significant improvement in skills as components were added, and the training program was well received.

  16. Bacterioplankton features and its relations with doc characteristics and other limnological variables in Paraná river floodplain environments (PR/MS-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carolina Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Microbial Loop concept, many studies aimed to explain the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC in aquatic ecosystems. Paraná River floodplain system is a very complex environment where these subjects were little explored. The aim of this work was to characterize bacterial community in terms of density, biomass and biovolume in some water bodies of this floodplain and to verify its temporal variation and its relation with some limnological variables, including some indicators of DOC quality, obtained through Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Bacterial density, biomass and biovolume are similar to those from other freshwater environments and both density and biomass were higher in the period with less rain. The limnological and spectroscopic features that showed any relation with bacterioplankton were the concentrations of N-NH4 and P-PO4, water transparency, and some indicators of DOC quality and origin. The analysis of these relations showed a possible competition between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton for inorganic nutrients and that the DOC used by bacterioplankton is labile and probably from aquatic macrophytes.

  17. Influence of DOC on the inactivation efficacy of ozonation assessed with Clostridium perfringens and a lab-scale continuous flow system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Medema, Gerriet Jan; Baars, E.; Bosklopper, T.G.J.; Veer, A.J. van der; Meijers, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    Routine quality monitoring for fecal indicators after ozonation at the river-lake waterworks Weesperkarspel of Amsterdam Water Supply (AWS) show large variation in inactivation. The influence of the high DOC in the water on the inactivation efficiency was investigated. Results showed a higher

  18. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  19. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  20. Application of a UV-Vis submersible probe for capturing changes in DOC concentrations across a mire complex during the snowmelt and summer periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Armine; Runkle, Benjamin; Kutzbach, Lars

    2013-04-01

    An accurate quantification of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is crucial for understanding changes in water resources under the influence of climate, land use and urbanization. However, the conventionally used methods do not allow high frequency in situ analyses in remote or hostile environments (e.g., industrial wastewater or during environmental high-flow events, such as snowmelt or floods). In particular, missing measurements during the snowmelt period in landscapes of the boreal region can lead to significant miscalculations in regional carbon budgets. Therefore, the aim of the study was to test the performance of a portable, submersible UV-Vis spectrophotometer (spectro::lyser, s::can Messtechnik GmbH, Austria) during the snowmelt period in a boreal mire-forest catchment, and to provide a conceptual understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of DOC concentrations during and after snowmelt. During 2011, water samples were collected from the near-pristine Ust-Pojeg mire complex in northwestern Russia (61° 56'N, 50° 13'E). Sampling started during the spring snowmelt period and continued until late fall. The mire presented a mosaic of different landscape units. The mire consisted of minerogeous (fen), ombrogenous (bog), and transitional forest-mire (lagg) zones. Water samples were taken from the surface across the mire (22 points at 50-m intervals). DOC concentrations were analyzed directly at the study site using a portable, submersible UV-Vis spectrophotometer, which uses high-resolution absorbance measurements over the wavelength range 200-742.5 nm at 2.5-nm intervals as a proxy for DOC content. Because the DOC composition of fluids varies by site, a local calibration replaced the default settings of the spectro::lyser (Global Calibration) to enhance the accuracy of the measurements. To evaluate the local calibration and correct for drift, the same samples (n = 157) were additionally analyzed using the wet persulfate oxidation method (O

  1. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM and CDOM-DOC Relationships for Highly Polluted Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectral characteristics of CDOM (Chromophoric dissolved organic matter in water columns are a key parameter for bio-optical modeling. Knowledge of CDOM optical properties and spatial discrepancy based on the relationship between water quality and spectral parameters in the Yinma River watershed with in situ data collected from highly polluted waters are exhibited in this study. Based on the comprehensive index method, the riverine waters showed serious contamination; especially the chemical oxygen demand (COD, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, mercury (Hg and dissolved oxygen (DO were out of range of the contamination warning. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total suspended matter (TSM with prominent non-homogenizing were significantly high in the riverine waters, but chlorophyll-a (Chl-a was the opposite. The ternary phase diagram showed that non-algal particle absorption played an important role in total non-water light absorption (>50% in most sampling locations, and mean contributions of CDOM were 13% and 22% in the summer and autumn, respectively. The analysis of the ratio of absorption at 250–365 nm (E250:365 and the spectral slope (S275–295 indicated that CDOM had higher aromaticity and molecular weight in autumn than in summer, which is consistent with the results of water quality and the CDOM relative contribution rate. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that the environmental variables OSM (Organic suspended matter had a strong correlation with CDOM absorption, followed by heavy metals, e.g., Mn, Hg and Cr6+. However, for the specific UV absorbance (SUVA254, the seasonal values showed opposite results compared with the reported literature. The potential reasons were that more UDOM (uncolored dissolved organic matter from human sources (wastewater effluent existed in the waters. Terrigenous inputs simultaneously are in relation to the aCDOM(440-DOC relationship with the correlation coefficient of 0.90 in the summer (two-tailed, p < 0

  2. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  3. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  4. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  5. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  6. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  7. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  8. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  9. Healthcare providers' attitudes and behaviours related to paediatric mild traumatic brain injury: results from the 2014 DocStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Donnell, Zoe; Hoffman, Rosanne; Tennant, Bethany

    2018-04-23

    Explore healthcare providers' experiences managing mTBI and better understand their use of mTBI assessment tools and guidelines. Cross-sectional Methods: A random sample of 1,760 healthcare providers responded to the web-based DocStyles survey between June 18 and 30, 2014. The sample included family/general practitioners, internists, pediatricians, and nurse practitioners who reported seeing pediatric patients. We examined their experiences with mTBI to identify opportunities to increase preparedness and improve management of mTBI. Fifty-nine percent of healthcare providers reported that they diagnosed or managed pediatric patients with mTBI within the last 12 months. Of those, 44.4% felt 'very prepared' to make decisions about when pediatric patients can safety return to activities, such as school and sports after a mTBI. When asked how often they use screening or assessment tools to assess pediatric patients with mTBI, almost half reported that they 'seldom' or 'never' use those resources (24.6% and 22.0%, respectively). Most healthcare providers reported seeing pediatric patients with mTBI, yet most feel only somewhat prepared to manage this injury in their practise. Broader use of screening tools and guidelines, that include clinical decision support tools, may be useful for healthcare providers who care for pediatric patients with mTBI.

  10. ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹⁵N backbone and side-chain chemical shift assignment of the toxin Doc in the unbound state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Loris, Remy; van Nuland, Nico A J; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-04-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules in bacteria are involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic stress response, persister formation and programmed cell death. The toxin Doc, from the phd/doc module, blocks protein synthesis by targeting the translation machinery. Despite a large wealth of biophysical and biochemical data on the regulatory aspects of the operon transcription and role of Doc co-activator and co-repressor, little is still know on the molecular basis of Doc toxicity. Structural information about this toxin is only available for its inhibited state bound to the antitoxin Phd. Here we report the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments of the toxin Doc from of bacteriophage P1 (the model protein from this family of TA modules) in its free state. The BMRB accession number is 18899.

  11. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  12. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Suburban Soils: Are they the answer in determining factors controlling non-point-source DOC and DON in urban surface waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Generally the quality of urban streams has been attributed to storm water runoff and sewage effluent discharge. Recent work in the upper Trinity Basin downstream from the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolis, TX concluded that sewage effluent only contributed between 1 and 35% of DOC dependent upon the population of the watershed. Change from native to urban land use increased DOC exports to between 938 - 1840 kg km-2 yr-1relative to the 517 kg km-2 yr-1 expected from native land use. Where this excess DOC might come from in an urban ecosystem was addressed in a separate study examining water extractable DOC (WEDOC) and DON (WEDON) in soils of single-family home lawns in Chicago, IL, Frederick, MD, Bryan/College Station, TX and Galveston, TX. These cities were exposed to different sources of sodium. Time of exposure to sodium was considered on the assumption that as new sub-divisions are built, new soil or turfgrass sod is introduced to the site. Exposure times were 0-5, 6-10, 11-20, 21-30 and > 30 yr. Length of exposure time of the soil to the urban environment was significant among the four cities examined for DOC (p < 0.001), DON (p < 0.001), sodium adsorption ratio (p < 0.006) but not for sodium (p = 0.08) or exchangeable sodium percent (ESP) (p = 0.09). In all cities WEDON increased with urban exposure time and in all cities except Galveston WEDOC increased with urban exposure time. Sodium, regardless of its source, explained 60% of the variance in WEDOC and 54% of the variance in WEDON across all cities (n = 136). To determine what other factors might be involved in increasing WEDOC and WEDON losses from suburban soils, backward stepwise regression models were used. Across the four cities, time of urban exposure, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), NO3-N, NH4-N, S, PO4-P, Na, Cu, Ca, Fe and Zn produced a significant model for WEDOC (Adjusted r2 = 0.85; p < 0.001) and Ksat, pH, NH4-N, PO4-P, S, Alkalinity and Cu produced a significant model for WEDON

  14. supp6.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A room temperature cured low dielectric hyperbranched epoxy adhesive with high mechanical strength. Bibekananda De and Niranjan Karak*. Advanced Polymer and Nanomaterial Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Napaam-784028, Assam, India. Calculation for the equivalent amount of ...

  15. supp22.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muthupandi Nagaraj, Murugan Iniya, Muthusamy Boominathan, Shanmugam Muthusubramanian *[a] and Nattamai Bhuvanesh[b]. *a Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University,. Madurai - 625 021, India. b X-ray diffraction lab, Department of chemistry, Texas, A&M University, ...

  16. supp5.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aDepartment of Chemistry, D. D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India ... reaction channels (1–4) calculated at the M06-2X/6-31G+(d,p) level of theory. ... 890, 911, 947, 981, 1000, 1082, 1099, 1127, 1175, 1212, 1229, 1250, 1270, ...

  17. supp23.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The termination of the reaction was monitored by TLC using hexane: ethyl acetate (7:3) as eluent. After completion of the reaction, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to furnish the crude product, which was recrystallized from methanol to afford the pure ...

  18. supp6.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composition dependent non-ideality in aqueous binary mixtures as a signature of avoided spinodal decomposition. Sarmistha Sarkara,b, Saikat Banerjeea, Susmita Roya, Rikhia Ghosha, Partha Pratim Rayb and Biman Bagchia*. aSolid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, ...

  19. supp14.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulfonated graphene catalyzed synthesis of porphyrins and expanded porphyrins and their non-covalent interactions with exfoliated graphene. Sweta Mishra, Smriti Arora, Ritika Nagpal and Shive Murat Singh Chauhan*. Bioorganic Laboratory, Department of Chemistry,. University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007,. India. E-mail: ...

  20. supp10.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schematic preparation of sulfonated mesoporous carbon (CMK-5-SO3H). TGA diagrams for CMK-5 and CMK-5-SO3H are shown in Figure S2. TGA analysis of CMK-5-SO3H shows a first weight loss (8.2%) due to desorption of water below 100ºC. This is followed by a second weight loss (13.2%) corresponding to the loss of ...

  1. supp7.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, P. R. China. b China-Australia Joint Research Center for Functional Molecular Materials, Scientific Research Academy, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, P.R. China.

  2. supp4.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Duvva,a Ravi Kumar Kanaparthi,a Jaipal Kandhadi,a Gabriele Marotta,b Paolo Salvatori,b Filippo De Angelis,*b Lingamallu Giribabu*a. aInorganic & Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500607, India. bComputational Laboratory for Hybrid/Organic Photovoltaics ...

  3. supp7.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (A) Cyclic voltammeric response and (B) impedimetric response of (a) unmodified Au, (b) DTB, (c) PET and (d) DTB-PET electrodes in presence of Fe(CN)63-/4- in 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.2). Figure S2. Cyclic voltammetric response obtained for covalently bound Cyt-c on DTB-PET electrode in the (a) absence and (b) presence of ...

  4. supp24.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bipyridyl: Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA binding and nuclease activity. PERUMAL GURUMOORTHYa, JAYARAM RAVICHANDRANa,b and. AZIZ KALILUR RAHIMANa,*. aPost-Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, The New ...

  5. supplementary1.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical preparation of Nitrogen doped Graphene Quantum Dots and their Size-dependent Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction. Dhanraj B. Shindea, Vishal M. Dhavalea, Sreekumar Kurungota* and Vijayamohanan K. Pillaib*. Cyclic voltammetry of different size N-GQDs: Figure S1. Cyclic voltammetry study ...

  6. supp39.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frisch M J, Trucks G W, Schlegel H B, Scuseria G E, Robb M A, Cheeseman J R, Scalmani G, Barone V, Mennucci B, Petersson G A, Nakatsuji H, Caricato M, Li X, Hratchian H P, Izmaylov A F, Bloino J, Zheng G, Sonnenberg J L, Hada M, Ehara M, Toyota K, Fukuda R, Hasegawa J, Ishida M, Nakajima T, Honda Y, Kitao O, ...

  7. supp17.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supporting Information. Mechanism for the Reaction of a Tungsten-Germylyne Complex with α,β-Unsaturated Ketones: A DFT Study. MENG LIa,*, QIAOQIAO YANGa and RAN FANGb. aDepartment of Orthopaedics, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military District, Lanzhou 730050, P. R. China. bCollege of Chemistry ...

  8. supp26.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Facile Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazolyl indole Hybrids via SbCl3-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Indoles to 1,2,3-Triazolyl chalcones. Poovan Shanmugavelan, Murugan Sathishkumar, Sangaraiah Nagarajan, and Alagusundaram Ponnuswamy*. Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj ...

  9. 0061suppl.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N2 adsorption (black symbols) and desorption (red symbols) isotherms of the MnO2-pillared KTiNbO5 composites. Inset shows the pore size distribution curve. Figure S4. The UV spectra show the hydrogenation effect of porous KTiNbO5 composites on p-nitrophenol (porous KTiNbO5, 0.25g; NaBH4, 0.528 mol.L-1, 30 mL; ...

  10. supp22.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, structures and properties of two dinuclear mercury(II) iodide compounds containing tetradentate tripodal amine/pentadentate N-donor Schiff base: Control of molecular and crystalline architectures by varying ligand matrices. SUBHASIS ROY, SOUMI CHATTOPADHYAY, SOMNATH CHOUBEY, KISHALAY BHAR, ...

  11. supp1.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hexa decane]-2'(7'),4',6',8'-tetraene-2,5,13',15'-tetrone (cis-3a). Pale pink solid, mp: 118-120 oC; Rf = 0.23 (60% ethylacetate: petroleum ether); IR (KBr): 1196, 1352, 1715, 2961, 3235 cm-1; 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 2.86 (d, 1H, J = 18.3 ...

  12. supp3.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sathiyanathan Felixa, Pratap Kollub, Bala P.C.Raghupathya,c,*, Soon Kwan Jeongd,* and Andrews Nirmala Grace a,d,*. a Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore - 632014, Tamil Nadu, India. b DST-INSPIRE Faculty, Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of ...

  13. 0056suppl.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuning the BODIPY Core for its Potential Use in DSSC: A Quantum Chemical Approach. Narendra Nath Ghosha, Md. Habiba, ... Dye. HOMO. LUMO. Donor. п. Acceptor. Anchor. Donor. п. Acceptor. Anchor. FLU-2,6-BOD. CAR-2,6-BOD. 28. 29. 39. 53. 52. 46. 26. 18. 18. 14. 8. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 6. 6. 6. 6. 87. 87. 87. 87. 6. 6. 6. 6.

  14. supp2.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panneerselvam Anithaa, Rajendran Manikandana, Paranthaman Vijayana, Govindan Prakasha, Periasamy Viswanathamurthia,* and Ray Jay Butcherb. a Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem-636011, Tamil Nadu, India. b Department of Chemistry, Howard University, 525 College Street NW, Washington, DC ...

  15. Supplementary data.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Namjoo Street, P.O. Box: 1914, Rasht, Iran. *Corresponding authors: E-mail address: arvand@guilan.ac.ir (M. Arvand). Tel.: +98131 3233262, fax: +98 131 3233262. E-mail address: r.motaghed@yahoo.com (R. Motaghed Mazhabi). Mob.: +98 9111359336.

  16. supp3.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CM), Ce0.7Fe0.3O2–δ (CF), and Ce0.7Co0.3O2–δ (CC) samples calcined at 773 K. Figure S2: Conversion of CO (%) versus temperature (K) over pure CeO2 (C) and MnOx (Mn) samples along with Ce0.7Mn0.3O2–δ (CM) calcined at 773 K.

  17. supp1.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supporting Information. Salts and cocrystals of Theobromine and their phase transformations in water. PALASH SANPHUI and ASHWINI NANGIA*. School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Central University P.O., Hyderabad 500 046, India. Table S1. Hydrogen bonds in crystal ...

  18. supp16.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts: A DFT study. KUNDAN BARUAH and PRADIP KR. BHATTACHARYYA*. Department of Chemistry, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati 781 016, Assam, India. E-mail address: prdpbhatta@yahoo.com. Supplement Table S1: ...

  19. supp10.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain ..... At each time point blood was collected through jugular vein and immediately ... Pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t, t1/2 and bioavailability were ...

  20. WhatsApp, Doc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Abhijit M

    2017-01-01

    Confidentiality underpins the trust between doctors and patients. As far back as the 2nd century BC, the great Indian physician, Charak, had stated: "Nothing that happens in the house of the sick man must be told outside, nor must the patient's condition be told to anyone who might do harm by that knowledge to the patient or to another".

  1. 0056sup.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary Material. Implication of surface modified NZVI particle retention in the porous media: assessment with the help of 1-D transport model .... Raychoudhury T, Tufenkji N, Ghoshal S (2014) Significance of straining during polyelectrolyte modified Iron nanoparticle transport in porous media Water Research 50:80-89.

  2. supp16.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was washed ... After refluxing for 12 hours, the solution was filtered through celite to remove ... of guest anions were prepared in H2O in the order of 10-3 M. Working solutions ...

  3. supp29.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    9a). *. S39: Mass Spectrum of Compound (9a). *. *. S40: IR Spectrum of Compound (9b). *. *. S41: 1H-NMR Spectrum of Compound (9b). **. *. S42: Mass Spectrum of Compound (9b). *. *. S43: IR Spectrum of Compound (9c). *. *. S44: 1H-NMR ...

  4. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  5. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  6. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  7. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  8. Aprendizagem profissional: a docência na biblioteconomiaProfessional learning: higher education in the library science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileuda Soares Diniz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa do tipo qualitativa, cuja finalidade esteve voltada para conhecer a trajetória da aprendizagem profissional de docência dos professores substitutos do Curso de Biblioteconomia da UFMT/Campus de Rondonópolis dos anos de 2005 a 2007. Buscou-se especificamente examinar como esses docentes substitutos apreendem sua prática pedagógica. A metodologia que mais se adequou ao propósito do estudo foi a investigação qualitativa em educação, tendo o diário como técnica escolhida, por ser o instrumento apropriado a esse tipo de pesquisa, de modo a possibilitar a coleta de dados por meio da produção reflexiva do total de cinco participantes da pesquisa. Constatou-se, ao final, a necessidade de um preparo adequado para exercer a profissão de professor no Ensino Superior.This work deals with a qualitative research that aims to acknowledge professional learning on behalf of substitute professors of the Graduation in Library Science at UFMT/ Rondonópolis Campus from 2005 to 2007. Specifically, the research aims to examine the way these professors learn in order to perform pedagogical practices. The methodology that was more adequate was qualitative investigation in education. Thus, a diary was the chosen technique. It is perceived as an appropriate instrument for this kind of research. It enables data collection by means of reflexive production of participants, five in all. It was the end, the need for adequate preparation for the exercise of professorial activities in higher education.

  9. A base de conhecimentos profissionais para o ensino: provocações à docência universitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson da Silva Moreira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto resulta de pesquisa que buscou investigar como se deu a construção dos conhecimentos profissionais relacionados ao ensino por parte de professores que lecionam em cursos de Engenharia de uma universidade pública baiana. Visto que, comumente, os programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu estão voltados, predominantemente, para a formação do pesquisador, o processo investigativo girou em torno da seguinte questão norteadora: onde e por meio de quais processos professores de cursos de Engenharia de uma universidade pública baiana construíram seus conhecimentos profissionais relacionados ao ensino? O estudo, de natureza qualitativa, ancora-se em discussões tecidas por autores que discutem sobre a Pedagogia Universitária: Masetto (2012, Pimenta (2009, D’Ávila (2013, Soares (2009, e sobre formação de professores: Pimenta (2014; Marcelo Garcia (2012; Mizukami et. al. (2010 e Nono (2005. A coleta de dados foi procedida mediante um questionário socioprofissional, além da aplicação do caso de ensino intitulado “O dilema de Ricardo”. O corpus de dados produzido foi analisado com base nos pressupostos da técnica de análise de conteúdo (BARDIN, 1977. A análise dos achados empíricos permite-nos afirmar que: a os docentes universitários exercem a docência baseados nos professores modelos que tiveram durante o seu processo de escolarização na educação básica e superior; b a profissão docente, no ensino superior, vai sendo construída cotidianamente, a partir das trocas de experiências com os pares. c o estágio de docência, realizado durante o período do mestrado, e a participação em treinamentos têm se constituído elementos impulsionadores nos processos de aprendizagem da docência e desenvolvimento profissional dos sujeitos participantes do nosso estudo. Palavras-chave: Docência universitária. Conhecimentos profissionais. Formação de professores.   The basis of professional knowledge for teaching

  10. miR-367 regulation of DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Jiang, Haitao; Yu, Yifan; Xu, Yong; Zuo, Wenshan; Wang, Shouguo; Su, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Recently, miR-367 is reported to exert either oncogenic or tumor suppressive effects in human malignancies. Recent study reports that miR-367 is up-regulated in OS tissues and cell lines, and abrogates adriamycin-induced apoptosis. The clinical significance of miR-367 and its function in OS need further investigation. In our study, miR-367 expression in OS was markedly elevated compared with corresponding non-tumor tissues. High miR-367 expression was associated with malignant clinical features and poor prognosis of OS patients. In accordance, the levels of miR-367 were dramatically up-regulated in OS cells. Loss of miR-367 expression in Saos-2 cells obviously inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. Meanwhile, miR-367 restoration promoted these malignant behaviors of MG-63 cells. Mechanistically, miR-367 negatively regulated DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) abundance in OS cells. Hereby, DAB2IP was recognized as a direct target gene of miR-367 in OS. DAB2IP mRNA level was down-regulated and inversely correlated with miR-367 expression in OS specimens. DAB2IP overexpression prohibited proliferation, migration and invasion in Saos-2 cells, while DAB2IP knockdown showed promoting effects on proliferation, migration and invasion of MG-63 cells. Furthermore, the role of miR-367 might be mediated by DAB2IP-regulated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT in OS cells. To conclude, miR-367 may function as a biomarker for prediction of prognosis and a target for OS therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A prática da Docência no Curso de Jornalismo da Unicentro/Guarapuava-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Terezinha Pacheco dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultado de uma pesquisa realizada com professores do curso de Jornalismo da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste – Unicentro – Guarapuava- PR em que o objetivo foi investigar a importância da formação pedagógica do docente, uma vez que o curso forma profissionais bacharéis e que não possuem conteúdos pedagógicos em sua estrutura curricular. Na fundamentação deste trabalho, foram estudados autores que pesquisam tanto sobre jornalismo quanto docência universitária como Andrade e Linhares, Masetto, Anastasiou, Nóvoa, Marcelo, entre outros. Para coleta dos dados, foi encaminhado via e-mail um questionário aos professores do curso de Jornalismo da Unicentro com seis perguntas abertas. A análise levou em conta quatro questionários respondidos. Diante dos relatos, para os entrevistados a formação pedagógica faz todo diferencial em sala de aula, no entanto nem todos, mesmo reconhecendo a importância da formação docente, se interessam em melhorar sua prática. Nesse sentido, para que essa formação seja consolidada é importante o desenvolvimento de ações institucionais, a partir de um projeto de formação continuada organizado, sistemático e intencional e que envolva todos os professores universitários.

  12. Primary care providers' discussion of fall prevention approaches with their older adult patients-DocStyles, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth R; Haddad, Yara K; Parker, Erin M

    2018-03-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries among older adults. The American and British Geriatric Societies recommend a fall risk assessment to identify risk factors and guide interventions to prevent these falls. This study describes the self-reported discussion of fall prevention approaches used by primary care providers (PCPs)-family practitioners, internists and nurse practitioners-who treat older adults. Results are described overall and by PCP type. We analyzed a sample of 1210 U.S. PCPs who participated in the 2014 DocStyles survey. PCPs reported on their recommendation of fall prevention approaches including general exercise, Tai Chi, medication adjustments, home safety modifications, vitamin D supplements, assistive devices, alarm systems, and referral to physical therapy, foot specialist, or vision specialist. Frequencies and adjusted odds ratios for fall prevention approaches were assessed by provider and practice characteristics. Self-reported discussion of any fall prevention approaches was 89.3%. Controlling for provider and practice characteristics, there were significant differences for some approaches by provider type. Family practitioners were more likely to suggest home modification [adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.8 (1.3-2.4)], exercise [aOR: 2.0 (1.5-2.5)], and Tai Chi [aOR: 1.5 (1.0-2.2)] than internists. Nurse practitioners were more likely to suggest home modification [aOR: 2.1 (1.3-3.4)] and less likely to suggest vitamin D [aOR: 0.6 (0.4-1.0)] than internists. Fall prevention suggestions vary by type of PCP. Dissemination of geriatric guidelines should include all PCPs who routinely see older adults.

  13. Primary care providers' discussion of fall prevention approaches with their older adult patients—DocStyles, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Burns

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries among older adults. The American and British Geriatric Societies recommend a fall risk assessment to identify risk factors and guide interventions to prevent these falls. This study describes the self-reported discussion of fall prevention approaches used by primary care providers (PCPs—family practitioners, internists and nurse practitioners—who treat older adults. Results are described overall and by PCP type.We analyzed a sample of 1210 U.S. PCPs who participated in the 2014 DocStyles survey. PCPs reported on their recommendation of fall prevention approaches including general exercise, Tai Chi, medication adjustments, home safety modifications, vitamin D supplements, assistive devices, alarm systems, and referral to physical therapy, foot specialist, or vision specialist. Frequencies and adjusted odds ratios for fall prevention approaches were assessed by provider and practice characteristics.Self-reported discussion of any fall prevention approaches was 89.3%. Controlling for provider and practice characteristics, there were significant differences for some approaches by provider type. Family practitioners were more likely to suggest home modification [adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.8 (1.3–2.4], exercise [aOR: 2.0 (1.5–2.5], and Tai Chi [aOR: 1.5 (1.0–2.2] than internists. Nurse practitioners were more likely to suggest home modification [aOR: 2.1 (1.3–3.4] and less likely to suggest vitamin D [aOR: 0.6 (0.4–1.0] than internists.Fall prevention suggestions vary by type of PCP. Dissemination of geriatric guidelines should include all PCPs who routinely see older adults. Keywords: Primary care providers, Falls, Prevention, Older adults, Geriatrics

  14. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  15. Transport and transformation of soil-derived CO2, CH4 and DOC sustain CO2 supersaturation in small boreal streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasilo, Terhi; Hutchins, Ryan H S; Ruiz-González, Clara; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Streams are typically supersaturated in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), and are recognized as important components of regional carbon (C) emissions in northern landscapes. Whereas there is consensus that in most of the systems the CO 2 emitted by streams represents C fixed in the terrestrial ecosystem, the pathways delivering this C to streams are still not well understood. We assessed the contribution of direct soil CO 2 injection versus the oxidation of soil-derived dissolved organic C (DOC) and CH 4 in supporting CO 2 supersaturation in boreal streams in Québec. We measured the concentrations of CO 2 , CH 4 and DOC in 43 streams and adjacent soil waters during summer base-flow period. A mass balance approach revealed that all three pathways are significant, and that the mineralization of soil-derived DOC and CH 4 accounted for most of the estimated stream CO 2 emissions (average 75% and 10%, respectively), and that these estimated contributions did not change significantly between the studied low order (≤3) streams. Whereas some of these transformations take place in the channel proper, our results suggest that they mainly occur in the hyporheic zones of the streams. Our results further show that stream CH 4 emissions can be fully explained by soil CH 4 inputs. This study confirms that these boreal streams, and in particular their hyporheic zones, are extremely active processors of soil derived DOC and CH 4 , not just vents for soil produced CO 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Los ejes DOC una estrategia conceptual y metodológica en la construcción del Conocimiento Profesional del Profesor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Fonseca Amaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La didáctica de las ciencias como una disciplina en consolidación, se construye a través de diversas lineas de investigación, entre ellas El conocimiento Profesional del Profesor, que surge en razón de la necesidad de comprender cómo los profesores en formación y en ejercicio construyen un conocimiento singular de su profesión. Los Ejes DOC (Dinamizador, Obstáculo y Cuestionamiento, se constituyen en un dispositivo conceptual y metodológico de orden reflexivo sobre los aspectos que se articulan en la construcción del Conocimiento Profesional del Profesor. Acorde con ello, se presentan los resultados de un proceso de I-A, en donde un profesor en formación, comprende que la evaluación y la estrategia de enseñanza (investigación escolar, se constituyen en Ejes DOC que aportan en su proceso de formación como profesor de biología. Derivado del estudio de caso es posible evidenciar dos características de los Ejes DOC (Dinamizador, Obstáculo y Cuestionamiento la coexistencia temporal de los ejes sobre un conocimiento y la posibilidad de su transformación. Así, se considera que los Ejes DOC, son una propuesta conceptual que no sólo en la investigación en didáctica, sino también en los procesos formativos, realiza aportes tanto en la comprensión como en la transformación y enriquecimiento del conocimiento profesional.

  17. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years...

  18. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  19. Red de Repositorios IODE/COI/Unesco de acceso abierto en Ciencias Marinas en América Latina y el Caribe: OceanDocs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristiani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la organización, funciones y evolución de la red de repositorios de acceso abierto OceanDocs, particularmente la experiencia de instituciones vinculadas a las Ciencias Marinas en América Latina y el Caribe. En el marco de las Redes de Datos e Información Oceanográfica de la Comisión Oceanográfica Intergubernamental (COI de UNESCO, surgieron iniciativas de repositorios locales y regionales, que más tarde se consolidan y dan lugar a la red internacional de repositorios en Ciencias Marinas:  OceanDocs. En la actualidad esta red está integrada por repositorios institucionales, repositorios regionales y un repositorio central alojado por la COI. OceanDocs cuenta con políticas comunes definidas, un Grupo Directivo conformado por especialistas de distintas áreas que planifica y establece las directrices para la red, coordinadores nacionales y regionales, Unidades de Información a nivel institucional responsables de la carga de documentos, y una creciente comunidad de usuarios a nivel global.

  20. A formação pedagógica institucional para a docência na Educação Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Chueire Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de uma pesquisa sobre docência e formação pedagógica na universidade, visando contribuir para o processo de formação dos docentes que atuam na Educação Superior, colhendo subsídios para a elaboração de programas institucionais. A opção metodológica pautou-se na abordagem de cunho qualitativo, de caráter exploratório-descritivo. O questionário foi o instrumento para a coleta de dados junto aos docentes e estudantes de cursos de graduação. Os resultados indicam que a construção da docência superior e o ensino de boa qualidade precisam de investimentos institucionais pedagógicos, administrativos e materiais; a carreira docente universitária requer propostas e iniciativas institucionais que alterem dimensões do ensino e da aprendizagem e sua sustentação teórico-pedagógica; a qualidade do ensino deve superar o equívoco da unilateralidade da pesquisa como instrumentalização para a ação docente; as possibilidades e limites institucionais refletem escolhas da profissionalização e permitem mapeamento das bases epistemológicas da docência no campo da Educação Superior.

  1. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed

  2. Functional validation of putative toxin-antitoxin genes from the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: phd-doc is the fourth bona-fide operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Ting; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Sadowy, Ewa; Espinosa, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TAs) loci usually consist of two genes organized as an operon, where their products are bound together and inert under normal conditions. However, under stressful circumstances the antitoxin, which is more labile, will be degraded more rapidly, thereby unleashing its cognate toxin to act on the cell. This, in turn, causes cell stasis or cell death, depending on the type of TAs and/or time of toxin exposure. Previously based on in silico analyses, we proposed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, may harbor between 4 and 10 putative TA loci depending on the strains. Here we have chosen the pneumococcal strain Hungary(19A)-6 which contains all possible 10 TA loci. In addition to the three well-characterized operons, namely relBE2, yefM-yoeB, and pezAT, we show here the functionality of a fourth operon that encodes the pneumococcal equivalent of the phd-doc TA. Transcriptional fusions with gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein showed that the promoter was slightly repressed by the Phd antitoxin, and exhibited almost background values when both Phd-Doc were expressed together. These findings demonstrate that phd-doc shows the negative self-regulatory features typical for an authentic TA. Further, we also show that the previously proposed TAs XreA-Ant and Bro-XreB, although they exhibit a genetic organization resembling those of typical TAs, did not appear to confer a functional behavior corresponding to bona fide TAs. In addition, we have also discovered new interesting bioinformatics results for the known pneumococcal TAs RelBE2 and PezAT. A global analysis of the four identified toxins-antitoxins in the pneumococcal genomes (PezAT, RelBE2, YefM-YoeB, and Phd-Doc) showed that RelBE2 and Phd-Doc are the most conserved ones. Further, there was good correlation among TA types, clonal complexes and sequence types in the 48 pneumococcal strains analyzed.

  3. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  4. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Development of an Open Source Based Sensor Platform for an Advanced and Comprehensive in-situ DOC Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schima, Robert; Goblirsch, Tobias; Paschen, Mathias; Rinke, Karsten; Schelwat, Heinz; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    -situ sensor probe. Here, the miniaturized optical sensor probe allows the monitoring of even shallow water bodies with a depth of less than 5 cm. Compared to common techniques, the inexpensive sensor parts and robust emitting LEDs allow an improved widespread and comprehensive monitoring due to a higher amount of sensor devices. Furthermore, the system consists of a GPS module, a real-time clock and a GSM unit which allow space and time resolved measurements. On October 6th, 2015 an initial experiment was started at the Bode catchment in the Harz region (Germany). Here, the developed DOC and turbidity sensor probes were installed directly at the riverside next to existing sampling points of a large-scaled long-term observation project. The results show a good correspondence between our sensor development and the installed and established instruments. This represents a decisive and cost-effective contribution in the area of environmental research and the monitoring of vast catchment areas.

  6. Localization of aldosterone and corticosterone in the central nervous system, assessed by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, M.K.; Sar, M.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear localization of tritiated aldosterone in the CNS was studied in rats by numerical evaluation of silver grains, deposited over neuronal cell nuclei in thaw-mounted autoradiograms, and compared with the localization obtained after prior administration of a 100-fold excess of radioinert aldosterone, corticosterone or 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC). Corticosterone and 18-OH-DOC completely prevented nuclear localization in most regions examined. However, in contrast to pretreatment with aldosterone, pretreatment with corticosterone and 18-OH-DOC did not completely prevent the concentration of radioactivity in the cell nuclei of the indusium griseum. Traces of radioactivity were, furthermore, retained in areas CA1 and CA2 and the dentate gyrus in rats exposed to corticosterone, but not to 18-OH-DOC, prior to [ 3 H]aldosterone. A similar profile of silver grain distribution to that noted with aldosterone was found for corticosterone except that with tritiated corticosterone the most intense concentration of radioactivity occurred in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA2 and not in the indusium griseum. The authors conclude that (1) a receptor readily shared by aldosterone, corticosterone, 18-OH-DOC and DOC, but not by dihydrotestosterone, is widely distributed throughout the CNS, (2) a receptor shared by aldosterone and 18-OH-DOC, but not by corticosterone may be present in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA2, (3) that both these as well as the receptor accepting dihydrotestosterone can be located within the same cell

  7. Methods and successes of New York University workshops for science graduate students and post-docs in science writing for general audiences (readers and radio listeners)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and science administrators often stress the importance of communication to the general public, but rarely develop educational infrastructures to achieve this goal. Since 2009, the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University has offered a series of basic and advanced writing workshops for graduate students and post-docs in NYU's eight scientific divisions (neuroscience, psychology, physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, anthropology, and computer science). The basic methodology of the NYU approach will be described, along with successful examples of both written and radio work by students that have been either published or broadcast by general interest journalism outlets.

  8. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  9. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Plasma Free Metanephrines Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Plasma Metanephrines Formal Name Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  10. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  11. ECR plasma photographs as a plasma diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R; Biri, S; Palinkas, J [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2011-04-15

    Low, medium or highly charged ions delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources all are produced in the ECR plasma. In order to study such plasmas, high-resolution visible light plasma photographs were taken at the ATOMKI ECR ion source. An 8 megapixel digital camera was used to photograph plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The analysis of the photo series gave many qualitative and some valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. A comparison was made between the plasma photos and computer simulations, and conclusions were drawn regarding the cold electron component of the plasma. The warm electron component of similar simulation was compared with x-ray photos emitted by plasma ions. While the simulations are in good agreement with the photos, a significant difference was found between the spatial distribution of the cold and warm electrons.

  12. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  13. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  14. Anticipation and consumption of food each increase the concentration of neuroactive steroids in rat brain and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Floris, Ivan; Maciocco, Elisabetta; Serra, Mariangela; Biggio, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Stressful stimuli and anxiogenic drugs increase the plasma and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids. Moreover, in rats trained to consume their daily meal during a fixed period, the anticipation of food is associated with changes in the function of various neurotransmitter systems. We have now evaluated the effects of anticipation and consumption of food in such trained rats on the plasma and brain concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC), two potent endogenous positive modulators of type A receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The abundance of these neuroactive steroids was increased in both the cerebral cortex and plasma of the rats during both food anticipation and consumption. In contrast, the concentration of their precursor, progesterone, was increased in the brain only during food consumption, whereas it was increased in plasma only during food anticipation. Intraperitoneal administration of the selective agonist abecarnil (0.1 mg/kg) 40 min before food presentation prevented the increase in the brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC during food anticipation but not that associated with consumption. The change in emotional state associated with food anticipation may thus result in an increase in the plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC in a manner sensitive to the activation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A different mechanism, insensitive to activation of such transmission, may underlie the changes in the concentrations of these neuroactive steroids during food consumption.

  15. Quiescent plasma machine for plasma investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A large volume quiescent plasma device is being developed at INPE to study Langmuir waves and turbulence generated by electron beams (E b ≤ 500 e V) interacting with plasma. This new quiescent plasma machine was designed to allow the performance of several experiments specially those related with laboratory space plasma simulation experiments. Current-driven instabilities and related phenomena such as double-layers along magnetic field lines are some of the many experiments planned for this machine. (author)

  16. Plasma basic concepts and nitrogen containing plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lluch, M. del Mar; Tanarro, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Basic concepts related to plasmas are described as well as the typical characterization methods currently available. A brief overview about some plasma applications is given, but focusing on plasma used in material processing mainly devoted to the microelectronics industry. Finally, specific applications related to plasma-assisted MBE for nitrides and dilute nitrides are given, showing some interesting research works performed to that purpose, and giving the usual characterization techniques ...

  17. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  18. Plasma electron losses in a multidipole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of the plasma electron cusp losses in a multidipole plasma device is determined by using a plasma electron heating technique. This method consists of suddenly generating approximately monoenergetic test electrons inside the multidipole plasma, which is in a steady-state equilibrium prior to the introduction of the test electrons. The Coulomb collisions between the test electrons and the plasma electrons result in heating the plasma electrons. The experimentally measured time evolution of the plasma electron temperature is compared with that predicted by a kinetic-theory model which calculates the time evolution of the test electron and the plasma electron distribution functions. The analytical solution of the plasma electron heating rate when the test electrons are first introduced into the plasma predicts that there is no dependence on ion mass. Experimental results in helium, neon, argon, and krypton multidipole plasmas confirm this prediction. The time-evolved solution of the kinetic equations must be solved numerically, and these results (when coupled with the experimental heating results) show that the plasma electron cusp-loss width is on the order of an electron Larmor radius

  19. Physics of plasma etching and plasma deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Hoog, de F.J.; Bisschops, T.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Howorka, F.; Lindinger, W.; Maerk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the title processes are discussed on the basis of a model in which the plasma-surface system is subdivided into 5 regions: (I) plasma prodn., (II) plasma flow plus radicals, (III) gas adsorbed layer, (IV) modified surface, and (V) undisturbed solid (or liq.) state.

  20. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  1. Oscillatory processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The oscillatory process play an important part in plasma evolution, In hot plasma in particular, the interactions between the oscillation modes are preponderant in relation to the binary collisions between particles. The nonlineary interactions between collective plasma oscillations can generate, in this case, a non-balanced steady state of plasma (steady turbulence). The paper elucidates some aspects of the oscillatory phenomena which contribute to the plasma state evolution, especially of hot plasma. A major part of the paper is devoted to the study of parametric instabilities in plasma and their role in increasing the temperature of plasma components (electrons, ions). Both parametric instabilities in plasma in the vicinity of thermodynamic balance and parametric processes is steady turbulent plasma are analysed - in relation to additional heating of hot plasma. An important result of the thesis refers to the drowing-up of a non-lineary interaction model between the oscillation modes in turbulent plasma, being responsible for the electromagnetic radiation in hot plasma. On the basis of the model suggested in the paper the existence of a low frequency radiative mode in hot plasma in a turbulent state, can be demonstrated. Its frequency could be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves. Such a radiative mode was detected experimentally in focussed plasma installations. (author)

  2. Contribuições da pós-graduação stricto sensu para o aprendizado da docência de professores de contabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marchine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inserida no campo da Docência no Ensino Superior, esta investigação teve por objetivo compreender quais contribuições mestrados e doutorados forneceram para professores-contadores universitários em termos de aprendizado dos saberes necessários para o exercício profissional da docência. A revisão de literatura abordou questões relativas à formação e desenvolvimento profissional de professores do ensino superior, aos saberes docentes na perspectiva de Tardif (2012, à formação para pesquisa e para o ensino e ao papel da pós-graduação stricto sensu na formação do professor de contabilidade, resgatando resultados de pesquisas já realizadas no âmbito da contabilidade. Metodologicamente a investigação teve orientação qualitativa como estratégia geral. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 12 professores dos cursos de Ciências Contábeis de uma universidade pública estadual. As análises foram realizadas fundamentando-se na Análise Textual Discursiva, método que se situa entre a Análise de Conteúdo e a Análise do Discurso. Como principal resultado, apurou-se que a percepção que têm sobre contribuição da pós-graduação para seus processos formativos docentes está relacionada mais com aprendizagem e atualização de conteúdos disciplinares específicos do que com o aprendizado de outros saberes necessários ao exercício docente. Percepção essa que se alinha a resultados de estudos sobre cursos de stricto sensu e aprendizagem da docência. Sobre os demais saberes profissionais docentes, há ausência nos discursos dos investigados sobre terem tido algum contato formal com eles (em disciplinas ou estágios docentes no decurso da realização dos seus mestrados e doutorados.

  3. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  4. Communication through plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent

  5. Plasma Turbulence General Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-06-15

    It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.

  6. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  7. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  8. Experimental plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.; Banton, M.E.; Ingraham, J.C.; Wittman, F.; Wright, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Experimental Plasma Physics group's main efforts continue to be directed toward the understanding of the mechanisms of electromagnetic energy absorption in a plasma, and the resultant plasma heating and energy transport. The high-frequency spectrum of plasma waves parametrically excited by the microwave signal at high powers has been measured. The absorption of a small test microwave signal in a plasma made parametrically unstable by a separate high-power driver microwave signal was also studied

  9. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  10. Não sou tio, nem pai, sou professor! : a docência masculina na educação infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson Rigato da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo identificar como ocorrem as relações de gênero e poder nos espaços e tempos das pré-escolas públicas, quando há homens na docência. Tal estudo foi realizado com um professor na cidade de Piracicaba/SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013, e com um professor na cidade de Roma, Itália, em março de 2014, com crianças na faixa etária de 3 a 6 anos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, de inspiração etnográfica, que observou de perto as re...

  11. SMART DOCS: A New Patient-Centered Outcomes and Coordinated-Care Management Approach for the Future Practice of Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete A.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Miller, Ric; Griffin, Kara; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Hyde, Pamela R.; Cohen, Elyse; Manber, Rachel; Walsh, James K.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of medicine is currently undergoing a transformation to become more efficient, cost-effective, and patient centered in its delivery of care. The aim of this article is to stimulate discussion within the sleep medicine community in addressing these needs by our approach as well as other approaches to sleep medicine care. The primary goals of the Sustainable Methods, Algorithms, and Research Tools for Delivering Optimal Care Study (SMART DOCS) are: (1) to introduce a new Patient-Centered Outcomes and Coordinated-Care Management (PCCM) approach for the future practice of sleep medicine, and (2) to test the PCCM approach against a Conventional Diagnostic and Treatment Outpatient Medical Care (CONV) approach in a randomized, two-arm, single-center, long-term, comparative effectiveness trial. The PCCM approach is integrated into a novel outpatient care delivery model for patients with sleep disorders that includes the latest technology, allowing providers to obtain more accurate and rapid diagnoses and to make evidence-based treatment recommendations, while simultaneously enabling patients to have access to personalized medical information and reports regarding their diagnosis and treatment so that they can make more informed health care decisions. Additionally, the PCCM approach facilitates better communication between patients, referring primary care physicians, sleep specialists, and allied health professionals so that providers can better assist patients in achieving their preferred outcomes. A total of 1,506 patients 18 y or older will be randomized to either the PCCM or CONV approach and will be followed for at least 1 y with endpoints of improved health care performance, better health, and cost control. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02037438. Citation: Kushida CA, Nichols DA, Holmes TH, Miller R, Griffin K, Cardell CY, Hyde PR, Cohen E, Manber R, Walsh JK. SMART DOCS: a new patient-centered outcomes and coordinated

  12. DocênciaS na/com a contemporaneidade: experiências (transformadoras em meio à cultura digital e em rede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rocha Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2015v33n2p589 O presente artigo aborda as docênciaS na contemporaneidade, em meio à cultura digital e em rede. A multiplicidade, uma das marcas do mundo atual, convoca todos à distorção de olhares, maximização de percepções, escutas e odores, eclosão de paladares, para a vivência paradoxal, em dimensões atemporais e pluriespaciais. O diverso e o plural coexistem e, assim, são contraditórios, complexos e também instigantes. Para falar/pensar em processos formativos, docência e discência, neste contexto faz-se necessário plurificar. Dessa forma, justifica-se a expressão docênciaS, com destaque para a letra S, plural, múltipla. Para tratar de um tema tão vasto e complexo, são apresentados três pontos de “flexão”: 1 Oroboro: a persistência/insistência da docência apartada da discência; 2 a cultura digital e em rede: desdobrando ideias para a prática do desapego; 3 temas e dilemas atuantes como campo de possibilidades nas/com as docênciaS contemporâneas. Todos estes pontos são desenvolvidos/debatidos por meio das pesquisas que foram realizadas nos últimos anos, em articulação com as experiências de docências, agenciadas pelas investigações sobre as práticas pedagógicas cocriadas na cibercultura.   Teaching in/with the contemporaneity: (transforming experiences through the digital and networked culture  Abstract This article discusses the teaching(S (in the plural in contemporary times, in the midst of digital culture and networked. The multiplicity, one of the hallmarks of today's world, calls all of us to the distortion of looks, maximizing perceptions, listens and smells, in an explosion of flavors, to the paradoxical experience in timeless and multi spatial dimensions. The diverse and plural coexist in a contradictory, complex and intriguing way. To talk/think about training processes, teaching and learning, in this context, it is necessary to capture and

  13. O desenvolvimento de competências para a docência segundo a vivência de docentes de um curso de graduação em enfermagem.

    OpenAIRE

    Inahiá Pinhel

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo versa sobre o desenvolvimento de competências para a docência segundo a vivência de docentes de um curso de graduação em enfermagem. Busca conhecer quando e como docentes de um curso de graduação de Enfermagem desenvolvem competências para a docência; identificar os conhecimentos e as habilidades desenvolvidas pelos docentes na construção de competências para o ensino de Enfermagem e identificar como intervir nesse processo, por meio da reflexão sobre a profissão docente. Realizad...

  14. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  15. TFTR plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hojsak, W.; Marsala, R.J.; Mueller, D.; Rauch, W.; Tait, G.D.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor employs feedback control systems for four plasma parameters, i.e. for plasma current, for plasma major radius, for plasma vertical position, and for plasma density. The plasma current is controlled by adjusting the rate of change of current in the Ohmic Heating (OH) coil system. Plasma current is continuously sensed by a Rogowski coil and its associated electronics; the error between it and a preprogrammed reference plasma current history is operated upon by a ''proportional-plusintegral-plus-derivative'' (PID) control algorithm and combined with various feedforward terms, to generate compensating commands to the phase-controlled thyristor rectifiers which drive current through the OH coils. The plasma position is controlled by adjusting the currents in Equilibrium Field and Horizontal Field coil systems, which respectively determine the vertical and radial external magnetic fields producing J X B forces on the plasma current. The plasma major radius position and vertical position, sensed by ''B /sub theta/ '' and ''B /sub rho/ '' magnetic flux pickup coils with their associated electronics, are controlled toward preprogrammed reference histories by allowing PID and feedforward control algorithms to generate commands to the EF and HF coil power supplies. Plasma density is controlled by adjusting the amount of gas injected into the vacuum vessel. Time-varying gains are used to combine lineaveraged plasma density measurements from a microwave interferometer plasma diagnostic system with vacuum vessel pressure measurements from ion gauges, with various other measurements, and with preprogrammed reference histories, to determine commands to piezoelectric gas injection valves

  16. International conference on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report on the 6th International conference on plasma physics and on the 6th International Congress on plasma waves and plasma instabilities, which have taken place in summer 1984 in Losanne, is presented. Main items of the conference are enlightened, such as the general theory of a plasma, laboratory plasma, thermonuclear plasma, cosmic plasma and astrophysics

  17. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  18. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  19. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positron or electron–proton plasma in the context of early universe, stars and supernova ... proper. Of course, in their later work on kinetic theory (KT) [5] of neutrino plasma inter- .... for electron also with additional electric potential term.

  20. Plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)

  1. Physics of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenchik, A.; Witkowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of laser fusion plasma physics and contains the most up-to-date information on high density plasma physics and radiation transport, useful for astrophysicists and high density physicists

  2. Plasma heating in collisionless plasma at low plasma density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.O.

    1977-01-01

    The high frequency heating of a collisionless, fully ionized low density plasma is investigated in the range: 2ωc 2 2 under pumping frequencies. A pulsed 1 MHz transmitter excites a fast standing, magneto-acoustical wave in the plasma, via the high frequency magnetic field of a Stix solenoid. The available modulation degrees are between 0.7 and 7.0%. As power consumption measurements show, there appears at all investigated pumping frequencies an effective energy transfer to the plasma that cannot be explained with the classical MHD models. Measurements with electrostatic probes and further with a miniature counter-field spectrometer yield an electron and ion temperature gain of two to three factors and 15-18, compared to the corresponding values in the initial plasma. (orig./HT) [de

  3. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  4. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  5. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  6. Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1980-01-01

    A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)

  7. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  8. Plasma in wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tipa, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmas, due to their electrical and chemical properties, release in the invironment a unique cocktail of charged species, energetic photons and active radicals. Plasmas have a miriad of applications. To mention just a few, plasmas are being used in the semiconductors industry, atomic layer

  9. Plasma in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Two examples of plasma phenomena of importance to astrophysics are reviewed. These are examples where astrophysical understanding hinges on further progress in plasma physics understanding. The two examples are magnetic reconnection and the collisionless interaction between a population of energetic particles and a cooler gas or plasma, in particular the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  10. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and

  11. Some aspects of plasma thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgoraki, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The objective reasons which have inhibited the development of a plasma-thermodynamics theory are discussed and the authors formulate the fundamental principles which can be the basis of a common plasma-thermodynamics theory. Two kinds of thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas are discussed, an isothermal plasma and a nonisothermal plasma. An isothermal plasma is a high-temperature plasma; the Saha-Eggert equation describes its behavior. A nonisothermal plasma is a low-temperature plasma, and the reactions taking place therein are purely plasma-chemical. The ionization equilibrium and the composition of such a plasma can be found with the aid of the equations presented in this paper

  12. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  13. Computations in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Killeen, J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of computer application in plasma physics is presented. Computer contribution to the investigation of magnetic and inertial confinement of a plasma and charged particle beam propagation is described. Typical utilization of computer for simulation and control of laboratory and cosmic experiments with a plasma and for data accumulation in these experiments is considered. Basic computational methods applied in plasma physics are discussed. Future trends of computer utilization in plasma reseaches are considered in terms of an increasing role of microprocessors and high-speed data plotters and the necessity of more powerful computer application

  14. Model of detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.

    1986-07-01

    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model

  15. Mirror plasma apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma

  16. Contemporary plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Tewari, D.P.; Subbarao, D.

    1983-01-01

    The book consists of review articles on some selected contemporary aspects of plasma physics. The selected topics present a panoramic view of contemporary plasma physics and applications to fusion, space and MHD power generation. Basic non-linear plasma theory is also covered. The book is supposed to be useful for M.S./M.Sc. students specialising in plasma physics and for those beginning research work in plasma physics. It will also serve as a valuable reference book for more advanced research workers. (M.G.B.)

  17. ECR Plasma Photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The effects of the main external setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, microwave power, microwave frequency) were studied to the shape, color and structure of the plasma. The double frequency mode (9+14 GHz) was also realized and photos of this special 'star-in-star' shape plasma were recorded. A study was performed to analyze and understand the color of the ECR plasmas. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. To our best knowledge our work is the first systematic study of ECR plasmas in the visible light region. When looking in the plasma chamber of an ECRIS we can see an axial image of the plasma (figure 1) in conformity with experimental setup. Most of the quantitative information was obtained through the summarised values of the Analogue Digital Unit (ADU) of pixels. By decreasing the strength of the magnetic trap we clearly observed that the brightness of the central part of the plasma gradually decreases, i.e. the plasma becomes more and more 'empty'. Figure 2 shows a photo series of ECR plasma at decreasing axial magnetic field. The radial size of the plasma increased because of the ascendant resonant zone. By increasing the power of the injected microwave an optimum (or at least saturation) was found in the brightness of the plasma. We found correlation between the gas dosing rates and plasma intensities. When sweeping the frequency of the microwave in a wide region

  18. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  19. Introduction to plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author has begun writing a textbook entitled Introduction to Plasma Engineering, which is intended for upper division undergraduates or professionals who are entering the field. This paper features a detailed topical outline of all 20 chapters of the book. The text is organized so that the first five chapters cover plasma physics and basic principles; the next 13 chapters cover the most important engineering applications of plasmas, in order of increasing plasma energy/number density; and two final chapters cover plasma diagnostics and magnetic coil design

  20. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  1. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    , external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  2. Plasma engineering: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This review paper will present the authors perspective of the field of Plasma Engineering as it has evolved over the preceding five years. This embrionic discipline has grown in that period of time to the point where it is sufficiently mature to become part of the curriculum, and a speciality within, the discipline of Nuclear Engineering. Plasma Engineering can be distinguished from the underlying science of plasma physics in that in the pursuit of the latter, our goal is the understanding of the fundamental processes governing the behavior of plasmas while the former discipline seeks the embodiment of these concepts in useful devices. Consequent to this goal, the plasma engineer, of necessity, is concerned with the interfaces between a plasma configuration and the device by which it is produced and maintained. These interface problems, often referred to as kitchen physics are multidisciplinary in nature, and their solution requires careful attention to both plasma physics and machine engineering detail

  3. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  4. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  5. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  6. Determination of sulfadiazine in phosphate- and DOC-rich agricultural drainage water using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyou, P.A. Léon; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    % (relative standard deviation 15 %), while at 10 ng/L, it showed a lower recovery of 32 % (relative standard deviation 47 %). The final SPE LC-MS/MS method had a limit of detection (LOD)Method and a limit of quantification (LOQ)Method of 7.5 and 23 ng/L agricultural drainage water, respectively....... Determination of SDZ, spiked at a realistic concentration of 50 μg/L, in artificial drainage water (ADW) containing common and high levels of phosphate (0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg/L) gave recoveries between 70 and 92 % (relative standard deviation 7.4–12.9 %). Analysis of the same realistic concentration of SDZ in ADW...... obtained ranged from 104 to 109 % (relative standard deviation 2.8–5.2 %). The new methods enable determination of the veterinary antibiotic compound SDZ in agricultural drainage water from field experiments and monitoring schemes for phosphate- and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-rich water samples...

  7. As contribuições do Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência para a formação docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicy Calhau Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da formação docente para o ensino fundamental e tem por objetivo investigar as contribuições e desafios do Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID. Realizou-se a pesquisa à partir da metodologia de pesquisa qualitativa segundo a perspectiva fenomenológica, com enfoque na pesquisa-ação. Dentre os sujeitos pesquisados, os principais foram os bolsistas e egressos do PIBID de Pedagogia da UNEMAT- campus Universitário de Sinop-MT. Conclui-se que a formação dos acadêmicos/bolsistas, e a parceria entre universidade/escola, contribui com as práticas educativas idealizadas na escola pública, e com uma formação de mais qualidade para estes bolsistas. Palavras-chave: educação; formação docente; PIBID; práticas educativas; pesquisa-ação. 

  8. Regulation of Ca2+ channels by SNAP-25 via recruitment of syntaxin-1 from plasma membrane clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Bertelsen, Trine Lisberg; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona; Houy, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    expression recruits syntaxin-1 from clusters on the plasma membrane, thereby increasing the immunoavailability of syntaxin-1 and leading indirectly to Ca(2+) current inhibition. Expression of Munc18-1, which recruits syntaxin-1 within the exocytotic pathway, does not modulate Ca(2+) channels, whereas...... overexpression of the syntaxin-binding protein Doc2B or ubMunc13-2 increases syntaxin-1 immunoavailability and concomitantly down-regulates Ca(2+) currents. Similar findings were obtained upon chemical cholesterol depletion, leading directly to syntaxin-1 cluster dispersal and Ca(2+) current inhibition. We...

  9. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  10. Plasma sheath in non-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takuo; Horigome, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Reviewing many theoretical and experimental works on the electron-energy distributions (EEDF) of various plasmas, we point out that many plasmas have EEDF of non-Maxwellian in shape. Therefore, the recent treatment of plasma sheath using the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution approximation should be improved. To do this, we have adopted Rutcher's standard distribution as a generalized form in place of the traditional Maxwellian, and found that the minimum energy of ions entering the sheath edge (Bohm's criterion) varies largely, and have also shown the variation of Debye length with the shape of EEDF. The length is the most important parameter to proceed with more detailed analysis on plasma-sheaths, and also to control them in the future. (author)

  11. Particle modeling of plasmas computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, through the development of supercomputers, a powerful new method for exploring plasmas has emerged; it is computer modeling of plasmas. Such modeling can duplicate many of the complex processes that go on in a plasma and allow scientists to understand what the important processes are. It helps scientists gain an intuition about this complex state of matter. It allows scientists and engineers to explore new ideas on how to use plasma before building costly experiments; it allows them to determine if they are on the right track. It can duplicate the operation of devices and thus reduce the need to build complex and expensive devices for research and development. This is an exciting new endeavor that is in its infancy, but which can play an important role in the scientific and technological competitiveness of the US. There are a wide range of plasma models that are in use. There are particle models, fluid models, hybrid particle fluid models. These can come in many forms, such as explicit models, implicit models, reduced dimensional models, electrostatic models, magnetostatic models, electromagnetic models, and almost an endless variety of other models. Here the author will only discuss particle models. He will give a few examples of the use of such models; these will be taken from work done by the Plasma Modeling Group at UCLA because he is most familiar with work. However, it only gives a small view of the wide range of work being done around the US, or for that matter around the world

  12. Magnetospheric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)

  13. Particle beams and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Messerschmid, E.; Lawson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    These lectures present a survey of some of the concepts of plasma physics and look at some situations familiar to particle-accelerator physicists from the point of view of a plasma physicist, with the intention of helping to link together the two fields. At the outset, basic plasma concepts are presented, including definitions of a plasma, characteristic parameters, magnetic pressure and confinement. This is followed by a brief discussion on plasma kinetic theory, non-equilibrium plasma, and the temperature of moving plasmas. Examples deal with beams in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings as well as with non-steady beams in cyclic accelerators and microwave tubes. In the final chapters, time-varying systems are considered: waves in free space and the effect of cylinder bounds, wave motion in cold stationary plasmas, and waves in plasmas with well-defined streams. The treatment throughout is informal, with emphasis on the essential physical properties of continuous beams in accelerators and storage rings in relation to the corresponding problems in plasma physics and microwave tubes. (Author)

  14. How are digital methods changing research in the study of the classical world? An EpiDoc case study. – ¿Cómo los métodos digitales están cambiando la investigación del mundo clásico? El caso del EpiDoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Steiner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Classics as a discipline has always taken advantage of digital methods in research, with projects dating back to the 1970s and earlier. This article examines the integration of classics and computing, and presents a case study of EpiDoc, a markup language used in epigraphy. Positive evidence can be found for EpiDoc’s influence on collaboration, with several current collaborative projects, and the nature of the technology encouraging open, reusable scholarship. The Inscriptions of Aphrodisias project illustrates much of the potential of electronic publishing. EpiDoc’s effect on research questions themselves remains inconclusive, although definite possibilities for the future are apparent. Opening up these conclusions to the wider digital classics community shows a trend towards collaboration in recent publications and projects, as well as a gradual uptake of electronic publication.

  15. Dutch Translation and Psychometric Testing of the 9-Item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) and Shared Decision Making Questionnaire-Physician Version (SDM-Q-Doc) in Primary and Secondary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg-Vandenbussche, Sumayah; Pieterse, Arwen H; Kroonenberg, Pieter M; Scholl, Isabelle; van der Weijden, Trudy; Luyten, Gre P M; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; den Ouden, Henk; Carlier, Ingrid V E; van Vliet, Irene M; Zitman, Frans G; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    The SDM-Q-9 and SDM-Q-Doc measure patient and physician perception of the extent of shared decision making (SDM) during a physician-patient consultation. So far, no self-report instrument for SDM was available in Dutch, and validation of the scales in other languages has been limited. The aim of this study was to translate both scales into Dutch and assess their psychometric characteristics. Participants were patients and their treating physicians (general practitioners and medical specialists). Patients (N = 182) rated their consultation using the SDM-Q-9, 43 physicians rated their consultations using the SDM-Q-Doc (N = 201). Acceptability, reliability (internal consistency), and the factorial structure of the instruments were determined. For convergent validity the CPSpost was used. Reliabilities of both scales were high (alpha SDM-Q-9 0.88; SDM-Q-Doc 0.87). The SDM-Q-9 and SDM-Q-Doc total scores correlated as expected with the CPSpost (SDM-Q-9: r = 0.29; SDM-Q-Doc: r = 0.48) and were significantly different between the CPSpost categories, with lowest mean scores when the physician made the decision alone. Principal Component Analyses showed a two-component model for each scale. A confirmatory factor analysis yielded a mediocre, but acceptable, one-factor model, if Item 1 was excluded; for both scales the best indices of fit were obtained for a one-factor solution, if both Items 1 and 9 were excluded. The Dutch SDM-Q-9 and SDM-Q-Doc demonstrate good acceptance and reliability; they correlated as expected with the CPSpost and are suitable for use in Dutch primary and specialised care. Although the best model fit was found when excluding Items 1 and 9, we believe these items address important aspects of SDM. Therefore, also based on the coherence with theory and comparability with other studies, we suggest keeping all nine items of the scale. Further research on the SDM-concept in patients and physicians, in different clinical settings and different countries, is

  16. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to gain new insights into seasonal patterns of stream DOC concentrations in an alpine, headwater catchment underlain by discontinuous permafrost in Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian subarctic is experiencing rapid climate warming resulting in decreased depth and duration of snowcover, decreased permafrost extent and time span of seasonal frozen ground resulting in increased active layer depth, and increased frequency and magnitude of rainfall events during the growing season. These changes challenge our conceptual models of permafrost hydrology as comparisons between recent and historical streamflow records show an emerging secondary post-freshet peak in flow in recent years along with enhanced winter flows. Long-term monitoring of Granger Creek (7.6km2), an alpine watershed underlain by discontinuous permafrost located within Wolf Creek Research Basin (176km2) in Yukon Territory, Canada provided a multi-decadal record of hydro-meteorological measurements. Granger Creek experienced warmer and wetter summers in 2015-6 compared to 2001-8, and an altered streamflow pattern with an earlier spring freshet and peak in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC concentrations post-freshet remained low at both the headwater and meso-catchment scale, which contradicts trends of increasing DOC concentrations observed in larger river systems. Hysteresis loops of sub-hourly measurements of streamflow, salinity and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were analyzed to provide new insights into how hydrological connectivity at the headwater scale affected the timing of solute release with supporting information from optical indices calculated from fluorescence spectroscopy. These indices provided a more nuanced view of catchment dynamics than the DOC concentrations. The composition and quality of DOM varied throughout the growing season with the delivery of older, terrestrially-derived material corresponding to high DOC concentrations at the onset of spring freshet when the catchment was initially being flushed. The origin and quality of stream DOM shifted throughout the rest of the season to newer, more easily mobilized DOM

  17. JB_518_ESM.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jian Zeng and Shunv Cai. J. Biosci. 42(1), March 2017 © Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary material. Supplementary figure 1. Overexpression of miR-7 enhanced A549 cell apoptosis in response to BVP (100 µM). A TUNEL assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions (Promega Corporation, ...

  18. supp18a.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure S3:- Unit cell of the molecule III: methanol molecule appears at the edge of the unit cell. Figure shows the unit cell of molecule III in which methanol molecule appears in the edge of the unit cell and only one oxygen atom are visible in each two methanol molecule. Hydrogen atoms of the molecule III are omitted for ...

  19. supp11a.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok Dong, Suncheon 540-742, Chonnam, South Korea. bMaterials Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamilnadu, India. E-mail: ismoon@sunchon.ac.kr. Figure S1. FT-IR spectrum of compound 1.

  20. supp15a.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103, India. bDepartment of Biotechnology, Neotia Institute of Technology, Management and Science, Jhinga, Diamond ..... Table S6. UV–Vis and deconvoluted absorption peaks for complexes 1–4 in methanol.

  1. supp12a.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for. Application of quinoxaline based diimidazolium salt in palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Mujahuddin M. Siddiqui, Mohammed Waheed, Sajad A. Bhat and Maravanji S. Balakrishna*. Organophosphorus and Homogenous catalysis laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, ...

  2. supp10a.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary. Please wait while processing .... Interpreting this report.

  3. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  4. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  5. Nonideal plasmas - experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, K.; Hess, H.; Radtke, R.

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of nonideal, strongly coupled, or non-Debye plasmas is a new field of the well-known arc plasma physics. The increased pressure and density cause different behaviour of the dense plasma. The paper surveys the main differences between the nonideal and the usual arc plasmas. The electrical conductivity, continuum radiation absorption coefficient, shift and broadening of spectral lines, and plasma phase transition are discussed. The problems of generation and diagnostics of nonideal plasmas are also described. Finally, the importance of the topic is underlined: possible applications in astrophysics and in different fields of technology: light sources, MHD generators, circuit breakers, laser mirrors and shutters, high temperature gas-phase fission reactors, material treatment and laser fusion are mentioned. (D.Gy.)

  6. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  7. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  8. Space plasmas 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, N.E.; Hines, K.C.; Kowalenko, V.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of an ultra-degenerate relativistic plasma composed of electrons and positrons is considered. The relativistic Hartree self-consistent field method is used to investigate the dispersion relations and damping parameters of such a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. These properties must be studied in the various regimes appropriate for a relativistic plasma as detailed by Tsytovich and Jancovici

  9. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  10. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  11. Clinical characteristics of high plasma adiponectin and high plasma leptin as risk factors for arterial stiffness and related end-organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Katsuhiko; Ochi, Masayuki; Okada, Yoko; Yamashita, Taiji; Ohara, Maya; Kato, Takeaki; Nagai, Tokihisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya; Miki, Tetsuro

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between plasma levels of adiponectin and cardiovascular events is inconclusive. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of people with high plasma adiponectin and high plasma leptin levels. Thousand seven hundred participants recruited from visitors to the Anti-Aging Doc were divided into four groups by combining the bipartiles of plasma adiponectin and leptin levels in men and women separately: AL, high adiponectin and high leptin; Al, high adiponectin and low leptin; al, low adiponectin and low leptin; aL, low adiponectin and high leptin. Body composition, including visceral fat area and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), periventricular hyperintensity, and urinary albumin excretion, were determined. Twenty percent of the studied population fell within the AL group. This group had a significantly higher visceral fat area than the Al group. Thigh muscle CSA was lowest in the AL group among groups. baPWV, brain white matter lesions, and albuminuria findings in the AL group were significantly higher than those of the Al group. Multiple and logistic regression analyses with confounding parameters further confirmed that plasma adiponectin was not an independent determinant for brain and renal small vessel-related disease. These findings suggest that the plasma level of adiponectin alone is not enough for the risk stratification of cardiovascular disease. Leptin resistance associated with skeletal muscle loss in addition to obesity may need to be addressed to identify high risk people with high plasma adiponectin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  14. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990

  15. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  16. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  17. The plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The term 'Plasma Universe', coined by Hannes Alfven, emphasices the fact that plasma phenomena discovered in the laboratory and in accessible regions of space. must be important also in the rest of the universe, which consists almost entirely of matter in the plasma state. Relevant aspect of this concept will be discussed. They include the response of the plasma to electric currents, the support of magnetic-field aligned electric fields, violation of the frozen-field condition, rapid release of magnetically stored energy, acceleration of charged particles, chemical separation, and filamentary and cellular structures. (authors)

  18. Letramento na EJA: o que revelam os diários de campo das práticas de docência do Curso de Pedagogia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Chaves Haracemiv

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2014v32n1p63 Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar uma pesquisa das práticas de letramento observadas, diagnosticadas e registradas nos Diários de Campo pelos licenciandos do Curso de Pedagogia da Universidade Federal do Paraná das salas de aulas multisseriadas, Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA, nas escolas da rede municipal de Curitiba. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo com orientações de pesquisa-ação, no qual vem sendo investigada a relação entre a concepção teórica de letramento dos acadêmicos e a concepção prática vivida nas salas de aula de na disciplina de Prática de Docência dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Nesta pesquisa, os registros analisados indicam a necessidade de que os professores regentes de EJA e estagiários conheçam as práticas de letramento nas quais seus alunos se inserem, organizando a prática pedagógica interventiva, de forma que o letramento na EJA parta do letramento das relações sociais, com possibilidades de ampliação da participação e emancipação do jovem e adulto, pela compreensão das dimensões contextuais do mundo em que vive, sendo que o falar e o escrever sejam significativos para os sujeitos que as realizam.

  19. Alemão, estrangeiro ou teuto-brasileiro? Representações de docência teuto-brasileira-evangélica no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar E. Estermann Meyer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  O trabalho discute representações de docência teuto-brasileiro-evangélica que estiveram imbricadas na proposição e manutenção de um programa específico de formação de professores, no âmbito desse grupo cultural, no RS/Brasil, no período de 1909 a 1938. Fundamenta-se nos campos dos estudos feministas, dos estudos culturais e do pós­estruturalismo. As estratégias de articulação e de desconstrução nortearam o exame dos seguintes periódicos que circularam no período: jornal Deutsche Post, Almanaque Kalender für die Deutschen in Brasilien e jornal Allgemeine Lehrerzeitung für Rio Grande do Sul; isso permitiu entender parte do processo que buscou operacionalizar o funcionamento harmonioso dos dois pertencimentos mais mobilizados da identidade cultural desse grupo: a nacionalidade alemã e a cidadania brasileira.Palavras-chave: estudos culturais, representação, identidade docente.   Abstract This paper discusses representations of the german-brasilian-evangelical teaching involved in a specific program for teaching education, in this group, from 1909 to 1938. The discussion is based on women's studies, cultural studies and post-structuralism. I have used the strategies of articulation and desconstruction to analyse periodicals impressed in this period: the Deutsche Post journal, the Kalender für die Deutschen in Brasilien Almanac and the Allgemeine Lehrerzeitung für Rio Grande do Sul journal. This analysis has shown how the german nationality and the Brasilian citizenship - two of the most important and conflicting marks of this culture - were inscribed and mobilised in this cultural identity. Keywords: cultural studies, representation, teaching identity. 

  20. Daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP) using superselective intra-arterial infusion via superficial temporal artery for advanced oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsudo, Kenji; Fukui, Takafumi; Shigetomi, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy via superficial temporal artery (HFT method) is feasible for daily concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for oral cancer. The possibility of organ preservation in cases of advanced oral cancer was evaluated. Treatment consisted of superselective intra-arterial infusions (docetaxel (DOC) total 60 mg/m 2 , cisplatin (CDDP) total 100 mg/m 2 ) and concurrent radiotherapy (total 40 Gy) for four weeks. Patients with T3 and T4 oral cancer were treated with four-week daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the clinical response was evaluated after treatment. Clinical complete response (CR) of primary sites was obtained in 23 patients, and the same treatment was continued for one or two weeks. Local recurrence was observed in four patients (17.4%), all of whom all patients underwent salvage operation, and the final local control rate was 95.6% (22 of 23 cases). One patient died of neck metastasis, and one died of local recurrence. One-year and 3-year survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier's method to be 95.5% and 79.5%, respectively. In this treatment, it is important to identify the tumor's feeding artery and deliver a sufficient amount of anticancer drug to the tumor. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer has the advantage of delivering a high concentration of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor bed with fewer systemic toxic effects than seen with systemic chemotherapy. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy using the HFT method can preserve organs and minimize functional disturbance, thus contributing to patients' quality of life (QOL). (author)

  1. Os desafios da educação: a cibercultura na educação e a docência online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma Vilaça Paes Barreto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A disseminação e a popularização da Internet, juntamente com as novas tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TIC, provocam impactos na educação, contribuindo para a melhoria do ensino e/ou aprendizagem a distância e também com mudanças significativas para a educação presencial, que não aceita mais os modelos tradicionais. A qualidade e a eficácia de um curso a distância passam por questões múltiplas, mas é fundamental que o professor tenha conhecimento sobre o ambiente no qual são ministradas as aulas, bem como suas tecnologias de suporte. Porém, as tecnologias se alteram tão rapidamente que dificultam a inserção e o domínio dos professores nesse universo tecnológico. Evidencia-se a necessidade de se investir na valorização e na formação continuada dos professores e também, na atualização constante de sua prática pedagógica e na urgência de capacitar o professor para a docência online, pois no âmbito da cibercultura, a educação na modalidade a distância é cada vez mais online.

  2. SMART DOCS: a new patient-centered outcomes and coordinated-care management approach for the future practice of sleep medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete A; Nichols, Deborah A; Holmes, Tyson H; Miller, Ric; Griffin, Kara; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Hyde, Pamela R; Cohen, Elyse; Manber, Rachel; Walsh, James K

    2015-02-01

    The practice of medicine is currently undergoing a transformation to become more efficient, cost-effective, and patient centered in its delivery of care. The aim of this article is to stimulate discussion within the sleep medicine community in addressing these needs by our approach as well as other approaches to sleep medicine care. The primary goals of the Sustainable Methods, Algorithms, and Research Tools for Delivering Optimal Care Study (SMART DOCS) are: (1) to introduce a new Patient-Centered Outcomes and Coordinated-Care Management (PCCM) approach for the future practice of sleep medicine, and (2) to test the PCCM approach against a Conventional Diagnostic and Treatment Outpatient Medical Care (CONV) approach in a randomized, two-arm, single-center, long-term, comparative effectiveness trial. The PCCM approach is integrated into a novel outpatient care delivery model for patients with sleep disorders that includes the latest technology, allowing providers to obtain more accurate and rapid diagnoses and to make evidence-based treatment recommendations, while simultaneously enabling patients to have access to personalized medical information and reports regarding their diagnosis and treatment so that they can make more informed health care decisions. Additionally, the PCCM approach facilitates better communication between patients, referring primary care physicians, sleep specialists, and allied health professionals so that providers can better assist patients in achieving their preferred outcomes. A total of 1,506 patients 18 y or older will be randomized to either the PCCM or CONV approach and will be followed for at least 1 y with endpoints of improved health care performance, better health, and cost control. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02037438. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. The impact of pH on floc structure characteristic of polyferric chloride in a low DOC and high alkalinity surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Baichuan; Gao, Baoyu; Liu, Xin; Wang, Mengmeng; Yang, Zhonglian; Yue, Qinyan

    2011-11-15

    The adjustment of pH is an important way to enhance removal efficiency in coagulation units, and in this process, the floc size, strength and structure can be changed, influencing the subsequent solid/liquid separation effect. In this study, an inorganic polymer coagulant, polyferric chloride (PFC) was used in a low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and high alkalinity surface water treatment. The influence of coagulation pH on removal efficiency, floc growth, strength, re-growth capability and fractal dimension was examined. The optimum dosage was predetermined as 0.150 mmol/L, and excellent particle and organic matter removal appeared in the pH range of 5.50-5.75. The structure characteristics of flocs formed under four pH conditions were investigated through the analysis of floc size, effect of shear and particle scattering properties by a laser scattering instrument. The results indicated that flocs formed at neutral pH condition gave the largest floc size and the highest growth rate. During the coagulation period, the fractal dimension of floc aggregates increased in the first minutes and then decreased and larger flocs generally had smaller fractal dimensions. The floc strength, which was assessed by the relationship of floc diameter and velocity gradient, decreased with the increase of coagulation pH. Flocs formed at pH 4.00 had better recovery capability when exposed to lower shear forces, while flocs formed at neutral and alkaline conditions had better performance under higher shear forces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The plasma physics of plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, L.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma processing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. It has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both high-technology and the more traditional industries. Plasma processing takes on a wide variety of apparently different forms in industry, but the techniques share many common characteristics and problems. Control of the generation and flux of ions, electrons and free radicals in the plasma and their incidence on a surface is vital. Diagnostics, sensors, modeling techniques, and associated statistical methods are needed. However, without an in-depth understanding of the variety of phenomena taking place and their application to the industrial environment, advances in this technology, and its efficient use, will occur at a diminishing rate

  5. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  6. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up

  7. Geospace Plasma Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    perturbations. High-speed solar wind streams cause recurrent geomagnetic activity and ionospheric disturbances. In [5], we analyze the equatorial...over eight successive orbits (~12 hours). A clear pre- reversal enhancement of upward plasma drift occurred between 18:00 and 19:00 LT when plasma

  8. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  9. General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  10. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  11. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  12. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    A review. Plasma deposition and plasma conversion can be characterized by five steps: prodn. by ionization, transfer of chem. to precursors, transport of radicals to the surface, surface interactions with deposition, recirculation and generation of new monomers. For very fast deposition, large flows

  13. Plasma technology directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling

  14. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  15. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Polychromatic holographic plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiglinskij, A.G.; Morozov, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Review of holographic interferometry properties is performed and advantages of this method by plasma diagnostics are indicated. Main results obtained by the method of holographic interferometry in studies of various-type plasmas are considered. Special attention is paid to multiwave plasma diagnostics, the necessity of which is related as a rule to multicomponent composition of plasma. The eight laser and gas-discharge sources and holographic schemes, which make it possible to realize plasma polychromatic and holographic interferometry, are considered. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by examples of polychromatic holographic diagnostics of arc discharge and discharge in a hollow cathode. Review of theoretical works determining the applicability area of resonance polychromatic interferometry is carried out

  17. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)

  18. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  19. Solar system plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  20. Plasma-material interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-interactive components must be resistant to erosion processes, efficient in heat removal, and effective in minimizing tritium inventory and permeation. As long as plasma edge temperatures are 50 eV, no one material can satisfy the diverse requirements imposed by these plasma materials interactions. The only solution is the design of duplex, or even more complicated, structures. The material that faces the plasma should be low atomic number, with acceptable erosion and evaporation characteristics. The substrate material must have high thermal conductivity for heat removal. Finally, materials must be selected judiciously for tritium compatibility. In conclusion, materials play a critical role in the achievement of safe and economical magnetic fusion energy. Improvements in materials have already led to many advances in present day device operation, but additional innovative materials solutions are required for the critical plasma materials interaction issues in future power reactors

  1. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  2. Antimatter plasmas and antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, R.G.; Surko, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent successes in confining antimatter in the form of positron and antiproton plasmas have created new scientific and technological opportunities. Plasma techniques have been the cornerstone of experimental work in this area, and this is likely to be true for the foreseeable future. Work by a number of groups on trapping antimatter plasmas is summarized, and an overview of the promises and challenges in this field is presented. Topics relating to positron plasmas include the use of positrons to study the unique properties of electron endash positron plasmas, the interaction between positrons and ordinary matter, and the laboratory modeling of positron-annihilation processes in interstellar media. The availability of cold, trapped antiprotons and positrons makes possible the production of neutral antimatter in the form of antihydrogen. This is expected to enable precise comparisons of the properties of matter and antimatter, including tests of fundamental symmetries and the measurement of the interaction of antimatter with gravity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. A new large-scale plasma source with plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Hirokawa, K.; Suzuki, H.; Satake, T.

    1996-01-01

    A new large-scale plasma source (200 mm diameter) with a plasma cathode has been investigated. The plasma has a good spatial uniformity, operates at low electron temperature, and is highly ionized under relatively low gas pressure of about 10 -4 Torr. The plasma source consists of a plasma chamber and a plasma cathode generator. The plasma chamber has an anode which is 200 mm in diameter, 150 mm in length, is made of 304 stainless steel, and acts as a plasma expansion cup. A filament-cathode-like plasma ''plasma cathode'' is placed on the central axis of this source. To improve the plasma spatial uniformity in the plasma chamber, a disk-shaped, floating electrode is placed between the plasma chamber and the plasma cathode. The 200 mm diameter plasma is measure by using Langmuir probes. As a result, the discharge voltage is relatively low (30-120 V), the plasma space potential is almost equal to the discharge voltage and can be easily controlled, the electron temperature is several electron volts, the plasma density is about 10 10 cm -3 , and the plasma density is about 10% variance in over a 100 mm diameter. (Author)

  4. Plasma sheath criterion in thermal electronegative plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomi, Hamid; Khoramabadi, Mansour; Ghorannevis, Mahmod; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2010-01-01

    The sheath formation criterion in electronegative plasma is examined. By using a multifluid model, it is shown that in a collisional sheath there will be upper as well as lower limits for the sheath velocity criterion. However, the parameters of the negative ions only affect the lower limit.

  5. Comparison of prognostic and predictive impact of genomic or central grade and immunohistochemical subtypes or IHC4 in HR+/HER2- early breast cancer: WSG-AGO EC-Doc Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluz, O; Liedtke, C; Huober, J; Peyro-Saint-Paul, H; Kates, R E; Kreipe, H H; Hartmann, A; Pelz, E; Erber, R; Mohrmann, S; Möbus, V; Augustin, D; Hoffmann, G; Thomssen, C; Jänicke, F; Kiechle, M; Wallwiener, D; Kuhn, W; Nitz, U; Harbeck, N

    2016-06-01

    Potential prognostic and predictive markers in early, intermediate-risk breast cancer (BC) include histological grade, Ki-67, genomic signatures, e.g. genomic grade index (GGI), and intrinsic subtypes. Their prognostic/predictive impact in hormone receptor (HR: ER and/or PR) positive/HER2- BC is controversial. WSG-AGO EC-Doc demonstrated superior event-free survival (EFS) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph node receiving epirubicin/cyclophosphamide-docetaxel (EC-Doc) versus 5-fluoruracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC). In a representative trial subset, we quantify concordance among factors used for clinical chemotherapy indication. We investigate the impact of central histology (n = 772), immunohistochemistry for intrinsic subtyping and IHC4, and dichotomous (GG) or continuous (GGI) genomic grade (n = 472) on patient outcome and benefit from taxane chemotherapy, focusing on HR+/HER2- patients (n = 459). Concordance of local grade (LG) with central (CG) or genomic grade was modest. In HR+/HER2- patients, low (GG-1: 16%), equivocal (GG-EQ: 17%), and high (GG-3: 67%) GG were associated with respective 5-year EFS of 100%, 93%, and 85%. GGI was prognostic for EFS within all LG subgroups and within CG3, whereas IHC4 was prognostic only in CG3 tumors.In unselected and HR+/HER2- patients, CG3 and luminal-A-like subtype entered the multivariate EFS model, but not IHC4 or GG. In the whole population, continuous GGI entered the model [hazard ratio (H.R.) of 75th versus 25th = 2.79; P = 0.01], displacing luminal-A-like subtype; within HR+/HER2- (H.R. = 5.36; P Doc versus FEC in unselected but not in HR+/HER2- patients. In the WSG-AGO EC-Doc trial for intermediate-risk BC, CG, intrinsic subtype (by IHC), and GG provide prognostic information. Continuous GGI (but not IHC4) adds prognostic information even when IHC subtype and CG are available. Finally, the high interobserver variability for histological grade and the still missing validation of Ki-67 preclude indicating or

  6. Final analysis of the prospective WSG-AGO EC-Doc versus FEC phase III trial in intermediate-risk (pN1) early breast cancer: efficacy and predictive value of Ki67 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitz, U; Gluz, O; Huober, J; Kreipe, H H; Kates, R E; Hartmann, A; Erber, R; Moustafa, Z; Scholz, M; Lisboa, B; Mohrmann, S; Möbus, V; Augustin, D; Hoffmann, G; Weiss, E; Böhmer, S; Kreienberg, R; Du Bois, A; Sattler, D; Thomssen, C; Kiechle, M; Jänicke, F; Wallwiener, D; Harbeck, N; Kuhn, W

    2014-08-01

    Taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard in node-positive (N+) early breast cancer (BC). The magnitude of benefit in intermediate-risk N+ early BC is still unclear. WSG-AGO epiribicine and cyclophosphamide (EC)-Doc is a large trial evaluating modern taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) only. A total of 2011 BC patients (18-65 years, pN1) were entered into a randomized phase III trial comparing 4 × E90C600 q3w followed by 4 × docetaxel 100 q3w (n = 1008) with the current standard: 6 × F500E100C500 q3w (n = 828) or C600M40F600 d1, 8× q4w (n = 175). Primary end point was event-free survival (EFS); secondary end points were overall survival (OS), toxicity, translational research, and quality of life. Central tumor bank samples were evaluable in a representative collective (n = 772; 40%). Ki-67 was assessed centrally in hormone receptor-positive disease as a surrogate marker for the distinction of luminal A/B-like tumors. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study arms in both main study and central tumor bank subset. At 59-month median follow-up, superior efficacy of EC-Doc [versus FEC (a combination of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide)] was seen in EFS and OS: 5-year EFS: 89.8% versus 87.3% (P = 0.038); 5-year OS: 94.5% versus 92.8% (P = 0.034); both tests one-tailed. EC-Doc caused more toxicity. In hormone receptor-positive (HR)+ disease, only high-Ki-67 tumors (≥ 20%) derived significant benefit from taxane-based therapy: hazard ratio = 0.39 (95% CI 0.18-0.82) for EC-Doc versus FEC (test for interaction; P = 0.01). EC-Doc significantly improved EFS and OS versus FEC in intermediate-risk BC (1-3 LNs) within all subgroups as defined by local pathology. In HR+ disease, patients with luminal A-like tumors may be potentially over-treated by taxane-based chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02115204. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for

  7. Proceedings of the thirty second national symposium on plasma science and technology: plasma for societal benefits: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, Sandhya; Shravan Kumar, S.; Vijayakumaran; Singh, Raj; Awasthi, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    This symposium covers topics on: basic plasma, computer modelling for plasma, exotic plasma, industrial plasma, laser plasma theory, nuclear fusion, plasma diagnostics, laser plasma, plasma processing, pulsed power, space and astrophysical plasma. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  9. Estágio de docência: a arte como intercessora na experimentação de outras maneiras de pensar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Crizel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This text reports the experience of teacher training in higher education carried out by the Master’s Program in Teaching of the Department of Pedagogy at Univates, Brazil, along the first semester of 2014. The authors consider art as an important intercessor to think about curriculum and discourses in education and teaching. The art that has been blended with the contents studied in disciplines such as Curriculum Studies and Differences and Multiplicities is the art experienced by Nietzsche, art that is immanent to life and committed neither to beauty nor to ugliness, neither to methods nor to techniques. An art that favors sensitive encounters and potentializes life. In the first section, we present the focus of this paper, i.e. two trainings that have Pedagogy as a course, and art as an intercessor. The understanding of art by authors from the field of Philosophy of Difference is developed in the second section. The third section of this paper is divided into two parts, and presents experimentations performed in each one of the curriculum trainings. Este texto relata a experiência do estágio de docência no Ensino Superior do Mestrado em Ensino do Centro Universitário UNIVATES, Brasil, que ocorreu no primeiro semestre de 2014 no curso de Pedagogia da instituição. As autoras aproximam-se da arte como importante intercessora, provocando movimentos para pensar o currículo e os discursos em educação e ensino. A arte que se misturou aos conteúdos de estudo das disciplinas Estudos do Currículo e Diferenças e Multiplicidades é aquela vivida por Nietzsche, uma arte imanente à vida, que não possui compromissos com o belo e o feio, com métodos e técnicas; uma arte que promove encontros sensíveis e potencializa a vida. Na primeira seção, apresenta-se a matéria que movimenta este artigo: dois estágios que possuem em comum um curso – o de Pedagogia – e um intercessor – a arte. A compreensão de arte operada pelos autores que

  10. DOC-2/DAB2 Interacting Protein Status in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Correlates With Outcome for Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Corbin; Tumati, Vasu; Kapur, Payal; Yan, Jingsheng; Hong, David; Bhuiyan, Manzerul; Xie, Xian-Jin; Pistenmaa, David; Yu, Lan; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Saha, Debabrata; Kim, D. W. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigates the role of DOC-2/DAB2 Interacting Protein (DAB2IP) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as prognostic biomarkers in high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry was performed and scored by an expert genitourinary pathologist. Clinical endpoints evaluated were freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), castration resistance–free survival (CRFS), and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS). Log-rank test and Cox regression were used to determine significance of biomarker levels with clinical outcome. Results: Fifty-four patients with high-risk prostate cancer (stage ≥T3a, or Gleason score ≥8, or prostate-specific antigen level ≥20 ng/mL) treated with radiation therapy from 2005 to 2012 at our institution were evaluated. Nearly all patients expressed EZH2 (98%), whereas 28% of patients revealed DAB2IP reduction and 72% retained DAB2IP. Median follow-up was 34.0 months for DAB2IP-reduced patients, 29.9 months for DAB2IP-retained patients, and 32.6 months in the EZH2 study. Reduction in DAB2IP portended worse outcome compared with DAB2IP-retained patients, including FFBF (4-year: 37% vs 89%, P=.04), CRFS (4-year: 50% vs 90%, P=.02), and DMFS (4-year: 36% vs 97%, P=.05). Stratified EZH2 expression trended toward significance for worse FFBF and CRFS (P=.07). Patients with reduced DAB2IP or highest-intensity EZH2 expression exhibited worse FFBF (4-year: 32% vs 95%, P=.02), CRFS (4-year: 28% vs 100%, P<.01), and DMFS (4-year: 39% vs 100%, P=.04) compared with the control group. Conclusion: Loss of DAB2IP is a potent biomarker that portends worse outcome despite definitive radiation therapy for patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 is expressed in most high-risk tumors and is a less potent discriminator of outcome in this study. The DAB2IP status in combination with degree of EZH2 expression may be useful for

  11. DOC-2/DAB2 Interacting Protein Status in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Correlates With Outcome for Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Corbin; Tumati, Vasu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kapur, Payal [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Yan, Jingsheng [Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Hong, David; Bhuiyan, Manzerul [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Xie, Xian-Jin [Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pistenmaa, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simmons Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Yu, Lan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Hsieh, Jer-Tsong [Simmons Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Saha, Debabrata [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simmons Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kim, D. W. Nathan, E-mail: Nathan.Kim@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simmons Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: This pilot study investigates the role of DOC-2/DAB2 Interacting Protein (DAB2IP) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as prognostic biomarkers in high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry was performed and scored by an expert genitourinary pathologist. Clinical endpoints evaluated were freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), castration resistance–free survival (CRFS), and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS). Log-rank test and Cox regression were used to determine significance of biomarker levels with clinical outcome. Results: Fifty-four patients with high-risk prostate cancer (stage ≥T3a, or Gleason score ≥8, or prostate-specific antigen level ≥20 ng/mL) treated with radiation therapy from 2005 to 2012 at our institution were evaluated. Nearly all patients expressed EZH2 (98%), whereas 28% of patients revealed DAB2IP reduction and 72% retained DAB2IP. Median follow-up was 34.0 months for DAB2IP-reduced patients, 29.9 months for DAB2IP-retained patients, and 32.6 months in the EZH2 study. Reduction in DAB2IP portended worse outcome compared with DAB2IP-retained patients, including FFBF (4-year: 37% vs 89%, P=.04), CRFS (4-year: 50% vs 90%, P=.02), and DMFS (4-year: 36% vs 97%, P=.05). Stratified EZH2 expression trended toward significance for worse FFBF and CRFS (P=.07). Patients with reduced DAB2IP or highest-intensity EZH2 expression exhibited worse FFBF (4-year: 32% vs 95%, P=.02), CRFS (4-year: 28% vs 100%, P<.01), and DMFS (4-year: 39% vs 100%, P=.04) compared with the control group. Conclusion: Loss of DAB2IP is a potent biomarker that portends worse outcome despite definitive radiation therapy for patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 is expressed in most high-risk tumors and is a less potent discriminator of outcome in this study. The DAB2IP status in combination with degree of EZH2 expression may be useful for

  12. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.

  13. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions

  14. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  15. Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovsky, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)

  16. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  17. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) is a standing committee under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council. Plasma sciences represent a broad and diverse field. The PLSC has accepted the responsibility of monitoring the continuing development and assessing the general health of the field as whole. Although select advisory bodies have been created to address specific issues that affect plasma science, such as the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC), the PLSC provides a focus for the plasma science community that is unique and essential. The membership of the PLSC is drawn from research laboratories in universities, industry, and government. Areas of expertise on the committee include accelerators and beams, space physics, astrophysics, computational physics and applied mathematics, fusion plasmas, fundamental experiments and theory, radiation sources, low temperature plasmas, and plasma-surface interactions. The PLSC is well prepared to respond to requests for studies on specific issues. This report discusses ion of the PLSC work

  18. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  19. The expanding plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, M.C.M. van den.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis concerns the fundamental aspects of an argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. This type of plasma is not only used for fundamental research but also for technologically orientated research on plasma deposition and plasma sources. The important characteristics of the plasma are a strong supersonic expansion in which the neutral particle and ion densities decrease three orders of magnitude, followed by a stationary shock front. After the shock front the plasma expands further subsonically. A part of this thesis is devoted to the discussion of a newly constructed combined Thomson-Rayleigh scattering set up. With this set up the electron density, the electron temperature and the neutral particle density are measured locally in the plasma for different conditions. In the analysis of the measured spectra weak coherent effects and the measured apparatus profile are included. The inaccuracies are small, ranging from 1 to 4 percent for the electron density and 2 to 6 percent for the electron temperature, depending on the plasma conditions. The inaccuracy of the neutral particle density determination is larger and ranges from 10 to 50 percent. The detection limits for the electron and neutral particle density are 7.10 17 m -3 and 1.10 20 m -3 respectively. A side path in this thesis is the derivation of the Saha equation for a two-temperature plasma. The reason for this derivation was the dispute in the literature about the correct form of this equation. In this thesis it is shown, from the correct extension of the second law of thermodynamics and from the non-equilibrium formalism of Zubarev, That in the limit of m e /m h ->0 the generalized Saha equation depends on the electron temperature only. (author). 221 refs.; 54 figs.; 13 tabs

  20. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.