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Sample records for plaques enhance plaque

  1. Evaluation of the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced MR angiography

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    Li Tao [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Xihai [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Liu Xin [Paul C. Lauterbur Biomedical Imaging Center, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Gao Jianhua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Shaohong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Li Xin; Zhou Weihua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Cai Zulong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhang Weiguo [Cardiovascular and Neurological Consulting Institute, 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039 (United States); Yang Li, E-mail: Yangli301@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and investigate the association between unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and early enhancement of the plaque. Methods: Forty-one patients presenting with angina pectoris and demonstrating single-vessel disease with non-calcified plaque and significant coronary stenosis ({>=}50%) on CTA were consecutively recruited for coronary CE-MRA. Contrast-to-noise ratio of the culprit plaque guided by CTA was measured on a cross-sectional multi-planar reconstruction image of the plaque on both pre- and post-CE-MRA. A 50% increasing of CNR was defined as plaque enhancement. The association between early enhancement of the plaques and UAP was analyzed. Results: Thirty-seven non-calcified plaques with significant coronary stenosis were detected in the 37 patients on MRA. 4 subjects were excluded because coronary atherosclerotic plaques were inadequate for identification on MRA. Of the 37 patients, 18 patients had UAP and other 19 patients presented stable angina pectoris (SAP). Of the 37 plaques on CE-MRA, 13 and 24 plaques presented early enhancement and no enhancement, respectively. Of the 13 early-enhanced plaques, 11 (85%) and 2 (15%) were found in the patients with UAP and SAP, respectively (p < 0.01). Of the 37 patients, 11 (61%) with UAP and 2 (11%) with SAP had early-enhanced plaques, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: CE-MRA allows detection of early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The early enhancement is common in unstable angina and could be a sign of vulnerability.

  2. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Zhou; Song; Yan-Ming; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasoundcontrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS.

  3. T cells specifically targeted to amyloid plaques enhance plaque clearance in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Yair Fisher

    Full Text Available Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD exhibit substantial accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta plaques in the brain. Here, we examine whether Abeta vaccination can facilitate the migration of T lymphocytes to specifically target Abeta plaques and consequently enhance their removal. Using a new mouse model of AD, we show that immunization with Abeta, but not with the encephalitogenic proteolipid protein (PLP, results in the accumulation of T cells at Abeta plaques in the brain. Although both Abeta-reactive and PLP-reactive T cells have a similar phenotype of Th1 cells secreting primarily IFN-gamma, the encephalitogenic T cells penetrated the spinal cord and caused experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, whereas Abeta T cells accumulated primarily at Abeta plaques in the brain but not the spinal cord and induced almost complete clearance of Abeta. Furthermore, while a single vaccination with Abeta resulted in upregulation of the phagocytic markers triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2 and signal regulatory protein-beta1 (SIRPbeta1 in the brain, it caused downregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. We thus suggest that Abeta deposits in the hippocampus area prioritize the targeting of Abeta-reactive but not PLP-reactive T cells upon vaccination. The stimulation of Abeta-reactive T cells at sites of Abeta plaques resulted in IFN-gamma-induced chemotaxis of leukocytes and therapeutic clearance of Abeta.

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phage plaque size enhancement using sublethal concentrations of antibiotics.

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    Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    Phage therapy presents an alternative approach against the emerging methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) threat. Some of the problems encountered during isolation of MRSA phages include the high prevalence of enteric phages in natural sources, nonspecific absorption of viable phage, and the formation of pinpoint or tiny plaques. The phage isolated in this study, MR-5, also formed tiny plaques against its host S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), making its detection and enumeration difficult. An improved method of increasing the plaque size of MRSA phage by incorporating sublethal concentrations of three different classes of antibiotics (inhibitors of protein synthesis) in the classical double-layer agar (DLA) method was investigated. The β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics commonly employed in earlier studies for increasing the plaque size did not show any significant effect on the plaque size of isolated MR-5 phage. Linezolid (oxazolidinone class), tetracycline, and ketolide antibiotics brought significant enhancements (3 times the original size) in the plaque size of MR-5 phage. Prior treatment with these antibiotics resulted in significant reductions in the time of adsorption and the latent period of MR-5 phage. To rule out whether the action of linezolid (which brought the maximum increase in plaque size) was specific for a single phage only, its effect on the plaque size of seven other S. aureus-specific phages was also assessed. Significant enhancements in the plaque size of these phages were observed. These results indicate that this modification can therefore safely be incorporated in the traditional DLA overlay method to search for new MRSA-virulent phages.

  5. Vulnerable Plaque Detection and Quantification with Gold Particle–Enhanced Computed Tomography in Atherosclerotic Mouse Models

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    David De Wilde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/− mouse model with a mutation (C1039G+/− in the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1 gene (ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mouse model was developed showing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, prone to rupture, in contrast to the ApoE−/− mouse model, where mainly stable plaques are present. One indicator of plaque vulnerability is the level of macrophage infiltration. Therefore, this study aimed to measure and quantify in vivo the macrophage infiltration related to plaque development and progression. For this purpose, 5-weekly consecutive gold nanoparticle–enhanced micro–computed tomography (microCT scans were acquired. Histology confirmed that the presence of contrast agent coincided with the presence of macrophages. Based on the microCT scans, regions of the artery wall with contrast agent present were calculated and visualized in three dimensions. From this information, the contrast-enhanced area and contrast-enhanced centerline length were calculated for the branches of the carotid bifurcation (common, external, and internal carotid arteries. Statistical analysis showed a more rapid development and a larger extent of plaques in the ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− compared to the ApoE−/− mice. Regional differences between the branches were also observable and quantifiable. We developed and applied a methodology based on gold particle–enhanced microCT to visualize the presence of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.

  6. Enhancement patterns in the fibro cellular tissue in different kinds of plaques of the internal carotid artery

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    Rantner, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.rantner@i-med.ac.at [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Sojer, Martin, E-mail: martin.sojer@uki.at [Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Cartes-Zumelzu, Fabiola, E-mail: fabiola.cartes-zumelzu@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Fraedrich, Gustav, E-mail: gustav.fraedrich@i-med.ac.at [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: Werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Chemelli-Steingruber, Iris, E-mail: iris.chemelli.steingruber@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Background: The differentiation between stable and vulnerable plaques in the internal carotid artery (ICA) remains a matter of interest. With the implementation of contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a more detailed plaque characterization is possible. The study at hand focuses on enhancement patterns of fibro cellular tissue in different kinds of plaques in the ICA. Methods: Between May 2011 and December 2012, 49 patients (39 male) with >50% stenosis of the ICA were consecutively enrolled. In 10 patients with bilateral ICA stenosis, both plaques were included for analysis. We performed a classification of plaques according to Cai and observed 11 type 4–5 plaques, 15 type 6 plaques and 33 type 8 plaques. MRI was performed on a 3 T whole body MR system. The standard 12 channel head coil was combined with the neck extension coil and two bilateral 7 cm loop coils. Post-contrast T1w images were subtracted from pre contrast images to identify late enhancement in fibro cellular tissue. Enhancement patterns were allocated as intraluminal, intraplaque and vasa vasorum enhancement in different types of plaques. Results: Fibro cellular tissue always exhibited a higher contrast enhancement compared to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. This reflects a higher grade of vascularization of the fibrocellular tissue. Contrast enhancement was present irrespective of the plaque type. In detail, intraluminal, intraplaque and vasa vasorum enhancement were observed in all types of plaques. Even type 8 plaques, according to the classification of Cai, had a significant contrast enhancement, though supposed to be with low inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Type 8 plaques might not be as stable as postulated. Whether the relevant uptake of contrast agent is due to the fibrous tissue or reflects the inflammatory activity of the plaque should be matter of further investigations.

  7. Dental plaque identification at home

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003426.htm Dental plaque identification at home To use the sharing ... that collects around and between teeth. The home dental plaque identification test shows where plaque builds up. ...

  8. Corneal mucus plaques.

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    Fraunfelder, F T; Wright, P; Tripathi, R C

    1977-02-01

    Corneal mucus plaques adhered to the anterior corneal surface in 17 of 67 advanced cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The plaques were translucent to opaque and varied in size and shape, from multiple isolated islands to bizarre patterns involving more than half the corneal surface. Ultrastructurally, they consisted of mucus mixed with desquamated degenerating epithelial cells and proteinaceous and lipoidal material. The condition may be symptomatic but can be controlled and prevented in most cases by topical ocular application of 10% acetylcysteine.

  9. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

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    Eugenio Picano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque, iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque, and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque. Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging

  10. Detection of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Experimental Atherosclerosis with the USPIO-Enhanced MRI.

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    Qi, Chun-Mei; Du, Lili; Wu, Wei-Heng; Li, Dong-Ye; Hao, Ji; Gong, Lei; Deng, Liangrong; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-11-01

    This study's goal was to assess the diagnostic value of the USPIO-(ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in abdominal aorta in experimental atherosclerosis. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. Each group comprised 15 animals which were fed with high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks and then subjected to balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. After another 8 weeks, animals in Group B received adenovirus carrying p53 gene that was injected through a catheter into the aortic segments rich in plaques. Two weeks later, all rabbits were challenged with the injection of Chinese Russell's viper venom and histamine. Pre-contrast images and USPIO-enhanced MRI images were obtained after pharmacological triggering with injection of USPIO for 5 days. Blood specimens were taken for biochemical and serological tests at 0 and 18 weeks. Abdominal aorta was histologically studied. The levels of serum ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were quantified by ELISA. Vulnerable plaques appeared as a local hypo-intense signal on the USPIO-enhanced MRI, especially on T2*-weighted sequences. The signal strength of plaques reached the peak at 96 h. Lipid levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in both Group A and B compared with the levels before the high cholesterol diet. The ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group B compared with Group A. The USPIO-enhanced MRI efficiently identifies vulnerable plaques due to accumulation of USPIO within macrophages in abdominal aorta plaques.

  11. Plaque Type Blue Naevus

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    Sentamilselvi G

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of plaque type blue naevus was encountered in a Dermatology Clinic in Madras. The various clinical differential diagnoses are discussed, the hitopathological features described and the benign nature of the tumour stressed. The case is reported for its rarity and to create an awareness of this entity.

  12. Cystatin C is Associated With Plaque Phenotype and Plaque Burden

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    Yufeng Wen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The relationship between carotid artery plaque burden, phenotype and serum cystatin C at normal and impaired renal function is still unclear. Methods: Demographic characteristics, carotid ultrasonography and other relevant information of 1,477 patients were collected. The association of carotid artery plaque burden, plaque phenotype with serum cystatin C was evaluated by strategy analysis based on renal function. Results: Serum cystatin C (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.83-2.29, POR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.43-1.78, POR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.10-1.32, P Conclusion: In normal renal function, serum cystatin C may confer stability of plaques. In mildly impaired renal function, serum cystatin C is a risk predictor of plaques. In normal renal function circumstances, serum cystatin C may benefit to the stability of plaques. In mild impaired renal function circumstances, serum cystatin C are a risk predictors of plaques.

  13. La pelade par plaques

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    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  14. Identifying Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque in Rabbits Using DMSA-USPIO Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate the Effect of Atorvastatin.

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    Chunmei Qi

    Full Text Available Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the primary cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular syndromes. Early and non-invasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VP would be significant in preventing some aspects of these syndromes. As a new contrast agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA modified ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO was synthesized and used to identify VP and rupture plaque by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Atherosclerosis was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet (n = 30. Group A with atherosclerosis plaque (n = 10 were controls. VP was established in groups B (n = 10 and C (n = 10 using balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. Adenovirus-carrying p53 genes were injected into the aortic segments rich in plaques after 8 weeks. Group C was treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. Sixteen weeks later, all rabbits underwent pharmacological triggering, and imaging were taken daily for 5 d after DMSA-USPIO infusion. At the first day and before being killed, serum MMP-9, sCD40L, and other lipid indicators were measured.DMSA-USPIO particles accumulated in VP and rupture plaques. Rupture plaques appeared as areas of hyper-intensity on DMSA-USPIO enhanced MRI, especially T2*-weighted sequences, with a signal strength peaking at 96 h. The group given atorvastatin showed few DMSA-USPIO particles and had lower levels of serum indicators. MMP-9 and sCD40L levels in group B were significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P <0.05.After successfully establishing a VP model in rabbits, DMSA-USPIO was used to enhance MRI for clear identification of plaque inflammation and rupture. Rupture plaques were detectable in this way probably due to an activating inflammatory process. Atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response and stabilizing VP possibly by decreasing MMP-9 and sCD40L levels.

  15. Computed tomography of amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimers disease using diffraction enhanced imaging

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    Connor, D.M.; Miller, L.; Benveniste, H.; Dilmanian, A.; Kritzer, M.; Zhong, Z.

    2009-03-19

    Our understanding of early development in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is clouded by the scale at which the disease progresses; amyloid beta (A{beta}) plaques, a hallmark feature of AD, are small ({approx} 50 {micro}m) and low contrast in diagnostic clinical imaging techniques. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), a phase contrast x-ray imaging technique, has greater soft tissue contrast than conventional radiography and generates higher resolution images than magnetic resonance microimaging. Thus, in this proof of principle study, DEI in micro-CT mode was performed on the brains of AD-model mice to determine if DEI can visualize A{beta} plaques. Results revealed small nodules in the cortex and hippocampus of the brain. Histology confirmed that the features seen in the DEI images of the brain were A{beta} plaques. Several anatomical structures, including hippocampal subregions and white matter tracks, were also observed. Thus, DEI has strong promise in early diagnosis of AD, as well as general studies of the mouse brain.

  16. A study of plaque vascularization and inflammation using quantitative contrast-enhanced US and PET/CT

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    Hjelmgren, Ola, E-mail: ola.hjelmgren@wlab.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Lars, E-mail: lars.johansson@radiol.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Prahl, Ulrica, E-mail: ulrica-prahl-gullberg@wlab.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Schmidt, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.schmidt@wlab.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Fredén-Lindqvist, Johan, E-mail: johan.freden-lindqvist@vgregion.se [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bergström, Göran M.L., E-mail: goran.bergstrom@hjl.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an in vivo methodology to quantify carotid plaque vascularization. Increased metabolism in plaques, measured as FDG uptake in PET/CT examination, has been associated with markers of inflammation in histological samples. In this study, we tested the association between FDG uptake and vascularization measured by CEUS to assess whether CEUS can be used as an in vivo marker of plaque vulnerability. Methods: After informed consent, subjects aged >60 years with carotid plaque height exceeding 2.5 mm were recruited. CEUS was performed and analyzed using earlier described protocol and software, Contrast Quantification Program, which calculates the fraction of the plaque being contrast positive (CQP value). PET/CT examination was performed within 3 months of CEUS (median time 7 days). PET/CT images were acquired 90 min after FDG injection (2.7 MBq/kg). FDG uptake was measured as tissue background index (TBI), calculated using Spearman's rho as mean standard uptake value (SUV) of the plaque divided by mean SUV in the jugular vein (mean of 7 measuring points). Local ethics committee approved the study. Results: We recruited 13 subjects (5 women) with a mean age of 71 years, 6 had a history of stroke or TIA, 1 had a history of ipsilateral stroke. CQP values showed a significant, positive correlation with TBI of carotid plaques, r = 0.67, p < 0.02. Conclusions: Plaque vascularization measured by CEUS correlates positively with FDG uptake measured by PET/CT in humans. This indicates an association between vascularization and inflammation and/or hypoxia, supporting the use of CEUS as a non-invasive method to detect plaque vulnerability.

  17. Angiogenesis in atherosclerotic plaque obtained from carotid endarterectomy: association between symptomatology and plaque morphology.

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    Hiyama, Takami; Tanaka, Toshihide; Endo, Shinichi; Komine, Kazumasa; Kudo, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Hiroo; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Carotid plaque with hemorrhage leads to cerebral embolism and ischemic stroke. Plaque angiogenesis and angiogenetic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are critical in the progression of atherosclerotic carotid plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage. The correlation between plaque angiogenesis and presence of clinical symptoms was studied in 41 specimens obtained during carotid endarterectomy from 20 symptomatic and 21 asymptomatic patients treated for carotid artery stenosis. Histological findings using hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining against von Willebrand factor and VEGF were examined. Intraplaque hemorrhage, calcification, necrosis, and invasion of foam cells were frequently observed in the carotid plaques from symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Higher microvessel density was found in the carotid plaques with necrosis and invasion of foam cells compared with plaques without necrosis and/or foam cell invasion, and higher expression of VEGF was found from symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patents. These results suggest that plaque angiogenesis and higher level of VEGF expression may enhance the progression of ischemic symptoms in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Invasive macrophages in the plaque of symptomatic patients increase levels of VEGF and might enhance plaque angiogenesis and atherosclerosis progression.

  18. Mechanical model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Haijun; ZHANG; Mei; ZHANG; Yun

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events, but the mechanism of plaque rupture is still unknown. We have constructed a model describing the motion of the fibrous cap of the plaque using the theory of elastic mechanics and studied the stability of the plaque theoretically. It has shown that plaque rupture is the result of a dynamic interplay between factors intrinsic to the plaque itself and extrinsic factors. We have proposed a new mechanism of plaque rupture, given a new explanation about the nonlinear dynamic progress of atherosclerosis and suggested a method to identify the vulnerable plaques to manage atherosclerosis.

  19. Infrared radiant ceramic plaques; Plaques radiantes ceramiques a infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-05-01

    Infrared plaques developed by MORGAN MATROC can now produce radiant heat from both natural and bottled gas with substantially lower NOx levels, and greater fuel efficiency and cleanliness, than other mass produced gas burning systems. The properties of this ceramic system, in particular very low thermal conductivity, allied to the infrared process for heat conversion, result in efficient radiation of energy. Morgan Matroc now claims half of the world-wide market of infrared plaque. (authors)

  20. Measuring early plaque formation clinically.

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    Maliska, Alessandra N; Weidlich, Patricia; Gomes, Sabrina C; Oppermann, Rui V

    2006-01-01

    To test a system of measuring early plaque formation (EPF) and its subgingival extension as related to the presence or absence of a plaque free zone (PFZ). EPF was measured by three independent examiners following two consecutive 72-hour periods of undisturbed plaque build-up. One of the examiners further measured EPF following a 96-hour period in the presence of chlorhexidine or placebo. The classification system was composed of criterion 0 (plaque-free dental surface), criterion 1 (presence of plaque and PFZ) and criterion 2 (absence of PFZ, subgingival extension of plaque). Intra- and inter-examiner reliability were evaluated by means of the percentage of absolute agreement (c), Kappa (k) and Kendall (kd) coefficients. The third experiment consisted of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Plaque build-up in the presence of 0.12% chlorhexidine was assessed by employing the classification system described. The percentage of absolute intra- and inter-examiner agreement ranged from 85.43% to 75.63% and from 77.31% to 75.35% respectively. Chlorhexidine and placebo rinses showed similar percentages of criterion 1 surfaces, 62.6% and 51.5% respectively (p = 0.343). Of the surfaces, 44.3% showed criterion 2 after the use of placebo, while 3.4% of surfaces showed this criterion with the chlorhexidine (p = 0.007). The events associated with EPF can be appropriately scored with this classification system. Chlorhexidine rinses inhibit both the plaque colonization of the dental surfaces as well as its subgingival extension.

  1. Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaque

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    Saroj K. Rath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that heart disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of Gram-negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. Aim: This study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of micro-organisms such as, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia. Materials and methods: A case-control study was designed with seven patients who had undergone coronary endarterectomy for cardiovascular disease and 28 controls. The periodontal examination for cases was performed 1 day before vascular surgery and the controls were clinically examined. The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the intraoral plaque samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction for identification of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. forsythia. Results: The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and sub-gingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. CONCLUSION A correlation was established between putative bacteria contributing to atheromatous plaques and species associated with periodontal disease. One particularly important study to be carried out is the investigation of a possible clinically meaningful reduction in coronary heart disease resulting from the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease.

  2. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

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    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.

  3. Denitrification in human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraete Willy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3- concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-. Results We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO, nitrous oxide (N2O, and dinitrogen (N2 using microsensor measurements, 15N isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.

  4. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  5. En plaque meningioma with angioinvasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Keya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En plaque meningioma is a rare type of meningioma characterized by infiltrative nature, sheet-like growth and at times invading the bone. We report here a case of en plaque meningioma with typical grade I histomorphology along with unusual feature of angioinvasion. The patient was a 55-year-old man presenting with headache and painful proptosis of right eye. Imaging modalities revealed an en -plaque meningioma extending into the right sylvian fissure, with thickening of right temporal calvarium, greater wing of sphenoid and extension into the orbit. Magnetic resonance angiography showed medial displacement of right middle cerebral artery. The tumor was removed from the sylvian fissure and right temporal convexity. However, only subtotal removal of the intraorbital part was possible. Histology showed a meningothelial meningioma with low tumor cell proliferation, but infiltration into the bone, skeletal muscle and angioinvasion. Recognition of meningiomas en plaque is useful, as these tumors are difficult to resect completely, and are more prone to undergo recurrence or malignant change. In addition, angioinvasion seen in this tumor may have additional prognostic significance.

  6. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor

  7. Red autofluorescence of dental plaque bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. H.; Thomas, R. Z.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; de Soet, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Red autofluorescence of plaque and its relation to fluorescence of a single species in the biofilm was studied. Fluorescence images of non-disclosed and disclosed plaque of 28 first-year students were captured. The plaque samples were assessed by culture methods and studied for red autofluorescence.

  8. Inhibition of Bim enhances replication of varicella-zoster virus and delays plaque formation in virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueqiao; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. Accordingly, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate apoptosis to enhance replication. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) induces apoptosis in human fibroblasts and melanoma cells. We found that VZV triggered the phosphorylation of the proapoptotic proteins Bim and BAD but had little or no effect on other Bcl-2 family members. Since phosphorylation of Bim and BAD reduces their proapoptotic activity, this may prevent or delay apoptosis in VZV-infected cells. Phosphorylation of Bim but not BAD in VZV-infected cells was dependent on activation of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Cells knocked down for Bim showed delayed VZV plaque formation, resulting in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased replication of virus, compared with wild-type cells infected with virus. Conversely, overexpression of Bim resulted in earlier plaque formation, smaller plaques, reduced virus replication, and increased caspase 3 activity. Inhibition of caspase activity in VZV-infected cells overexpressing Bim restored levels of virus production similar to those seen with virus-infected wild-type cells. Previously we showed that VZV ORF12 activates ERK and inhibits apoptosis in virus-infected cells. Here we found that VZV ORF12 contributes to Bim and BAD phosphorylation. In summary, VZV triggers Bim phosphorylation; reduction of Bim levels results in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased VZV replication.

  9. Vulnerable Plaques, Inflammation and Newer Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, inflammation is considered to be the central player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It leads to the formation of multiple plaques in the arterial beds including coronary vasculature. Recent studies using the latest imaging techniques have shown that in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS multiple plaques are ruptured and have thrombus formation on them. Various factors make these plaques unstable, these include structural components of plaque like thin fibrous cap, high lipid content of the plaque core and inflammation, both localized and generalized. It has been shown that most of the ACS are caused by plaques causing non-critical stenosis as seen on traditional X-ray angiography. Also, the phenomenon of remodelling makes angiography a poor technique for plaque visualization. Hence newer modalities are required to identify these 'vulnerable plaques'. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS, thermography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are a few such promising techniques. Here we review the invasive and non-invasive modalities that can be helpful in the identification of these plaques before they become unstable and cause ACS, and also the available therapies to stabilize these plaques.

  10. Atherosclerotic plaque regression: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Román-Rego, Ana; Ong, Peter; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is the major cause of death in the western world. The formation and rapid progression of atheromatous plaques can lead to serious cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerosis. The better understanding, in recent years, of the mechanisms leading to atheromatous plaque growth and disruption and the availability of powerful HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) has permitted the consideration of plaque regression as a realistic therapeutic goal. This article reviews the existing evidence underpinning current therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving atherosclerotic plaque regression. In this review we also discuss imaging modalities for the assessment of plaque regression, predictors of regression and whether plaque regression is associated with a survival benefit.

  11. Accuracy of coronary plaque detection and assessment of interobserver agreement for plaque quantification using automatic coronary plaque analysis software on coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, A.; Quitzke, M.; Creder, D.D.; Adam, G.; Lund, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine; Klink, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of automatic plaque detection and the interobserver agreement of automatic versus manually adjusted quantification of coronary plaques on coronary CT angiography (cCTA) using commercially available software. 10 cCTA datasets were evaluated using plaque software. First, the automatically detected plaques were verified. Second, two observers independently performed plaque quantification without revising the automatically constructed plaque contours (automatic approach). Then, each observer adjusted the plaque contours according to plaque delineation (adjusted approach). The interobserver agreement of both approaches was analyzed. 32 of 114 automatically identified findings were true-positive plaques, while 82 (72 %) were false-positive. 20 of 52 plaques (38 %) were missed by the software (false-negative). The automatic approach provided good interobserver agreement with relative differences of 0.9 ± 16.0 % for plaque area and -3.3 ± 33.8 % for plaque volume. Both observers independently adjusted all contours because they did not represent the plaque delineation. Interobserver agreement decreased for the adjusted approach with relative differences of 25.0 ± 24.8 % for plaque area and 20.0 ± 40.4 % for plaque volume. The automatic plaque analysis software is of limited value due to high numbers of false-positive and false-negative plaque findings. The automatic approach was reproducible but it necessitated adjustment of all constructed plaque contours resulting in deterioration of the interobserver agreement.

  12. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    Aterosklerose er den hyppigste årsag til død og svær invaliditet i verden. Sygdommen danner aterosklerotiske plaques, som består af lipidkerner dækket af en fibrøs kappe. Såfremt kappen brister, dannes overliggende tromber, som kan føres med blodstrømmen og forårsage strokes hvis kappen brister i...... mekaniske kræfter, som påvirker den fibrøse kappe, for at være en medvirkende årsag til plaqueruptur. Endvidere er stress-niveauerne i den fibrøse kappe en risikomarkør, som påvirkes af såvel den fibrøse kappetykkelse som lipid kerne størrelsen, blodtryk og graden af forsnævring. Imidlertid har hidtidige...... for at få fjernet deres plaques (carotis endarterektomi). Dernæst blev skanningerne segmenteret i lipid-kerne, fibrøs kappe, blodbane, karvæg og calcificationer. Endvidere blev blodets hastighed, blodtryk og karvægs deformationer målt. Disse data blev benyttet til longitudinelle fluid-struktur interaktions...

  13. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharif, Faisal

    2012-02-01

    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  14. Biomechanics and inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque erosion and plaque rupture: implications for cardiovascular events in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Campbell

    Full Text Available Although plaque erosion causes approximately 40% of all coronary thrombi and disproportionally affects women more than men, its mechanism is not well understood. The role of tissue mechanics in plaque rupture and regulation of mechanosensitive inflammatory proteins is well established, but their role in plaque erosion is unknown. Given obvious differences in morphology between plaque erosion and rupture, we hypothesized that inflammation in general as well as the association between local mechanical strain and inflammation known to exist in plaque rupture may not occur in plaque erosion. Therefore, our objective was to determine if similar mechanisms underlie plaque rupture and plaque erosion.We studied a total of 74 human coronary plaque specimens obtained at autopsy. Using lesion-specific computer modeling of solid mechanics, we calculated the stress and strain distribution for each plaque and determined if there were any relationships with markers of inflammation. Consistent with previous studies, inflammatory markers were positively associated with increasing strain in specimens with rupture and thin-cap fibroatheromas. Conversely, overall staining for inflammatory markers and apoptosis were significantly lower in erosion, and there was no relationship with mechanical strain. Samples with plaque erosion most closely resembled those with the stable phenotype of thick-cap fibroatheromas.In contrast to classic plaque rupture, plaque erosion was not associated with markers of inflammation and mechanical strain. These data suggest that plaque erosion is a distinct pathophysiological process with a different etiology and therefore raises the possibility that a different therapeutic approach may be required to prevent plaque erosion.

  15. The effects of enhanced zinc on spatial memory and plaque formation in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkous, D.H.; Adlard, P.A.; Wanschura, P.B.; Conko, K.M.; Flinn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that metals play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reports suggest that elevated dietary metals may both precipitate and potentiate an Alzheimer's disease phenotype. Despite this, there remain few studies that have examined the behavioral consequences of elevated dietary metals in wild type and Alzheimer's disease animals. To further investigate this in the current study, two separate transgenic models of AD (Tg2576 and TgCRND8), together with wild type littermates were administered 10 ppm (0.153 mM) Zn. Tg2576 animals were maintained on a zinc-enriched diet both pre- and postnatally until 11 months of age, while TgCRND8 animals were treated for five months following weaning. Behavioral testing, consisting of "Atlantis" and "moving" platform versions of the Morris water maze, were conducted at the end of the study, and tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid-β burden. Our data demonstrate that the provision of a zinc-enriched diet potentiated Alzheimer-like spatial memory impairments in the transgenic animals and was associated with reduced hippocampal amyloid-β plaque deposits. Zinc-related behavioral deficits were also demonstrated in wild type mice, which were sometimes as great as those present in the transgenic animals. However, zinc-related cognitive impairments in transgenic mice were greater than the summation of zinc effects in the wild type mice and the transgene effects.

  16. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  17. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, Martinus J.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a sa

  18. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  19. Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Assemat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression.

  20. Fibrillar amyloid plaque formation precedes microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian K E Jung

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, hallmark β-amyloid deposits are characterized by the presence of activated microglia around them. Despite an extensive characterization of the relation of amyloid plaques with microglia, little is known about the initiation of this interaction. In this study, the detailed investigation of very small plaques in brain slices in AD transgenic mice of the line APP-PS1(dE9 revealed different levels of microglia recruitment. Analysing plaques with a diameter of up to 10 μm we find that only the half are associated with clear morphologically activated microglia. Utilizing in vivo imaging of new appearing amyloid plaques in double-transgenic APP-PS1(dE9xCX3CR1+/- mice further characterized the dynamic of morphological microglia activation. We observed no correlation of morphological microglia activation and plaque volume or plaque lifetime. Taken together, our results demonstrate a very prominent variation in size as well as in lifetime of new plaques relative to the state of microglia reaction. These observations might question the existing view that amyloid deposits by themselves are sufficient to attract and activate microglia in vivo.

  1. The desmosomal plaque and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, W W; Cowin, P; Schmelz, M; Kapprell, H P

    1987-01-01

    Two major plasma membrane domains are involved in the architectural organization of the cytoskeleton. Both are junctions of the adherens category characterized by the presence of dense plaques associated with the cytoplasmic surface of their membranes. The plaques serve as specific anchorage structures for two different types of cytoplasmic filaments. Intermediate-sized filaments (IF) of several types, i.e. cytokeratin IF in epithelial cells, desmin IF in cardiac myocytes and vimentin IF in arachnoidal cells of meninges, meningiomas and several other cells, attach to the desmosomal plaques, whereas actin-containing microfilaments associate with non-desmosomal adhering junctions such as the zonula adherens, fascia adherens and punctum adherens. The plaques of both kinds of adhering junctions contain a common acidic polypeptide of Mr 83,000 identical to 'band 5 protein' of bovine snout epidermal desmosomes. However, other plaque components are mutually exclusive to one of the two subclasses of adhering junctions. The desmosomal plaque structure, which does not contain vinculin and alpha-actinin, comprises representatives of cytoplasmic, non-membrane-integrated proteins such as desmoplakin(s) and the cytoplasmic portions of transmembrane glycoproteins such as 'band 3 glycoprotein'. The analysis of both categories of junction-associated plaques should provide a basis for understanding the establishment and the dynamics of junction-cytoskeleton interaction.

  2. Bacterial colonization during de novo plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Per; Sekino, Satoshi; Uzel, Naciye Guzin; Socransky, Sigmund; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-11-01

    To determine microbial changes that occur during plaque formation in a dentition free of gingival inflammation. Ten subjects were recruited. The study included one preparatory period (2 weeks) and a plaque accumulation period (4 days). The volunteers exercised proper tooth cleaning methods, were scaled and received repeated professional mechanical tooth cleaning during the preparatory period. During the plaque accumulation period, the participants abstained from plaque control measures. Plaque was scored on the approximal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars on Days 0, 1, 2 and 4 using a scale from 0 to 5 and according to the criteria of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index (QHI). Supragingival plaque samples were obtained from the same intervals and surfaces and evaluated using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. The mean QHI increased from 0 to 1.6 (Day 4). The total number of organisms on Day 0 averaged 140 x 10(5) and increased to about 210 x 10(5) after 4 days without oral hygiene. The most dominant species on Day 0 were members of the genus Actinomyces. These organisms comprised almost 50% of the microbiota evaluated. None of the Actinomyces species increased significantly during the 4 days. Some Streptococcus species increased significantly over time as well as species of the genera Capnocytophaga, Campylobacter, Fusobacteria and Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans. In the present investigation, the preparatory phase established a situation with minimal gingival inflammation and close to zero amounts of dental plaque. The Day 0 plaque samples exhibited high proportions of Actinomyces species. During the 4 days of no oral hygiene, there was a small increase in total numbers of organisms as well as a modest increase in the proportion of "disease-associated" taxa such as species of the "orange complex" species.

  3. Apopotic gene Bax expression in carotid plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Zhong MEN; Ding-Biao ZHOU; Huai-Yin SHI; Xiao-Ming ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The expression of BAX in carotid atherosclerosis and its regulation is far from defined. Objectives To investigate BAX expression in stable/fibrous and instable/vulnerable carotid plaque and its clinical significance. Methods 25 cases of carotid plaque specimens obtained from endarterectomy were divided into two groups, stable/fibrous 14 cases, vulnerable/instable 11 cases; aortic artery and its branches from hepatic transplantation donors 6 case as control. The expression of proapoptotic BAX was detected by immunohistochemistry(IHC), in situ hybridization(ISH) and in situ TdT dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results 5 cases of BAX ( + ) were detected by ICH and ISH, 4 case of TUNEL ( + ) were detected by TUNEL in stable/fibrous carotid plaque , while 10 cases were BAX ( + )by IHC(P < 0.05) , 11case by ISH and 9 case by TUNEL were detected in instable/vulnerable carotid plaque ( P < 0.01 ), respectively. The intensity of BAX ( + ) cells by IHC and ISH was 8.63 ± 2.62 and 10.32 ± 3.12 in fibrous plaques, whereas 122 ± 21.64and 152 ± 23.35 in vulnerable plaques, respectively. No expression of BAX was found in controlled group. Conclusion The higher expression of Bax in vulnerable carotid plaque may be one mechanisms in molecular pathogenesis of carotid atherosclerosis which affect plaque stability and be the cause of higher incidence of stroke than fibrous carotid plaques, the regulation of BAX expression in different stage of atherosclerosis may provide targets in gene therapy for carotid atherosclerosis.

  4. Motion compensation method using dynamic programming for quantification of neovascularization in carotid atherosclerotic plaques with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Hoogi, Assaf; Renaud, Guillaume; ten Kate, Gerrit L.; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; Schinkel, Arend F. L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2012-03-01

    Intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) has been linked with progressive atherosclerotic disease and plaque instability in several studies. Quantification of IPN may allow early detection of vulnerable plaques. A dedicated motion compensation method with normalized-cross-correlation (NCC) block matching combined with multidimensional (2D+time) dynamic programming (MDP) was developed for quantification of IPN in small plaques (images of carotid arteries were acquired by a Philips iU22 system with a L9-3 linear array probe. The motion pattern for the plaque region was obtained from the Bmode images with MDP. MDP results were evaluated in-vitro by a phantom and in-vivo by comparing to manual tracking of three experts for multibeat-image-sequences (MIS) of 11 plaques. In the in-vivo images, the absolute error was 72+/-55μm (mean+/-SD) for X (longitudinal) and 34+/-23μm for Y (radial). The method's success rate was visually assessed on 67 MIS. The tracking was considered failed if it deviated >2 pixels (~200μm) from true motion in any frame. Tracking was scored as fully successful in 63 MIS (94%) for MDP vs. 52(78%) for FT. The range of displacement over these 63 was 1045+/-471μm (X) and 395+/-216μm (Y). The tracking sporadically failed in 4 MIS (6%) due to poor image quality, jugular vein proximity and out-of-plane motion. Motion compensation showed improved lumen-plaque contrast separation. In conclusion, the proposed method is sufficiently accurate and successful for in vivo application.

  5. Magnetic force microscopy of atherosclerotic plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeeva T.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work by methods of scanning probe microscopy, namely by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy the fragments of atherosclerotic plaque section of different nature were investigated. The fragments of atherosclerotic vessels with elements of immature plaque were taken during the coiled artery bypass surgery by alloprosthesis. As the result of investigation we found magnetically ordered phase of endogenous origin in the fragment of solid plaque of mixed structure. This phase is presents biogenic magnetic nanoparticles and their clusters with average size characteristic of 200-400 nm.

  6. microRNA-132/212 deficiency enhances Aβ production and senile plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease triple transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Rainone, Sara; Goupil, Claudia; Dorval, Véronique; Smith, Pascal Y; Saint-Pierre, Martine; Vallée, Maxime; Planel, Emmanuel; Droit, Arnaud; Calon, Frédéric; Cicchetti, Francesca; Hébert, Sébastien S

    2016-08-03

    The abnormal regulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism (e.g., production, cleavage, clearance) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among endogenous factors believed to participate in AD progression are the small regulatory non-coding microRNAs (miRs). In particular, the miR-132/212 cluster is severely reduced in the AD brain. In previous studies we have shown that miR-132/212 deficiency in mice leads to impaired memory and enhanced Tau pathology as seen in AD patients. Here we demonstrate that the genetic deletion of miR-132/212 promotes Aβ production and amyloid (senile) plaque formation in triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics, we identified genes of the miR-132/212 network with documented roles in the regulation of Aβ metabolism, including Tau, Mapk, and Sirt1. Consistent with these findings, we show that the modulation of miR-132, or its target Sirt1, can directly regulate Aβ production in cells. Finally, both miR-132 and Sirt1 levels correlated with Aβ load in humans. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that the miR-132/212 network, including Sirt1 and likely other target genes, contributes to abnormal Aβ metabolism and senile plaque deposition in AD. This study strengthens the importance of miR-dependent networks in neurodegenerative disorders, and opens the door to multifactorial drug targets of AD by targeting Aβ and Tau.

  7. Large plaque parapsoriasis in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta; Gangopadhyay Asok

    2005-01-01

    A case of large plaque parapsoriasis with extensive skin lesions is presented for its unusual clinical features. The controversial issue of its nosological position is discussed as it has a considerable impact on the management of such cases.

  8. Sticky Brain 'Plaques' Implicated in Alzheimer's Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166550.html Sticky Brain 'Plaques' Implicated in Alzheimer's Again Researchers believe these substances form in early ... in the brain signals an early stage of Alzheimer's disease. It's been known for years that in ...

  9. Atherosclerotic Aortic Plaques Detected by Transesophageal Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云; 朱文玲; 倪超; 郭丽琳; 曾勇; 方理刚

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of atherosclerotic aortic plaques in coronary artery disease (CAD) Methods In 50patients with suspected coronary artery disease, transesophageal echocardiography was performed to examine their thoracic aortas 2 weeks before or after coronary angiography. In the cases of coronary angiography studied, stenosis of the coronary artery ≥ 50 % was considered to be due to coronary artery disease,whereas the thickness of the intima ≥ 1.3 mm was taken to be the criteria for the presence of an atherosclerotic aortic plaque on the transesophageal echocardiographic test. Results Among the 50 patients, 37 cases were diagnosed as CAD and 13 cases were considered to be normal. The plaques of the thoracic aorta were observed in 34cases in the CAD group and 3 cases in the normal group. The sensitivity and specificity of aortic plaques for CAD were 91.9 % and 76.9%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the aortic plaques for CAD were 91.9% and 76.9%, respectively. The accuracy was 88.0%. 80 percent of the patients with single- yes sel disease had thoracic aortic plaques, 92 percent of the patients with two-vessel disease and 100 percent of the patients with three-vessel disease had thoracic aortic plaques. There was a significant difference in the thickness of aortic intimas between the normal group and the CAD group. Conclusions Detectingatherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta with transesophageal echocardiography may be of great value in predicting the presence and extent of coronary artery disease.

  10. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  11. Effects of cast gold surface finishing on plaque retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, M P; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G; Wade, C K

    1980-02-01

    The relationship between the surface finish on cast gold restorations and the amount of plaque deposited on that surface was examined. Six different finishes were tested. The rough finish was found to accumulate significantly less plaque than the other finishes. Every finish exhibited some plaque accumulation, even after the first 24 hours. Each finish accumulated progressively more plaque at each successive time interval.

  12. [Is regression of atherosclerotic plaque possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, José A; Civeira, Fernando

    As it is well-known, a thrombus evolving into a disrupted/eroded atherosclerotic plaque causes most acute coronary syndromes. Plaque stabilization via reduction of the lipid core and/or thickening of the fibrous cap is one of the possible mechanisms accounted for the clinical benefits displayed by different anti-atherosclerotic strategies. The concept of plaque stabilization was developed to explain how lipid-lowering agents could decrease adverse coronary events without substantial modifications of the atherosclerotic lesion ('angiographic paradox'). A number of imaging modalities (vascular ultrasound and virtual histology, MRI, optical coherence tomography, positron tomography, etc.) are used for non-invasive assessment of atherosclerosis; most of them can identify plaque volume and composition beyond lumen stenosis. An 'aggressive' lipid-lowering strategy is able to reduce the plaque burden and the incidence of cardiovascular events; this may be attributable, at least in part, to plaque-stabilizing effects. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan [Medical Imaging Research Center and Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 719 363 5899 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chatterjee, S. [BGVS Chemical Engineering Building (Old), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik [Department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Sharma, Sanjiv; Jagia, Priya [Department of Cardiac-Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudhir [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Yadav, Rakesh [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Vani, V. C. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmi, R.; Kumar, Pratik, E-mail: drpratikkumar@gmail.com [Department of Cardiac-Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Mandal, Susama R. [Department of Medical Physics Unit IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ{sub e}) and the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques. Methods: For the purpose of calibration of the CT machine, the authors prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) lie in the range of (2.65 × 10{sup 23} ≤ ρ{sub e} ≤ 3.64 × 10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) and (6.80 ≤ Z{sub eff} ≤ 8.90). The authors fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(V{sub 1}) and HU(V{sub 2}), with V{sub 1},V{sub 2} = 100 and 140 kVp, for the same pixels and thus determine the coefficients of inversion that allow us to determine (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) from the DECT data. The HU(100) and HU(140) for the coronary artery plaque are obtained by filling the channel of the coronary artery with a viscous solution of methyl cellulose in water, containing 2% contrast. These (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) values of the coronary artery plaque are used for their characterization on the basis of theoretical models of atomic compositions of the plaque materials. These results are compared with histopathological report. Results: The authors find that the calibration gives ρ{sub e} with an accuracy of ±3.5% while Z{sub eff} is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%. The HU(100) and HU(140) are found to be considerably different for the same plaque at the same position and there is a linear trend between these two HU values. It is noted that pure lipid type plaques

  14. Relationship between caries and dental plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Sule; Okte, Zeynep; Fidanci, Ulvi Reha

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dental caries and the biochemical composition of dental plaque and to determine the effect of a 10% sucrose solution on the biochemical structure of dental plaque in children. 60 children grouped according to caries status took part in this study [Caries-free (CF), DMFS=0, df-s = 0; Caries-positive (CP), DMFS > or =10, df-s > or =10]. Dental plaque samples were collected before (baseline) and at 3 and 30 minutes after a 1-minute rinse with 10% sucrose. Fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) levels were determined using ion chromatography, and insoluble polysaccharide (IEPS) concentrations were determined using colorimetric analysis. Although the mean baseline Ca and Pi levels in plaque were higher in the CF group than in the CP group, these differences were not statistically significant. Baseline IEPS levels were significantly higher in the CP group than in the CF group. Following exposure to sucrose, plaque F, Ca and Pi concentrations decreased significantly in both groups. However, insoluble polysaccharide concentrations increased significantly in the CF group only.

  15. Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott N; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  16. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  17. Functional Expression of Dental Plaque Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Norman Peterson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota’s transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  18. Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, P

    1999-01-01

    The origin of gingival inflammation is occasionally different from that of routine plaque-associated gingivitis, and such non-plaque-associated types of gingivitis often present characteristic clinical features. Examples of such forms of gingivitis are specific bacterial, viral, and fungal......, a confirmed diagnosis may require histopathologic examination and/or culture. Atypical gingivitis may also occur as gingival manifestations of dermatological diseases, the most relevant of these being lichen planus, pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, erythema multiforme, and lupus erythematosus. Non-plaque......, the most important of these being Candida species including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guillermondii. Gingival histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum and, as for the other specific infections of gingiva...

  19. Plaque rupture in humans and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Galis, Zorina S; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms...... such as "instability", "vulnerable", "rupture", or even "thrombosis" for features of plaques in murine model systems not yet shown to rupture spontaneously and in an animal surprisingly resistant to formation of thrombi at sites of atherosclerosis. We suggest that use of conclusory terms like "vulnerable" and "stable...... that various forms of data have implicated in plaque progression. For example, formation of the fibrous cap, protease activation, and cell death in the necrotic core can be well described and have all been modeled in well-defined experiments. The relevance of such well-defined, objective, descriptive...

  20. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 {times} 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications.

  1. A double layer plaque assay using spread plate technique for enumeration of bacteriophage MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriophage MS2 is used widely as a model organism to estimate pathogenic virus survival in various environments, and is usually quantified by plaque assay. Although current plaque assays work well in enumeration of MS2 in environmental samples, quantification of MS2 calls for better visibility and higher consistency. In an attempt to improve the visibility and consistency of the current plaque assay, spread plate technique was introduced, instead of the pour plate technique used commonly in existing methods. Other parameters that influence the outcome of the plaque assay were also compared. Using spread plate technique resulted in an increase of plaque size by approximately 50% and contributed to a better visibility. Addition of supplements (glucose, CaCl2 and thiamine); reduction of agar thickness and hardness, also contributed to enhanced plaque visibility and increased plaque count. Among all the conditions tested, a supplemented thin bottom agar (10ml 1% agar) and a supplemented thin top agar (10ml 0.45% agar) with spread plate technique gave the maximum countable plaques with a minimum standard deviation. When compared to other methods, it produced significantly higher plaque count and lower variation. The optimized plaque assay significantly improved visibility and consistency of the existing plaque assay methods and could be used in quantification of MS2.

  2. Detection of unstable carotid plaque by tissue Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in a patient with recurrent amaurosis fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunte, Hagen; Rückert, Ralph-Ingo; Schmidt, Charlotte; Harms, Lutz; Kasper, Antje-Susanne; Hellweg, Rainer; Grigoryev, Maria; Fischer, Thomas; Kronenberg, Golo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is one of the most important diagnostic tools available for the detection and evaluation of carotid stenosis. The case of a 70-year-old woman with recurrent right-sided amaurosis fugax presented here highlights the way in which tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) may aid in the diagnosis of carotid plaque vulnerability. Furthermore, the novel inverse fly-through technique was used for the three-dimensional visualization of the carotid stenosis.

  3. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard

  4. Alzheimer's Protein Plaques May Also Harm the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162241.html Alzheimer's Protein Plaques May Also Harm the Heart Deposits ... fragments that form plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients might also stiffen their heart muscle and ...

  5. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; Cerroni, L

    2013-01-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease.

  6. Infliximab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Gall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer S Gall, Robert E KalbState University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Dermatology, NY, USAAbstract: Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα. It is used in the treatment of a number of inflammatory disorders including severe plaque psoriasis. TNFα is thought to have a major role in psoriasis by promoting an inflammatory infiltrate into the skin and inducing keratinocyte proliferation and preventing keratinocyte apoptosis, which directly contributes to the characteristic plaque skin lesions. Based on four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials and nine open-label uncontrolled trials of the use of infliximab in plaque psoriasis, it was found that infliximab is a highly efficacious, rapid, sustainable, and relatively safe therapy. Yet as with any biologic, caution is recommended in its use as infusion reactions, lupus-like syndromes, infections, malignancies including lymphomas, as well as other rare events have been reported.Keywords: infliximab, psoriasis, plaque

  7. Large plaque parapsoriasis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of large plaque parapsoriasis with extensive skin lesions is presented for its unusual clinical features. The controversial issue of its nosological position is discussed as it has a considerable impact on the management of such cases.

  8. Intracoronary Thermography: a vulnerable Plaque Detection Technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. ten Have (Anna)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe studies reported in this thesis were performed to answer the central question: can intracoronary thermography be used for vulnerable plaque detection? To answer this question, we have identified parameters that influence intracoronary thermography measurements, and have studied to w

  9. Lipidome of atherosclerotic plaques from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojic, Lazar A; McLaren, David G; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F; Johns, Douglas G; Castro-Perez, Jose M

    2014-12-15

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  10. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar A. Bojic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  11. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); C.E. Essed; J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bom (Klaas); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); G.T. Meester (Geert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and docu

  12. Mathematical models for atherosclerotic plaque evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulelzai, M.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which low density lipoproteins (LDL) accumulate in the arterial wall due to an inflammatory response, which is triggered by the oxidation of LDL molecules that are already present in the arterial wall. Progression of atherosclerotic plaques involves many components wh

  13. Digitate dermatosis (small-plaque parapsoriasis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Jesse; Latkowski, Jo-Ann

    2012-12-15

    We report a 79-year-old man with a 15-year history of elongated, finger-like, erythematous patches that are symmetrically distributed on his flanks and of small, parapsoriasis, which is a benign entity that has been the center of controversy over the years, owing to its similarities to large-plaque parapsoriasis, which is on a spectrum with mycosis fungoides.

  14. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Polichetti Paolo; Sgueglia Monica; Blasi Sara; Tartaglia Francesco; Tromba Luciana; Berni Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Extremely rare cases of paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic production of proteins associated with liposarcoma are reported in literature. Production of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor, alpha-fetoprotein, paraneoplastic pemphigus and leucocytosis, Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex's syndrome) are reported. The present report describes a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis. Our search in the English literature of such a ki...

  15. Adalimumab: A Review in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Celeste B; McKeage, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Adalimumab (Humira(®)) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor (TNF), formulated for subcutaneous administration. It is well established in the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and has recently received approval in the EU for the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis in children and adolescents from 4 years of age. In a phase III trial in paediatric patients, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving adalimumab 0.8 mg/kg (to a maximum of 40 mg) every other week (eow) achieved a ≥75 % improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index than those receiving methotrexate after 16 weeks of treatment. In adults, well-designed randomized clinical trials demonstrated that adalimumab 40 mg eow effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of psoriasis and improved dermatology-specific and general measures of health-related quality of life, with these benefits sustained during long-term treatment. Adalimumab was generally well tolerated, compared with placebo or methotrexate, during clinical trials in paediatric and adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Thus, adalimumab remains an important treatment strategy in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and provides a promising new systemic treatment option for children and adolescents from 4 years of age with severe psoriasis.

  16. Data on consistency among different methods to assess atherosclerotic plaque echogenicity on standard ultrasound and intraplaque neovascularization on contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in human carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Cattaneo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the correlation among different carotid ultrasound (US variables to assess echogenicity n standard carotid US and to assess intraplaque neovascularization on contrast enhanced US. We recruited 45 consecutive subjects with an asymptomatic≥50% carotid artery stenosis. Carotid plaque echogenicity at standard US was visually graded according to Gray–Weale classification (GW and measured by the greyscale median (GSM, a semi-automated computerized measurement performed by Adobe Photoshop®. On CEUS imaging IPNV was graded according to the visual appearance of contrast within the plaque according to three different methods: CEUS_A (1=absent; 2=present; CEUS_B a three-point scale (increasing IPNV from 1 to 3; CEUS_C a four-point scale (increasing IPNV from 0 to 3. We have also implemented a new simple quantification method derived from region of interest (ROI signal intensity ratio as assessed by QLAB software. Further information is available in “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of intraplaque neovascularization and its correlation to plaque echogenicity in human carotid arteries atherosclerosis (M. Cattaneo, D. Staub, A.P. Porretta, J.M. Gallino, P. Santini, C. Limoni et al., 2016 [1].

  17. Oxidized LDL in carotid plaques and plasma associates with plaque instability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nishi, Kyoko; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Uno, Masaaki; Kitazato, Keiko T; Horiguchi, Hidehisa; Shinno, Kiyohito; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation of LDL plays a significant pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. In this study, we attempted to clarify the correlation between the morphology of human atherosclerotic plaques and the oxidized LDL (OxLDL...

  18. Inflamed psoriatic plaques: Drug toxicity or disease exacerbation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of Methotrexate treated stable plaque psoriasis, in whom inflamed psoriatic plaques of drug toxicity were misdiagnosed as disease exacerbation. Erosive psoriatic plaques were present in the absence of biochemical or hematological derangements. Ulceration of psoriatic plaques in the presence of disturbed hematological profile is well described as a harbinger of methotrexate toxicity, but this kind of erosions in the absence of any systemic involvement is the first report of its kind.

  19. Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging A Window to Study Atherosclerosis and Identify High-Risk Plaques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oikawa, Minako; Ota, Hideki; Takaya, Norihide; Miller, Zach; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Yuan, Chun

    2009-01-01

    ...: the so-called "vulnerable plaque". A reliable, in vivo, imaging method capable of identifying plaque characteristics associated with high-risk plaque will be immensely useful for evaluating plaque status and predicting future events...

  20. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  1. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace;

    2014-01-01

    carotid plaque volume and 376 measures of plaque texture. Patients were followed up to 5 years (median [range], 3.12 [0.77-4.66]) for myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, and stroke. Sparse Cox regression was used to select the most predictive plaque texture measurements in independent...

  2. En plaque meningioma in thoracic spine: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kang, Ho Yeong; Yoon, Deug Hee; Jo, Byung June; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Young Geun [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Puchon Daesung Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Spinal en plaque meningioma is rarely found in the spinal canal, although lateral sphenoid wing meningioma displays a propensity for growth en plaque. We encountered a case of completely circumferential spinal en plaque meningioma, which is an even rarer condition. Herein, we report the CT MRI findings along with a review of the related literature.

  3. Influence of Blood Inertia on Vortex Enhancement in the Wake of Plaque Deposited Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Solangi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow of blood structure is presented in terms of stream line projections at different percentages of deposition against various Reynolds numbers. The impact of atherosclerosis is investigated on the vortex enhancement and intensity. The predicted results are computed in terms of stream function for quantifying the reattachment length and re-circulating flow rate of blood at various Reynolds numbers and different percentages of blockage. The results show that flow of blood is disturbs at the vicinity of blockage, especially in the down stream area that leads to the formation of vortexes. It is observed that the length of vortex increases along with the deposition levels as well as with increasing inertia .To solve the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the incompressibility constraints a semi-implicit time stepping procedure, namely Taylor- Galerkin/Pressure-correction finite element scheme has been employed.

  4. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of atherosclerosis using citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: calcifying microvesicles as imaging target for plaque characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Susanne; Schnorr, Jörg; Ludwig, Antje; Stangl, Verena; Ebert, Monika; Hamm, Bernd; Taupitz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the suitability of citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) as a contrast agent for identifying inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). VSOP, which have already been evaluated as a blood pool contrast agent for MR angiography in human clinical trials, were investigated in Watanabe heritable hyper-lipidemic rabbits to determine to what extent their accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is a function of macrophage density and other characteristics of progressive atherosclerotic plaques. In advanced atherosclerotic lesions, a significant MRI signal loss was found within 1 hour after intravenous administration of VSOP at the intended clinical dose of 0.05 mmol Fe/kg. Histological examinations confirmed correlations between the loss of MRI signal in the vessel wall and the presence of Prussian blue-stained iron colocalized with macrophages in the plaque cap, but surprisingly also with calcifying microvesicles at the intimomedial interface. Critical electrolyte magnesium chloride concentration in combination with Alcian blue stain indicates that highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans are a major constituent of these calcifying microvesicles, which may serve as the key molecules for binding VSOP due to their highly complexing properties. Calcifying microvesicles and macrophages are the targets for intravenously injected VSOP in atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that VSOP-enhanced MRI may render clinically relevant information on the composition and inflammatory activity of progressive atherosclerotic lesions at risk of destabilization.

  5. Topographic association of angioscopic yellow plaques with coronary atherosclerotic plaque: assessment with quantitative colorimetry in human coronary artery autopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Lisauskas, Jennifer B; Kawamura, Akio; Waxman, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Yellow plaques seen during coronary angioscopy are thought to be the surrogates for superficial intimal lipids in coronary plaque. Given diffuse and heterogeneous nature of atherosclerosis, yellow plaques in coronaries may be seen as several yellow spots on diffuse coronary plaque. We examined the topographic association of yellow plaques with coronary plaque. In 40 non-severely stenotic ex-vivo coronary segments (average length: 52.2 +/- 3.1 mm), yellow plaques were examined by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry. The segments were cut perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel at 2 mm intervals, and 1045 slides with 5 microm thick tissue for whole segments were prepared. To construct the plaque surface, each tissue slice was considered to be representative of the adjacent 2 mm. The circumference of the lumen and the lumen border of plaque were measured in each slide, and the plaque surface region was constructed. Coronary plaque was in 37 (93%) of 40 segments, and consisted of a single mass [39.9 +/- 3.9 (0-100) mm, 311.3 +/- 47.4 (0.0-1336.2) mm2]. In 30 (75%) segments, multiple (2-9) yellow plaques were detected on a mass of coronary plaque. The number of yellow plaques correlated positively with coronary plaque surface area (r = 0.77, P colorimetry, some of them are associated with lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps, may be used to assess the extent of coronary plaque. Further research using angioscopy could be of value to study the association of high-risk coronaries with acute coronary syndromes.

  6. Quantitative coronary plaque analysis predicts high-risk plaque morphology on coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the ROMICAT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Puchner, Stefan B; Lu, Michael T; Ghemigian, Khristine; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander; Pursnani, Amit; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2017-08-12

    Semi-automated software can provide quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic plaques on coronary CT angiography (CTA). The relationship between established qualitative high-risk plaque features and quantitative plaque measurements has not been studied. We analyzed the association between quantitative plaque measurements and qualitative high-risk plaque features on coronary CTA. We included 260 patients with plaque who underwent coronary CTA in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) II trial. Quantitative plaque assessment and qualitative plaque characterization were performed on a per coronary segment basis. Quantitative coronary plaque measurements included plaque volume, plaque burden, remodeling index, and diameter stenosis. In qualitative analysis, high-risk plaque was present if positive remodeling, low CT attenuation plaque, napkin-ring sign or spotty calcium were detected. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between quantitative and qualitative high-risk plaque assessment. Among 888 segments with coronary plaque, high-risk plaque was present in 391 (44.0%) segments by qualitative analysis. In quantitative analysis, segments with high-risk plaque had higher total plaque volume, low CT attenuation plaque volume, plaque burden and remodeling index. Quantitatively assessed low CT attenuation plaque volume (odds ratio 1.12 per 1 mm(3), 95% CI 1.04-1.21), positive remodeling (odds ratio 1.25 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.10-1.41) and plaque burden (odds ratio 1.53 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.08-2.16) were associated with high-risk plaque. Quantitative coronary plaque characteristics (low CT attenuation plaque volume, positive remodeling and plaque burden) measured by semi-automated software correlated with qualitative assessment of high-risk plaque features.

  7. Ultrasound Vascular Elastography as a Tool for Assessing Atherosclerotic Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Badar; Ewertsen, C; Carlsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    to distinguish between vulnerable and stable plaques. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on vascular elastography. A systematic search of the available literature for studies using elastography for assessing atherosclerotic plaques was conducted using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane...... compared to B-mode ultrasound alone. Most studies reported higher strain values for vulnerable plaques. Ultrasound elastography has potential as a clinical tool in the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Elastography is able to distinguish between different plaque types, but there is considerable...

  8. Plaque formation by Teschen disease virus and the effect of certain associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D

    1966-07-01

    A plaque assay method was developed for Teschen disease virus using primary pig kidney cultures in which neutral red stain was incorporated in the agar overlay medium. Certain factors associated with the plaque-forming ability of the virus were standardized. Cultures allowed to adsorb the virus for 45-60 minutes at 28 and 37 C, gave maximal plaque count. The virus infected the cellular layer through the agar medium. Plating efficiency of the virus was enhanced by using a small volume of inoculum. Addition of serum to the medium was not required. Neutral red concentration in the agar overlay medium affected the number of plaques. Statistical analysis demonstrated the uniformity of the plaque counts and their linear relationship to virus concentration. Isolation of the virus by the plaque technique from infected spinal cord supernatant fluid was achieved.

  9. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles : inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, B. C. M. Te; Bovens, S. M.; van de Kolk, C. W. A.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; ten Hove, M.; van der Weerd, L.; Poelmann, R.; Strijkers, G. J.; Pasterkamp, G.; van Echteld, C. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversi

  10. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Prócida Raggio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI and fluorescence camera (FC to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.

  11. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Pedersen, Sune F; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate inflammation in echolucent carotid artery plaques. BACKGROUND: Ultrasound echolucency of carotid artery plaques has been proven to differentiate patients at high risk of stroke. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) of plaques with the use...... for ultrasound and PET imaging. Plaque standardized gray scale medians (GSM) were measured in longitudinal ultrasound images to quantitate echolucency, and GSM values were compared with FDG PET uptake quantified by maximum standardized uptake values (SUV). Symptomatic plaques were compared with contralateral...... plaques ranged from high to low inflammatory activity, as depicted with PET. Quantitative FDG SUV differentiated asymptomatic from symptomatic plaques, whereas GSM values did not. There was a positive correlation between CD68 expression and FDG uptake (r = 0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  12. Plaque accumulations caused by interdental stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlanski, R J; Jäger, A; Schwestka, R; Bertzbach, F

    1988-11-01

    Human enamel surfaces were stripped with orthodontic grinding and finishing materials, and evaluated with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Even under in vitro conditions with the finest finishing strips, it was not possible to produce an enamel surface free of the furrows that result from the initial abrasion caused by the coarse strip. Enamel surfaces stripped gradually from coarse to superfine were left in the mouths of patients for 12 weeks and evaluated with the SEM. The edges of the furrows were found to be smoother but the furrows remained wide and deep enough to facilitate more plaque accumulations than those on untreated surfaces. The use of dental floss did not result in prevention of plaque accumulations along the bottom of the furrows.

  13. Oculocutaneous albinism complicated with an ulcerated plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokanatha Keshavalu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male with a history of albinism and farmer by occupation presented with an ulcerated plaque on the right wrist. The patient had light eyes, hair, and skin. Physical examination showed extensive photodamage. A skin biopsy specimen from the plaque revealed a well-differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma. Wide surgical excision was done. The most common types of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA, OCA 1 and OCA 2, are autosomal recessive disorders of pigmentation that commonly affect the skin, hair and eyes. Photodamage and skin cancers plague patients with albinism. Albinos face a myriad of social and medical issues. Importance of photoprotection, skin cancer surveillance and treatment has been stressed upon in this report.

  14. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  15. Smooth muscle cells healing atherosclerotic plaque disruptions are of local, not blood, origin in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Jacob F; Sondergaard, Claus S; Kassem, Mustafa;

    2007-01-01

    circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. Here, we analyzed the contribution of this mechanism to plaque healing after spontaneous and mechanical plaque disruption in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the origin of SMCs after spontaneous plaque disruption......, irradiated 18-month-old apoE-/- mice were reconstituted with bone marrow cells from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic apoE-/- mice and examined when they died up to 9 months later. Plaque hemorrhage, indicating previous plaque disruption, was widely present, but no bone marrow-derived e......GFP+ SMCs were detected. To examine the origin of healing SMCs in a model that recapitulates more features of human plaque rupture and healing, we developed a mechanical technique that produced consistent plaque disruption, superimposed thrombosis, and SMC-mediated plaque healing in apoE-/- mice. Mechanical...

  16. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environmental and infection factors; every possible effort to eliminate or avoid from these factors had to be considered. Subgingival plaque is a source of infection, especially the Gram-negative bacteria that produced endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS, a potential stimulator of immunocompetent cells, which may also related to allergy, such as mast cells and basophils. In addition, it also triggers the “neurogenic switching” mechanism which may be initiated from chronic gingivitis. Objective: This case report may explain the possible connection between subgingival plaque and allergy based on evidence-based cases. Case: Two adult siblings who suffered from chronic gingivitis also showed different manifestations of allergy that were allergic dermatitis and asthma for years. They were also undergone unsuccessful medical treatment for years. Oral and topical corticosteroids were taken for dermatitis and inhalation for asthma. Case Management: Patients were conducted deep scaling procedures, allergic symptoms gradually diminished in days even though without usual medications. Conclusion: Concerning to the effectiveness of scaling procedures which concomitantly eliminate subgingival plaque in allergic patients, it concluded that this concept is logical. Nevertheless, further verification and collaborated study with allergic expert should be done.

  17. Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozek Erdinc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report an 18 year old woman with an intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma located in the thoracic region. The patient was operated via thoracic laminoplasty and tumor was totally resected. On the follow-up examination the magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the total excision of the tumor. Here we describe a case of intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord as a complication of tuberculosis meningitis in a previously healthy young female.

  18. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polichetti Paolo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extremely rare cases of paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic production of proteins associated with liposarcoma are reported in literature. Production of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor, alpha-fetoprotein, paraneoplastic pemphigus and leucocytosis, Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex's syndrome are reported. The present report describes a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis. Our search in the English literature of such a kind of association did not reveal any case reported. Case presentation A 74 year male patient was admitted to our hospital because of the presence of an abdominal mass in right iliac fossa. He also complained of a two-year history of psoriasiform eruptions. The CT scan showed a retroperitoneal pelvic mass. Therefore surgical resection of the tumor was performed. After surgery, the skin eruptions disappeared completely in seven days and so a diagnosis of parapsoriasis syndrome was done. Conclusion Parallel disappearing of skin eruptions after surgery, typical clinical picture and not specific histology of the cutaneous lesions suggest the diagnosis of small plaque parapsoriasis. Therefore we propose to add Small Plaque Parapsoriasis to the list of paraneoplastic syndromes associated to liposarcoma.

  19. Effect of plaque accumulation and salivary factors on enamel demineralization and plaque composition in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenuta Livia Maria Andaló

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of some plaque and salivary factors on caries progression in situ. The salivary secretion rate, buffering capacity and mutans streptococci counts from 13 volunteers were determined. For three distinct periods of time, 4, 7 and 10 days, each of them wore a palatal appliance containing 4 bovine enamel blocks. They used a non-fluoridated dentifrice during the experiment and a 20% sucrose solution was dripped onto the blocks 10 times a day. Mutans streptococci (MS, calcium (Ca, and insoluble polysaccharide (IP were quantified in the dental plaque formed on the enamel blocks, after each period. Enamel demineralization was assessed by surface microhardness, and the percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC in relation to the baseline values was calculated. Enamel demineralization occurred after each period of plaque accumulation (p < 0.05, and the %SMC increased with time (from 13.8 to 48.3%. The concentrations of Ca and IP in plaque were not statistically different among the experimental times, but significant correlations were found between these concentrations and %SMC. Neither the salivary factors assessed initially nor mutans streptococci in plaque presented statistically significant correlations to %SMC. The results suggest that enamel demineralization is time-dependent and is more related to the composition of the biofilm formed than to the salivary factors studied.

  20. Disruption of Glut1 in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Prevents Myelopoiesis and Enhanced Glucose Flux in Atheromatous Plaques of ApoE(-/-) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazy, Vincent; Viaud, Manon; Westerterp, Marit; Ivanov, Stoyan; Giorgetti-Peraldi, Sophie; Guinamard, Rodolphe; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Thorp, Edward B; De Vivo, Darryl C; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Inflamed atherosclerotic plaques can be visualized by noninvasive positron emission and computed tomographic imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, a glucose analog, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we directly investigated the role of Glut1-mediated glucose uptake in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model of atherosclerosis. We first showed that the enhanced glycolytic flux in atheromatous plaques of ApoE(-/-) mice was associated with the enhanced metabolic activity of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells and higher Glut1 expression in these cells. Mechanistically, the regulation of Glut1 in ApoE(-/-) hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells was not because of alterations in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α signaling or the oxygenation status of the bone marrow but was the consequence of the activation of the common β subunit of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 receptor driving glycolytic substrate utilization by mitochondria. By transplanting bone marrow from WT, Glut1(+/-), ApoE(-/-), and ApoE(-/-)Glut1(+/-) mice into hypercholesterolemic ApoE-deficient mice, we found that Glut1 deficiency reversed ApoE(-/-) hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cell proliferation and expansion, which prevented the myelopoiesis and accelerated atherosclerosis of ApoE(-/-) mice transplanted with ApoE(-/-) bone marrow and resulted in reduced glucose uptake in the spleen and aortic arch of these mice. We identified that Glut1 connects the enhanced glucose uptake in atheromatous plaques of ApoE(-/-) mice with their myelopoiesis through regulation of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cell maintenance and myelomonocytic fate and suggests Glut1 as potential drug target for atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina

  2. Detection of Unstable Carotid Plaque by Tissue Doppler Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in a Patient with Recurrent Amaurosis Fugax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Kunte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US is one of the most important diagnostic tools available for the detection and evaluation of carotid stenosis. The case of a 70-year-old woman with recurrent right-sided amaurosis fugax presented here highlights the way in which tissue Doppler imaging (TDI and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS may aid in the diagnosis of carotid plaque vulnerability. Furthermore, the novel inverse fly-through technique was used for the three-dimensional visualization of the carotid stenosis.

  3. Thrombosis and morphology of plaque rupture using optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jun; CHEN Yun-dai; TIAN Feng; LIU Hong-bin; CHEN Lian; SUN Zhi-jun; REN Yi-hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombosis following plaque rupture is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome,but not all plaque ruptures lead to thrombosis.There are limited in vivo data on the relationship between the morphology of ruptured plaque and thrombosis.Methods We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the morphology of plaque rupture and its relation to coronary artery thrombosis in patients with coronary heart disease.Forty-two patients with coronary artery plaque rupture detected by OCT were divided into two groups (with or without thrombus) and the morphological characteristics of ruptured plaque,including fibrous cap thickness and broken cap site,were recorded.Results The fibrous cap of ruptured plaque with thrombus was significantly thinner compared to caps without thrombus ((57.00±17.00) μm vs.(96.00±48.00) μm; P=0.0076).Conclusions Plaque rupture associated with thrombosis occurs primarily in plaque covered by a thin fibrous cap.Thick fibrous caps are associated with greater stability of ruptured plaque.

  4. Assessment of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation can be improved by delayed time point FDG PET CT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Hildebrandt, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Blood pool FDG activity can cloud the atherosclerotic plaque FDG signal. Over time, blood pool FDG activity declines. Therefore, delayed time point FDG PET CT imaging can potentially enhance the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers with...

  5. Quantification of the uncertainty in coronary CTA plaque measurements using dynamic cardiac phantom and 3D-printed plaque models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Taylor; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Rubin, Geoffrey; Segars, Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) stenosis measurements using newly developed physical coronary plaque models attached to a base dynamic cardiac phantom (Shelley Medical DHP-01). Coronary plaque models (5 mm diameter, 50% stenosis, and 32 mm long) were designed and 3D-printed with tissue equivalent materials (calcified plaque with iodine enhanced lumen). Realistic cardiac motion was achieved by fitting known cardiac motion vectors to left ventricle volume-time curves to create synchronized heart motion profiles executed by the base cardiac phantom. Realistic coronary CTA acquisition was accomplished by synthesizing corresponding ECG waveforms for gating and reconstruction purposes. All scans were acquired using a retrospective gating technique on a dual-source CT system (Siemens SOMATOM FLASH) with 75ms temporal resolution. Multi-planar reformatted images were reconstructed along vessel centerlines and the enhanced lumens were manually segmented by 5 independent operators. On average, the stenosis measurement accuracy was 0.9% positive bias for the motion free condition (0 bpm). The measurement accuracy monotonically decreased to 18.5% negative bias at 90 bpm. Contrast-tonoise (CNR), vessel circularity, and segmentation conformity also decreased monotonically with increasing heart rate. These results demonstrate successful implementation of the base cardiac phantom with 3D-printed coronary plaque models, adjustable motion profiles, and coordinated ECG waveforms. They further show the utility of the model to ascertain metrics of coronary CT accuracy and image quality under a variety of plaque, motion, and acquisition conditions.

  6. Plaque complement activation and cognitive loss in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camp Dianne M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complement activation is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD, but its significance is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between complement activation and cognition during the development of AD. Methods iC3b, C9, Bielschowsky, and Gallyas staining was performed on aged normal (n = 17, mild cognitively impaired (n = 12, and AD (n = 17–18 inferior temporal gyrus specimens. Plaques were counted in 10× fields with high numbers of Bielschowsky-stained plaques. One-way ANOVA was used to determine between-group differences for plaque counts and measures of cognitive function, and linear regression was used to evaluate global cognition as a function of Bielschowsky-stained plaques. Terms for iC3b- and C9-stained plaques were then added sequentially as additional predictors in a "mediation analysis" model. Results Complement was detected on plaques in all groups, and on neurofibrillary tangles only in AD specimens. iC3b, C9, and Bielschowsky-stained plaque counts increased 2.5- to 3-fold in AD vs. other groups (all p ≤ 0.01. C9 staining was present on some diffuse plaques, as well as on neuritic plaques. Bielschowsky-stained and complement-stained plaque counts were highly correlated, and were negatively correlated with cognitive measures. When the Bielschowsky plaque count was used as a predictor, its correlations with cognitive measures were statistically significant, but when iC3b and C9 plaque counts were added as additional predictors, these correlations were no longer significant. This loss of significance was attributed to multicollinearity, i.e., high correlations between Bielschowsky-stained and complement-stained plaque counts. Conclusion Both early-stage (iC3b and late-stage (C9 complement activation occurs on neocortical plaques in subjects across the cognitive spectrum; contrary to previous reports, C9 is present on some diffuse plaques. Because of high correlations between

  7. Dynamic Model Visualizing the Process of Viral Plaque Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Microbiology and Virology courses, viral plaques are often presented to students as the way one can visualize viruses/bacteriophages. While students generally grasp the idea that counting plaques is essentially the same as counting viruses in their sample (assuming that one virus entering the cell is sufficient for productive infection, the process of plaque formation itself remains largely obscure. Many students fail to appreciate that viral plaques are actually a “laboratory-made” phenomenon allowing us to observe and study the growth of lytic viruses. The latter often presents a challenge for the interpretation of experimental data related to viral growth and drug discovery using plaque reduction assay. The hands-on model described here creates an opportunity for students to experience the process of viral plaque formation while engaging multiple senses and creating a lasting impression.  

  8. Plaques Formed by Mutagenized Viral Populations Have Elevated Coinfection Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Elizabeth R.; Erickson, Andrea K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.; Robinson, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plaque assay is a common technique used to measure virus concentrations and is based upon the principle that each plaque represents a single infectious unit. As such, the number of plaques is expected to correlate linearly with the virus dilution plated, and each plaque should be formed by a single founder virus. Here, we examined whether more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation. By using genetic and phenotypic assays with genetically marked polioviruses, we found that multiple parental viruses are present in 5 to 7% of plaques, even at an extremely low multiplicity of infection. We demonstrated through visual and biophysical assays that, like many viral stocks, our viral stocks contain both single particles and aggregates. These data suggest that aggregated virions are capable of inducing coinfection and chimeric plaque formation. In fact, inducing virion aggregation via exposure to low pH increased coinfection in a flow cytometry-based assay. We hypothesized that plaques generated by viruses with high mutation loads may have higher coinfection frequencies due to processes restoring fitness, such as complementation and recombination. Indeed, we found that coinfection frequency correlated with mutation load, with 17% chimeric plaque formation for heavily mutagenized viruses. Importantly, the frequency of chimeric plaques may be underestimated by up to threefold, since coinfection with the same parental virus cannot be scored in our assay. This work indicates that more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation and that coinfection may assist plaque formation in situations where the amount of genome damage is high. PMID:28292984

  9. Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushruth Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the formation of life-threatening plaques in blood vessels, is a form of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we analyze a simplified model of plaque growth to derive physically meaningful results about the growth of plaques. In particular, the main results of this paper are two conditions, which express that the immune response increases as LDL cholesterol levels increase and that diffusion prevails over inflammation in a healthy artery.

  10. Plaque biofilms: the effect of chemical environment on natural human plaque biofilm architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C; Strafford, S; Rees, G; Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J; Shore, R C; Watson, P S; Wood, S

    2006-11-01

    The architecture of microbial biofilms especially the outer regions have an important influence on the interaction between biofilm and local environment particularly on the flux of materials into and out of biofilm compartments and as a consequence, biofilm metabolic behaviour. In the case of dental plaque biofilms, architecture will determine access of nutrients including acidogenic substrates and therapeutic materials to the microbial biomass and to the underlying tooth surface. Manipulation of this architecture may offer a means of altering mass transfer into the whole biofilm and biomass and raises the possibility of improving access of therapeutics. Plaque biofilms formed in vivo on human enamel were subjected to a number of different chemical conditions while under observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflection mode. In this way the outer 50-100 microm or so of the biofilms was examined. Density and distribution of biomass were recorded as degree of reflectance. The amount and density of biofilm biomass increased from the plaque saliva interface towards the interior. Plaque biofilms were robust and little affected by mechanical manipulation, high ionic strength or low pH (2.5). Detergent (SLS), however, often appeared to either remove biomass and/or dramatically reduce its density.

  11. Association of Streptococcus with Plaque Type of Psoriasis

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    Mohammad Akram Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guttate psoriasis has a well-known association with streptococcal throat infections, but the effects of these infections in patients with chronic plaque type of psoriasis remains to be evaluated. In Bangladesh several studies were done on psoriasis but no data about association between streptococcal throat infection and plaque type psoriasis are available so far. Considering the co-morbidities of psoriasis patients, it might be justifiable to find out the events that provoke the initiation or exacerbation of psoriatic disease process. Objective: To observe the association of streptococcus with plaque type of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in the department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka. Forty seven patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as having plaque psoriasis were selected as cases and patients with skin diseases other than psoriasis were selected as controls. Results: In this study majority of subjects (55% were diagnosed as chronic plaque psoriasis. Among the subjects with guttate flare of chronic plaque psoriasis 64.2% gave a positive history of sore throat. ASO titer was raised (>200 IU/mL in 28 (59.5% patients of chronic plaque psoriasis and 7 (17.9% patients of non-psoriatic respondents. The difference between two groups was significant (p0.05. Conclusion: This study shows that streptococcal throat infections are associated with plaque psoriasis and early treatment of throat infections may be beneficial for plaque type of psoriasis patients.

  12. Microbial characterization of an experimental cariogenic plaque in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, C A; Koulourides, T; Hickman, F; McGhee, J R

    1977-06-01

    Experimentally induced plaque seemed to originate by direct contact inoculation from the vestibular mucosa and saliva. During the next seven days, this plaque developed its own characteristics. Populations of Streptococcus mutans usually less than 2% of total streptococci population in plaques that were less than three days old, increased between days 3 and 7. Proportions of S sanguis, high in early samples, decreased after day 3. Populations of S salivarius, which usually outnumbered other streptococci, fluctuated widely through day 3, and then increased in proportion in subjects who were more productive of experimental caries, but decreased in subjects who were less productive. Proportions of plaque flora comprising lactobacilli paralleled those of S salivarius.

  13. Stress analysis of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques: crack propagation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani-Sharif, Alireza; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Kazemi-Saleh, Davood; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam

    2016-12-09

    Traditionally, the degree of luminal obstruction has been used to assess the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. However, recent studies have revealed that other factors such as plaque morphology, material properties of lesion components and blood pressure may contribute to the fracture of atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques based on the mechanical stress distribution and fatigue analysis by means of numerical simulation. Realistic models of type V plaques were reconstructed based on histological images. Finite element method was used to determine mechanical stress distribution within the plaque. Assuming that crack propagation initiated at the sites of stress concentration, crack propagation due to pulsatile blood pressure was modeled. Results showed that crack propagation considerably changed the stress field within the plaque and in some cases led to initiation of secondary cracks. The lipid pool stiffness affected the location of crack formation and the rate and direction of crack propagation. Moreover, increasing the mean or pulse pressure decreased the number of cycles to rupture. It is suggested that crack propagation analysis can lead to a better recognition of factors involved in plaque rupture and more accurate determination of vulnerable plaques.

  14. Inverse association between size of the lipid-rich necrotic core and vascularization in human carotid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmgren, Ola; Johansson, Lars; Prahl, Ulrica; Schmidt, Caroline; Bergström, Göran M L

    2017-04-12

    To study the relationship between the size of the lipid-rich necrotic core measured by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and the level of plaque vascularization measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, in human carotid plaques. Further, to compare the size of lipid-rich necrotic core from MRI to plaque echogenicity. Thirty-one subjects with carotid plaques underwent standard B-mode ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI. The lipid-rich necrotic core was quantified using MRI. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was used to measure carotid plaque vascularization. Standard B-mode ultrasound was used to measure plaque echogenicity as greyscale median. The amount of lipid-rich necrotic core correlated inversely with the degree of plaque vascularization (r = -0·40, P = 0·03). There were no correlations between the degree of plaque vascularization and the amount of fibrous tissue or calcifications. There were no correlations between greyscale median and the lipid-rich necrotic core, fibrous tissue or calcifications. We show that more dense plaque vascularization is associated with a lower plaque content of lipid-rich necrotic core. A large lipid-rich necrotic core and high plaque vascularization are both proposed as predictors of vulnerability, and our finding is therefore odds with some earlier observations. Our finding can be explained by the fact that the necrotic core of the plaque contains no viable tissue and therefore less of the plaque can be vascularized if the lipid-rich necrotic core is large. Our study suggests that the true relation between plaque vascularization and other indices of vulnerability is more complex than initially thought. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed.

  16. The molecular concept of atheromatous plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Zar Chi; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kosai, Nik; Rajan, Reynu; Das, Srijit

    2016-05-02

    Recently, there are scientific attempts to devise new drugs in the biotechnology industry in order to treat various diseases including atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is considered to be a leading cause of death throughout the world. Atherosclerosis involves oxidative damage to the cells with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Development of atheromatous plaques in the arterial wall is a common feature. Specific inflammatory markers pertaining to the arterial wall in atherosclerosis may be useful for both diagnosis and treatment. These include macrophage inhibiting factor (MIF), leucocytes and P-selectin. Modern therapeutic paradigms involving endothelial progenitor cells therapy, angiotensin II type-2 (AT2R) and ATP-activated purinergic receptor therapy are notable to mention. Future drugs may be designed aiming three signalling mechanisms of AT2R which are (a) activation of protein phosphatases resulting in protein dephosphorylation (b) activation of bradykinin/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway by vasodilation and (c) stimulation of phospholipase A(2) and release of arachidonic acid. Drugs may also be designed to act on ATP-activated purinergic receptor channel type P2X7 molecules which acts on cardiovascular system. In the present review, we discuss the molecular concept of the inflammatory process occurring inside the arterial wall. Better understanding of the vascular inflammatory processes and the cells involved in the formation of plaques, may prove to be beneficial for future diagnosis, clinical treatment and planning innovative novel anti-atherosclerotic drugs.

  17. Concept of Remission in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisondi, Paolo; Di Mercurio, Marco; Idolazzi, Luca; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2015-11-01

    Psoriasis is a lifelong chronic inflammatory disease affecting 2-3% of the worldwide population. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis assigns central importance to an interaction between acquired and innate immunity. The disease is characterized by a series of linked cellular changes in the skin, including hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes, angiogenesis, and infiltration of T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and other types of leukocytes in the affected skin. Plaque psoriasis is the most common clinical form and is characterized by red and scaly plaques generally localized at extensor sites such as elbows and knees. Major determinants of psoriasis severity include the extent of skin involvement; localization in highly affected areas such as scalp, palms, and soles; pruritus; presence of comorbidities including psoriatic arthritis; and impairment on quality of life. About one-third of patients have moderate to severe psoriasis defined as PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) and/or Dermatology Life Quality Index>10, and/or affected body surface area>10%. The optimal treatment goal is to safely achieve complete or almost complete skin clearance. Treatments available are various and they are chosen according to disease features, comorbidities, and patient characteristics and priorities. Topical treatments including corticosteroids and Vitamin D analogs are reserved for mild disease. Phototherapy, cyclosporine, methotrexate, acitretin, or biologics such as tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists and ustekinumab are reserved for the moderate to severe forms.

  18. Effect of Root Surface Iron Plaque on Se Translocation and Uptake by Fe-Deficient Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, ferric hydroxide deposits on the surface of rice roots and affects uptake and translocation of certain nutrients. In the present study, rice plants were cultured in Fe-deficient or sufficient solutions and placed in a medium containing selenium (Se) for 2 h. Then, FeSO4 was added at the various concentrations of 0, 10, 40, or 70mg L-1 to induce varying levels of iron plaque on the root surfaces and subsequent uptake of Se was monitored. The uptake of Se was inhibited by the iron plaque, with the effect proportional to the amount of plaque induced. The activity of cysteine synthase was decreased with increasing amounts of iron plaque on the roots. This may be the important reason for iron plaque inhibition of Se translocation. At each level of iron plaque, Fe-deficient rice had more Se than Fe-sufficient rice. Furthermore, with plaque induced by 20 mg Fe L-1, plants from Fe-deficient media accumulated more Se than those from Fe-sufficient media, as the Se concentration was increased from 10 to 30 or 50 mg L-1. We found that phytosiderophores, highly effective iron chelating agents, could desorb selenite from ferrihydrite. Root exudates of the Fe-deficient rice, especially phytosiderophores in the exudates, could enhance Se uptake by rice plants with iron plaque.

  19. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants. PMID:27630494

  20. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970 participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7 th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  1. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  2. Lack of autologous tissue transmission of eosinophilic plaques in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, K A; Kunkle, G; Miller, L M; Crowley, A

    1990-07-01

    Autologous tissue transmission of spontaneously developing feline eosinophilic plaques was attempted in 5 cats. Macerated tissue from the plaque was vigorously rubbed onto 2 scarified skin sites in each cat. The inoculated areas were observed daily for 30 days. During that time, no clinical or histologic evidence of transmission was found.

  3. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aortic stenosis (AS) shares risk factors with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque may reflect the cumulative damage from exposure to different atherosclerotic risk factors. We examined the relationship of carotid IMT and plaque with incident...

  4. A comparative study on plaque vulnerability using constitutive equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most serious and common form of cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Peak plaque stress is considered as the main reason for plaque rupture, which results in heart attack and stroke. In the current research, the finite element method is used to anticipate plaque vulnerability, using human samples. A total of 23 healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries (14 healthy and 9 atherosclerotic) were removed within 5 h postmortem. The samples were mounted on a uniaxial tensile test machine and the obtained mechanical properties were used in finite element models. The peak plaque stresses for the Ogden hyperelastic model were compared to the Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean outcomes. The results indicated that hypocellular plaque in all three models has the highest stress values compared to the cellular and calcified ones and, as a result, is quite prone to rupture. The calcified plaque type, in contrast, has the lowest stress values and remains stable. The results can be used in plaque vulnerability prediction and have clinical implications for interventions and surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and stenting.

  5. Directional spatial frequency analysis of lipid distribution in atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Clyde; Reese, Eric; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert; Russell, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the growth of fibrous plaques due to the retention of cholesterol and lipids within the artery wall, which can lead to vessel occlusion and cardiac events. One way to evaluate arterial disease is to quantify the amount of lipid present in these plaques, since a higher disease burden is characterized by a higher concentration of lipid. Although therapeutic stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport to reduce cholesterol deposits in plaque has not produced significant results, this may be due to current image analysis methods which use averaging techniques to calculate the total amount of lipid in the plaque without regard to spatial distribution, thereby discarding information that may have significance in marking response to therapy. Here we use Directional Fourier Spatial Frequency (DFSF) analysis to generate a characteristic spatial frequency spectrum for atherosclerotic plaques from C57 Black 6 mice both treated and untreated with a cholesterol scavenging nanoparticle. We then use the Cauchy product of these spectra to classify the images with a support vector machine (SVM). Our results indicate that treated plaque can be distinguished from untreated plaque using this method, where no difference is seen using the spatial averaging method. This work has the potential to increase the effectiveness of current in-vivo methods of plaque detection that also use averaging methods, such as laser speckle imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Het effect van suikervrije (functionele) kauwgom op plaque en gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Het doel van twee systematische literatuuronderzoeken was het onderzoeken van het effect van suikervrije (functionele) kauwgom op plaque en klinische parameters van gingivitis. Studie 1 onderzocht het effect op plaque en gingivitis van suikervrije kauwgom ten opzichte van geen kauwgomgebruik. Studie

  7. Red fluorescent dental plaque: An indicator of oral disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are worldwide the most common diseases, with dental caries and periodontal inflammatory diseases as most frequently occurring diseases. Both are strongly associated with dental plaque, which is the mass of bacteria (biofilm) that grows on surfaces in the mouth. Some dental plaque fluor

  8. Plaque removal by young children using old and new toothbrushes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Kyaing, M.M.; Aung, M.T.; Soe, W.; Rosema, N.A.; Weijden, G.A. van der; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    There is inconclusive evidence about the relationship between toothbrush wear and plaque removal. This randomized cross-over clinical trial aimed to validate or invalidate non-inferiority in the plaque-removal efficacy of old vs. new toothbrushes in the hands of 7- and 8-year-old children. The lower

  9. The use of imbricated sutures in radioactive plaque brachytherapy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaan Gündüz1, Jose S Pulido1, Peter D Yeakel2, Michael King3, Kelly L Classic1, Keith M Furutani21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, 3Section of Media Support Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: This paper describes a new technique to suture the radioactive plaque to sclera. The radioactive plaque is conventionally sutured to the sclera using 5/0 nylon sutures. The imbricated suture technique involves using a 1/0 silk or 2/0 mersilene suture imbricated with the 5/0 nylon suture when the nylon suture is tied and cut. The imbricated suture technique allows easy identification of the plaque at removal and provides a surface that separates the 5/0 nylon from the surface of the eyelet platform, making suture cutting easier and safer. The radiation exposure times ranged from 9.1 minutes to 14 minutes (mean: 10.8 minutes during plaque insertion and from 2.8 to 3.3 minutes (mean: 3.0 minutes during plaque removal with the imbricated suture technique. This technique may decrease radiation exposure time and may prevent inadvertent scleral damage.Keywords: plaque radiotherapy, Iodine-125, Ruthenium-106, Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, choroidal melanoma, ciliary body melanoma, retinoblastoma, plaque placement, plaque removal, radiation exposure

  10. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  11. [Effect of Root Iron Plaque on Norfloxacin Uptake by Rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Bao, Yan-yu

    2015-06-01

    In anaerobic condition, release of oxygen by roots to rhyzosphere caused the formation of red plaque of iron oxides or hydroxides on the root surface of rice. The effect of iron plaque on norfloxacin uptake was investigated with solution culture in greenhouse, and the results are showed in the following. The content of iron plaque increased with the increase of Fe2+ concentration in medium. After the addition of norfloxacin in nutrient solution, the content of iron plaques on the root surface decreased to different degree, and the reduction of iron plaques was increasing with the increase of norfloxacin mass concentration. Significant relationships were found between the iron plaques and norfloxacin on the root surface, and the correlation coefficients were 0.959 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 10 mg x L(-1)) and 0.987 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 50 mg x L(-1)), respectively, however, the norfloxacin contents in roots and shoots had no significant correlation with the iron plaques. After addition of different mass concentrations of norfloxacin, the quality distribution percentages of norfloxacin on the root surface and in roots and shoots were 87.7%-97.6%, 0.8%-4.8%, 1.5%-7.5%, respectively, the norfloxacin content on the root surface was far greater than those in roots and shoots. It was therefore concluded that iron plaque on roots was a norfloxacin reservoir for rice plant but had no significant effect on the transfer of norfloxacin to roots and shoots of the rice plant.

  12. Spectroscopy to improve identification of vulnerable plaques in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Janneke L M; Meerwaldt, Robbert; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Lefrandt, Joop D; Slart, Riemer H J A; Tio, René A; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-01-01

    Many apparent healthy persons die from cardiovascular disease, despite major advances in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are able to predict cardiovascular events in the long run, but fail to assess current disease activity or nearby cardiovascular events. There is a clear relation between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and the presence of so-called vulnerable plaques. These vulnerable plaques are characterized by active inflammation, a thin cap and a large lipid pool. Spectroscopy is an optical imaging technique which depicts the interaction between light and tissues, and thereby shows the biochemical composition of tissues. In recent years, impressive advances have been made in spectroscopy technology and intravascular spectroscopy is able to assess the composition of plaques of interest and thereby to identify and actually quantify plaque vulnerability. This review summarizes the current evidence for spectroscopy as a measure of plaque vulnerability and discusses the potential role of intravascular spectroscopic imaging techniques.

  13. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  14. Plaque Formation by and Plaque Cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis Biovar Trachoma

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Akira; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Ohuchi, Masanobu

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for the induction of plaque formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than ...

  15. Episcleral eye plaque dosimetry comparison for the Eye Physics EP917 using Plaque Simulator and Monte Carlo simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmermann, Leonard W; Amoush, Ahmad; Wilkinson, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    ... for an Eye Physics model EP917 eye plaque. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using MCNPX 2.7 was used to calculate the central axis dose in water for an EP917 eye plaque fully loaded with 17 IsoAid Advantage (125)I seeds...

  16. Episcleral eye plaque dosimetry comparison for the Eye Physics EP917 using Plaque Simulator and Monte Carlo simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmermann, Leonard W; Amoush, Ahmad; Wilkinson, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    ... for an Eye Physics model EP917 eye plaque. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using MCNPX 2.7 was used to calculate the central axis dose in water for an EP917 eye plaque fully loaded with 17 IsoAid Advantage   125 I seeds...

  17. Circulating Leukocyte and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Telomere Length Interrelation, Association With Plaque Characteristics, and Restenosis After Endarterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huzen, Jardi; Peeters, Wouter; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Moll, Frans L.; Wong, Liza S. M.; Codd, Veryan; de Kleijn, Dominique P. V.; de Smet, Bart J. G. L.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; van der Harst, Pim

    2011-01-01

    Objective-Shorter leukocyte telomeres are associated with atherosclerosis and predict future heart disease. The goal of the present study was to determine whether leukocyte telomere length is related to atherosclerotic plaque telomere length and whether it is associated with plaque characteristics o

  18. The plaque inhibitory effect of a CPC mouthrinse in a 3-day plaque accumulation model - a cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, P.A.; Rosema, N.A.M.; Hoenderdos, N.L.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:  To test the plaque inhibitory effect of an experimental 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinse in a 3-day plaque accumulation model in a cross-over design. Material and Methods:  A total of 30 subjects (non-dental students), ≥18 years of age, were randomly assigned to use one of

  19. When to image carotid plaque inflammation with FDG PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græbe, Martin; Borgwardt, Lise; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in inflamed high-risk carotid atherosclerotic plaques is challenged by the spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) and luminal blood activity. Late acquisition protocols have been used to overcome these challenges to enhance...... the contrast between the plaque and blood-pool FDG activity. However, for prospective studies the late acquisition is inconvenient for the patient and staff, and most retrospective studies of plaque uptake use data from early acquisition protocols. The objective was to evaluate changes in the quantification...

  20. Effects of exogenous gibberellic acid3 on iron and manganese plaque amounts and iron and manganese uptake in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Guo

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GA regulate various components of plant development. Iron and Mn plaque result from oxiding and hydroxiding Fe and Mn, respectively, on the roots of aquatic plant species such as rice (Oryza sativa L.. In this study, we found that exogenous gibberellic acid3 (GA3 spray decreased Fe plaque, but increased Mn plaque, with applications of Kimura B nutrient solution. Similar effects from GA3, leading to reduced Fe plaque and increased Mn plaque, were also found by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometric microanalysis. Reduced Fe plaque was observed after applying GA3 to the groups containing added Fe2+ (17 and 42 mg•L(-1 and an increasing trend was detected in Mn plaques of the Mn2+ (34 and 84 mg•L(-1 added treatments. In contrast, an inhibitor of GA3, uniconazole, reversed the effects of GA3. The uptake of Fe or Mn in rice plants was enhanced after GA3 application and Fe or Mn plaque production. Strong synergetic effects of GA3 application on Fe plaque production were detected. However, no synergetic effects on Mn plaque production were detected.

  1. microRNA-132/212 deficiency enhances Aβ production and senile plaque deposition in Alzheimer’s disease triple transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Rainone, Sara; Goupil, Claudia; Dorval, Véronique; Smith, Pascal Y.; Saint-Pierre, Martine; Vallée, Maxime; Planel, Emmanuel; Droit, Arnaud; Calon, Frédéric; Cicchetti, Francesca; Hébert, Sébastien S.

    2016-01-01

    The abnormal regulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism (e.g., production, cleavage, clearance) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Among endogenous factors believed to participate in AD progression are the small regulatory non-coding microRNAs (miRs). In particular, the miR-132/212 cluster is severely reduced in the AD brain. In previous studies we have shown that miR-132/212 deficiency in mice leads to impaired memory and enhanced Tau pathology as seen in AD patients. Here we demonstrate that the genetic deletion of miR-132/212 promotes Aβ production and amyloid (senile) plaque formation in triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics, we identified genes of the miR-132/212 network with documented roles in the regulation of Aβ metabolism, including Tau, Mapk, and Sirt1. Consistent with these findings, we show that the modulation of miR-132, or its target Sirt1, can directly regulate Aβ production in cells. Finally, both miR-132 and Sirt1 levels correlated with Aβ load in humans. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that the miR-132/212 network, including Sirt1 and likely other target genes, contributes to abnormal Aβ metabolism and senile plaque deposition in AD. This study strengthens the importance of miR-dependent networks in neurodegenerative disorders, and opens the door to multifactorial drug targets of AD by targeting Aβ and Tau. PMID:27484949

  2. Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental plaque biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Sculean, Anton

    2012-04-01

    Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections. However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm is unknown. To evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and chlorhexidine (CHX), 18 subjects had to refrain from all mechanical and chemical hygiene measures for 24 h. A voluminous supragingival plaque sample was taken from the buccal surfaces of the lower molars and wiped on an objective slide. The sample was then divided into three equal parts and mounted with one of the three test or control preparations (a) NaCl, (b) taurolidine 2% and (c) CHX 0.2%. After a reaction time of 2 min, the test solutions were sucked of. Subsequently, the plaque biofilm was stained with fluorescence dye and vitality of the plaque flora was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope (VF%). Plaque samples treated with NaCl showed a mean VF of 82.42 ± 6.04%. Taurolidine affected mean VF with 47.57 ± 16.60% significantly (p taurolidine). Taurolidine possesses a significant antibacterial effect on the supragingival plaque biofilm which was, however, not as pronounced as that of CHX.

  3. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  4. Dental plaque biofilm in oral health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Zhang, Cheng Fei; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2011-01-01

    Dental plaque is an archetypical biofilm composed of a complex microbial community. It is the aetiological agent for major dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The clinical picture of these dental diseases is a net result of the cross-talk between the pathogenic dental plaque biofilm and the host tissue response. In the healthy state, both plaque biofilm and adjacent tissues maintain a delicate balance, establishing a harmonious relationship between the two. However, changes occur during the disease process that transform this 'healthy' dental plaque into a 'pathogenic' biofilm. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have improved the understanding of dental plaque biofilm and produced numerous clinical benefits. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians keep abreast with these new developments in the field of dentistry. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind dental diseases will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to establish a 'healthy dental plaque biofilm' by modulating both host and microbial factors. In this review, the present authors aim to summarise the current knowledge on dental plaque as a microbial biofilm and its properties in oral health and disease.

  5. Butyrylcholinesterase in the life cycle of amyloid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillozet, A L; Smiley, J F; Mash, D C; Mesulam, M M

    1997-12-01

    Deposits of diffuse beta-amyloid (Abeta) may exist in the brain for many years before leading to neuritic degeneration and dementia. The factors that contribute to the putative transformation of the Abeta amyloid from a relatively inert to a pathogenic state remain unknown and may involve interactions with additional plaque constituents. Matching brain sections from 2 demented and 4 nondemented subjects were processed for the demonstration of Abeta immunoreactivity, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme activity, and thioflavine S binding. Additional sections were processed for the concurrent demonstration of two or three of these markers. A comparative analysis of multiple cytoarchitectonic areas processed with each of these markers indicated that Abeta plaque deposits are likely to undergo three stages of maturation, ie, a "diffuse" thioflavine S-negative stage, a thioflavine S-positive (ie, compact) but nonneuritic stage, and a compact neuritic stage. A multiregional analysis showed that BChE-positive plaques were not found in cytoarchitectonic areas or cortical layers that contained only the thioflavine S-negative, diffuse type of Abeta plaques. The BChE-positive plaques were found only in areas containing thioflavine S-positive compact plaques, both neuritic and nonneuritic. Within such areas, almost all (>98%) BChE-containing plaques bound thioflavine S, and almost all (93%) thioflavine S plaques contained BChE. These results suggest that BChE becomes associated with amyloid plaques at approximately the same time that the Abeta deposit assumes a compact beta-pleated conformation. BChE may therefore participate in the transformation of Abeta from an initially benign form to an eventually malignant form associated with neuritic tissue degeneration and clinical dementia.

  6. Lymphoma with large-plaque parapsoriasis treated with PUVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Risa; Katoh, Norito; Shimazaki, Chihiro; Okano, Akira; Yamada, Shinya; Ichihashi, Kaori; Masuda, Koji; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2005-01-01

    We report on a 78-year-old Japanese woman with a 50-year history of large-plaque parapsoriasis that had evolved into cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Her large-plaque parapsoriasis had been treated with psoralen plus ultraviolet A for 10 years. Subsequently an isolated nodule appeared on her right lower leg. Prior or concurrent patches or plaques were absent. Histology revealed a diffuse nonepidermotropic infiltrate of large lymphocytes in the dermis, which had enlarged nuclei and prominent nucleoli. A diagnosis of CD30- cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma was made. Following systemic chemotherapy, there was clinical improvement. No evidence of recurrence or systemic lymphoma has subsequently been found.

  7. Coronary Plaque Volume and Composition Assessed by Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients With Late-Onset Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Ovrehus, Kristian Altern

    2013-01-01

    in 28 patients with late-onset major depression and 27 controls. The calcified plaque proportion, i.e., the calcified plaque volume divided by the total plaque volume, was used to assess the plaque composition. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the total (p = 0.48), calcified...... of the total coronary plaque volume that was calcified was significantly higher in patients with late-onset major depression than in controls, indicating a difference in plaque composition.......Background: Depression is a stronger predictor for the onset of or death from clinical coronary artery disease than traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The association between depression and coronary artery disease has previously been investigated in non-contrast enhanced computed tomography...

  8. Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Prieto-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease in which genetics play a major role. Although many genome-wide association studies have been performed in psoriasis, knowledge of the age at onset remains limited. Therefore, we analyzed 173 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes associated with psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis type I (early-onset, <40 years or type II (late-onset, ≥40 years and healthy controls. Moreover, we performed a comparison between patients with type I psoriasis and patients with type II psoriasis. Our comparison of a stratified population with type I psoriasis n=155 and healthy controls N=197 is the first to reveal a relationship between the CLMN, FBXL19, CCL4L, C17orf51, TYK2, IL13, SLC22A4, CDKAL1, and HLA-B/MICA genes. When we compared type I psoriasis with type II psoriasis N=36, we found a significant association between age at onset and the genes PSORS6, TNF-α, FCGR2A, TNFR1, CD226, HLA-C, TNFAIP3, and CCHCR1. Moreover, we replicated the association between rs12191877 (HLA-C and type I psoriasis and between type I and type II psoriasis. Our findings highlight the role of genetics in age of onset of psoriasis.

  9. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  10. Large plaque parapsoriasis: clinical and genotypic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M; Flaig, M J; Kind, P; Sander, C A; Kaudewitz, P

    2000-02-01

    Twelve patients with large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) were investigated for the presence of predominant T-cell clones, analyzing the T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma-chain gene. The diagnostic and prognostic significance of TCR gene rearrangement status was assessed by a correlation with the long-term clinical follow-up. Six out of 12 patients showed a clonal T-cell population. Clinically, among the patients with clonal disease one developed clearcut mycosis fungoides (MF) after a follow-up of 8 years, in the other 5 patients no such diagnosis could be made after follow-up of 2-21 years (median: 9 years). In patients with polyclonal infiltrates the lesions remained virtually unchanged. These findings indicate that in LPP TCR gene rearrangement status has no prognostic significance and does not allow distinction of LPP and early MF. Both conditions show a clonal T-cell infiltrate with similar frequency, are very similar in clinical and histologic presentation and according to recent studies share the same low risk to develop overt MF. Therefore both terms refer to the identical clinical situation. This should be designated as early MF and efforts should concentrate on identifying those patients that are at risk to develop aggressive disease.

  11. Identification of High-Risk Plaques by MRI and Fluorescence Imaging in a Rabbit Model of Atherothrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Hua

    Full Text Available The detection of atherosclerotic plaques at risk for disruption will be greatly enhanced by molecular probes that target vessel wall biomarkers. Here, we test if fluorescently-labeled Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptides (ACPPs could differentiate stable plaques from vulnerable plaques that disrupt, forming a luminal thrombus. Additionally, we test the efficacy of a combined ACPP and MRI technique for identifying plaques at high risk of rupture.In an atherothrombotic rabbit model, disrupted plaques were identified with in vivo MRI and co-registered in the same rabbit aorta with the in vivo uptake of ACPPs, cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or thrombin. ACPP uptake, mapped ex vivo in whole aortas, was higher in disrupted compared to non-disrupted plaques. Specifically, disrupted plaques demonstrated a 4.5~5.0 fold increase in fluorescence enhancement, while non-disrupted plaques showed only a 2.2~2.5 fold signal increase. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis indicates that both ACPPs (MMP and thrombin show high specificity (84.2% and 83.2% and sensitivity (80.0% and 85.7% in detecting disrupted plaques. The detection power of ACPPs was improved when combined with the MRI derived measure, outward remodeling ratio.Our targeted fluorescence ACPP probes distinguished disrupted plaques from stable plaques with high sensitivity and specificity. The combination of anatomic, MRI-derived predictors for disruption and ACPP uptake can further improve the power for identification of high-risk plaques and suggests future development of ACPPs with molecular MRI as a readout.

  12. 3D Isotropic MR Culprit Plaque Visualization of Carotid Plaque Edema and Hemorrhage with Motion Sensitized Blood Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Bloch, Lars Ø.;

    2014-01-01

    hemorrhage and plaque edema may represent advanced stages of atherosclerosis[1, 2]. In this study, we present a novel multi-contrast 3D motion sensitized black-blood CMR imaging sequence, which detects both plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast. Subjects and Methods The 3D imaging sequence...... to lumen was 39.74±6.75. Discussion/Conclusion In conclusion, the proposed 3D isotropic multi-contrast CMR technique detects plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast and excellent black-blood contrast, which may facilitate evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies will include CMR...

  13. Plaque formation by and plaque cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, A; Izutsu, H; Miyashita, N; Ohuchi, M

    1998-10-01

    A new technique for the induction of plaque formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than that of plasmid-positive strains, possession of the plasmid and glycogen accumulation were not essential for the survival of C. trachomatis.

  14. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  15. Coronary spasm, a pathogenic trigger of vulnerable plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xin; L(U) Shu-zheng; ZHANG Wei-jun; SONG Xian-tao; CHEN Hui; ZHANG Li-jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective This coronary artery spasm review aimed to explore the most possible pathogenic trigger mechanism of vulnerable plaque rupture.Data sources Data used in this coronary artery spasm review were mainly from Medline and Pubmed in English.Study selection These reports from major review on coronary artery spasm.and these research included coronary artery conception,pathogenesis of spasm,mechanisms of plaque rupture,epidemiological evidence,clinical manifestation and the relationship between coronary artery spasm and vulnerable plaque rupture.Results Coronary artery spasm is somehow related to the presence of atherosclerotic intima disease in the coronary artery.However,chronic low-grade inflammation causes coronary vessel smooth muscle cell hypersensitivity,which can directely cause coronary artery spasm.Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death may be initiated by a sudden intense localized contraction of coronary artery smooth muscle.Conclusion Coronary artery spasm may be one trigger that can initiate and exacerbate vulnerable plaque rupture.

  16. ATYPICAL LARGE PLAQUE PARAPSORIASIS IN A YOUNG ADULT

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj; Mrityunjay Kumar; Himanshu; Mayank

    2015-01-01

    A case of large plaque parapsoriasis with extensive skin lesions is presented for its unusual clinical features. The controversial issue of its nosological position is discussed as it has a considerable impact on the management of such cases

  17. Argonne National Laboratory research offers clues to Alzheimer's plaques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago have developed methods to directly observe the structure and growth of microscopic filaments that form the characteristic plaques found in the brains of those with Alzheimer's Disease (1 page).

  18. Prevalence of Periodontal Pathogens in Dental Plaque of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gafan, Gavin P.; Lucas, Victoria S.; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Wilson, Michael; Spratt, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Tannerella forsythensis have been implicated as the main etiological agents of periodontal disease. The purpose of this work was to estimate the prevalence of these organisms in plaque from children without gingivitis (group 1; n = 65) and from those with gingivitis (group 2; n = 53). Extracted DNA from plaque was subjected to two rounds of PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene using both universal primers and species-specific prim...

  19. Association between chlamydia pneumoniae infection and carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumonia infection and atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the association between this organism and atherosclerotic plaque formation in right and left common carotid arteries (CCAs and extracranial portions of internal carotid arteries (ICAs.
    METHODS: Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (IgA and IgG were measured and compared in 42 patients who had plaque in at least one CCA or ICA (detected by duplex ultrasound and 82 patients without any plaque in these arteries. Cp.IgG and Cp.IgA titers over 1.10 ISR were defined to be positive.
    RESULTS: We found that 6.1% of control subjects and 16.7% of cases were Cp.IgA seropositive. The difference between these two groups was prominent but was not statistically significant (P = 0.104. 4.2% of females without atherosclerotic plaque and 31.6% of females with plaque were Cp.IgA seropositive. This difference is statistically significant (P = 0.005. There was no significant difference in seropositivity of Cp.IgG between case and control subjects or in male and female groups with or without plaque.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cp.IgA is a predictor of atherosclerosis in women, but Cp.IgG has no predictive value for plaque formation in either gender.
    KEY WORDS: Atherosclerotic plaque, Chlamydia pneumoniae, serum antibody.

  20. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung; Choi, So Yeon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm{sup 3}, 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm{sup 3}, 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  1. Regression of atherosclerosis is characterized by broad changes in the plaque macrophage transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Feig

    Full Text Available We have developed a mouse model of atherosclerotic plaque regression in which an atherosclerotic aortic arch from a hyperlipidemic donor is transplanted into a normolipidemic recipient, resulting in rapid elimination of cholesterol and monocyte-derived macrophage cells (CD68+ from transplanted vessel walls. To gain a comprehensive view of the differences in gene expression patterns in macrophages associated with regressing compared with progressing atherosclerotic plaque, we compared mRNA expression patterns in CD68+ macrophages extracted from plaque in aortic aches transplanted into normolipidemic or into hyperlipidemic recipients. In CD68+ cells from regressing plaque we observed that genes associated with the contractile apparatus responsible for cellular movement (e.g. actin and myosin were up-regulated whereas genes related to cell adhesion (e.g. cadherins, vinculin were down-regulated. In addition, CD68+ cells from regressing plaque were characterized by enhanced expression of genes associated with an anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype, including arginase I, CD163 and the C-lectin receptor. Our analysis suggests that in regressing plaque CD68+ cells preferentially express genes that reduce cellular adhesion, enhance cellular motility, and overall act to suppress inflammation.

  2. Effects of octenidine on dental plaque and gingivitis in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shern, R J; Little, W A; Kennedy, J B; Mirth, D B

    1987-09-01

    This investigation monitored the effects of daily oral rinses with octenidine on plaque and gingivitis in five monkeys. Formulations containing 0.5% or 1.0% octenidine or the rinse vehicle placebo were provided daily for 2 weeks. Each week the dentition of each monkey was examined, photographed, and sampled for plaque. All responses exhibited a numerical decrease in mean scores following treatments with each concentration of octenidine, whereas the placebo treatment exerted negligible effects. Decreases in plaque mass were observed after 2 weeks of treatment with 1% octenidine (58%) or 0.5% octenidine (55%) compared with the corresponding baseline values. Similar trends were noted in the extent and thickness of supragingival plaque and its ability to decrease the pH of a sucrose solution. Octenidine treatments reduced the proportions of motile forms in samples of subgingival plaque and also restricted its ability to produce H2S. Slight numerical decreases were seen in the Gingival Index and flow rate of the crevicular fluid. These consistent protective trends suggest that octenidine decreases the pathogenic potential of established plaque.

  3. Medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance and image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Jaume; Radeva, Petia

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of medical images produced and stored daily in hospitals needs a datrabase management system that organizes them in a meaningful way, without the necessity of time-consuming textual annotations for each image. One of the basic ways to organize medical images in taxonomies consists of clustering them depending of plaque appearance (for example, intravascular ultrasound images). Although lately, there has been a lot of research in the field of Content-Based Image Retrieval systems, mostly these systems are designed for dealing a wide range of images but not medical images. Medical image retrieval by content is still an emerging field, and few works are presented in spite of the obvious applications and the complexity of the images demanding research studies. In this chapter, we overview the work on medical image retrieval and present a general framework of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance. We stress on two basic features of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance: plaque medical images contain complex information requiring not only local and global descriptors but also context determined by image features and their spatial relations. Additionally, given that most objects in medical images usually have high intra- and inter-patient shape variance, retrieval based on plaque should be invariant to a family of transformations predetermined by the application domain. To illustrate the medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance, we consider a specific image modality: intravascular ultrasound images and present extensive results on the retrieval performance.

  4. Specific and nonspecific immune factors in dental plaque fluid and saliva from young and old populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, M F; Hsu, S D; Baum, B J; Bowen, W H; Sierra, L I; Aquirre, M; Gillespie, G.

    1981-01-01

    Separate samples of supragingival dental plaque overtly free of blood were centrifuged to obtain the free fluid phase (plaque fluid). Bound protein was eluted from the plaque bacteria and matrix by washing the plaque with a low-pH buffer. The plaque fluid, low pH eluate, and whole saliva were assayed for immunoglobulins A, G, and M, the third component of complement, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase. Concentrations of total protein and albumin were also determined. Antibody reactive...

  5. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Mette K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA production in vitro and in vivo. Methods In the first part (A, suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25. LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B, subjects (n=18 were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. Results Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p Conclusion Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112. Trial registration NCT01700712

  6. Can anti-erosion dentifrices also provide effective plaque control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, P G; Prendergast, M; Strand, R; Yu, Z; Day, T N; Barker, M L; Mussett, A J

    2011-08-01

    While gingivitis and caries continue to be prevalent issues, there is growing concern about dental erosion induced by dietary acids. An oral hygiene product that protects against all these conditions would be beneficial. This study investigated the potential of two anti-erosion dentifrices to inhibit plaque. This was a randomized, three-period, two-treatment, double-blind, crossover study evaluating a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride dentifrice (SnCl(2)/NaF, blend-a-med(®) Pro Expert) and a popular anti-erosion dentifrice (NaF, Sensodyne(®) ProNamel(™)). During Period 3, subjects were randomized to repeat one treatment to evaluate any product carryover effects. Each treatment period was 17 days. Test dentifrices were used with a standard manual toothbrush. Digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) was employed at the end of each period to evaluate plaque levels (i) overnight (am prebrush); (ii) post-brushing with the test product (am post-brush); and (iii) mid-afternoon (pm). Analysis was conducted via an objective computer algorithm, which calculated total area of visible plaque. Twenty-seven subjects completed the study. At all time points, subjects had statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) lower plaque levels after using the SnCl(2)/NaF dentifrice than the NaF dentifrice. The antiplaque benefit for the SnCl(2)/NaF dentifrice versus the NaF dentifrice was: am prebrush = 26.0%; am post-brushing = 27.9%; pm = 25.7%. The SnCl(2)/NaF dentifrice provided significantly greater daytime and overnight plaque inhibition than the NaF toothpaste. When recommending dentifrice to patients susceptible to dental erosion, clinicians can consider one that also inhibits plaque. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular

  8. Surgical management of strabismus following choroidal melanoma plaque brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfreihi, Shatha H; Pineles, Stacy L; McCannel, Tara A; Prada, Angelica M; Velez, Federico G

    2017-08-01

    To characterize intraoperative findings, surgical approach, and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing strabismus surgery following plaque brachytherapy for ocular melanoma. The records of all patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma between May 2007 and June 2016 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those who subsequently required strabismus surgery. Of the 461 patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy during the study period, 13 (2.8%) met inclusion criteria. Visual acuity of the affected eye was 20/40 or better in 9 patients (69%). Preoperative horizontal deviation ranged from 0(Δ) to 52(Δ); vertical deviation, from 2(Δ) to 25(Δ). At final follow-up mean horizontal deviation ranged from 0 to 4(Δ); vertical deviation, from 0(Δ) to 12(Δ). Intraoperatively, all muscles directly adjacent to the treated area appeared macroscopically thicker than normal despite being functionally underacting. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enlarged muscles adjacent to the plaque radiotherapy. Microscopic examination of muscles in 2 patients showed reactive enlargement of the muscle fibers, granulation tissue, and inflammation. Persistent strabismus after plaque brachytherapy is rare. Typical findings include enlarged, underacting rectus muscles adjacent to the area of the plaque, restrictive connective tissue, and incomitant strabismus. Previously disinserted muscles may be found in abnormal locations. In this patient cohort scar tissue removal in conjunction with tightening procedures on the muscle adjacent to the plaque combined with recession of the antagonist muscle frequently resulted in good anatomical outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, Kevin J; Lumsden, Natalie G; Andrews, Karen L; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F

    2014-01-01

    Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  10. Unified theory on the pathogenesis of Randall's plaques and plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R; Canales, Benjamin K

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stones develop attached to sub-epithelial plaques of calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals (termed Randall's plaque) and/or form as a result of occlusion of the openings of the Ducts of Bellini by stone-forming crystals (Randall's plugs). These plaques and plugs eventually extrude into the urinary space, acting as a nidus for crystal overgrowth and stone formation. To better understand these regulatory mechanisms and the pathophysiology of idiopathic calcium stone disease, this review provides in-depth descriptions of the morphology and potential origins of these plaques and plugs, summarizes existing animal models of renal papillary interstitial deposits, and describes factors that are believed to regulate plaque formation and calcium overgrowth. Based on evidence provided within this review and from the vascular calcification literature, we propose a "unified" theory of plaque formation-one similar to pathological biomineralization observed elsewhere in the body. Abnormal urinary conditions (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hypocitraturia), renal stress or trauma, and perhaps even the normal aging process lead to transformation of renal epithelial cells into an osteoblastic phenotype. With this de-differentiation comes an increased production of bone-specific proteins (i.e., osteopontin), a reduction in crystallization inhibitors (such as fetuin and matrix Gla protein), and creation of matrix vesicles, which support nucleation of CaP crystals. These small deposits promote aggregation and calcification of surrounding collagen. Mineralization continues by calcification of membranous cellular degradation products and other fibers until the plaque reaches the papillary epithelium. Through the activity of matrix metalloproteinases or perhaps by brute physical force produced by the large sub-epithelial crystalline mass, the surface is breached and further stone growth occurs by organic matrix-associated nucleation of CaOx or by the transformation of the outer layer

  11. Individuality, Stability, and Variability of the Plaque Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Daniel R; Mark Welch, Jessica L; Borisy, Gary G

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque is a bacterial biofilm composed of a characteristic set of organisms. Relatively little information from cultivation-independent, high-throughput analyses has been published on the temporal dynamics of the dental plaque microbiome. We used Minimum Entropy Decomposition, an information theory-based approach similar to oligotyping that provides single-nucleotide resolution, to analyze a previously published time series data set and investigate the dynamics of the plaque microbiome at various analytic and taxonomic levels. At both the genus and 97% Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) levels of resolution, the range of variation within each individual overlapped that of other individuals in the data set. When analyzed at the oligotype level, however, the overlap largely disappeared, showing that single-nucleotide resolution enables differentiation of individuals from one another without ambiguity. The overwhelming majority of the plaque community in all samples was made up of bacteria from a moderate number of plaque-typical genera, indicating that the overall community framework is shared among individuals. Each of these genera fluctuated in abundance around a stable mean that varied between individuals, with some genera having higher inter-individual variability than others. Thus, at the genus level, differences between individuals lay not in the identity of the major genera but in consistently differing proportions of these genera from mouth to mouth. However, at the oligotype level, we detected oligotype "fingerprints," a highly individual-specific set of persistently abundant oligotypes fluctuating around a stable mean over time. For example, within the genus Corynebacterium, more than a dozen oligotypes were detectable in each individual, of which a different subset reached high abundance in any given person. This pattern suggests that each mouth contains a subtly different community of organisms. We also compared the Chinese plaque community

  12. Individuality, stability, and variability of the plaque microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Utter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is a bacterial biofilm composed of a characteristic set of organisms. Relatively little information from cultivation-independent, high-throughput analyses has been published on the temporal dynamics of the dental plaque microbiome. We used Minimum Entropy Decomposition, an information theory-based approach similar to oligotyping that provides single-nucleotide resolution, to analyze a previously published time series data set and investigate the dynamics of the plaque microbiome at various analytic and taxonomic levels. At both the genus and 97% Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU levels of resolution, the range of variation within each individual overlapped that of other individuals in the dataset. When analyzed at the oligotype level, however, the overlap largely disappeared, showing that single-nucleotide resolution enables differentiation of individuals from one another without ambiguity. The overwhelming majority of the plaque community in all samples was made up of bacteria from a moderate number of plaque-typical genera, indicating that the overall community framework is shared among individuals. Each of these genera fluctuated in abundance around a stable mean that varied between individuals, with some genera having higher inter-individual variability than others. Thus, at the genus level, differences between individuals lay not in the identity of the major genera but in consistently differing proportions of these genera from mouth to mouth. However, at the oligotype level, we detected oligotype fingerprints, a highly individual-specific set of persistently abundant oligotypes fluctuating around a stable mean over time. For example, within the genus Corynebacterium, more than a dozen oligotypes were detectable in each individual, of which a different subset reached high abundance in any given person. This pattern suggests that each mouth contains a subtly different community of organisms. We also compared the Chinese plaque

  13. Clinical Study of Acoustic Densitometry Technique in Detecting Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Quyu Xiaoban Capsule (祛瘀消斑, QYXB) on the regressive treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) with acoustic densitometry (AD) technique. Methods: Eighty patients with AS were randomly divided into two groups, trial group was treated with QYXB and conventional medicine, and control group was treated with conventional medicine alone. Normal arterial wall and different types of atherosclerotic plaques were detected with AD technique before treatment and 10 months later. Resuits: The corrected averages in intimal echo intensity (AIIc%) were elevated in both groups but without significant difference, AIIc% of fatty plaques were increased in both groups and the value after treatment was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment in the trial group (68.12±5.54 vs 61.43±5.37, P<0.05).The increment rate of AIIc% in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (10.9±5.1% vs2.5±5.5%, P<0.05). Conclusion: QYXB can stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque by increasing its acoustic density. Acoustic densitometry technique can differentiate the different histological plaques and monitor the histological changes of plaques during treatment.

  14. Evaluation of the dentogingival area during early plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, P; Lopes de Souza, M A; Oppermann, R V

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the pattern of supragingival plaque formation in the dentogingival area within 96 hours after abstinence from mechanical plaque control and to clinically analyze the gingival inflammatory response observed. Six male volunteers, 20 to 23 years of age, had their upper incisors and cuspids polished. Four independent periods of no mechanical plaque control--24, 48, 72, and 96 hours--were instituted. In each period, plaque was disclosed and standardized individual photographs were taken. Impressions were taken and replicas were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected at baseline and 96 hours. The height of the gingival papilla was measured at baseline, 24, and 96 hours. Results showed the presence of a plaque-free zone (PFZ) along the gingival margin up to 72 hours. After 96 hours, there was a significant reduction in the presence of PFZ in the proximal thirds of the buccal surface when compared to the other experimental periods. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the GCF flow as well as edema of the interdental papilla, when compared to baseline values. The PFZ observed during the initial phase was less apparent at the 96-hour period. At this time, there was an increase in the gingival inflammatory response, represented clinically by increased GCF flow and edema.

  15. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F. (Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA)

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

  16. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šćepanović, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance β-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

  17. Restriction of bacteriophage plaque formation in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K L; Baltz, R H

    1984-08-01

    Several Streptomyces species that produce restriction endonucleases were characterized for their ability to propagate 10 different broad host range bacteriophages. Each species displayed a different pattern of plaque formation. A restrictionless mutant of S. albus G allowed plaque formation by all 10 phages, whereas the wild-type strain showed plaques with only 2 phages. DNA isolated from three of the phages was analyzed for the presence of restriction sites for Streptomyces species-encoded enzymes, and a very strong correlation was established between the failure to form plaques on Streptomyces species that produced particular restriction enzymes and the presence of the corresponding restriction sites in the phage DNA. Also, the phages that lacked restriction sites in their DNA generally formed plaques on the corresponding restriction endonuclease-producing hosts at high efficiency. The DNAs from the three phages analyzed also generally contained either many or no restriction sites for the Streptomyces species-produced enzymes, suggesting a strong evolutionary trend to either eliminate all or tolerate many restriction sites. The data indicate that restriction plays a major role in host range determination for Streptomyces phages. Analysis of bacteriophage host ranges of many other uncharacterized Streptomyces hosts has identified four relatively nonrestricting hosts, at least two of which may be suitable hosts for gene cloning. The data also suggest that several restriction systems remain to be identified in the genus Streptomyces.

  18. Infliximab in the treatment of plaque type psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Saraceno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rosita Saraceno, Andrea Saggini, Lucia Pietroleonardo, Sergio ChimentiDepartment of Dermatology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Viale Oxford 81, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic and immunomediated skin disease characterized by erythematous scaly plaques. Psoriasis affects approximately 1% to 3% of the Caucasian population. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Infliximab is an anti-TNF-α drug widely used for the treatment of plaque type psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that infliximab is characterized by a high degree of clinical response in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Moreover infliximab showed rapid efficacy in nail psoriasis which represents a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists and a relevant source of distress for patients with plaque psoriasis. This anti-TNF-α has an encouraging safety profile, especially as long as physicians are watchful in prevention and early diagnosis of infections and infuse reactions. The efficacy, tolerability and safety profiles suggest infliximab as a suitable anti-psoriatic drug in the long-term treatment of a chronic disease such as plaque-type psoriasis.Keywords: psoriasis, nail psoriasis, infliximab, long-term treatment

  19. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: mark.taggart@uclm.es; Mateo, R. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F. [Synchrotron Radiation Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Green, A.J. [Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Seville (Spain); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg{sup -1}, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  20. A Patient With Plaque Type Morphea Mimicking Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana Wardhana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphea is an uncommon connective tissue disease with the most prominent feature being thickening or fibrosis of the dermal without internal organ involvement. It is also known as a part of localized scleroderma. Based on clinical presentation and depth of tissue involvement, morphea is classified into several forms, and about two thirds of adults with morphea have plaque type. Overproduction of collagen production by fibroblast is the cause of abnormality in morphea, and the hyperactivity mechanism of fibroblast is still unknown, although there are several mechanisms already proposed. Plaque type morphea is actually a benign and self limited. Plaque type morphea that mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus in clinical appearance, such as alopecia and oral mucosal ulcers, is uncommon. A case of plaque type morphea mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus in a 20 year old woman was discussed. The patient was treated with local and systemic immunosuppressant and antioxydant. The patient’s condition is improved without any significant side effects. Key words: morphea, plaque type.

  1. Radiolabeled probes for imaging Alzheimer's plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, P.V. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States)]. E-mail: padmakar.kulkarni@utsouthwestern.edu; Arora, V. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Roney, A.C. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); White, C. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Bennett, M. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Antich, P.P. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Bonte, F.J. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating disease characterized by the presence of extra-cellular plaques and intra-cellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. The major protein component of these plaques is beta amyloid peptide (A{beta}), a 40-42 amino acid peptide cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by {beta}-secretase and a putative {gamma}-secretase. We radioiodinated quinoline derivatives (clioquinol and oxine) and evaluated them as potential amyloid imaging agents based on their ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and on their selectivity to metal binding sites on amyloid plaques. The uptake of theses tracers in the brains of normal swiss-webster mice was rapid and so was the clearance. Selectivity was demonstrated by higher binding to AD brain homogenates compared to normal brain. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated the localization of the tracers in the plaque regions of the AD brain sections as well as in liver tissue with amyloidosis. Further optimization and evaluations would likely lead to development of these molecules as AD plaque imaging agents.

  2. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  3. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-08-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy).

  4. Apremilast for the management of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangipuram, Ramya; Alikhan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythematous plaques on extensor surfaces, scalp, and back. Current therapies for psoriasis are limited by route of administration, side effects, and cost. Apremilast is the first oral phosphodiesterase inhibitor approved for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. It is a small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4, and decreases the inflammatory activity associated with psoriasis. Areas covered: This review will discuss the pharmacology of apremilast, mechanism of action, results from key clinical trials, and its use in managing psoriasis. Currently approved treatments are also discussed. Expert commentary: The advantages of apremilast include convenient oral administration and dosing, a favorable safety and tolerability profile, and significant efficacy in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

  5. Echolucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Wiebe, Britt M.;

    1998-01-01

    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  6. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.;

    1998-01-01

    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  7. Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marttinen, Aino; Haukioja, Anna; Karjalainen, Sára

    2011-01-01

    of probiotics to the plaque was assessed using PCR techniques. No probiotic-induced changes were found in the acidogenicity of plaque. Also, MS counts remained at the original level. The number of subjects with lactobacilli in plaque increased in the L. reuteri group (p¿=¿0.011) but not in the LGG group. PCR...... analysis of plaque revealed the presence of LGG in four and L. reuteri in six subjects after the use of the probiotic. The use of the lactobacilli did not affect the acidogenicity or MS levels of plaque. Short-term consumption of LGG and L. reuteri appeared not to influence the acidogenicity of plaque....

  8. Chronic over-expression of heat shock protein 27 attenuates atherogenesis and enhances plaque remodeling: a combined histological and mechanical assessment of aortic lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M Cuerrier

    Full Text Available AIMS: Expression of Heat Shock Protein-27 (HSP27 is reduced in human coronary atherosclerosis. Over-expression of HSP27 is protective against the early formation of lesions in atherosclerosis-prone apoE(-/- mice (apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e - however, only in females. We now seek to determine if chronic HSP27 over-expression is protective in a model of advanced atherosclerosis in both male and female apoE(-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 12 weeks on a high fat diet, serum HSP27 levels rose more than 16-fold in male and female apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice, although females had higher levels than males. Relative to apoE(-/- mice, female apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice showed reductions in aortic lesion area of 35% for en face and 30% for cross-sectional sinus tissue sections - with the same parameters reduced by 21% and 24% in male cohorts; respectively. Aortic plaques from apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice showed almost 50% reductions in the area occupied by cholesterol clefts and free cholesterol, with fewer macrophages and reduced apoptosis but greater intimal smooth muscle cell and collagen content. The analysis of the aortic mechanical properties showed increased vessel stiffness in apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice (41% in female, 34% in male compare to apoE(-/- counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic over-expression of HSP27 is atheroprotective in both sexes and coincides with reductions in lesion cholesterol accumulation as well as favorable plaque remodeling. These data provide new clues as to how HSP27 may improve not only the composition of atherosclerotic lesions but potentially their stability and resilience to plaque rupture.

  9. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

  10. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P < 0.001). Mean gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher in the presence of gingival inflammation for both groups (P = 0.001), whereas smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P < 0.001). Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  11. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility.

  12. SU-E-T-443: Geometric Uncertainties in Eye Plaque Dosimetry for a Fully Loaded 16 Mm COMS Plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Jans, H; Larocque, M; Sloboda, R [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of geometric uncertainties in the seed positions in a COMS eye plaque on the central axis (CAX) dose. Methods: A Silastic insert was placed into a photopolymer 3D printed 16 mm COMS plaque, which was then positioned onto a custom-designed PMMA eye phantom. High resolution 3D images were acquired of the setup using a Siemens Inveon microPET/CT scanner. Images were acquired with the plaque unloaded and loaded with IsoAid I-125 seed shells (lack of silver core to minimize metal artifacts). Seed positions and Silastic thickness beneath each slot were measured. The measured seed coordinates were used to alter the seed positions within a standard 16 mm COMS plaque in Plaque Simulator v5.7.3 software. Doses along the plaque CAX were compared for the original and modified plaque coordinates using 3.5 mCi seeds with treatment times set to deliver 70 Gy to tumour apexes of 3.5, 5, and 10 mm height. Results: The majority of seeds showed length-wise displacement, and all seeds showed displacement radially outward from the eye center. The average radial displacement was 0.15 mm larger than the expected 1.4 mm offset, approximately half of which was due to increased Silastic thickness beneath each slot. The CAX doses for the modified seed positions were consistently lower for all tumour heights due to geometric displacement of the seeds; dose differences were found to increase to a maximum of 2.6% at a depth of ∼10 mm, after which they decreased due to the inverse square dose fall-off minimizing this effect. Conclusion: This work presents initial results of a broader dosimetric uncertainty evaluation for fully loaded COMS eye plaques and demonstrates the effects of seed positioning uncertainties. The small shifts in seed depths had noticeable effects on the CAX doses indicating the importance of careful Silastic loading. Funding provided by Alberta Cancer Foundation Grant #26655, Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, and Alberta Innovates Health

  13. Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    ... (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production...

  14. Morphological study of atherosclerotic plaque and its application in vulnerability evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU HaiJun; ZHANG PengFei; OHEN WenQiang; ZHANG Mei; ZHANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the morphological characteristics and the vulnerability of atheroaclerotic plaque were analyzed theoretically and several suggestions were proposed to evaluate the plaque vulnerability. Validated by animal experiments and clinical studies, the theoretical results were confirmed.

  15. Morphological study of atherosclerotic plaque and its application in vulnerability evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the morphological characteristics and the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque were analyzed theoretically and several suggestions were proposed to evaluate the plaque vulnerability. Validated by animal experiments and clinical studies, the theoretical results were confirmed.

  16. Mast cells mediate neutrophil recruitment during atherosclerotic plaque progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Anouk; Lagraauw, H Maxime; van der Velden, Daniël; de Jager, Saskia C A; Quax, Paul H A; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Activated mast cells have been identified in the intima and perivascular tissue of human atherosclerotic plaques. As mast cells have been described to release a number of chemokines that mediate leukocyte fluxes, we propose that activated mast cells may play a pivotal role in leukocyte recruit

  17. Chemokine Receptor 7 Knockout Attenuates Atherosclerotic Plaque Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Grothusen, Christina; Gagalick, Andreas; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Schuett, Harald; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Pabst, Oliver; Grote, Karsten; Drexler, Helmut; Foerster, Reinhold; Schieffer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Background-Atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Both innate immunity and adaptive immunity contribute to atherogenesis, but the mode of interaction is poorly understood. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is critically involved in the

  18. Reproducibility of Two 3-D Ultrasound Carotid Plaque Quantification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Entrekin, Robert; Collet-Billon, Antoine;

    2014-01-01

    -sectional, 2-D freehand sweep and a mechanical 3-D ultrasound investigation of 62 carotid artery plaques is reported with intra-class correlation coefficients (with 95% confidence intervals). Inter-observer agreement was 0.60 (0.29-0.77) for the freehand method and 0.89 (0.83-0.93) for the mechanical 3-D...

  19. Carotid plaque burden as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter; Adourian, Aram

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare carotid plaque burden, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) to coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in people without known cardiovascular disease....

  20. In silico analyses of metagenomes from human atherosclerotic plaque samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Suparna; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Alhede, Morten

    2015-01-01

    a challenge. RESULTS: To investigate microbiome diversity within human atherosclerotic tissue samples, we employed high-throughput metagenomic analysis on: (1) atherosclerotic plaques obtained from a group of patients who underwent endarterectomy due to recent transient cerebral ischemia or stroke. (2...

  1. Paraclinical Effects of Miswak Extract on Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Poureslami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Persian toothbrush tree or Miswak (Salvadora Persica L. has been used as a brushing stick for more than 1,300 years. Pharmacological studies indicated antibacterial and antiinflammatory activities of Miswak extract. The present study was performed to determine antibacterial effects of Miswak extract.Material and Methods: The present experimental research involved three in vitro studies including: 1 in vitro testing of the effect of Miswak extract on selected bacteria; 2 comparing the paraclinical effects of Iranian toothpaste containing Miswak extract and placebo toothpaste on dental plaque; and 3 comparing the antibacterial effect of Iranian toothpaste with Swiss toothpaste(Quail Miswak on dental plaque. The disc diffusion method was used to test bacterial sensitivity of toothpastes. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA.Results: In the first study, Miswak extract inhibited the growth of some dental plaque bacteria. In the second study, antibacterial effect of the herbal toothpaste was significantly greater than that of the placebo (P =0.002. In the third study, four samples of dental plaque bacteria were used and there was no difference between the antibacterial effects of Swiss and Iranian herbal toothpastes (P =0.66.Conclusion: Due to antimicrobial effects of Miswak extract, its use in mouth rinses and toothpastes is highly recommended.

  2. Topical tazarotene vs. coal tar in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, U.; Kaur, I.; Dogra, S.; De, D.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of topical tazarotene has not previously been compared with the conventional topical treatment of crude coal tar (CCT) in stable plaque psoriasis. In this nonblinded side-to-side comparison study, patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis, who had bilaterally symmetrical plaques on the limbs, applied 0.1% tazarotene gel on the right side and 5% CCT ointment on the left side once daily for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week treatment-free follow up period. Severity of psoriatic lesions and response to treatment was evaluated by scoring erythema, scaling and induration (ESI). Of 30 patients recruited, 27 could be assessed. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean percentage reduction in ESI score at the end of the treatment period was 74.15% {+-} 9.43 and 77.37% {+-} 10.93 with tazarotene and CCT, respectively (P {gt} 0.05). A reduction in ESI score of {gt} 75% was seen in 11 (40.74%) and 16 (59.26%) patients with tazarotene and CCT, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. Side-effects were seen in 48.14% of patients treated with tazarotene, but in no patient treated with CCT. Tazarotene 0.1% gel has comparable clinical efficacy to CCT 5% ointment. CCT ointment remains a cost-effective therapy for plaque psoriasis.

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma In a plaque Of Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma developing in a chronic plaque of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is reported in a middle â€" aged, non-insulin dependent diabetic. The possible role of hypoxidosis due to poorly vascularized cicatricial structures, in including malignant changes is discussed.

  4. Microbial profiling of dental plaque from mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Kirsty M; Twigg, Joshua A; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Wilson, Melanie J; Williams, David W

    2016-02-01

    Micro-organisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during MV have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. Bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences were processed using Mothur, applying a 97% gene similarity cut-off for bacterial species level identifications. A significant 'microbial shift' occurred in the microbial community of dental plaque during MV for nine out of 13 patients. Following extubation, or removal of the endotracheal tube that facilitates ventilation, sampling revealed a decrease in the relative abundance of potential respiratory pathogens and a compositional change towards a more predominantly (in terms of abundance) oral microbiota including Prevotella spp., and streptococci. The results highlight the need to better understand microbial shifts in the oral microbiome in the development of strategies to reduce VAP, and may have implications for the development of other forms of pneumonia such as community-acquired infection.

  5. [New insights towards catheter-based identification of vulnerable plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); E.S. Regar (Eveline); J.A. Schaar (Johannes)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSudden cardiac death or unheralded acute coronary syndromes are common initial manifestations of coronary atherosclerosis and most such events occur at sites of non-flow limiting coronary atherosclerosis. Autopsy data suggests that plaque composition is a key determinant of the propensit

  6. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gargiulo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies.

  7. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  8. Volumetric Examination of MS Plaques and Correlation with EDSS Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwara, S; Hailey, B; Thompson, A; Minagar, A; Hardjasudarma, M; Gonzalez-Toledo, E

    2009-05-15

    This study is a retrospective analysis of 17 patients with multiple sclerosis. The total volume of plaques from three different MR image sets of the brain was correlated with the EDSS ratings of the patients. Each of the correlations showed a positive relationship, but none was statistically significant. A more extensive study is required in order to give significance to these relationships.

  9. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  10. Ichthyosiform Large Plaque Parapsoriasis: Report of a Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Falguni Nag; Arghyaprasun Ghosh; Projna Biswas; Gobinda Chatterjee; Saugato Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) is an idiopathic, chronic scaly dermatosis classified within parapsoriasis group of diseases, occurring commonly in middle aged patients of all races and geographic regions. LPP and its variants are closely related to the patch stage of mycosis fungoides. The two types of LPP mostly described are the poikilodermatous and retiform parapsoriasis. We are reporting an ichthyosiform LPP for its rarity.

  11. Balneophototherapy in small plaque parapsoriasis--four case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambichler, T; Manke-Heimann, A

    1998-03-01

    Four patients suffering from small plaque parapsoriasis were treated successfully with balneophototherapy. Within 4 weeks salt-water baths and UV irradiation resulted in clinical clearing of more than 90% of lesions with a duration of total clinical response between 8 and 12 weeks without further maintenance treatment.

  12. Reporting Casting Bronze Plaque Becomes Advisers Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charlie

    1977-01-01

    Describes an advisers' class project (at the University of Oklahoma) which consisted of reporting on the casting of a bronze plaque bearing the names of the first school newspaper, "The Students Gazette," and its editor, Samuel M. Fox, for presentation in Philadelphia to commemorate scholastic journalism's Bicentennial. (MB)

  13. Ichthyosiform large plaque parapsoriasis: report of a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Falguni; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Biswas, Projna; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Biswas, Saugato

    2013-09-01

    Large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) is an idiopathic, chronic scaly dermatosis classified within parapsoriasis group of diseases, occurring commonly in middle aged patients of all races and geographic regions. LPP and its variants are closely related to the patch stage of mycosis fungoides. The two types of LPP mostly described are the poikilodermatous and retiform parapsoriasis. We are reporting an ichthyosiform LPP for its rarity.

  14. Circulating CD36 and fractalkine levels are associated with vulnerable plaque progression in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui Jian; Yang, Ming; Li, Ji Fu; Xue, Li; Chen, Yu Guo; Chen, Wen Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The chemokine, fractalkine, independently enhances the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The present study investigated the combined effects of CD36 and fractalkine on coronary plaque progression in patients with unstable angina pectoris. In the present study, 120 unstable angina pectoris patients undergoing coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound were divided into two groups: an intermediate lesion group (lumen diameter stenosis 50-70%, 80 patients) and a severe lesion group (at least one lesion with lumen diameter stenosis > 70%, 40 patients). The control group consisted of 40 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. Concentrations of CD36 and fractalkine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Major adverse cardiovascular events were monitored over a 2-year follow up. Intravascular ultrasound showed that patients with severe lesions had more calcified and mixed plaques, and a larger plaque area and plaque burden than patients with intermediate lesions (P < 0.05-0.01). More patients with severe lesions underwent stent deployment (P < 0.05) than those with intermediate lesions. CD36 and fractalkine concentrations were significantly higher in the severe lesion patients (P < 0.05), and both had significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) with the plaque burden of atherosclerotic lesions. Using the matched nested case-control study, we found that CD36 and fractalkine levels were higher in patients with recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events than controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CD36 and fractalkine both promote, and might synergistically enhance, the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaques.

  15. Comparative Plaque Removal Efficacy of Three Manual Toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, A; Vorwerk, L; Hooper, W; Kwang, M; Naji, M; Goyal, C R; Qaqish, J

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and plaque-reducing effectiveness of a newly designed manual toothbrush compared to that of a leading marketed toothbrush and a reference standard manual toothbrush control. This examiner-blind, randomized, single-use study used a cross-over design. Sixty-eight qualifying male and female subjects were randomly assigned either an Arm & Hammer™ Truly Radiant™ Deep Clean manual toothbrush (TR), a Colgate® Extra Clean manual toothbrush (C), or an ADA reference standard manual toothbrush (SM) according to one of three computer-generated sequences. Following instruction in the use of their assigned brush, subjects brushed at home with a standard fluoride toothpaste twice daily for two minutes during a one-week familiarization period. At the end of this period, the subjects returned to the study site after refraining from oral hygiene for 12-16 hours and from eating and drinking for four hours. Plaque was disclosed and scored using the Rustogi Modification of the Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Subjects brushed under supervision with their assigned toothbrush for two minutes in a room without mirrors and apart from the dental examiner, after which plaque was disclosed and rescored. They were then given one of the alternate toothbrushes according to their assigned sequence, and the familiarization routine and evaluations were repeated until each of the subjects used each of the three brushes. Within-treatment and between-treatment whole mouth RMNPI scores and scores at each of twelve subsets of sites were analyzed using paired t-tests and appropriate ANCOVA models, respectively. Within-group analyses showed that all three toothbrushes produced statistically significant reductions from the pre-brushing baseline in whole mouth RMNPI scores (p < 0.0001), with respective reductions of 68.2%, 58.3%, and 48.5% for TR, C, and SM. Between-group analyses showed that TR was significantly more effective (p < 0.0001) than C and SM

  16. Numerical observer for atherosclerotic plaque classification in spectral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Fakhri, Georges El; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Laine, Andrew F; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-07-01

    Spectral computed tomography (SCT) generates better image quality than conventional computed tomography (CT). It has overcome several limitations for imaging atherosclerotic plaque. However, the literature evaluating the performance of SCT based on objective image assessment is very limited for the task of discriminating plaques. We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods. Our numerical observer was designed to incorporate all spectral information and comprised two-processing stages. First, each energy-window domain was preprocessed by a set of localized channelized Hotelling observers (CHO). In this step, the spectral image in each energy bin was decorrelated using localized prewhitening and matched filtering with a set of Laguerre-Gaussian channel functions. Second, the series of the intermediate scores computed from all the CHOs were integrated by a Hotelling observer with an additional prewhitening and matched filter. The overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were obtained, yielding an overall discrimination performance metric. The performance of our new observer was evaluated for the particular binary classification task of differentiating between alternative plaque characterizations in carotid arteries. A clinically realistic model of signal variability was also included in our simulation of the discrimination tasks. The inclusion of signal variation is a key to applying the proposed observer method to spectral CT data. Hence, the task-based approaches based on the signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly (SKE/BKE) framework and the clinical-relevant signal-known-statistically/background-known-exactly (SKS/BKE) framework were applied for analytical computation of figures of merit (FOM). Simulated data of a

  17. Correlation between Acute Coronary Syndrome Classification and Multi-detector CT Characterization of Plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo Wang; Lu-yue Gai; Jing-jing Gai; Ping Li; Xia Yang; Qin-hua Jin; Yun-dai Chen; Zhi-jun Sun; Zhi-wei Guan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if multi-detector CT (MDCT) characterization of plaque is correlated with the classification of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Altogether 1900 patients were examined by MDCT from December 2007 to May 2009,of whom 95 patients fulfilled the criteria of ACS. Those patients were divided into the discrete plaque group (n=61) and diffuse plaque group (n=34) based on the findings in MDCT. The clinical diagnosis of ACS and CT results were analyzed, including segment stenosis score, segment involvement score, 3-vessel plaque score, left main score, calcification score, and remodeling index. The incidences of major adverse cardiac events in follow-up period were also recorded.Results The patients of the diffuse plaque group were older than those of the discrete plaque group (P<0.0001). The diffuse plaque group presented more cases of hypertension, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, and heart failure than discrete plaque group (all P<0.05). All the 5 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were found in discrete plaque group. The segment stenosis score of the discrete plaque group was lower than that of the diffuse plaque group (5.15+3.55 vs. 14.91+5.37, P<0.001). The other four scores demonstrated significant inter-group difference as well (all P<0.05). The remodeling index of the discrete plaque group was higher (1.12+0.16 vs. 0.97+0.20, P<0.05). Follow-up data showed that major adverse cardiac events occurred more frequently in diffuse plaque group than in discrete group (29.41% vs.11.48%, P=0.0288).Conclusions Characteristics of discrete and diffuse plaques may be significandy different among different classes of ACS. The diffuse plaque may present higher risk, correlated to higher mortality. The diagnosis of discrete and diffuse plaques by MDCT would provide a new insight into the prognosis and treatment of ACS.

  18. Plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI evaluated by dense 3D correspondence with histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; de Bruijne, Marleen; Klein, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    Automatic quantification of carotid artery plaque composition is important in the development of methods that distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques. MRI has shown to be capable of imaging different components noninvasively. We present a new plaque classification method which uses 3D registra...

  19. Relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and carotid plaque features in high-risk stroke population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lu; Yu-fen Wang; Wen-jun Li; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and carotid plaque features in high-risk stroke population.Methods:A total of 116 cases of high-risk stroke treated in our hospital from March 2014 to September 2015 were included in study and divided into stable plaque group 32 cases, unstable plaque group 45 cases and mixed plaque group 39 cases according to plaque features after carotid artery ultrasonography. Differences in serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), adhesion molecule, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, lipid, cell fibronectin, and so on were compared among groups, and the correlation between serum Hcy and plaque feature-related indicators was further analyzed.Results: Serum Hcy, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, hs-CRP, TC, TG, LDL-C and c-Fn values of unstable plaque group were significantly higher than those of stable plaque group and mixed plaque group, and HDL-C value was significantly lower than that of stable plaque group and mixed plaque group (P<0.05); serum Hcy levels in high-risk stroke population were positively correlated with sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, hs-CRP, TC, TG, LDL-C and c-Fn values, and negatively correlated with HDL-C value.Conclusions:Hyperhomocysteinemia can promote the instability of carotid plaque features in high-risk stroke population, and is a high-risk factor of stroke.

  20. Stable size distribution of amyloid plaques over the course of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Mielke, Matthew L; Muzitansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H; Bacskai, Brian J; Betensky, Rebecca A; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T

    2012-08-01

    Amyloid β plaques are a key pathologic feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but whether plaque sizes increase or stabilize over the course of AD is unknown. We measured the size distribution of total immunoreactive (10D5-positive) and dense-core (Thioflavin S-positive) plaques in the temporal neocortex of a large group of subjects with AD and age-matched plaque-bearing subjects without dementia to test the hypothesis that amyloid plaques continue to grow along with the progression of the disease. The size of amyloid β (10D5)-positive plaques did not differ between groups, whereas dense-core plaques from the group with AD were slightly larger than those from the group without dementia (∼25%-30%, p = 0.01). Within the group with AD, dense-core plaque size did not independently correlate with duration of clinical disease (from 4 to 21 years, p = 0.68), whereas 10D5-positive plaque size correlated negatively with disease duration (p = 0.01). By contrast, an earlier age of symptom onset strongly predicted a larger postmortem plaque size; this effect was independent of disease duration and the presence of the APOE[Latin Small Letter Open E]4 allele (p = 0.0001). We conclude that plaques vary in size among patients, with larger size distributions correlating with an earlier age of onset, but plaques do not substantially increase in size over the clinical course of the disease.

  1. Stable Size Distribution of Amyloid Plaques Over the Course of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Mielke, Matthew L.; Muzitansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β plaques are a key pathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but whether plaque sizes increase or stabilize over the course of AD is unknown. We measured the size distribution of total immunoreactive (10D5-positive) and dense-core (Thioflavine-S-positive) plaques in the temporal neocortex of a large group of AD and plaque-bearing age-matched non-demented subjects to test the hypothesis that amyloid plaques continue to grow along with the progression of the disease. The size of amyloid-β (10D5)-positive plaques did not differ between groups whereas dense-core plaques from the AD group were slightly larger than those in the non-demented group (~25%–30%, p = 0.01). Within the AD group, dense-core plaque size did not independently correlate with duration of clinical disease (from 4 to 21 years, p = 0.68), whereas 10D5-positive plaque size correlated negatively with disease duration (p = 0.01). By contrast, an earlier age of symptom onset strongly predicted a larger postmortem plaque size; this effect was independent of disease duration and the presence of the APOEε4 allele (p = 0.0001). We conclude that plaques vary in size among patients, with larger size distributions correlating with an earlier age of onset, but plaques do not substantially increase in size over the clinical course of the disease. PMID:22805771

  2. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque and is identified as a device intended to reduce the presence...

  3. Dynamics of red fluorescent dental plaque during experimental gingivitis-A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.H.; Volgenant, C.M.C.; Keijser, B.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The dynamics of red fluorescent plaque (RFP) in comparison to clinical plaque and bleeding scores were studied during an experimental gingivitis protocol in a cohort of healthy participants. Methods: Forty-one participants were monitored for RFP before (24 h plaque), during 14 days

  4. 76 FR 66307 - Scientific Information Request on Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ... Phototherapy medical devices for treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Scientific information is being... Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence...

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of structure characteristics on senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wei; LIU Jianwu; ZHOU Jiangning; HU Xiangyou; TANG Xiaowei

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neuro- degenerative disorder characterized by the presence of senile plaques primarily composed of amyloid ( in brain. Abnormal secretion and aggregation of amyloid ( are the key events in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reduction of amyloid ( production and inhibition of amyloid ( aggregation to form senile plaques are hopeful strategies for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, the silver and immunohistochemical staining methods were applied to discover senile plaques in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease patients, and then images were processed and three-dimensionally reconstructed by Matlab and AVS software. The structure characteristics of senile plaques were measured through correlation function calculation and fractal dimension by a computer-aided method. Diffuse plaque had no amyloid center, but classic plaque presented compact central core structure; two types of plaques were both of porous structure, but the sizes of their pores were significantly different. Furthermore, there was difference in fractal dimension value between the diffuse plaque and classic plaque in the two staining methods. The comparison of structure characteristics between two types of plaques indicated that they developed independently. Establishment of the methods for reconstructing the three-dimen- sional structure of senile plaque and analyzing their structure characteristics is helpful for further study on the aggregation mechanism of senile plaque.

  6. Plaque: What It Is and How to Get Rid of It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rx for PLAQUE: Sound Teeth What it is and how to get rid of it People used to think that as you got older you naturally lost your teeth. ... your teeth for a lifetime! Plaque: What is it? Plaque is made up of invisible masses of ...

  7. High-resolution imaging of human atherosclerotic carotid plaques with micro(18)F-FDG PET scanning exploring plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masteling, Marleen G.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Tio, Rene A.; Breek, Jan-Cees; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    FDG-PET can be used to identify vulnerable plaques in atherosclerotic disease. Clinical FDG-PET camera systems are restricted in terms of resolution for the visualization of detailed inflammation patterns in smaller vascular structures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible added value of

  8. Fibrinolysis inhibitors in plaque stability: a morphological association of PAI-1 and TAFI in advanced carotid plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson Rylander, A-C; Lindgren, A; Deinum, J; Bergström, G M L; Böttcher, G; Kalies, I; Wåhlander, K

    2017-01-30

    Essentials Fibrinolysis inhibitors are localized in advanced atheroma by immunohistology of endarterectomies. Neovascular endothelium/neocapillaries show thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Macrophage areas show free plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), notably in the vulnerable part. Free PAI-1 and TAFI stabilize active plaque area by inhibition of fibrinolysis and inflammation.

  9. The unstable plaque: a diagnostic challenge in cardiology; Diagnostische Herausforderung in der Kardiologie: Die instabile arteriosklerotische Plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkau, B. [Inst. fuer Pathophysiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Schaefers, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture still accounts for one third of all deaths worldwide and constitutes a major source of disability and health care costs. Dysregulation of MMPs in the atherosclerotic lesion may result in mechanical destabilization and rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque, potentially leading to thrombosis and vessel occlusion with life-threatening clinical complications. Therefore, identifying individual patients at high risk of plaque rupture is an important challenge in clinical medicine. We have used the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor CGS 27023A to develop the radioligand [{sup 123}I]I-HO-CGS 27023A for in vivo imaging of MMP activity. Using this radioligand, we were able to specifically image MMP activity by scintigraphy in vivo in the MMP-rich vascular lesions that develop after carotid artery ligation and cholesterol-rich diet in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Thus, imaging of MMP activity in vivo is feasible using radiolabelled MMP inhibitors. In combination with the high-resolution morphological imaging techniques such as MRI and CT, the molecular imaging of individual disease parameters such as MMP activity in lesions of atherosclerosis may help design approaches for the prediction and prevention of coronary events due to plaque rupture of an individual lesion in an individual patient. (orig.)

  10. When to image carotid plaque inflammation with FDG PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græbe, Martin; Borgwardt, Lise; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in inflamed high-risk carotid atherosclerotic plaques is challenged by the spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) and luminal blood activity. Late acquisition protocols have been used to overcome these challenges to enhance...

  11. Endogenous activated angiotensin-(1-7) plays a protective effect against atherosclerotic plaques unstability in high fat diet fed ApoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Meng, Xiao; Dong, Mei; Guo, Tao; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    We recently found that exogenous angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] inhibits Angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation and enhances plaque stability. Our objective was to evaluate the role of endogenous activated Ang-(1-7) during atherosclerosis. In mice, the effects of endogenous Ang-(1-7) on atherogenesis in early stage and plaque stability in late stage were observed in ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet. Blockage of endogenous Ang-(1-7) with A779, an Ang-(1-7) antagonist, did not increase early plaque lesion formation, however, it remarkably enhanced contents of lipids and macrophages and decreased contents of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagens in late lesions. The expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, and the expressions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases were significantly elevated in A779-treated group than those in vehicle-treated group in late lesions. Exogenous Ang-(1-7) treatment attenuated early atherosclerotic plaque formation and enhanced late plaques stability in this model. The contents of Ang-II and Ang-(1-7) and activity of ACE2 in late atherosclerotic plaques were higher than those of early atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous activated Ang-(1-7) enhanced late atherosclerotic plaques stability but did not affect early atherosclerotic plaque formation. Therapies to elevate endogenous Ang-(1-7) may be a potentially effective approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaques vulnerability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Altered carotid plaque signal among different repetition times on T1-weighted magnetic resonance plaque imaging with self-navigated radial-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Ohura, Kazumasa; Ono, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for carotid arteries is usually performed by using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gating technique to eliminate pulsation-related artifacts, which can affect the plaque signals because of varied repetition time (TR) among patients. Hence, we investigated whether differences in TR causes signal alterations of the carotid plaque by using a non-gated plaque imaging technique. We prospectively examined 19 patients with carotid stenosis by using a T1-weighted self-navigated radial-scan technique with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms. The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) relative to the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs of the carotid plaques were 1.39 {+-} 0.39, 1.29 {+-} 0.29, and 1.23 {+-} 0.24 with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms, respectively, and were significantly different. Among the plaques, those with a hyperintensity signal (CR > 1.5) and moderate-intensity signal (CR 1.2-1.5) at 500 ms showed a TR-dependent signal decrease (hyperintensity plaques, 1.82 {+-} 0.26; 1.61 {+-} 0.19; and 1.48 {+-} 0.17; moderate-intensity plaques, 1.33 {+-} 0.08; 1.26 {+-} 0.08; and 1.19 {+-} 0.07), while those with an isointensity signal (CR < 1.2) remained unchanged regardless of TR (0.96 {+-} 0.12, 0.96 {+-} 0.11, and 0.97 {+-} 0.13). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque on T1-weighted imaging significantly varies among different TRs and tends to decrease with longer TR. MR plaque imaging with short and constant TR settings that the ECG-gating method cannot realize would be preferable for evaluating plaque characteristics. (orig.)

  13. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marieke P T; Busscher, Henk J; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C; van Hoogmoed, Chris G

    2012-10-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h after brushing and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were measured. The contributions of plaque and saliva towards substantivity were determined by combining control plaques with experimental plaque or saliva samples and subsequently assessing their viabilities. Bacterial compositions in the various plaque and saliva samples were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The viabilities of plaques after brushing with Colgate-Total® and Crest-Pro-Health® were smaller than of control plaques and up to 12 h after brushing with Crest-Pro-Health® plaques still contained effective, residual antibacterial activity against control plaques. No effective, residual antibacterial activity could be measured in saliva samples after brushing. There was no significant difference in bacterial composition of plaque or saliva after brushing with the different toothpastes. Plaque-left-behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the substantive action of an antibacterial toothpaste containing stannous fluoride (Crest-Pro-Health®). The absorptive capacity of plaque-left-behind after brushing is of utmost clinical importance, since plaque is predominantly left behind in places where its removal and effective killing matter most. Therewith this study demonstrates a clear and new beneficial effect of the use of antibacterial toothpastes.

  14. In vitro antiplaque activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) against preformed plaques of selected oral plaque-forming microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, A M; O'Connor, J R

    1983-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) against intact preformed in vitro plaques of four indigenous oral plaque-forming microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces naeslundii, was studied. Both absolute (plaque bactericidal index) and relative (chlorhexidine coefficient) indices of antiplaque efficacy were established. Octenidine dihydrochloride compared favorably with chlorhexidine digluconate with respect to overall antiplaque potency in this in vitro plaque bactericidal model. These data indicate that prudent selection of treatment concentration and duration and frequency of exposure should provide an effective means to aid in controlling dental caries and Actinomyces-associated disease in vivo. PMID:6847170

  15. RNAseq based transcriptomics study of SMCs from carotid atherosclerotic plaque: BMP2 and IDs proteins are crucial regulators of plaque stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloza, Iraide; Goikuria, Haize; Idro, Juan Luis; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Fernández Velasco, José María; Elizagaray, Elena; García-Barcina, María; Montoya-Murillo, Genoveva; Sarasola, Esther; Vega Manrique, Reyes; Freijo, Maria Del Mar; Vandenbroeck, Koen

    2017-06-14

    Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a risk factor to develop cerebrovascular disease. Atheroma plaque can become instable and provoke a cerebrovascular event or else remain stable as asymptomatic type. The exact mechanism involved in plaque destabilization is not known but includes among other events smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. The goal of this study was to perform thorough analysis of gene expression differences in SMCs isolated from carotid symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques. Comparative transcriptomics analysis of SMCs based on RNAseq technology identified 67 significant differentially expressed genes and 143 significant differentially expressed isoforms in symptomatic SMCs compared with asymptomatic. 37 of top-scoring genes were further validated by digital PCR. Enrichment and network analysis shows that the gene expression pattern of SMCs from stable asymptomatic plaques is suggestive for an osteogenic phenotype, while that of SMCs from unstable symptomatic plaque correlates with a senescence-like phenotype. Osteogenic-like phenotype SMCs may positively affect carotid atheroma plaque through participation in plaque stabilization via bone formation processes. On the other hand, plaques containing senescence-like phenotype SMCs may be more prone to rupture. Our results substantiate an important role of SMCs in carotid atheroma plaque disruption.

  16. Comparison of carotid plaque tissue characteristics in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable angina pectoris: assessment by iPlaque, transcutaneous carotid ultrasonography with integrated backscatter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Mika; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Kusunose, Kenya; Fukuda, Daiju; Amano, Rie; Tamai, Rina; Torii, Yuta; Hirata, Yukina; Nishio, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Koji; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2015-07-25

    The association of the tissue characteristics of carotid plaques with coronary artery disease has attracted interest. The present study compared the tissue characteristics of carotid plaques in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with those in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) using the iPlaque system, which is based on ultrasound integrated backscatter. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed in 26 patients with ACS, and 38 age- and gender-matched patients with SAP. Neither plaque area nor maximal intima-media thickness differed significantly between the two groups. However, the average integrated backscatter value within the plaque was greater in the ACS patients than in the SAP patients. iPlaque analysis revealed that the percentage blue area (lipid pool) was greater in the ACS patients than in the SAP patients (43.4 ± 11.2 vs 18.3 ± 10.3%, p < 0.0001), and that the percentage green area (fibrosis) was lower in the ACS than in the SAP patients (7.5 ± 7.5% vs 20.7 ± 11.7%, p < 0.0001). The lipid component of carotid plaques is greater in ACS patients than in SAP patients. Our iPlaque system provides a useful and feasible method for the tissue characterization of carotid plaques in the clinical setting.

  17. Relationship between the Carotid Plaque T1 Relaxation Time and the Plaque-to-Muscle Signal Intensity Ratio on Black-Blood Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Ayumu; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Kiyomi, Fumiaki; Iko, Minoru; Nii, Kouhei; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Sakamoto, Kimiya; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-01

    Black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (BB-MRI) is useful for the characterization and assessment of carotid artery plaques. The plaque-to-muscle signal intensity (SI) ratio (plaque/muscle ratio [PMR]) is used widely to evaluate plaques. However, the correlation between the PMR and the T1 relaxation time needs to be determined. We measured the T1 relaxation time of carotid plaques using T1 mapping and compared the results with the PMR on BB-MRI scans. Between April 2014 and July 2015, 20 patients with carotid artery stenosis were treated by carotid artery stenting. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance plaque imaging. The ratio of the plaque SI to the sternocleidomastoid muscle was calculated on T1-weighted BB-MRI scans. T1 mapping was performed in the region where the vessel was narrowest using the inversion recovery technique. The T1 relaxation time was recorded to determine whether there was a correlation with the PMR. The plaque T1 value was 577.3 ± 143.2 milliseconds; the PMR value obtained on BB-MRI scans was 1.23 ± .27. There was a statistically significant decrease in the T1 value as the PMR increased (P relaxation time was well correlated with the PMR on BB-MRI scans, the evaluation of vulnerable plaques using the PMR was reliable and convenient. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque detection using a multiwavelength handheld photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Susumu; Namita, Takeshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Patients affected by diseases caused by arteriosclerosis are increasing. Atherosclerosis, which is becoming an especially difficult health problem, forms plaques from lipids such as cholesterol located in walls of the aorta, cerebral artery, and coronary artery. Because lipid-rich plaques are vulnerable and because arterial rupture causes acute vascular occlusion, early detection is crucially important to prevent plaque growth and rupture. Ultrasound systems can detect plaques but cannot discriminate between vulnerable and equable plaques. To evaluate plaques non-invasively and easily, we developed a handheld photoacoustic imaging device. Its usefulness was verified in phantom experiments with a bovine aorta in which mimic plaque had been embedded. Photoacoustic images taken at wavelengths that produce high light absorbance by lipids show strong photoacoustic signals from the boundary of the mimic plaque. Results confirmed that our system can evaluate plaque properties by analysis with the photoacoustic spectrum. The effects of surrounding tissues and tissue components on plaque evaluation were investigated using a layered phantom. The mimic plaque located under a 6 mm blood layer was also evaluated. Results of these analyses demonstrate the system's usefulness.

  19. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...... estimating equations analysis, adjusting for age, sex and carotid wall thickness. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 93 atherosclerotic carotid arteries of 74 participants. In plaques with higher maximum shear stresses, IPH was more often present (OR per unit increase in maximum shear stress (log...... formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 74) from the population-based Rotterdam...

  20. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  1. Gene expression and 18FDG uptake in atherosclerotic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Græbe, Martin; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2010-01-01

    by carotid endarterectomy. The gene expression of markers of vulnerability - CD68, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, GLUT-1, and hexokinase type II (HK2) - were measured in plaques by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, GLUT-1, CD68, cathepsin K, and HK2 gene...... expression remained in the final model as predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated as SUVmean (R=0.26, PGLUT-1, CD68, cathepsin K, and HK2 gene expression as independent predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated...... as SUVmax (R=0.30, PGLUT-1, HK2, CD68, and cathepsin K remained in both multivariate models and thus provided independent information regarding FDG uptake. We suggest that FDG uptake is a composite indicator of macrophage load, overall inflammatory activity and collagenolytic plaque...

  2. Multiple keratoacanthomas developing in healing plaques of Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Relhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year old male psoriatic patient presented with multiple reddish scaly plaques all over body. After hematological and biochemical investigations the patient was started on oral methotrexate 15 mg weekly. PASI score at the start of treatment was 26.2. After 3 months PASI dropped to 11.5, the dose of methotrexate was tapered to 7.5mg weekly and the patient was maintained on this dose and kept under monthly follow up. Four months later, the patient presented with reddish to hyperpigmented raised firm nodules having a central crater over the healing plaques of psoriasis. Few lesions showed self resolution over a period of 6-12 weeks. Histopathology of the lesion confirmed it to be Keratoacanthoma. We believe the most likely etiologic factors for the multiple KAs in our patient could be a genetic susceptibility stimulated by multiple causes.

  3. Multiple keratoacanthomas developing in healing plaques of Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relhan, Vineet; Sinha, Surabhi; Khurana, Nita; Garg, Vijay K.

    2013-01-01

    A 22 year old male psoriatic patient presented with multiple reddish scaly plaques all over body. After hematological and biochemical investigations the patient was started on oral methotrexate 15 mg weekly. PASI score at the start of treatment was 26.2. After 3 months PASI dropped to 11.5, the dose of methotrexate was tapered to 7.5mg weekly and the patient was maintained on this dose and kept under monthly follow up. Four months later, the patient presented with reddish to hyperpigmented raised firm nodules having a central crater over the healing plaques of psoriasis. Few lesions showed self resolution over a period of 6-12 weeks. Histopathology of the lesion confirmed it to be Keratoacanthoma. We believe the most likely etiologic factors for the multiple KAs in our patient could be a genetic susceptibility stimulated by multiple causes. PMID:23984234

  4. Inhibition of dental plaque formation by toothpaste containing propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plaque is the main cause of caries and periodontal disease. Caries and periodontal disease can be prevented by inhibiting dental plaque formation. To inhibit the formation of plaque, teeth must be brushed with toothpaste. According to previous studies, propolis contains apigenin and tt-farnesol classified as flavonoid that can inhibit the formation of dental plaque by inhibiting glucosyltransferase enzym and membrane integrity of Streptococcus mutans. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of toothpaste containing propolis on the formation of dental plaque. Methods: Post test with only control group design was used. The subjects of this study were 30 boarding school students of Hidayatullah, Yayasan Al-Burhan, Gedawang, Semarang, divided into two groups, randomized control group and treatment group. Control group was not treated with toothpaste contanining propolis. Meanwhile, treatment group was treated with toothpaste containing propolis. Plaque then was measured by using plaque index of Sillness and Loe method after using toothpaste containing propolis for four hours. Afterwards, the data was analyzed by a computer program, Mann-Whitney test, with its significance p < 0.05. Results: The result of Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference, 0.002 (p < 0.05, between the control group and the treatment group. The median of the control group was about 3.41, while that of the treatment group was about 0.58. Conclusion: The use of toothpaste contaning propolis can prevent dental plaque formation.Latar belakang: Plak merupakan penyebab utama terjadinya karies dan penyakit periodontal. Karies dan penyakit periodontal dapat dicegah dengan menghambat pembentukan plak gigi. Untuk mencegah terbentuknya plak, gigi harus digosok menggunakan pasta gigi. Penelitian terdahulu menyebutkan bahwa propolis mengandung flavonoid apigenin dan tt-farnesol yang mampu menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase dan menghambat

  5. Hydrocortisone supresses inflammatory activity of metalloproteinase - 8 in carotid plaque

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    Sthefano Atique Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Matrix metalloproteinases are inflammatory biomarkers involved in carotid plaque instability. Our objective was to analyze the inflammatory activity of plasma and carotid plaque MMP-8 and MMP-9 after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone.Methods:The study included 22 patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the carotid artery (11 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic who underwent carotid endarterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Control Group - hydrocortisone was not administered, and Group 1 - 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone was administered during anesthetic induction. Plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured preoperatively (24 hours before carotid endarterectomy and at 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy. In carotid plaque, tissue levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured.Results:Group 1 showed increased serum levels of MMP- 8 (994.28 pg/ml and 408.54 pg/ml, respectively; P=0.045 and MMP-9 (106,656.34 and 42,807.69 respectively; P=0.014 at 1 hour after carotid endarterectomy compared to the control group. Symptomatic patients in Group 1 exhibited lower tissue concentration of MMP-8 in comparison to the control group (143.89 pg/ml and 1317.36 respectively; P=0.003. There was a correlation between preoperative MMP-9 levels and tissue concentrations of MMP-8 (P=0.042 and MMP-9 (P=0.019 between symptomatic patients in the control group.Conclusion:Hydrocortisone reduces the concentration of MMP- 8 in carotid plaque, especially in symptomatic patients. There was an association between systemic and tissue inflammation.

  6. Optical detection of structural changes in human carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, R. M.; Canham, P. B.; Finlay, H. M.; Hammond, R. R.; Quantz, M.; Ferguson, G. G.; Liu, L. Y.; Lucas, A. R.

    2005-08-01

    Background: Arterial bifurcations are commonly the sites of developing atherosclerotic plaque that lead to arterial occlusions and plaque rupture (myocardial infarctions and strokes). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy provides an effective nondestructive method supplying spectral information on extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition, specifically collagen and elastin. Purpose: To investigate regional differences in the ECM proteins -- collagen I, III and elastin in unstable plaque by analyzing data from laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Methods: Gels of ECM protein extracts (elastin, collagen types I & III) were measured as reference spectra and internal thoracic artery segments (extra tissue from bypass surgery) were used as tissue controls. Arterial segments and the endarterectomy specimens (n=21) were cut into 5mm cross-sectional rings. Ten fluorescence spectra per sampling area were then recorded at 5 sites per ring with argon laser excitation (357nm) with a penetration depth of 200 μm. Spectra were normalized to maximum intensity and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Tissue rings were fixed in formalin (within 3 hours of surgery), sectioned and stained with H&E or Movat's Pentachrome for histological analysis. Spectroscopy data were correlated with immunohistology (staining for elastin, collagen types I, III and IV). Results: Quantitative fluorescence for the thoracic arteries revealed a dominant elastin component on the luminal side -- confirmed with immunohistology and known artery structure. Carotid endarterectomy specimens by comparison had a significant decrease in elastin signature and increased collagen type I and III. Arterial spectra were markedly different between the thoracic and carotid specimens. There was also a significant elevation (pcollagen type I distal to the bifurcation compared to proximal tissue in the carotid specimens. Conclusion: Fluorescence spectroscopy

  7. The dental plaque microbiome in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott N; Snesrud, Erik; Liu, Jia; Ong, Ana C; Kilian, Mogens; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Dental decay is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. A variety of factors, including microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral and environmental, interact to contribute to dental caries onset and development. Previous studies focused on the microbial basis for dental caries have identified species associated with both dental health and disease. The purpose of the current study was to improve our knowledge of the microbial species involved in dental caries and health by performing a comprehensive 16S rDNA profiling of the dental plaque microbiome of both caries-free and caries-active subjects. Analysis of over 50,000 nearly full-length 16S rDNA clones allowed the identification of 1,372 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dental plaque microbiome. Approximately half of the OTUs were common to both caries-free and caries-active microbiomes and present at similar abundance. The majority of differences in OTU's reflected very low abundance phylotypes. This survey allowed us to define the population structure of the dental plaque microbiome and to identify the microbial signatures associated with dental health and disease. The deep profiling of dental plaque allowed the identification of 87 phylotypes that are over-represented in either caries-free or caries-active subjects. Among these signatures, those associated with dental health outnumbered those associated with dental caries by nearly two-fold. A comparison of this data to other published studies indicate significant heterogeneity in study outcomes and suggest that novel approaches may be required to further define the signatures of dental caries onset and progression.

  8. The dental plaque microbiome in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N Peterson

    Full Text Available Dental decay is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. A variety of factors, including microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral and environmental, interact to contribute to dental caries onset and development. Previous studies focused on the microbial basis for dental caries have identified species associated with both dental health and disease. The purpose of the current study was to improve our knowledge of the microbial species involved in dental caries and health by performing a comprehensive 16S rDNA profiling of the dental plaque microbiome of both caries-free and caries-active subjects. Analysis of over 50,000 nearly full-length 16S rDNA clones allowed the identification of 1,372 operational taxonomic units (OTUs in the dental plaque microbiome. Approximately half of the OTUs were common to both caries-free and caries-active microbiomes and present at similar abundance. The majority of differences in OTU's reflected very low abundance phylotypes. This survey allowed us to define the population structure of the dental plaque microbiome and to identify the microbial signatures associated with dental health and disease. The deep profiling of dental plaque allowed the identification of 87 phylotypes that are over-represented in either caries-free or caries-active subjects. Among these signatures, those associated with dental health outnumbered those associated with dental caries by nearly two-fold. A comparison of this data to other published studies indicate significant heterogeneity in study outcomes and suggest that novel approaches may be required to further define the signatures of dental caries onset and progression.

  9. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage.

  10. Predominant cultivable microflora of human dental fissure plaque.

    OpenAIRE

    Theilade, E; Fejerskov, O; Karring, T; Theilade, J

    1982-01-01

    Plaque developed in 10 occlusal fissures from unerupted third molars during implantation for 200 to 270 days in lower molars of dental students was studied. To characterize the predominant cultivable flora, 592 isolates (51 to 67 from each fissure) were subcultured from anaerobic roll tubes. Twenty-eight of the isolates were lost. Streptococci constituted 8 to 86% (median, 45%) of the isolates, Streptococcus mutans constituted 0 to 86% (median, 25%) and S. sanguis constituted 0 to 15% (median...

  11. Ichthyosiform large plaque parapsoriasis: Report of a rare entity

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    Falguni Nag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP is an idiopathic, chronic scaly dermatosis classified within parapsoriasis group of diseases, occurring commonly in middle aged patients of all races and geographic regions. LPP and its variants are closely related to the patch stage of mycosis fungoides. The two types of LPP mostly described are the poikilodermatous and retiform parapsoriasis. We are reporting an ichthyosiform LPP for its rarity.

  12. Identification and analysis of senile plaques using nuclear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, J. P.; McDonald, B.; Roberts, J. M.; Grime, G. W.; Watt, F.

    1991-03-01

    The senile plaques and neuro-fibrillary tangles which form part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease have come under increasing scrutiny over the last decade. In particular, much work has been done investigating their elemental composition. The suggestion that 75-100% of senile plaques with mature cores contain aluminium and silicon, probably in the form of alumino-silicates, has led to increasing speculation about the role of these elements in the disease. SPM preliminary studies suggest that aluminium and silicon are not present in as great a proportion of senile plaques as presented in the literature. The situation is complicated by the fact that airborne and solubilised salts of aluminium and silicon may be encountered as contamination. They have been found, for example, in granular or crystalline form in the Aristar grade organic laboratory reagents used for staining the tissue, and in the pure pioloform used to back the samples. The latest results from scans of stained and unstained Alzheimer tissue are presented.

  13. Effect of a single-use toothbrush on plaque microflora

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    Pai Vidya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study and compare the microbial flora of dental plaque after the use of a self-contaminated toothbrush and that of a single-use toothbrush. Materials and Methods: The study group included 40 young volunteers from Yenepoya Dental College, who were free from any systemic or oral disease. In these subjects, plaque samples were collected after 1 month use of a self-contaminated toothbrush. Each subject was given a set of 30 new toothbrushes and a toothpaste tube and instructed to use one toothbrush everyday and discard it after use. The plaque samples were collected on a weekly interval and cultured on Mitis Salivarius agar. The colonies were identified and speciated and their count was recorded. Results: Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguis, S. milleri and Candida were recovered from the samples. A highly significant decrease in their numbers was found after the use of a single-use toothbrush (P value 0.001. Conclusions : As a contaminated toothbrush can reintroduce microorganisms into the oral cavity, it may be a sound practice to change the toothbrush as frequently as possible.

  14. The prevention and regression of atherosclerotic plaques: emerging treatments

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    Kalanuria AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atul Ashok Kalanuria,1 Paul Nyquist,1 Geoffrey Ling1,21Division of Neuro Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, 2Department of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Occlusive vascular diseases, such as sudden coronary syndromes, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease, are a huge burden on the health care systems of developed and developing countries. Tremendous advances have been made over the last few decades in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Intravascular ultrasound has been able to provide detailed information of plaque anatomy and has been used in several studies to assess outcomes. The presence of atherosclerosis disrupts the normal protective mechanism provided by the endothelium and this mechanism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and stroke. Efforts are being put into the prevention of atherosclerosis, which has been shown to begin in childhood. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and discusses the current options available for the prevention and reversal of plaque formation.Keywords: cardiovascular, atherosclerotic disease, endothelium, plaque, reversal, coronary artery disease, stroke

  15. HLA-DR-positive cells in large plaque (atrophic) parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, E M; Wasik, R; Everett, M A

    1981-10-01

    The development of a monoclonal antibody directed against HLA DR (Ia-like) antigens of B cells and monocytes but not against normal peripheral human T cells suggested that this antibody might be used as a marker of B cells and monocytes in tissue sections. The T cell nature of large plaque (atrophic) parapsoriasis has recently been demonstrated by the immunoperoxidase technic. Immunoperoxidase examination of serial sections of tissues from two cases of large plaque parapsoriasis with one T cell antiserum, two monoclonal T cell antibodies, and one monoclonal reagent directed against HLA DR indicated that T cells in the cutaneous infiltrates were also HLA DR-positive. Evidence is accumulating that HLA DR positivity may be expressed by activated T cells. The findings here therefore suggest that many of the T lymphoid cells in two cases of large plaque (atrophic) parapsoriasis examined were activated in nature, and that HLA DR may not be a specific marker for B cells and monocytes in certain pathologic conditions. Caution should therefore presently be exercised in attempting to use this marker for the specific identification of B cells and monocytes in pathologic specimens, without simultaneous testing for T cell markers.

  16. Heterogeneity of inflammatory and cytokine networks in chronic plaque psoriasis.

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    William R Swindell

    Full Text Available The clinical features of psoriasis, characterized by sharply demarcated scaly erythematous plaques, are typically so distinctive that a diagnosis can easily be made on these grounds alone. However, there is great variability in treatment response between individual patients, and this may reflect heterogeneity of inflammatory networks driving the disease. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling was used to characterize inflammatory and cytokine networks in 62 lesional skin samples obtained from patients with stable chronic plaque psoriasis. We were able to stratify lesions according to their inflammatory gene expression signatures, identifying those associated with strong (37% of patients, moderate (39% and weak inflammatory infiltrates (24%. Additionally, we identified differences in cytokine signatures with heightened cytokine-response patterns in one sub-group of lesions (IL-13-strong; 50% and attenuation of these patterns in a second sub-group (IL-13-weak; 50%. These sub-groups correlated with the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, but were only weakly associated with increased risk allele frequency at some psoriasis susceptibility loci (e.g., REL, TRAF3IP2 and NOS2. Our findings highlight variable points in the inflammatory and cytokine networks known to drive chronic plaque psoriasis. Such heterogeneous aspects may shape clinical course and treatment responses, and can provide avenues for development of personalized treatments.

  17. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

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    Michelly de Pádua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  18. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, Michelly de; Souza, William Marciel de; Lauretti, Flávio; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV) using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated) and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  19. Reproducibility of high-resolution MRI for the middle cerebral artery plaque at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wan-Qun [Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: cjr.huangbiao@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Liu, Xin-Tong [Department of Neurology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Liu, Hong-Jun; Li, Pei-Jun [Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Zhu, Wen-Zhen, E-mail: zhuwenzhen@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the reproducibility of HR-MRI for the identification of MCA atherosclerotic plaque components and quantification of stenosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-three consecutive subjects who initially had ischemic stroke or asymptomatic MCA stenosis (>50%) were enrolled in the study. All subjects were scanned using 3.0 T MRI. Two independent readers reviewed all images and one reader reevaluated all images four weeks later. The tissue components of plaques were analyzed qualitatively and the vessels were quantitative measured. Results: HR-MRI displayed the artery wall and lumen clearly. The intra-observer reproducibility was excellent for the identification of plaques (kappa [κ] = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.83–1.04) and contrast enhancement (κ = 0.89; 0.78–0.95); it was substantial for intra-plaque hemorrhage (κ = 0.79; 0.57–0.96) and the fibrous cap (κ = 0.65; 0.42–0.86). The inter-observer reproducibility was excellent for plaques (κ = 0.92; 0.73–1.06), substantial for contrast enhancement (κ = 0.80; 0.65–0.93), intra-plaque hemorrhage (κ = 0.68; 0.47–0.92) and moderate for the fibrous cap (κ = 0.58; 0.44–0.79). Both intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility were excellent for quantitative vessel, lumen and wall measurements with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.91 to 0.97 and 0.87 to 0.96, respectively. However, vessel and wall areas and the intervals defined by the Bland–Altman plots were wide in comparison to the mean. Conclusions: The identification of MCA atherosclerotic plaque components and the quantification of vessel and lumen measurements are reproducible. The reproducibility is overall acceptable. HR-MRI may provide a useful tool for clinical risk evaluation in MCA atherosclerosis.

  20. Local effects of atherosclerotic plaque on arterial distensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, C; Failla, M; Emanuelli, G; Grappiolo, A; Boffi, L; Corsi, D; Mancia, G

    2001-11-01

    Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia are characterized by a reduction in arterial distensibility and by accelerated atherosclerosis. Whether arterial stiffening is an inherent feature of these conditions or just the consequence of the atherosclerotic clinical or subclinical lesions is not known, however. Our aim was to obtain information on this issue by directly measuring, in humans, arterial distensibility both at the site of an atherosclerotic lesion and at the proximal normal site. In 10 patients (8 men; mean+/-SEM age, 65.2+/-3.4 years) affected by monolateral hemodynamic significant internal carotid artery stenosis, we measured arterial distensibility (Wall Track System; PIE Medical) bilaterally, both at the internal carotid artery and at the common carotid artery level. In the common carotid artery, measurements were made 3 cm below the bifurcation. In the affected internal carotid artery, measurements were made at the plaque shoulder (wall thickness of 2 mm). Measurements were made in the contralateral internal carotid artery at a symmetrical level. Arterial wall thickness was measured in the same site of arterial distensibility. Arterial distensibility was less in the internal than in the common carotid artery, with a marked reduction at the plaque internal carotid artery level compared with the corresponding contralateral site (-45%, P<0.01). It was also less, however, in the common carotid artery branching into the atherosclerotic internal carotid artery than in the contralateral common carotid artery (-25%, P<0.05). Wall thickness was similar in the 2 common carotid arteries and obviously greater in the affected internal carotid artery than in the contralateral artery. Arterial distensibility was markedly less in the internal carotid artery where there was a plaque compared with the intact contralateral internal carotid artery; it was also less, however, in the common carotid artery of the affected side in comparison with the contralateral

  1. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article. In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer’s disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir (18F) positron emission tomography, 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake

  2. Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Bargalló

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38, with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65, and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79. The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31 or presence (n = 27 of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques.

  3. Consistent detection of Felis domesticus papillomavirus 2 DNA sequences within feline viral plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine

    2010-11-01

    Viral plaques are well recognized skin lesions of cats. They are thought to be caused by papillomavirus infection; however, the causative papillomavirus is uncertain. In the current study, polymerase chain reaction using 2 consensus primer sets and 1 primer set specific for Felis domesticus papillomavirus 2 (FdPV-2) was used to amplify DNA from a series of 14 feline viral plaques. The FdPV-2 sequences were detected in all 14 viral plaques by the specific primers but in only 1 of 14 feline cutaneous trichoblastomas. Papillomavirus DNA was amplified from 8 plaques using the consensus primers. Sequences from FdPV-2 were amplified using the consensus primers from 4 plaques. In addition, 3 plaques contained papillomavirus DNA sequences from Felis domesticus papillomavirus sequence MY1, and a previously unreported papillomavirus DNA sequence was amplified from 1 plaque. As FdPV-2 was consistently present within the plaques, this suggests that this papillomavirus is the likely etiologic agent. Feline viral plaques can undergo neoplastic transformation to Bowenoid in situ carcinomas (BISCs). As FdPV-2 DNA is frequently present within BISCs, this suggests that FdPV-2 induces viral plaque formation and then remains detectible after neoplastic transformation.

  4. Efficacy of two soft-bristle toothbrushes in plaque removal: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Kuchenbecker ROSING

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy in supragingival plaque removal of two soft-bristle toothbrushes. Seventy volunteers were allocated randomly to the Colgate Slim Soft or Curaprox CS5460 toothbrush grourps. At baseline appointment, volunteers underwent plaque examination using the Rustogi Modification of the Navy Plaque Index. Under supervision, they then brushed their teeth for 1minute with their assigned toothbrushes and the plaque examination was repeated. Volunteers performed daily oral hygiene with their assigned toothbrush and a regular dentifrice provided by the researchers for 7 days. The baseline experimental procedures were then repeated. Separate analyses of variance were performed for the whole-mouth, interproximal, and gumline plaque scores (p < 0.05. No difference in baseline pre-brushing scores was found between groups. After a single toothbrushing, the mean plaque score was significantly reduced in both groups (p < 0.05, with greater reduction of whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores observed in the SlimSoft group compared with the Curaprox group (p < 0.05. After 7 days, the SlimSoft group showed greater reduction of the whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores compared with the Curaprox group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the SlimSoft toothbrush presented greater efficacy in supragingival plaque removal than did the Curaprox CS5460 toothbrush, as reflected by whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores.

  5. pH gradients induced by urea metabolism in 'artificial mouth' microcosm plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, C H; Wong, L; Hancock, E M; Cutress, T W

    1994-06-01

    Evidence was sought for urea-induced pH gradients in dental plaque microcosm biofilms cultured from the mixed salivary bacteria in a multi plaque 'artificial mouth'. Application of 500 mmol/l urea for short periods (6 min) to 5-8 mm maximum-thickness plaques induced intraplaque pH gradients of up to 0.7 pH units with the surface alkaline relative to the inner plaque. These pH gradients persisted for more than 5 h in the absence of a flow of fluid. With 30-min urea applications and a flow of a basal medium containing mucin (BMM, pH 7.0), the pH of the inner (deeper) plaque regions also increased. Although the pH gradient initially formed was alkaline at the plaque surface, the BMM flow lowered the surface pH to neutrality whilst the inner layers were still alkaline, thereby reversing the pH gradient. In thick microcosm dental plaques, urea-induced pH gradients can therefore form and last many hours. They probably result from the significant time taken for urea to penetrate to the inner layers of plaque, its rapid metabolism by the outer plaque layers, and a rate-limiting clearance of ammonia. Even a slow BMM flow over the plaque greatly increased the rate of return to the resting pH, causing the gradients to change polarity.

  6. The high-risk plaque initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Erling; Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter;

    2011-01-01

    were assessed for both risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis (n = 6104). The latter two groups underwent baseline examination in a dedicated mobile facility equipped with advanced imaging tools suitable for noninvasive screening for subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium...... have been initiated, including the BioImage Study in which novel approaches are tested in a typical health plan population. Asymptomatic at-risk individuals were enrolled, including a survey-only group (n = 865), a group undergoing traditional risk factor scoring (n = 718), and a group in which all...... by computed tomography [CT], carotid and aortic disease by ultrasound, and ankle-brachial index). Selected participants were offered advanced imaging (contrast-enhanced CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/CT). Plasma, PAXgene RNA, and DNA samples were obtained for biomarker...

  7. Quantitative assessment of changes in carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional ultrasonography and non-gated magnetic resonance plaque imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Mao; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Katsura, Noriyuki; Ohura, Kazumasa; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent, is reported to induce the regression of atherosclerotic changes. However, its effects on carotid plaques are unknown. Hence, we quantitatively investigated the changes that occur within carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) and non-gated magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging. We prospectively examined 16 consecutive patients with carotid stenosis. 3D-US and T1-weighted MR plaque imaging were performed at baseline and 6 months after initiating cilostazol therapy (200 mg/day). We measured the volume and grayscale median (GSM) of the plaques from 3D-US data. We also calculated the contrast ratio (CR) of the carotid plaque against the adjacent muscle and areas of the intraplaque components: fibrous tissue, lipid, and hemorrhage components. The plaque volume on US decreased significantly (median at baseline and 6 months, 0.23 and 0.21 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = 0.03). In the group exhibiting a plaque volume reduction of more than 10%, GSM on US increased significantly (24.8 and 71.5, respectively; p = 0.04) and CR on MRI decreased significantly (1.13 and 1.04, respectively; p = 0.02). In this group, in addition, the percent area of the fibrous component on MRI increased significantly (68.6% and 79.4%, respectively; p = 0.02), while those of the lipid and hemorrhagic components decreased (24.9% and 20.5%, respectively; p = 0.12) (1.0% and 0.0%, respectively; p = 0.04). There were no substantial changes in intraplaque characteristics in either US or MRI in the other group. 3D-US and MR plaque imaging can quantitatively detect changes in the size and composition of carotid plaques during cilostazol therapy. (orig.)

  8. Effect of reader experience on variability, evaluation time and accuracy of coronary plaque detection with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, Stefan C.; Szekely, Gabor [ETH Zurich, Computer Vision Laboratory, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Group, Boston, MA (United States); Stolzmann, Paul; Baumueller, Stephan; Leschka, Sebastian; Scheffel, Hans; Desbiolles, Lotus [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Fuchs, Thomas J. [ETH Zurich, Department of Computer Science, Zurich (Switzerland); Cattin, Philippe C. [ETH Zurich, Computer Vision Laboratory, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Basel, Medical Image Analysis Center, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    To assess the effect of reader experience on variability, evaluation time and accuracy in the detection of coronary artery plaques with computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). Three independent, blinded readers with three different experience levels twice labelled 50 retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated contrast-enhanced dual-source CTCA data sets (15 female, age 67.3 {+-} 10.4 years, range 46-86 years) indicating the presence or absence of coronary plaques. The evaluation times for the readings were recorded. Intra- and interobserver variability expressed as {kappa} statistics and sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were calculated for plaque detection, with a consensus reading of the three readers taken as the standard of reference. A bootstrap method was applied in the statistical analysis to account for clustering. Significant correlations were found between reader experience and, respectively, evaluation times (r = -0.59, p < 0.05) and intraobserver variability (r = 0.73, p < 0.05). The evaluation time significantly differed among the readers (p < 0.05). The observer variability for plaque detection, compared with the consensus, varied between {kappa} = 0.582 and {kappa} = 0.802. Variability of plaque detection was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) and more accurate (p < 0.05) for the most experienced reader. Reader experience significantly correlated with observer variability, evaluation time and accuracy of coronary plaque detection at CTCA. (orig.)

  9. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Rumberia, Cecilia; Michuki, George; Kimotho, James; Ongus, Juliette R; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Island, showed distinct and reproducible large (L2) and small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain and plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines and their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants and S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) and 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 and S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution and a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity and dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain and its variants clustered closely together with each other and with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to understand the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence and viral transmission in mosquito and mammalian hosts.

  10. Dentifrice pH but not consistency may affect fluoride uptake in plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, C A B; Levy, F M; Peres-Buzalaf, C; Buzalaf, M A R

    2015-02-01

    Test the ability of acidic fluoridated solutions to enhance fluoride (F) bound on bacteria (1) and the effect of dentifrice consistency on plaque fluid F uptake (2). (1) Streptococcus mutans isolates were grown in BHI medium (37°C/18h). Bacteria were washed either with EDTA or CaCl2 both at 1mM to remove or add calcium, respectively. Pellets were incubated with 12 mM NaF at pH 4.5 or 7 for 1 min and F was quantified in the lysates and supernatants with the electrode, after HMDS-facilitated diffusion. (2) A randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial was performed in three phases with nineteen adults (20-35 years) that used one of the dentifrices: commercial toothpaste (1100 ppm F, pH7.0 and conventional viscosity (Sorriso Fresh(®))); experimental liquid dentifrice (ELD) (1100 ppm F, pH7.0 and low viscosity [1.1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)]) and ELD (1100 ppm F and high viscosity pH7.0 (2.2% CMC)). F concentration in plaque fluid was analyzed using an inverted F electrode. (1) Significantly higher F amounts were detected in the lysates of bacteria incubated with NaF solution at pH4.5 compared to the supernatant, which was not seen at pH7.0, being this effect calcium-dependent. (2) Significantly higher F concentrations in plaque fluid were found 1h after toothbrushing compared to 12h, but no significant differences were seen among the toothpastes. F at low pH binds more efficiently to S. mutans than at neutral pH and dentifrice viscosity does not interfere in plaque fluid fluoride incorporation. pH of the dentifrice but not consistency may be important to F uptake in plaque. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of the myxoma virus plaque phenotype by vaccinia virus protein F11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Chad R; Evans, David H

    2012-07-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) produces large plaques consisting of a rapidly expanding ring of infected cells surrounding a lytic core, whereas myxoma virus (MYXV) produces small plaques that resemble a focus of transformed cells. This is odd, because bioinformatics suggests that MYXV carries homologs of nearly all of the genes regulating Orthopoxvirus attachment, entry, and exit. So why does MYXV produce foci? One notable difference is that MYXV-infected cells produce few of the actin microfilaments that promote VACV exit and spread. This suggested that although MYXV carries homologs of the required genes (A33R, A34R, A36R, and B5R), they are dysfunctional. To test this, we produced MYXV recombinants expressing these genes, but we could not enhance actin projectile formation even in cells expressing all four VACV proteins. Another notable difference between these viruses is that MYXV lacks a homolog of the F11L gene. F11 inhibits the RhoA-mDia signaling that maintains the integrity of the cortical actin layer. We constructed an MYXV strain encoding F11L and observed that, unlike wild-type MYXV, the recombinant virus disrupted actin stress fibers and produced plaques up to 4-fold larger than those of controls, and these plaques expanded ∼6-fold faster. These viruses also grew to higher titers in multistep growth conditions, produced higher levels of actin projectiles, and promoted infected cell movement, although neither process was to the extent of that observed in VACV-infected cells. Thus, one reason for why MYXV produces small plaques is that it cannot spread via actin filaments, although the reason for this deficiency remains obscure. A second reason is that leporipoxviruses lack vaccinia's capacity to disrupt cortical actin.

  12. Modeling of Stenotic Coronary Artery and Implications of Plaque Morphology on Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A diseased coronary artery has been modeled to study the implications of plaque morphology on the fluid dynamics. In our previous study, we have successfully classified the coronary plaques of 42 patients who underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS into four-types (Type I, Type II, Type III, and Type IV based on the plaque morphology. In this study, we demonstrate that, for the same degree of stenosis (height of the plaques, hemodynamics parameters are strongly dependent on the plaque shape. This study is the first one to clearly demonstrate that in addition to wall shear stress, presence of turbulence and location of transition from laminar to turbulence state are additional hemodynamics parameters to identify plaques vulnerable to rupture.

  13. Contemporary invasive imaging modalities that identify and risk-stratify coronary plaques at risk of rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam J; Costopoulos, Charis; West, Nick Ej; Bennett, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is responsible for the majority of myocardial infarctions, with ruptured plaques exhibiting specific morphological features, including large lipid cores, thinner overlying fibrous caps and micro-calcifications. Contemporary imaging modalities are increasingly able to characterize plaques, potentially leading to the identification of precursor lesions that are at high risk of rupture. Observational studies using invasive imaging consistently find that plaques responsible for an acute coronary event display these high-risk morphological features, and recent prospective imaging studies have now established links between baseline plaque characteristics and future cardiovascular events. Despite these promising advances, subsequent overall event rates remain too low for clinical utility. Novel technologies are now required to refine and improve our ability to identify and risk-stratify lesions at risk of rupture, if plaque-based risk evaluation is ever to become reality.

  14. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque-depositions by infrared, Raman and CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are mainly composed of proteoglycans, triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesterolester and crystalline calcium. From histopathological characterizations it is known that the composition of these atherosclerotic plaques can vary to a great extent, due to different risk factors as smoking, hyperlipedemia, or genetic background ect. The individual plaque components can be spectroscopically easily identified. Furthermore, spectroscopic imaging technologies offer the possibility to study the plaque compositions in a more quantitative manner than traditional staining techniques. Here, we compare the potential of IR, Raman and CARS microscopy to characterize the constitution of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the structure of the surrounding tissue. For data analysis and image reconstruction spectral decomposition algorithms such as vertex component analysis (VCA) were introduced. The results are in good agreement with the histopathology. Aim of the study is to correlate the compositional characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques with individual disease patterns.

  15. In vitro method for prediction of plaque reduction by dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Bruce; Howard, Brian; Schnell, Daniel; Mills, Lisa; Xu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    An in vitro Particle Based Biofilm (PBB) model was developed to enable high throughput screening tests to predict clinical plaque reduction. Multi-species oral biofilms were cultured from pooled stimulated human saliva on continuously-colliding hydroxyapatite particles. After three days PBBs were saline washed prior to use in screening tests. Testing involved dosing PBBs for 1min followed by neutralization of test materials and rinsing. PBBs were then assayed for intact biofilm activity measured as ATP. The ranking of commercial dentifrices from most to least reduction of intact biofilm activity was Crest ProHealth Clinical Gum Protection, Crest ProHealth, Colgate Total and Crest Cavity Protection. We demonstrated five advantages of the PBB model: 1) the ATP metric had a linear response over ≥1000-fold dynamic range, 2) potential interference with the ATP assay by treatments was easily eliminated by rinsing PBBs with saline, 3) discriminating power was statistically excellent between all treatment comparisons with the negative controls, 4) screening test results were reproducible across four tests, and 5) the screening test produced the same rank order for dentifrices as clinical studies that measured plaque reduction. In addition, 454 pyrosequencing of the PBBs indicated an oral microbial consortium was present. The most prevalent genera were Neisseria, Rothia, Streptococcus, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Veillonella and Haemophilus. We conclude these in vitro methods offer an efficient, effective and relevant screening tool for reduction of intact biofilm activity by dentifrices. Moreover, dentifrice rankings by the in vitro test method are expected to predict clinical results for plaque reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serous otitis media revealing temporal en plaque meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, Denis; Trabalzini, Franco; Bordure, Philippe; Gratacap, Benoit; Darrouzet, Vincent; Schmerber, Sébastien; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Williams, Marc; Lescanne, Emmanuel

    2006-10-01

    To present a series of temporal en plaque meningiomas involving the middle ear or mastoid, whose main symptoms suggested a serous otitis media. Multicentric retrospective study reviewing clinical records originating from eight tertiary referral centers. The clinical records of 10 patients presenting with signs and symptoms suggesting serous otitis media and whose neuroimaging studies revealed a temporal en plaque meningioma involving the middle ear or mastoid are reported. All the patients were women, ranging from 49 to 71 years old. The delay between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis of meningioma varied from 1 to 10 years. All the patients underwent various procedures usually applied for the treatment of serous otitis media, which failed in all the cases, particularly ventilating tube placement, which was followed by severe episodes of discharge. In all cases, the computed tomographic scans showed three imaging signs: soft tissue mass filling the middle ear or mastoid, hyperostosis of the petrous bone, and hairy aspect of the intracranial margins of the affected bone. This imaging triad must alert the otologist of the possibility of intracranial meningioma. Magnetic resonance imaging was the method of choice to assess the diagnosis of intracranial meningioma involving the middle ear or mastoid. When analyzing management options, it appeared that conventional middle ear procedures were inefficient. Temporal en plaque meningioma involving the middle ear or mastoid can mimic a serous otitis media. A computed tomographic scan is recommended for cases of atypical or prolonged unilateral serous otitis media to investigate indirect signs of a meningioma, which has to be confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Sphenoid wing meningioma en plaque: report of 37 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; SHI Ji-tong; AN Yu-zhi; ZHANG Tian-ming; FU Ji-di; ZHANG Jia-liang; ZHAO Ji-zong

    2009-01-01

    Background Sphenoid wing meningioma en plaque is a special morphological subgroup of intracranial meningiomas,defined by a carpet-like, soft tissue component that infiltrates the dura and invades the sphenoid wing and orbit associated with a significant hyperostosis. This report summarized our experiences in 37 patients with sphenoid wing meningioma en plaque who had been treated with transcranio-orbital approach surgery.Methods A retrospective study was made on clinical manifestations, neuroradiological features, and operative techniques in 37 patients undergoing transcranio-orbital approach from Sep. 1998 to Apr. 2009. Patients ages: 16 years to 67 years, 45.5 years in average; sex: 15 males, 22 females. Chief complaints were progressive proptosis and visual acuity deficits. All patients were operated on using a fronto-temporal approach with orbital decompression. The extent of tumor resection and postoperative complications were investigated.Results Simpson grade Ⅱ resection was achieved in 9 patients, Simpson grade Ⅲ in 22 patients and Simpson grade IV in 6 patients. Pathological examination showed 27 (73%) patients were meningothelial meningiomas. After surgery,proptosis improved in all patients, visual acuity improved in 18 patients (69%). Temporary ophthalmoplegia was found in 8 patients, cerebrospinal fluid leak was found in 1 patient. Duration of follow up was from 3 months to 9 years, tumor recurred in 7 patients, and 5 patients underwent second surgery, including two trans-nasal endoscopic surgeries to resect sphenoid sinus-involved tumor. There were no operation-related deaths or other significant complications.Conclusions Sphenoid wing meningioma en plaque, mainly meningothelial meningiomas, are more likely to produce adjacent hyperostosis and have characteristic radiological appearances. All the hyperostosis bone of the great wing of sphenoid bone should be removed to prevent recurrence. Extensive tumor removal with bony decompression at the

  18. The efficacy of honey solution as plaque reducing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nurul M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal care is an important step of periodontal health management. Some chemically active substances have been studied as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control. Honey is a traditional topical treatment for infected wounds and have inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacteria including aerobes and anaerobes, gram-positives and gram-negatives. Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 5% and 25% honey solution and aquadest as mouth-rinses to control dental plaque during 4 days period. Method: After a thorough prophylaxis, during 4 days period of no oral hygiene all subjects were rinsed with 10 ml mouth-rinse they received 3 times a day after meal. Group I rinse with 5% honey solution, group II with 25%, and group III with aquadest as control. Results: There were significant increases of plaque index within each group, but no differences between all three groups in every experimental day. The fact that the probability value from day 1 (0.766 were gradually decreased to day 4 (0.076. Conclusion: Anti-microbial properties of honey solution as mouth-rinse did not show any inhibition effect on plaque formation until day 4.Latar belakang: Menjaga kesehatan periodontal merupakan tahap penting dalam pemeliharaan kesehatan periodontal. Beberapa substansi kimiawi aktif telah diteliti untuk membantu dalam kontrol plak gigi secara mekanik. Madu merupakan obat tradisional untuk luka terinfeksi dan dinyatakan mempunyai pengaruh menghambat sekitar 60 spesies termasuk bakteri aerob dan anaerob gram positif dan gram negatif. Tujuan: Membandingkan manfaat larutan madu 5% dan 25% terhadap akuades sebagai obat kumur untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak gigi selama 4 hari penelitian. Metode: Setelah tindakan profilaksis pembersihan sempurna, semua subjek penelitian dipersilahkan berkumur dengan 10 ml larutan yang telah diterima, 3 kali sehari setelah makan. Kelompok 1 berkumur dengan larutan madu 5%, kelompok 2 dengan 25%, dan kelompok 3 dengan akuades

  19. Visual Loss Induced by Adalimumab Used for Plaque Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Saffra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old Caucasian male with severe plaque psoriasis without joint involvement was initiated on adalimumab therapy. Shortly thereafter he presented to the emergency room with acute loss of vision in the right eye. A comprehensive systemic workup was instituted which included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with and without gadolinium of the brain and orbits. MRI revealed findings that were consistent with CNS demyelination and retrobulbar optic neuritis. Immediate cessation of adalimumab was instituted without any other systemic therapy. Complete return of vision occurred within 6 weeks. No additional psoriatic or neurologic treatment was instituted, and the patient has remained stable now for 14 months.

  20. Extracellular matrix proteomics identifies molecular signature of symptomatic carotid plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Sarah R.; Willeit, Karin; Didangelos, Athanasios; Matic, Ljubica Perisic; Skroblin, Philipp; Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Lengquist, Mariette; Rungger, Gregor; Kapustin, Alexander; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Molenaar, Chris; Lu, Ruifang; Barwari, Temo; Suna, Gonca; Iglseder, Bernhard; Paulweber, Bernhard; Willeit, Peter; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Davies, Alun H.; Monaco, Claudia; Hedin, Ulf; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The identification of patients with high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to the manifestation of clinical events remains challenging. Recent findings question histology- and imaging-based definitions of the “vulnerable plaque,” necessitating an improved approach for predicting onset of symptoms. METHODS. We performed a proteomics comparison of the vascular extracellular matrix and associated molecules in human carotid endarterectomy specimens from 6 symptomatic versus 6 asymptomatic patients to identify a protein signature for high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Proteomics data were integrated with gene expression profiling of 121 carotid endarterectomies and an analysis of protein secretion by lipid-loaded human vascular smooth muscle cells. Finally, epidemiological validation of candidate biomarkers was performed in two community-based studies. RESULTS. Proteomics and at least one of the other two approaches identified a molecular signature of plaques from symptomatic patients that comprised matrix metalloproteinase 9, chitinase 3-like-1, S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), S100A9, cathepsin B, fibronectin, and galectin-3-binding protein. Biomarker candidates measured in 685 subjects in the Bruneck study were associated with progression to advanced atherosclerosis and incidence of cardiovascular disease over a 10-year follow-up period. A 4-biomarker signature (matrix metalloproteinase 9, S100A8/S100A9, cathepsin D, and galectin-3-binding protein) improved risk prediction and was successfully replicated in an independent cohort, the SAPHIR study. CONCLUSION. The identified 4-biomarker signature may improve risk prediction and diagnostics for the management of cardiovascular disease. Further, our study highlights the strength of tissue-based proteomics for biomarker discovery. FUNDING. UK: British Heart Foundation (BHF); King’s BHF Center; and the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Center based at Guy’s and St

  1. First isolation of Streptococcus downei from human dental plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, So Young; Kim, Kwan-Joong; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Min, Byung-Moo; Choe, Son-Jin; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2005-08-15

    In this study, we isolated four bacterial strains grown on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar. The strains had similar biochemical characteristics to biotypes I or II of mutans streptococci. The four isolates were identified as Streptococcus downei by 16S rDNA and dextranase gene (dex) sequencing as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting dex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and identification of S. downei from dental plaque in humans. The results suggest that S. downei can inhabit the human oral cavity.

  2. Histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome presenting with annular erythematous plaques*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarini, Renata; de Araujo, Raquel Nardelli; Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Medeiros, Karina Bittencourt; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Maceira, Juan Manuel Piñeiro

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome is a rare inflammatory disease described in 2005 as a variant of the classical Sweet's Syndrome (SS). Histopathologically, the dermal inflammatory infiltrate is composed mainly of mononuclear cells that have a histiocytic appearance and represent immature myeloid cells. We describe a case of Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome in an 18-year-old man. Although this patient had clinical manifestations compatible with SS, the cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous annular plaques, which are not typical for this entity and have not been described in histiocytic form so far. The histiocytic subtype was confirmed by histopathological analysis that showed positivity for myeloperoxidase in multiple cells with histiocytic appearance.

  3. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed.

  4. A Simplified Technique to Measure Plaque on the Intaglio Surfaces of Complete Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Khalid; Salameh, Ziad; Kutkut, Ahmad; Al Doubali, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a simplified quantitative denture plaque index that could help dentists to motivate denture patients to maintain optimal oral hygiene. The secondary aim was to assess specific areas of dentures more prone to accumulate plaque and subjects' oral hygiene habits related to their dentures. One hundred subjects who wore maxillary and/or mandibular complete dentures for at least one year were included in the study as a powered sample. Fifteen females and 85 males, age range 45-75 years, were recruited. The study was carried out at King Saud University (KSU), College of Dentistry. A plaque disclosing solution was used to assess the plaque covered areas of denture. A quantitative percentage (10 x 10%) score index was developed by assessing plaque scores from digital images of intaglio surfaces of the dentures. The weighted kappa method was used to assess inter-examiner agreement in the main study. The new denture plaque index was identified as ASKD-DPI (Almas, Salameh, Kutkut, and Doubali-Denture Plaque Index). It ranged from 0 - 100%, and reflected the percentage of the intaglio surfaces of maxillary and mandibular complete dentures that contained plaque. It also classified quantitative percentages: 30 subjects ranged from 0 - 30% (low DPI), 50 subjects ranged from 31 - 70% (moderate DPI), and 20 subjects ranged from 71 - 100% (high DPI) denture plaque score. A simplified denture plaque index (ASKD-DPI) technique was developed and tested in this study. ASKD-DPI may be used for evaluating denture plaque scores, monitoring denture hygiene, and measuring compliance of patients regarding plaque control for complete dentures.

  5. Comparison of Manual and Electric Toothbrush in Dental Plaque Removal: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh-Al-Eslamian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Mechanical oral hygiene procedures are the most effective means of plaque removal and toothbrush is the most commonly used tool for mechanical plaque removal worldwide. There is an array of available manual and electric toothbrushes in the market. Thus, choosing the best one for dental plaque removal can be of great help for patients. Objectives This study aimed at compare the efficacy of dental plaque removal using a manual and an electric toothbrush. Materials and Methods This experimental, single-blinded sequential clinical trial was conducted on 12 patients (ten females and two males who aged 21 to 30 years old. The tested manual toothbrush was 35-mm soft Oral-B Pulsar and the electric one was Oral-B Professional Care 8500 DLX chargeable D18. Patients’ dental plaque score was set as zero through scaling, root planning, and polishing. Subjects were avoided tooth cleaning for three days and on day four, plaque accumulation was assessed using Tureskey's modification of Quigley and Hein plaque index. Results The mean of plaque index was 2.13 ± 0.83 and 2.11 ± 1.01 in the manual and electric toothbrush groups, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the study toothbrushes in terms of plaque removal (P = 0.374; however, with the manual tooth brushing, plaque removal was significantly greater in the buccal than in lingual surface and in the maxilla than in the mandible (P = 0.03 and P = 0.015, respectively. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, this study could not show the superiority of electric toothbrush over manual in plaque removal. After 72 hours, the mean of plaque index was greater in buccal than in lingual surface, which may be attributed to the natural cleansing action of the tongue.

  6. Evolution and rupture of vulnerable plaques: a review of mechanical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assemat P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pauline Assemat, Kerry Hourigan Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Atherosclerosis occurs as a result of the buildup and infiltration of lipid streaks in artery walls, leading to plaques. Understanding the development of atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability is of critical importance, since plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke. Plaques can be divided into two distinct types: those that rupture (vulnerable and those that are less likely to rupture (stable. In the last few decades, researchers have been interested in studying the influence of the mechanical effects (blood shear stress, pressure forces, and structural stress on the plaque formation and rupture processes. In the literature, physiological experimental studies are limited by the complexity of in vivo experiments to study such effects, whereas the numerical approach often uses simplified models compared with realistic conditions, so that no general agreement of the mechanisms responsible for plaque formation has yet been reached. In addition, in a large number of cases, the presence of plaques in arteries is asymptomatic. The prediction of plaque rupture remains a complex question to elucidate, not only because of the interaction of numerous phenomena involved in this process (biological, chemical, and mechanical but also because of the large time scale on which plaques develop. The purpose of the present article is to review the current mechanical models used to describe the blood flow in arteries in the presence of plaques, as well as reviewing the literature treating the influence of mechanical effects on plaque formation, development, and rupture. Finally, some directions of research, including those being undertaken by the authors, are described. Keywords: atherosclerosis, rupture

  7. Plaque array method and proteomics-based identification of biomarkers from Alzheimer's disease serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madasamy, Shanmugavel; Chaudhuri, Vaishali; Kong, Raymond; Alderete, Benjamin; Adams, Christopher M; Knaak, Tim D; Ruan, Weiming; Wu, Alan H B; Bigos, Marty; Amento, Edward P

    2015-02-20

    Progressive accumulation of amyloid plaques in the regions of brain, carotid and cerebral arteries is the leading cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia in affected patients. The early identification of individuals with AD remains a challenging task relying on symptomatic events and thus the development of a biomarker-based approach will significantly aid in the diagnosis of AD. Here we describe a flow cytometer-based serum biomarker identification method using plaque particles, and applying mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of the isolated plaque particles for the identification of serum proteins present in the plaque particles. We identified 195 serum proteins that participate in the process of plaque particle formation. Among the 195 proteins identified, 68.2% of them overlapped in abeta-42, cholesterol, tau-275 and α-synuclein plaque particles. Significantly, 22.5% of the proteins identified as bound to abeta-42 plaque particles generated in AD serum were unique when compared with cholesterol, α-synuclein and tau plaque particles. In age-matched control experiments, 15% of them showed in vitro insoluble abeta-42 particle formation and 59% of the identified plaque particle constituents from AD serum were also present in the insoluble plaque particles derived from control. We have developed an in vitro method for plaque particle detection and identified serum protein markers that are associated with AD-related plaque particle formation. With further clinical validation, this assay may provide a novel, non-invasive means for the early detection of AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; Mei, Henny C. van der; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. Materials and methods First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h af...

  9. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A.; R Hedge; U Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on saliv...

  10. On the Origin of Bronze Belt Plaques of Ancient Nomads in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUEn; 丁小雷

    2003-01-01

    The bronze plaques decorated with animal, human or geometric designs were the ornaments on the leather belts of the nomadic people, such as Xiongnu (Hun) and Xianbei (Sienpi) in Northern China in the Qin and Han Dynasties. These plaques had unique regional and ethnical characteristics. There have been many different ideas on the origination of this kind of plaques. The author plans to give his own opinion hereby on this issue.

  11. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. Materials and methods First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h af...

  12. Railways and asbestos in Japan (1928-1987)--epidemiology of pleural plaques, malignancies and pneumoconioses-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Yutaka; Hiraga, Youmei; Sasagawa, Sumiko

    2008-01-01

    Asbestos has been an indispensable insulating material for railway industries, especially steam locomotives (SLs). This review (1928-1987) consists of three parts. 1) Pleural plaques: Since the 1970s, pleural plaques have been regarded as evidence of past asbestos inhalation, and more recently recognized as a risk factor of asbestos-related malignancies. For diagnostic criteria on plain radiographs, the modified ILO 1980 International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses was used. Most cases had pleural plaques with normal lungs. Large plant workers showed a significantly higher rate of plaques than workers in smaller plants. Bilateral plaques were dominant followed by the left, then the right lung, and chest wall plaques were dominant over the diaphragm. The manifestation of pleural plaques was more correlated to years since the onset of the asbestos exposure than the sum of asbestos work years, although the result was not significant. The boilermen of railway ferry steamers had a significantly higher plaque rate than other seamen. CT studies on plaques started in 1978. 2) Asbestos-related malignancies: Five retrospective cohort studies 1960-1970 were made on primary lung cancer incidence and mortality among 350,000 active railway men with smoking information. The follow-up period was 20 yr at the longest. Almost all plant workers showed a tendency of higher incidence or mortality than the controls. Two cases of mesothelioma were reported in 1980. 3) Pneumoconioses: Most studies (1928-1975) had relatively low prevalence rates among SL-related workers.

  13. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography for detecting atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won Jun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A large number of major cardiovascular events occur in patients due to minimal or some lumen narrowing of the coronary artery. Recent biological studies have shown that the biological composition or vulnerability of the plaque is more critical for plaque rupture compared to the degree of stenosis. To overcome the limitations of anatomical images, molecular imaging techniques have been suggested as promising imaging tools in various fields. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is widely used in the field of oncology, is an example of molecular probes used in atherosclerotic plaque evaluation. FDG is a marker of plaque macrophage glucose utilization and inflammation, which is a prominent characteristic of vulnerable plaque. Recently, F-18 fluoride has been used to visualize vulnerable plaque in clinical studies. F-18 fluoride accumulates in regions of active microcalcification, which is normally observed during the early stages of plaque formation. More studies are warranted on the accumulation of F-18 fluoride and plaque formation/vulnerability; however, due to high specific accumulation, low background activity, and easy accessibility, F-18 fluoride is emerging as a promising non-invasive imaging probe to detect vulnerable plaque.

  14. Preliminary Study of In Vivo Formed Dental Plaque Using Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KA. Al-Salihi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM is relatively a new light microscopical imaging technique with a wide range of applications in biological sciences. The primary value of CLSM for the biologist is its ability to provide optical sections from athree-dimensional specimen. The present study was designed to assess the thickness and content of in vivo accumulated dental plaque using CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Materials and Methods: Acroflat lower arch splints (acrylic appliance were worn by five participants for three days without any disturbance. The formed plaques were assessed using CLSM combined with vital fluorescence technique and SEM.Results: In this study accumulated dental plaque revealed varied plaque microflora vitality and thickness according to participant’s oral hygiene. The thickness of plaque smears ranged from 40.32 to 140.72 μm and 65.00 to 128.88 μm for live (vital and dead accumulated microorganisms, respectively. Meanwhile, the thickness of plaque on the appliance ranged from 101 μm to 653 μm. CLSM revealed both dead and vital bacteria on the surface of the dental plaque. In addition, SEM revealed layers of various bacterial aggregations in all dental plaques.Conclusion: This study offers a potent non-invasive tool to evaluate and assess the dental plaque biofilm, which is a very important factor in the development of dental caries.

  15. Molecular imaging of plaques in coronary arteries with PET and SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Hua SUN; Hairil Rashmizal; Lei XU

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease remains a major cause of mortality. Presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary artery is responsible for lu-men stenosis which is often used as an indicator for determining the severity of coronary artery disease. However, the degree of coronary lumen stenosis is not often related to compromising myocardial blood flow, as most of the cardiac events that are caused by atherosclerotic plaques are the result of vulnerable plaques which are prone to rupture. Thus, identification of vulnerable plaques in coronary arteries has become increas-ingly important to assist identify patients with high cardiovascular risks. Molecular imaging with use of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has fulfilled this goal by providing functional information about plaque activity which enables accurate assessment of plaque stability. This review article provides an overview of diagnostic applications of molecular imaging tech-niques in the detection of plaques in coronary arteries with PET and SPECT. New radiopharmaceuticals used in the molecular imaging of coro-nary plaques and diagnostic applications of integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI in coronary plaques are also discussed.

  16. Iron plaque decreases cadmium accumulation in Oryza sativa L. and serves as a source of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, A; Prasad, M N V

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination occurs in paddy soils; hence it is necessary to reduce Cd content of rice. Application and mode of action of ferrous sulphate in minimizing Cd in rice was monitored in the present study. Pot culture with Indian rice variety Swarna (MTU 7029) was maintained in Cd-spiked soil containing ferrous sulphates, which is expected to reduce Cd accumulation in rice. Responses in rhizosphere pH, root surface, metal accumulation in plant and molecular physiological processes were monitored. Iron plaque was induced on root surfaces after FeSO4 application and the amount of Fe in plaque reduced with increases in Cd in the soil. Rhizosphere pH decreased during plaque formation and became more acidic due to secretion of organic acids from the roots under Cd treatment. Moreover, iron chelate reductase activity increased with Cd treatment, but in the absence of Cd, activity of this enzyme increased in plaque-induced plants. Cd treatment caused expression of OsYSL18, whereas OsYSL15 was expressed only in roots without iron plaque. Fe content of plants increased during plaque formation, which protected plants from Cd-induced Fe deficiency and metal toxicity. This was corroborated with increased biomass, chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photo-synthesis among plaque-induced plants. We conclude that ferrous sulphate-induced iron plaque prevents Cd accumulation and Fe deficiency in rice. Iron released from plaque via organic acid mediated dissolution during Cd stress.

  17. Branch Atheromatous Plaque: A Major Cause of Lacunar Infarction (High-Resolution MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Won Chung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lacunar infarctions account for up to 25% of all ischemic strokes and, thus, constitute a numerically important subgroup. It is important that the two pathogeneses of lacunar infarction, that is, small-vessel occlusion and branch atheromatous disease, be differentiated because prognoses and treatment strategies differ. The authors evaluated the presence of branch atheromatous plaque in parent arteries that supply lacunar infarcts by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI. Methods: HR-MRI was performed in 15 patients with (1 a clinical presentation consistent with classical lacunar syndromes; (2 an acute lacunar infarction by diffusion-weighted imaging, measuring ≤20 mm in maximal diameter; (3 a magnetic resonance angiography showing a normal middle cerebral artery or basilar artery supplying the ischemic lesion, and (4 no other obvious etiology for small-vessel distribution ischemic stroke. Results: The median time of vessel wall imaging after index events was 4 days (range, 2–15 days. Six of the 15 patients had a lacunar infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 9 had a lesion in the basilar artery territory. HR-MRI detected underlying atheromatous plaques in 9 patients (60% with a lacunar infarction. In these 9 patients, asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis was more frequent compared to patients without branch atheromatous plaque (55.6 vs. 16.7%. In pontine infarctions, ischemic lesions that extended to the pial base of the pons were more frequent in patients with branch atheromatous plaques (83.3 vs. 33.3%, and all the ischemic lesions and atheromatous plaques were on the same side (right, n = 2; left, n = 4. All plaques responsible for acute symptomatic lacunar infarction were enhanced in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted HR-MR images. Conclusions: HR-MRI results enabled underlying symptomatic branch atheromatous disease to be detected in lacunar infarction patients. The experience gained

  18. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A

    2003-01-01

    Most adults brush and floss inadequately, and constant education and/or reinforcement is often required. Bacteria are usually left behind with mechanical oral health routines, and chemotherapeutic agents may have a key role as adjuncts to daily home-care. To date, two antiseptic mouthwashes have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance: Peridex (Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, AZ, USA; CHX, chlorhexidine) and Listerine (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Morris Plains, NJ, USA; essential oil (EO) mouthwash). CHX has a strong affinity for tooth and tissue surfaces, but can cause brown staining on the teeth and tongue. Patients must also wait until all traces of toothpaste are removed before rinsing with CHX. Long-term use of an EO mouthwash is microbiologically safe, with no changes observed in the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque, and no evidence of antimicrobial resistance. A number of trials have demonstrated the long-term plaque- and gingivitis-reducing properties of both CHX and EO mouthwashes. These studies clearly demonstrate that these agents have lasting efficacy, and can access hard-to-reach areas.

  19. Plaque, caries, periodontal diseases, and acculturation among Yanomamoe Indians, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, C.J. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Thomson, L.A.; Stiles, H.M.; Brewer, C.; Neel, J.V.; Brunelle, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The number of DM and d teeth and surfaces was recorded for 220 Yanomamoe Indians from three groups of villages with different degrees of contact with Western culture. Specimens of plaque were taken from the teeth, transported in a holding solution, cultured, and examined for specific oral streptococci. In addition, the periodontal health and oral hygiene of one group of villagers were assessed using the Russell PI and the Greene and Vermillion OHIS. Caries experience among the Yanomamoe was shown to be positively associated with exposure to Western culture. S. mutans was recovered with about the same frequency from specimens taken from the teeth of Indians living at all three village locations. However, the presence of S. mutans alone did not account for the disparity in dental caries scores. The examinees had abundant and persistent accumulations of soft deposits on their teeth accompanied by markedly inflamed gingival tissues. However, periodontal pockets and loss of appreciable amounts of bone did not appear as early in life nor were they as severe as reported for some other populations which practice little oral hygiene. Those disparities in the distribution of plaque-induced oral diseases between Western populations and the Yanomamoe warrant further study.

  20. Amyloid plaque imaging in vivo: current achievement and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a very complex neurodegenerative disorder, the exact cause of which is still not known. The major histopathological features, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, already described by Alois Alzheimer, have been the focus in research for decades. Despite a probable whole cascade of events in the brain leading to impairment of cognition, amyloid is still the target for diagnosis and treatment. The rapid development of molecular imaging techniques now allows imaging of amyloid plaques in vivo in Alzheimer patients by PET amyloid ligands such as Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Studies so far have revealed high {sup 11}C-PIB retention in brain at prodromal stages of AD and a possibility to discriminate AD from other dementia disorders by {sup 11}C-PIB. Ongoing studies are focussing to understand the relationship between brain and CSF amyloid processes and cognitive processes. In vivo imaging of amyloid will be important for early diagnosis and evaluation of new anti-amyloid therapies in AD. (orig.)

  1. Differentiation of pityriasis rubra pilaris from plaque psoriasis by dermoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azim, N E; Ismail, S A; Fathy, E

    2017-05-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) and plaque psoriasis (PP) are two distinctive erythemato-squamous skin diseases that often have to be differentiated from each other and from other similar dermatoses. Dermoscopy has been proven to aid the clinical diagnosis of several inflammatory disorders, minimizing the need for skin biopsy. Our aim was to determine the dermoscopic patterns of PRP compared to PP and to assess the significance of certain dermoscopic criteria in the diagnosis of PRP. This case-control study included 11 patients with biopsy proven PRP and 25 patients with biopsy proven plaque psoriasis. The most recently developed lesion of each patient was examined by non-contact dermoscopy. Whitish keratotic plugs and linear vessels in yellowish background are significant dermoscopic features of PRP compared to white diffuse scales and dotted vessels in a light red background in PP. In conclusion, PRP and PP reveal specific distinguishing dermoscopic patterns that may assist in their clinical diagnosis and may also be useful for the differential diagnosis from other resembling dermatoses.

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize Inflammatory Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Dai, Xiaohu; Beebe, Tyler; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Predicting metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions has remained an unmet clinical need. We hereby developed an electrochemical strategy to characterize the inflammatory states of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Using the concentric bipolar microelectrodes, we sought to demonstrate distinct Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) measurements for unstable atherosclerotic plaques that harbored active lipids and inflammatory cells. Using equivalent circuits to simulate vessel impedance at the electrode-endoluminal tissue interface, we demonstrated specific electric elements to model working and counter electrode interfaces as well as the tissue impedance. Using explants of human coronary, carotid, and femoral arteries at various Stary stages of atherosclerotic lesions (n = 15), we performed endoluminal EIS measurements (n = 147) and validated with histology and immunohistochemistry. We computed the vascular tissue resistance using the equivalent circuit model and normalized the resistance to the lesion-free regions. Tissue resistance was significantly elevated in the oxLDL-rich thin-cap atheromas (1.57±0.40, n = 14, p 0.05). Hence, we demonstrate that the application of EIS strategy was sensitive to detect fibrous cap oxLDL-rich lesions and specific to distinguish oxLDL-absent fibroatheroma. PMID:21959227

  3. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  4. Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Plaques in Recent Small Subcortical Infarction: A Three-Dimensional High-resolution MR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Conventional two-dimensional vessel wall imaging has been used to depict the middle cerebral artery (MCA wall in patients with recent small subcortical infarctions (RSSIs. However, its clinical use has been limited by restricted spatial coverage, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and long scan time. We used a novel three-dimensional high-resolution MR imaging (3D HR-MRI technique to investigate the presence, locations, and contrast-enhanced patterns of MCA plaques and their relationship with RSSI. Methods. Nineteen consecutive patients with RSSI but no luminal stenosis on MR angiography were prospectively enrolled. 3D HR-MRI was performed using a T1w-SPACE sequence at 3.0 T. The presence, locations, and contrast-enhanced patterns of the MCA plaques on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides to the RSSI were analyzed. Results. Eighteen patients successfully completed the study. MCA atherosclerotic plaques occurred more frequently on the ipsilateral than the contralateral side to the RSSI (72.2% versus 33.3%, P=0.044. The occurrence of superiorly located plaques was significantly higher on the ipsilateral than the contralateral side of the MCA (66.7% versus 27.8%; P=0.044. Conclusions. Superiorly located plaques are closely associated with RSSI. 3D high-resolution vessel wall imaging may be a potential tool for etiologic assessment of ischemic stroke.

  5. Randomized controlled trial to study plaque inhibition in calcium sodium phosphosilicate dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Nicholas C A; Hall, Claire; Hughes, Alison J; Shaw, David; Seong, Joon; Davies, Maria; West, Nicola X

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of three calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS)/sodium monofluorophosphate containing dentifrices, compared to positive and negative controls on plaque re-growth in a non-brushing model, after 4 days of twice daily use, as determined by plaque area and Turesky plaque index (TPI). This was an exploratory, single-centre, examiner-blind, randomised, controlled, five treatment period, crossover, plaque re-growth study, with supervised use of study products. Twenty-three healthy adult volunteers were randomized to receive experimental 5% CSPS dentifrice; two marketed 5% CSPS dentifrices; active comparator mouthrinse and negative control dentifrice. At the start of each treatment period, zero plaque was established by dental prophylaxis and study products were dispensed as either dentifrice slurries or mouthrinse, twice daily for the next 4 days. No other forms of oral hygiene were permitted. After 96h, supra-gingival plaque was determined by plaque area (direct entry, planimetric method) and TPI. Changes from zero plaque were analysed. For both measures, plaque re-growth at 96h was significantly lower following treatment with active comparator mouthrinse and significantly higher following treatment with the experimental 5% CSPS dentifrice, compared to all other treatments. There were no statistically significant differences between the three other treatments, except between the marketed 5% CSPS dentifrices, for overall plaque area. The comparator mouthwash was significantly more effective at preventing plaque accumulation than the dentifrice slurries. The three marketed dentifrices contained sodium lauryl sulphate and were more effective at reducing plaque re-growth than the experimental dentifrice formulated with a tegobetaine/adinol surfactant system. The CSPS containing dentifrices tested in this study showed no significant chemical-therapeutic anti-plaque benefits compared to a negative control dentifrice. However, sodium lauryl sulphate

  6. Correlation between Plaque Composition as assessed by Virtual Histology and C-reactive Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Dimytri Alexandre de Alvim, E-mail: dimytri@cardiol.br; Sousa, Amanda Guerra Moraes R.; Costa Junior, José de Ribamar; Costa, Ricardo Alves da; Staico, Rodolfo; Tanajura, Luis Fernando Leite; Centemero, Marinella Patrizia; Feres, Fausto; Abizaid, Alexandre Antonio Cunha; Sousa, J. Eduardo Moraes R. [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Previous studies have shown that coronary plaque composition plays a pivotal role in plaque instability, and imaging modalities and serum biomarkers have been investigated to identify vulnerable plaque. Virtual histology IVUS (VH-IVUS) characterizes plaque components as calcified, fibrotic, fibrofatty, or necrotic core. C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is an independent risk factor and a powerful predictor of future coronary events. However, a relationship between inflammatory response indicated by CRP and plaque characteristics in ACS patients remains not well established. To determine, by using VH-IVUS, the relation between coronary plaque components and plasma high-sensitivity CRP levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). 52 patients with ACS were enrolled in this prospective study. Electrocardiographically-gated VH-IVUS were performed in the culprit lesion before PCI. Blood sample was drawn from all patients before the procedure and after 24 hours, and hs-CRP levels were determined. Mean age was 55.3±4.9 years, 76.9% were men and 30.9% had diabetes. Mean MLA was 3.9±1.3 mm{sup 2}, and plaque burden was 69±11.3%, as assessed by IVUS. VH-IVUS analysis at the minimum luminal site identified plaque components: fibrotic (59.6±15.8%), fibrofatty (7.6±8.2%), dense calcium (12.1±9.2%) and necrotic core (20.7±12.7%). Plasma hs-CRP (mean 16.02±18.07 mg/L) did not correlate with necrotic core (r=-0.089, p = 0.53) and other plaque components. In this prospective study with patients with ACS, the predominant components of the culprit plaque were fibrotic and necrotic core. Serum hs C-reactive protein levels did not correlate with plaque composition.

  7. Pathogenicity of human high pathogenic H5N1 virus with different plaque property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-qiang LI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the pathogenicity of human high pathogenic H5N1 virus with different plaque property,and provide a new train of thought and basis for research on crossing species-genus transmission of avian influenza virus.Methods Variants with different plaque property(larger-and smaller-plaque variant were isolated from A/Beijing/01/03(H5N1(BJ01 by the plaque purification.Mice were inoculated intranasally(i.n. with each kind of isolated variant and monitored for 14 days to record and calculate the body weight change and the survival rate.The difference in pathogenicity of isolated variants was estimated with proper principle of statistics.Results The plaques of original strain of BJ01 virus were heterogeneous with various size and shape.Larger-plaque variants(L1 and L2 and smaller-plaque variants(S1,S2 and S3 were isolated separately.The pathogenicity was higher in S1 and S2 variants than in S3,L1 and L2 variants,and that of L2 variant was the lowest.Variants forming different plaques were heterogeneous in pathogenicity,and those forming same plaques were also heterogeneous in pathogenicity.Conclusion There is no linear correlation between the pathogenicity of variants and the size of plaque they formed.The variants with different pathogenicity could be isolated from the same H5N1 virus strain by plaque purification.These results would provide a basis for vaccine development and the studies on molecular mechanism of H5N1 virus.

  8. Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation Is Associated with Vulnerability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Perego, Carlo; Zangari, Rosalia; De Blasio, Daiana; Oggioni, Marco; De Nigris, Francesca; Snider, Francesco; Garred, Peter; Ferrante, Angela M. R.; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. By using a novel histology-based method to quantify plaque instability here, we assess whether lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation, a major inflammation arm, could represent an index of plaque instability. Plaques from 42 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the lipid core, cholesterol clefts, hemorrhagic content, thickness of tunica media, and intima, including or not infiltration of cellular debris and cholesterol, were determined. The presence of ficolin-1, -2, and -3 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), LP initiators, was assessed in the plaques by immunofluorescence and in plasma by ELISA. LP activation was assessed in plasma by functional in vitro assays. Patients presenting low stenosis (≤75%) had higher hemorrhagic content than those with high stenosis (>75%), indicating increased erosion. Increased hemorrhagic content and tunica media thickness, as well as decreased lipid core and infiltrated content were associated with vulnerable plaques and therefore used to establish a plaque vulnerability score that allowed to classify patients according to plaque vulnerability. Ficolins and MBL were found both in plaques’ necrotic core and tunica media. Patients with vulnerable plaques showed decreased plasma levels and intraplaque deposition of ficolin-2. Symptomatic patients experiencing a transient ischemic attack had lower plasma levels of ficolin-1. We show that the LP initiators are present within the plaques and their circulating levels change in atherosclerotic patients. In particular, we show that decreased ficolin-2 levels are associated with rupture-prone vulnerable plaques, indicating its potential use as marker for cardiovascular risk assessment in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:28360913

  9. Detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by Raman probe spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Dochow, Sebastian; Egodage, Kokila D.; Schie, Iwan; Romeike, Bernd F.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Visualization and characterization of inner arterial plaque depositions is of vital diagnostic interest. Established intravascular imaging techniques provide valuable morphological information, but cannot deliver information about the chemical composition of individual plaques. Probe based Raman spectroscopy offers the possibility for a biochemical characterization of atherosclerotic plaque formations during an intravascular intervention. From post mortem studies it is well known that the severity of a plaque and its stability are strongly correlated with its biochemical composition. Especially the identification of vulnerable plaques remains one of the most important and challenging aspects in cardiology. Thus, specific information about the composition of a plaque would greatly improve the risk assessment and management. Furthermore, knowledge about the composition can offer new therapeutic and medication strategies. Plaque calcifications as well as major lipid components such as cholesterol, cholesterol esters and triglycerides can be spectroscopically easily differentiated. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently a prominent catheter based imaging technique for the localization and visualization of atherosclerotic plaque depositions. The high resolution of OCT with 10 to 15 µm allows for very detailed characterization of morphological features such as different plaque formations, thin fibrous caps and accurate measurements of lesion lengths. In combination with OCT imaging the obtained spectral information can provide substantial information supporting on on-site diagnosis of various plaque types and therefor an improved risk assessment. The potential and feasibility of combining OCT with Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated on excised plaque samples, as well as under in vivo conditions. Acknowledgements: Financial support from the Carl Zeiss Foundation is greatly acknowledged.

  10. Combined optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound radio frequency data analysis for plaque characterization. Classification accuracy of human coronary plaques in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P.M. Goderie; G. van Soest (Gijs); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); N. Gonzalo (Nieves); S. Koljenovic (Senada); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); F. Mastik (Frits); E.S. Regar (Eveline); J.W. Oosterhuis (Wolter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study was performed to characterize coronary plaque types by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radiofrequency (RF) data analysis, and to investigate the possibility of error reduction by combining these techniques. Intracoronary imaging methods h

  11. Bacterial Amyloid and DNA are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklossy, Judith

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that spirochetes form clumps or micro colonies in vitro and in vivo. Cortical spirochetal colonies in syphilitic dementia were considered as reproductive centers for spirochetes. Historic and recent data demonstrate that senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are made up by spirochetes. Spirochetes, are able to form biofilm in vitro. Senile plaques are also reported to contain elements of biofilm constituents. We expected that AβPP and Aβ (the main components of senile plaques) also occur in pure spirochetal biofilms, and bacterial DNA (an important component of biofilm) is also present in senile plaques. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization techniques and the TUNEL assay were used to answer these questions. The results obtained demonstrate that Aβ and DNA, including spirochete-specific DNA, are key components of both pure spirochetal biofilms and senile plaques in AD and confirm the biofilm nature of senile plaques. These results validate validate previous observations that AβPP and/or an AβPP-like amyloidogenic protein are an integral part of spirochetes, and indicate that bacterial and host derived Aβ are both constituents of senile plaques. DNA fragmentation in senile plaques further confirms their bacterial nature and provides biochemical evidence for spirochetal cell death. Spirochetes evade host defenses, locate intracellularly, form more resistant atypical forms and notably biofilms, which contribute to sustain chronic infection and inflammation and explain the slowly progressive course of dementia in AD. To consider co-infecting microorganisms is equally important, as multi-species biofilms result in a higher resistance to treatments and a more severe dementia. PMID:27314530

  12. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M;

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  13. Plaque formation and lactic acid production after use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride mouthrinse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerardu, V.A.M.; Buijs, M.; Loveren, C. van; Cate, J.M. ten

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was lo determine the effects of 3 wk of daily rinsing with amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF2) mouthrinse on plaque formation at buccal and interproximal sites, and on the acid production in plaque. in a randomized clinical trial with 30 participants. The amount of plaq

  14. Plaque inflammation and unstable morphology are associated with early stroke recurrence in symptomatic carotid stenosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marnane, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Although symptomatic carotid stenosis is associated with 3-fold increased risk of early stroke recurrence, the pathophysiologic mechanisms of high early stroke risk have not been established. We aimed to investigate the relationship between early stroke recurrence after initial symptoms and histological features of plaque inflammation and instability in resected carotid plaque.

  15. Effects of intima stiffness and plaque morphology on peak cap stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyildiz, A.C.; Speelman, L.; Van Brummelen, H.; Gutiérrez, M.A.; Virmani, R.; Van der Lugt, A.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.; Wentzel, J.J.; Gijsen, F.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rupture of the cap of a vulnerable plaque present in a coronary vessel may cause myocardial infarction and death. Cap rupture occurs when the peak cap stress exceeds the cap strength. The mechanical stress within a cap depends on the plaque morphology and the material characteristics of

  16. Effects of intima stiffness and plaque morphology on peak cap stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Akyildiz (Ali); L. Speelman (Lambert); H. van Brummelen (Harald); M.A. Gutiérrez (Miguel); R. Virmani (Renu); A. van der Lugt (Aad); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Rupture of the cap of a vulnerable plaque present in a coronary vessel may cause myocardial infarction and death. Cap rupture occurs when the peak cap stress exceeds the cap strength. The mechanical stress within a cap depends on the plaque morphology and the material

  17. Plaque, caries level and oral hygiene habits in young patients receiving orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Lemos, M I

    2010-01-01

    To assess plaque, caries, and oral hygiene habits amongst patients receiving fixed-orthodontic treatment at the Dental-Clinic, Universidad-El-Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.......To assess plaque, caries, and oral hygiene habits amongst patients receiving fixed-orthodontic treatment at the Dental-Clinic, Universidad-El-Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia....

  18. [Effects of neural stem cells transplanted into an animal model of Alzheimer disease on Aβ plaques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Pei-jun; Gu, Guo-jun; Li, Ming-hua; Gao, Xiao-long

    2013-12-03

    To explore the effects on Aβ plaques of neural stem cells transplanted into an Alzheimer disease mouse model. A total of twenty 12-months-old APP+PS1 double transgenic AD mice were randomly divided into two groups.One group received neural stem cells transplantation, that was NSC group, another mice received an equal quantity 0.01 mol/L PBS, as positive control group. After 5 weeks transplantation, the total number of Aβ plaques examined by immunohistochemistry, the ratio of compact of Aβ plaques by TS staining, and whether NSCs migrate into Aβ plaques by immunofluorescence monitoring. There was no difference in total number of Aβ plaques between NSC group (181 ± 12) and PBS (179 ± 14) group after transplantation (P > 0.05). There was no difference in the number of TS+ plaques between NSC group (54.9%) and PBS (55.7%) group after eight weeks NSCs transplantation (P > 0.05). (2) However, engrafted NSCs showed partial chemotaxis toward Aβ plaques. NSCs transplantation did not have a significant impact on Aβ plaques of AD mice, but the tropism of engrafted NSCs may be capable of replacing lost or damaged cells and reverse the course of AD mice in some extent.

  19. Efficacy of homecare regimens for mechanical plaque removal in managing gingivitis: a meta review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weijden, F.A.; Slot, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Focused question Based on evidence as presented in systematic reviews what is the efficacy and safety of available homecare toothbrush regimens for mechanical plaque removal on plaque and gingivitis in adults? Material & Methods Three Internet sources were used (up to and including August 2014) to

  20. Effect of kibble size, shape and additives on plaque in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, D.E.; Servet, E.; Hendriks, W.H.; Thomas, D.G.; Weidgraaf, K.; Biourge, V.C.

    2010-01-01

    Forty mixed-breed cats completed a parallel-group, clinical study to compare supragingival plaque accumulation using a triangular or rectangular shaped dry-expanded diet, with or without an anti-calculus agent (sodium tripolyphosphate) or an anti-plaque agent (plaquereducing nutrient). The cats were

  1. Influence of shear stress magnitude and direction on atherosclerotic plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrigi, Ryan M; Mehta, Vikram V; Bovens, Sandra M; Mohri, Zahra; Poulsen, Christian Bo; Gsell, Willy; Tremoleda, Jordi L; Towhidi, Leila; de Silva, Ranil; Petretto, Enrico; Krams, Rob

    2016-10-01

    The precise flow characteristics that promote different atherosclerotic plaque types remain unclear. We previously developed a blood flow-modifying cuff for ApoE(-/-) mice that induces the development of advanced plaques with vulnerable and stable features upstream and downstream of the cuff, respectively. Herein, we sought to test the hypothesis that changes in flow magnitude promote formation of the upstream (vulnerable) plaque, whereas altered flow direction is important for development of the downstream (stable) plaque. We instrumented ApoE(-/-) mice (n = 7) with a cuff around the left carotid artery and imaged them with micro-CT (39.6 µm resolution) eight to nine weeks after cuff placement. Computational fluid dynamics was then performed to compute six metrics that describe different aspects of atherogenic flow in terms of wall shear stress magnitude and/or direction. In a subset of four imaged animals, we performed histology to confirm the presence of advanced plaques and measure plaque length in each segment. Relative to the control artery, the region upstream of the cuff exhibited changes in shear stress magnitude only (p < 0.05), whereas the region downstream of the cuff exhibited changes in shear stress magnitude and direction (p < 0.05). These data suggest that shear stress magnitude contributes to the formation of advanced plaques with a vulnerable phenotype, whereas variations in both magnitude and direction promote the formation of plaques with stable features.

  2. Immune hyperreactivity of Aβ plaque-associated microglia in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya; Saiepour, Nasrin; Van Dam, Debby; Brouwer, Nieske; Holtman, Inge R.; Eggen, Bart J.L.; Möller, Thomas; Tamm, Joseph A.; Abdourahman, Aicha; Hol, Elly M.; Kamphuis, Willem; Bayer, Thomas A.; De Deyn, Peter P.; Boddeke, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is strongly associated with microglia-induced neuroinflammation. Particularly, Aβ plaque-associated microglia take on an "activated" morphology. However, the function and phenotype of these Aβ plaque-associated microglia are not well understood. We show hyperreactivity of Aβ

  3. Plaque-left-behind after brushing : intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2012-01-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste

  4. Enamel microhardness and fluoride uptake underneath fermenting and non-fermenting artificial plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtola, L O

    1977-09-01

    Washed cells of Streptococcus sanguis were used to form artificial plaque on the surface of bovine enamel and incubated underneath buffer solutions, initial pH 6, for 36 h at 37 degrees C. The decrease in the microhardness of the enamel surface under fermenting "plaque" could be prevented with fluoride. Enamel under a fermenting "plaque" took up significantly more (P less than 0.0u) fluoride than enamel under a non-fermenting "plaque" (initial F- in buffer: 10 parts/10(6)). The artificial plaque did not accumulate fluoride. Within fermenting "plaques/, the pH decreased significantly more without flouride (P less than 0.01) than with fluoride. Fluoride combined with sucrose more than negated the softening of the enamel caused by sucrose fermentation, i.e. it increased the hardness above the original values. The diffusion of fluoride through the fermenting artificial plaque was more rapid than through a non-fermenting plaque. These findings suggest that caries-conducive circumstances may promote fluoride uptake by enamel compared with non-caries-conducive circumstances.

  5. Fluorescent activated cell sorting: an effective approach to study dendritic cell subsets in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brussel, Ilse; Ammi, Rachid; Rombouts, Miche; Cools, Nathalie; Vercauteren, Sven R; De Roover, Dominique; Hendriks, Jeroen M H; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E; Schrijvers, Dorien M

    2015-02-01

    Different immune cell types are present within atherosclerotic plaques. Dendritic cells (DC) are of special interest, since they are considered as the 'center of the immuniverse'. Identifying inflammatory DC subtypes within plaques is important for a better understanding of the lesion pathogenesis and pinpoints their contribution to the atherosclerotic process. We have developed a flow cytometry-based method to characterize and isolate different DC subsets (i.e. CD11b(+), Clec9A(+) and CD16(+) conventional (c)DC and CD123(+) plasmacytoid (p)DC) in human atherosclerotic plaques. We revealed a predominance of pro-inflammatory CD11b(+) DC in advanced human lesions, whereas atheroprotective Clec9A(+) DC were almost absent. CD123(+) pDC and CD16(+) DC were also detectable in plaques. Remarkably, plaques from distinct anatomical locations exhibited different cellular compositions: femoral plaques contained less CD11b(+) and Clec9A(+) DC than carotid plaques. Twice as many monocytes/macrophages were observed compared to DC. Moreover, relative amounts of T cells/B cells/NK cells were 6 times as high as DC numbers. For the first time, fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis of DC subsets in human plaques indicated a predominance of CD11b(+) cDC, in comparison with other DC subsets. Isolation of the different subsets will facilitate detailed functional analysis and may have significant implications for tailoring appropriate therapy.

  6. Coronary plaque composition as assessed by greyscale intravascular ultrasound and radiofrequency spectral data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Gonzalo (Nieves); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); E. Meliga (Emanuele); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bruining (Nico); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: (i) To explore the relation between greyscale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plaque qualitative classification and IVUS radiofrequency data (RFD) analysis tissue types; (ii) to evaluate if plaque composition as assessed by RFD analysis can be predicted by visual assessment o

  7. Efficacy of homecare regimens for mechanical plaque removal in managing gingivitis: a meta review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weijden, F.A.; Slot, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Focused question Based on evidence as presented in systematic reviews what is the efficacy and safety of available homecare toothbrush regimens for mechanical plaque removal on plaque and gingivitis in adults? Material & Methods Three Internet sources were used (up to and including August 2014) to s

  8. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  9. Veins in plaques of multiple sclerosis patients - a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal-Bianco, Assunta; Auff, Eduard; Leutmezer, Fritz; Vass, Karl [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Wien (Austria); Hametner, Simon [Medical University of Vienna, Center for Brain Research, Wien (Austria); Grabner, Guenther; Schernthaner, Melanie; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Wien (Austria); Reitner, Andreas; Vass, Clemens; Kircher, Karl [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Ophthalmology, Wien (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    To monitor the venous volumes in plaques of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to an age-matched control group over a period of 3.5 years. Ten MS patients underwent an annual neurological examination and MRI. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) combined with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) or FLAIR-like contrast at 7 Tesla (7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for manual segmentation of veins in plaques, in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in location-matched white matter of 9 age-matched controls. Venous volume to tissue volume ratio was assessed for each time point in order to describe the dynamics of venous volumes in MS plaques over time. MS plaques, which were newly detected during the study period, showed significantly higher venous volumes compared to the preplaque area 1 year before plaque detection and the corresponding NAWM regions. Venous volumes in established MS plaques, which were present already in the first scans, were significantly higher compared to the NAWM and controls. Our data underpin a relation of veins and plaque development in MS and reflect increased apparent venous calibers due to increased venous diameters or increased oxygen consumption in early MS plaques. (orig.)

  10. Plaque-left-behind after brushing : intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2012-01-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste with

  11. Automatic segmentation of amyloid plaques in MR images using unsupervised support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Gheorghe; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2012-06-01

    Deposition of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is an important pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, reliable quantification of amyloid plaques in both human and animal brains remains a challenge. We present here a novel automatic plaque segmentation algorithm based on the intrinsic MR signal characteristics of plaques. This algorithm identifies plaque candidates in MR data by using watershed transform, which extracts regions with low intensities completely surrounded by higher intensity neighbors. These candidates are classified as plaque or nonplaque by an unsupervised learning method using features derived from the MR data intensity. The algorithm performance is validated by comparison with histology. We also demonstrate the algorithm's ability to detect age-related changes in plaque load ex vivo in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice that coexpress five familial AD mutations (5xFAD mice). To our knowledge, this study represents the first quantitative method for characterizing amyloid plaques in MRI data. The proposed method can be used to describe the spatiotemporal progression of amyloid deposition, which is necessary for understanding the evolution of plaque pathology in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and to evaluate the efficacy of emergent amyloid-targeting therapies in preclinical trials.

  12. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  13. Numerical analysis of the hemodynamic effect of plaque ulceration in the stenotic carotid artery bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emily Y.; Milner, Jaques S.; Steinman, David A.; Poepping, Tamie L.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2009-02-01

    The presence of ulceration in carotid artery plaque is an independent risk factor for thromboembolic stroke. However, the associated pathophysiological mechanisms - in particular the mechanisms related to the local hemodynamics in the carotid artery bifurcation - are not well understood. We investigated the effect of carotid plaque ulceration on the local time-varying three-dimensional flow field using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of a stenosed carotid bifurcation geometry, with and without the presence of ulceration. CFD analysis of each model was performed with a spatial finite element discretization of over 150,000 quadratic tetrahedral elements and a temporal discretization of 4800 timesteps per cardiac cycle, to adequately resolve the flow field and pulsatile flow, respectively. Pulsatile flow simulations were iterated for five cardiac cycles to allow for cycle-to-cycle analysis following the damping of initial transients in the solution. Comparison between models revealed differences in flow patterns induced by flow exiting from the region of the ulcer cavity, in particular, to the shape, orientation and helicity of the high velocity jet through the stenosis. The stenotic jet in both models exhibited oscillatory motion, but produced higher levels of phase-ensembled turbulence intensity in the ulcerated model. In addition, enhanced out-of-plane recirculation and helical flow was observed in the ulcerated model. These preliminary results suggest that local fluid behaviour may contribute to the thrombogenic risk associated with plaque ulcerations in the stenotic carotid artery bifurcation.

  14. Salidroside Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu-Chun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside is isolated from Rhodiola rosea and is one of the main active components in Rhodiola species. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Salidroside on atherosclerotic plaque formation in high-fat diet-(HFD- fed female LDL receptor knockout (LDLr-/- mice. LDLr-/- mice fed an atherogenic HFD for 12 weeks were divided into two groups. One group was administered Salidroside (50 mg/kg/oral gavage daily for 8 weeks, while the control group was administered saline. Salidroside treatment reduced serum lipids levels and the plaque area through the arch to the abdominal aorta. Furthermore, Salidroside improved macrophage content and enhanced collagen and smooth muscle cells contents in the aortic sinus. These changes were associated with reduced MCP-1, VCAM-1, and VCAM-1 protein expression in atherosclerotic aortas. All these results suggest that Salidroside decreases atherosclerotic plaques formation via effects on lipid lowering and anti-inflammation in HFD-fed LDLr−/− mice.

  15. A negative correlation between human carotid atherosclerotic plaque progression and plaque wall stress: in vivo MRI-based 2D/3D FSI models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Mondal, Sayan; Liu, Fei; Canton, Gador; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Yuan, Chun

    2008-01-01

    It is well accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and progression correlate positively with low and oscillating flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, this mechanism cannot explain why advanced plaques continue to grow under elevated FSS conditions. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based 2D/3D multi-component models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI, 3D only) for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were introduced to quantify correlations between plaque progression measured by wall thickness increase (WTI) and plaque wall (structure) stress (PWS) conditions. A histologically validated multi-contrast MRI protocol was used to acquire multi-year in vivo MRI images. Our results using 2D models (200-700 data points/patient) indicated that 18 out of 21 patients studied showed significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS at time 2 (T2). The 95% confidence interval for the Pearson correlation coefficient is (-0.443,-0.246), p<0.0001. Our 3D FSI model supported the 2D correlation results and further indicated that combining both plaque structure stress and flow shear stress gave better approximation results (PWS, T2: R(2)=0.279; FSS, T1: R(2)=0.276; combining both: R(2)=0.637). These pilot studies suggest that both lower PWS and lower FSS may contribute to continued plaque progression and should be taken into consideration in future investigations of diseases related to atherosclerosis.

  16. The expanding indications for virtual histology intravascular ultrasound for plaque analysis prior to carotid stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, B J; Wholey, M H

    2008-12-01

    Complications of carotid artery stenting (CAS), including stroke, remain relatively high when compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Current selection criteria for patients undergoing CAS are based predominately on surgical risk related to other comorbidities. Little attention is given to the morphology of the atherosclerotic plaque, although studies have shown that extensive variability exists which confers certain risks for plaque vulnerability. Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound (VH IVUS) offers a unique method of assessing plaque morphology prior to CAS. Herein, the authors review the concepts of atherosclerotic plaque morphology and discuss the background of VH IVUS and illustrate its use in the carotid system. With selection of the appropriate patient and the appropriate plaque, more favorable outcomes of CAS may be achieved which will solidify its place as a frontline treatment of carotid vascular disease.

  17. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the mitotic spindle and dense plaques in three species of Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, F

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the mitotic nucleus in Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. donovani was studied by serial thin sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of each divisional stage. The structures of the interphase and four stages of dividing nuclei were described. Attention was paid to dense plaques and spindle microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear division, a set of six dense plaques was found in association with spindle microtubules in the vicinity of the equatorial region of the nucleus. The number of the plaques was the same in the three species examined. Each plaque was divided into two, forming hemiplaques at the elongational stage of the division; these two sets then migrate to the poles. The plaques appeared to correspond with centromeres of metazoan cells and play an important role in the process of nuclear division.

  18. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-06-01

    An individual variation in the gingival inflammatory response to the dental biofilm has been demonstrated. This variability can be observed between individuals with neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in plaque accumulation. The reported significant differences in gingival inflammatory response under quantitatively and/or qualitatively almost identical bacterial challenge suggest that the gingival response to plaque accumulation may be an individual trait, possibly genetic in origin. The most recent classification of periodontal diseases acknowledges that the clinical expression of plaque-induced gingival inflammation can be substantially modified by systemic factors, either inherent to the host or related to environmental influences. The aim of the present literature review is to describe (i) the factors influencing the development of plaque-induced gingivitis as well as (ii) those metabolic, environmental and systemic factors which have a direct impact on the etiopathogenetic pathway of plaque-induced gingivitis, thus altering the nature or course of the gingival inflammatory response to dental biofilm.

  19. Investigation Of Interaction Between Nitinol Stent And A Vascular Plaque Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Güneş

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between the Nitinol stent and the artery with plaque was investigated using finite element method. The occurring pressure values during the cardiac contraction (systolic and loosening (diastolic were applied as loading to the modeled system with Nitinol stent. In the light of the stress values, the suitability of the Nitinol stent in an artery with plaque was investigated. In the analysis, Nitinol stent was assumed to be shape memory alloy, and artery and plaque were assumed to behave linearly elastic. As a result, the stress and deformations in the plaque and artery due to the interference of Nitinol stent were discussed and concluded that the structure of artery with plaque can be expanded in accordance with Nitinol stent.

  20. Diagnostic challenges of single plaque-like lesion paucibacillary leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues Barbieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy remains a challenge. Reviews by expert dermatopathologists and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR results obtained from 66 single-plaque biopsy samples were compared. Histological findings were graded as high (HP, medium (MP or low (LP probability of leprosy or other dermatopathy (OD. Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes were detected using qPCR. The biopsies of 47 out of 57 clinically diagnosed patients who received multidrug therapy were classified as HP/MP, eight of which were qPCR negative. In the LP/OD (n = 19, two out of eight untreated patients showed positive qPCR results. In the absence of typical histopathological features, qPCR may be utilised to aid in final patient diagnosis, thus reducing overtreatment and delay in diagnosis.

  1. Effects of Oral Health Training on Dental Plaque Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M amiri

    2016-02-01

    3- oral health training (control group . Two weeks and two months after the intervention, plaque index was measured. Positive and negative changes were recorded over time, and then, the study data were analyzed using Chi-square (bonferroni adjustment, McNemar, Kruskal-Wallis  and Paired t-Test. Results: The study results revealed no significant differences between the  halitosis group and the traditional group, though both had a significant difference with the control group. Positive changes in halitosis group especially within girls were held to be more durable compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Oral health training accompanging training of oral malodor, tooth decay and periodontal disease seems to be more effective on health promotion of senior high school students in Yazd. Furthermore, oral malodor training produces more durable effects. As a result, this training style is recommended in regard with eductional programs of schools.

  2. INTRACAMERAL AND INTRACORNEAL VORICONAZOLE IN DEEP KERATOMYCOSIS WITH ENDOTHELIAL PLAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal keratitis, one of the major causes of ophthalmic mycosis is second only to cataract as the most common cause of blindness worldwide. OBJECTIVE The aim was to study the intracorneal and intracameral Voriconazole in deep keratomycosis with endothelial plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a study in the Cornea Clinic of Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Osmania Medical College (Govt., Hyderabad, over a period from September 2012 to August 2014. The study group included 30 patients who were diagnosed clinically and microbiologically (+ve smear and culture as fungal corneal ulcers with deep stromal infiltrates and endothelial plaque not responding to routine antifungal drugs and given voriconazole intracorneally and intracamerally. Data of patient’s age and sex and history of corneal trauma with type of the agents were noted. The time of healing of the ulcer with the scar formation after intracorneal and intracameral voriconazole was noted and the visual acuity was recorded after the healing of the corneal ulcer. RESULTS Thirty eyes of 30 patients with deep keratomycosis with endothelial plaque were evaluated; 19(63.3% were Males and 11(36.7% were Females. Age distribution was 4(13.3% in >10-20 Yrs, 5(16.7% in 21-30 Yrs, 4(13.3% in 31-40 Yrs, 6(20.0% in 41-50 Yrs, 5(16.7% in 51-60 Yrs and 6(20.0% in 61-70 Yrs. The type of trauma was the organic (Vegetative matter in 19(63.4%, inorganic matter in 8(26.7% and no H/o trauma with the agent not known in 3(10.0%. The causative fungi were Fusarium in 15(50.0%, Aspergillus in 12(40.0% and Candida in 3(10.0. The time of healing of the Fungal Corneal Ulcer after Intracorneal and Intracameral Voriconazole was 4(13.3% in 4-6 wks.; 12 (40.0% in 6-8 wks., 5(16.7% in 8–10 wks., and 4(13.3% in 10–12 wks.; 25(83.3% which were healed by corneal scarring were given 1 (One intracorneal and intracameral injection of Voriconazole. The 5

  3. Tools for improving the diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh

    1997-01-01

    that compared to conventional B-mode imaging MACI features reduced image speckle and better definition of tissue interfaces. The point spread function (PSF) for MACI was investigated when scanning through water and through an inhomogeneous tissue mimicking medium and compared to the PSF for conventional imaging...... definition of the interfaces in the cases where one or more of the beams had near-normal incidence on the interface, i.e. an improved visualization over an angular range of interface orientations roughly corresponding to the range of beam angles used. The speckle statistics and the speckle reduction have...... consistent definition of the remaining lumen in the arteries and a less noisy depiction of the reflectivity inside the plaque deposits and the vessel wall. In conclusion, Multi-Angle Compound Imaging appears to be a promising imaging modality for improving the diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease...

  4. Pleural vasculitides of microscopic polyangiitis with asbestos-related plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Ayako; Kinoshita, Yoshinori; Hosoi, Keita; Okumura, Yoshitomo; Song, Misa; Min, Kyongyob

    2015-12-01

    A 69-year-old man who had been exposed to asbestos for approximately 40 years presented with the complaint of fever and pleuritic chest pain on the right side on deep inspiration. Chest X-ray films showed pleural effusion in the right side. Initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective. The hyaluronic acid level was high in the pleural effusion but no malignant mesotheliomal cells were seen with blind pleural biopsy. Blood chemistry showed a remarkable high titer of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) and open renal biopsy suggested crescentic glomerulonephritis. The precise pathological examination on the pleura obtained by the open pleural biopsy showed vasculitides and plaque leading to diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). This is a rare case of MPA seen in the pleural arteries.

  5. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Smith, Scott K; Hughes, Christine M; Damon, Inger K

    2009-04-01

    Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication. Historically, case-fatality rates (CFRs) varied between outbreaks (<1 to approximately 40 %), the reasons for which are incompletely understood. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of orthopoxvirus progeny is hypothesized to disseminate infection. Investigations with the closely related Orthopoxvirus vaccinia have associated increased comet formation (EEV production) with increased mouse mortality (pathogenicity). Other vaccinia virus genetic manipulations which affect EEV production inconsistently support this association. However, antisera against vaccinia virus envelope protect mice from lethal challenge, further supporting a critical role for EEV in pathogenicity. Here, we show that the increased comet formation phenotypes of a diverse collection of variola viruses associate with strain phylogeny and geographical origin, but not with increased outbreak-related CFRs; within clades, there may be an association of plaque size with CFR. The mechanisms for variola virus pathogenicity probably involves multiple host and pathogen factors.

  6. Adalimumab treatment for severe recalcitrant chronic plaque psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety profile of adalimumab in patients with severe, recalcitrant chronic plaque psoriasis, and to assess short-term overlapping of other systemic treatment with adalimumab to prevent flaring of disease. METHODS: This was a retrospective study comprising 39 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis treated with adalimumab between October 2005 and January 2008. All had failed treatment with other systemic agents, including biological therapies in 59% of patients. Patients were started on adalimumab 40 mg weekly or fortnightly, as clinically indicated. Severity of psoriasis was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Therapeutic response was assessed by 75% improvement on PASI (PASI 75). All adverse events were recorded. RESULTS: Results were analysed separately for those treated with adalimumab only and those on combination treatment. PASI 75 was achieved in 38% (8 of 21 patients at week 16), 62% (13 of 21 patients) at week 24, 69% (9 of 13 patients) at week 48% and 71% (5 of 7 patients) at week 72 in the adalimumab-only group, compared with 56% (5 of 9 patients) at week 16, 50% (4 of 8 patients) at week 24, 80% (4 of 5 patients) at week 48% and 67% (2 of 3 patients) at week 72 in the combined group. Of the 39 patients, 15 (38%) achieved a PASI of 0 at some point in their treatment. Adalimumab was well tolerated; 38% of patients experienced side-effects, which were generally mild. CONCLUSION: Adalimumab was effective in a group of patients with psoriasis refractory to other systemic therapies, including biological treatments, and was well tolerated.

  7. Hyperostotic sphenoid wing meningioma en plaque: proptosis management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Wael K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: En plaque sphenoid wing meningioma is morphological unique in comparison with other intracranial meningiomas, characterized by a carpet-like usually small soft tissue component which invade the dura and extensively involve the bone specially the sphenoid wing and orbit causing significant hyperostosis. Patients & Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data, neuro-radiological features, and operative techniques of eighteen patients underwent transcranio-orbital approach sphenoid wing meningioma presented with proptosis during the period from September 2011 to April 2014 in the neurosurgery department, Mansoura University. Patients age ranged from 38 years to 54 years and there was sex males and twelve females. Chief complaints were progressive proptosis and visual acuity deficits. All patients were operated up on using a fronto-temporal approach with orbital decompression. The extent of tumor resection and postoperative complications were investigated. Results: Total removal was achieved in fourteen cases (77.8% over a mean follow-up period of 36 months. Pathological examination showed that twelve patients (66.67% were meningothelial meningiomas. After surgery, proptosis improved in all patients, visual acuity improved in fifteen patients (83.3%. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was found in one patient. There were no operation-related deaths or other significant complications. Four patients had residual tumor (22.2%; two of them underwent surgical re-attack of the tumor and the other two cases were sent for gamma knife radio-surgery. Conclusions: Sphenoid wing meningioma en plaque, mainly meningothelial meningiomas, are characterized by the associated bony hyperostosis that gives them a distinct radiological appearance. The bony hyperostosis is of neoplastic nature and is responsible for many of the clinical manifestation of such tumors and hence should be totally drilled to achieve cure and avoid recurrence. Extensive tumor

  8. Distribution of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Human Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques and Their Production by Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophage Subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke A.; de Vries, Bastiaan M. Wallis; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Harlaar, Niels J.; Tio, Rene A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Westra, Johanna

    In this study, the potential of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) sense for detection of atherosclerotic plaque instability was explored. Secondly, expression of MMPs by macrophage subtypes and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was investigated. Twenty-three consecutive plaques removed during carotid

  9. Evaluation of the Effect of Chlorhexidine in Combination with Sodium Perborate on Gingivitis, Plaque and Tooth Surface Staining

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Torkzaban; A. Zarandi; M. Khatami; F. Jafari

    2011-01-01

    ...; in addition, the amount of decreases in plaque and gingival inflammation and the role of sodium perborate in chlorhexidine efficacy in removing plaque and decreasing gingival inflammation were evaluated. Materials & Methods...

  10. Complementation of Rickettsia rickettsii RelA/SpoT restores a nonlytic plaque phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tina R; Ellison, Damon W; Kleba, Betsy; Hackstadt, Ted

    2011-04-01

    Spotted fever group rickettsiae are known to produce distinct plaque phenotypes. Strains that cause lytic infections in cell culture form clear plaques, while nonlytic strains form opaque plaques in which the cells remain intact. Clear plaques have historically been associated with more-virulent species or strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae. We have selected spontaneous mutant pairs from two independent strains of Rickettsia rickettsii, the virulent R strain and the avirulent Iowa strain. A nonlytic variant of R. rickettsii R, which typically produces clear plaques, was isolated and stably maintained. A lytic variant of the Iowa strain, which characteristically produces opaque plaques, was also selected and maintained. Genomic resequencing of the variants identified only a single gene disrupted in each strain. In both cases, the mutation was in a gene annotated as relA/spoT-like. In the Iowa strain, a single mutation introduced a premature stop codon upstream from region encoding the predicted active site of RelA/SpoT and caused the transition to a lytic plaque phenotype. In R. rickettsii R, the nonlytic plaque phenotype resulted from a single-nucleotide substitution that shifted a tyrosine residue to histidine near the active site of the enzyme. The intact relA/spoT gene thus occurred in variants with the nonlytic plaque phenotype. Complementation of the truncated relA/spoT gene in the Iowa lytic plaque variant restored the nonlytic phenotype. The relA/spoT mutations did not affect the virulence of either strain in a Guinea pig model of infection; R strain lytic and nonlytic variants both induced fever equally, and the mutation in Iowa to a lytic phenotype did not cause them to become virulent.

  11. Vitamin K-antagonists accelerate atherosclerotic calcification and induce a vulnerable plaque phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J Schurgers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA are treatment of choice and standard care for patients with venous thrombosis and thromboembolic risk. In experimental animal models as well as humans, VKA have been shown to promote medial elastocalcinosis. As vascular calcification is considered an independent risk factor for plaque instability, we here investigated the effect of VKA on coronary calcification in patients and on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in the ApoE(-/- model of atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 266 patients (133 VKA users and 133 gender and Framingham Risk Score matched non-VKA users underwent 64-slice MDCT to assess the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD. VKA-users developed significantly more calcified coronary plaques as compared to non-VKA users. ApoE(-/- mice (10 weeks received a Western type diet (WTD for 12 weeks, after which mice were fed a WTD supplemented with vitamin K(1 (VK(1, 1.5 mg/g or vitamin K(1 and warfarin (VK(1&W; 1.5 mg/g & 3.0 mg/g for 1 or 4 weeks, after which mice were sacrificed. Warfarin significantly increased frequency and extent of vascular calcification. Also, plaque calcification comprised microcalcification of the intimal layer. Furthermore, warfarin treatment decreased plaque expression of calcification regulatory protein carboxylated matrix Gla-protein, increased apoptosis and, surprisingly outward plaque remodeling, without affecting overall plaque burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VKA use is associated with coronary artery plaque calcification in patients with suspected CAD and causes changes in plaque morphology with features of plaque vulnerability in ApoE(-/- mice. Our findings underscore the need for alternative anticoagulants that do not interfere with the vitamin K cycle.

  12. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  13. Association Between the Presence of Carotid Artery Plaque and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Genetic Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Ana M; Civeira, Fernando; Jarauta, Estíbaliz; Lamiquiz-Moneo, Itziar; Pérez-Calahorra, Sofía; Marco-Benedí, Victoria; Cenarro, Ana; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío

    2017-07-01

    The equations used in the general population to calculate cardiovascular risk are not useful in genetic hypercholesterolemia (GH). Carotid plaque detection has proved useful in cardiovascular prediction and risk reclassification but there have been no studies of its usefulness in GH. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the presence of carotid artery plaque and the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with GH. This study included 1778 persons with GH. The mean follow-up until the occurrence of cardiovascular events was 6.26 years. At presentation, the presence of carotid artery plaque was studied by high-resolution ultrasound. Carotid artery plaque was found in 661 (37.2%) patients: 31.9% with familial hypercholesterolemia, 39.8% with familial combined hyperlipidemia, 45.5% with dysbetalipoproteinemia, and 43.2% with polygenic hypercholesterolemia. During follow-up, 58 patients had a cardiovascular event. Event rates were 6354/100 000 (95%CI, 4432.4-8275.6) in the group with plaque and 1432/100 000 (95%CI, 730.6-2134.3) in the group without plaque, with significant differences between the 2 groups (P < .001). The relative risk of an event was 4.34 (95CI%, 2.44-7.71; P < .001) times higher in patients with plaque and was 2.40 (95%CI, 1.27-4.56; P = .007) times higher after adjustment for major risk factors. The number of carotid artery plaques was positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Most cardiovascular events occur in a subgroup of patients who can be identified by carotid plaque detection. These results support the use of plaque screening in this population and should help in risk stratification and treatment in GH. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship of Epicardial Fat Volume to Coronary Plaque, Severe Coronary Stenosis, and High-Risk Coronary Plaque Features Assessed by Coronary CT Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Ronak; Shmilovich, Haim; Nakazato, Ryo; Nakanishi, Rine; Otaki, Yuka; Cheng, Victor Y.; Hayes, Sean W.; Thomson, Louise E.J.; Friedman, John D.; Slomka, Piotr J.; Min, James K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Dey, Damini

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations of epicardial fat volume (EFV) measured on non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (NCT) include coronary plaque, myocardial ischemia and adverse cardiac events. Objectives This study aimed to define the relationship of EFV to coronary plaque type, severe coronary stenosis, and to the presence of high-risk plaque features (HRPFs). Methods We retrospectively evaluated 402 consecutive patients, with no prior history of coronary artery disease, who underwent same day non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (NCT) and coronary CT angiography (CTA). EFV was measured on NCT using validated, semi-automated, software. The coronary arteries were evaluated for coronary plaque type [calcified (CP), non-calcified (NCP) or partially-calcified (MP)] and coronary stenosis severity ≥70% using coronary CTA. For patients with NCP and PCP, 2 high risk plaque features were evaluated: Low-attenuation plaque and positive remodeling. Results There were 402 patients with a median age of 66 years (range 23–92) of whom 226 (56%) were male. The EFV was larger in patients with CP (112 ± 55 cm3 vs. 89 ± 39 cm3), PCP (110 ± 57 cm3 vs. 98 ± 45 cm3) and NCP (115 ± 44 cm3 vs. EFV 100 ± 52 cm3. In the 192 patients with PCP or NCP, on multivariable analysis, after adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, EFV was an independent predictor of ≥70% coronary artery stenosis (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3–6.6, p=0.008), any high risk plaque features (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9–3.4, p=0.04) and low attention plaque (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.1, p=0.02), but not of positive remodeling. Conclusions Epicardial fat volume is larger in patients with CP, PCP and NCP. In patients with NCP and PCP, EFV is significantly associated with severe coronary stenosis, high risk plaque features and low attenuation plaque. PMID:23622507

  15. Selective binding of soluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 to a subset of senile plaques.

    OpenAIRE

    Prior, R.; D'Urso, D.; Frank, R; Prikulis, I.; Cleven, S.; Ihl, R; Pavlakovic, G.

    1996-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the progressive accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. It is not known whether the plaque growth is a continuous and homogeneous process or whether some plaques have a more rapid evolution. As plaques grow by the deposition of Abeta, we used an in situ binding technique to analyze the deposition of fluorescein-conjugated and biotinylated Abeta1 40 and Abeta1-42 in cryosections of brains from Alzhe...

  16. Comparison of coronary plaque subtypes in male and female patients using 320-row MDCTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Faisal; Khan, Atif N; Nasir, Khurram; Bedayat, Arash; Malik, Zehra; Jon, Ali F; Cheema, Ahmad R; Clouse, Melvin E; Welty, Francine K

    2013-02-01

    Determine plaque subtype and volume difference in male and female patients with obstructive and non-obstructive CAD using 320-row MDCTA. 128 patients with suspected CAD underwent MDCTA. All studies were divided into two groups based on disease severity. 0-70% stenosis (non-obstructive CAD) & >70% (obstructive). All were compared for plaque quantity and subtypes by gender. Main arteries, RCA, LM, LAD and LCX were analyzed using Vitrea 5.2 software to quantify fatty, fibrous and calcified plaque. Thresholds for coronary plaque quantification (volume in mm(3)) were preset at 35 ± 12 HU for fatty, 90 ± 24 HU for fibrous and >130 HU for calcified/mixed plaque and analyzed using STATA software. Total plaque burden in 118 patients [65M: 53F] was significantly higher in all arteries in males compared to females with non-obstructive disease. Total plaque volume for males vs. females was: RCA: 10.10 ± 5.02 mm(3) vs. 6.89 ± 2.75 mm(3), respectively, p = 0.001; LAD: 7.21 ± 3.38 mm(3) vs. 5.89 ± 1.93 mm(3), respectively, p = 0.04; LCX: 9.13 ± 3.27 mm(3) vs. 7.16 ± 1.73 mm(3), respectively, p = 0.002; LM 15.13 ± 4.51 mm(3) vs. 11.85 ± 4.03 mm(3), respectively, p = 0.001. In sub-analyses, males had significantly more fibrous and fatty plaque in LM, LAD & LCX than females. However in the RCA, only fibrous plaque was significantly greater in males. Calcified plaque volume was not significantly different in both genders. Only 8% of patients had obstructive CAD (>70% stenosis); there was no significant difference in plaque volume or subtypes. In patients with non-obstructive CAD, males were found to have significantly higher total coronary plaque volume with predominance of fibrous and fatty subtypes compared to females of the same age and BMI. There was no significant difference in plaque subtype or volume in patients with obstructive disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles: inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Boekhorst, B C M; Bovens, S M; van de Kolk, C W A; Cramer, M J M; Doevendans, P A F M; ten Hove, M; van der Weerd, L; Poelmann, R; Strijkers, G J; Pasterkamp, G; van Echteld, C J A

    2010-10-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo is limited. Study aims were: evaluation of (1) timing of MRI after intravenous injection of cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2-R) (expressed by human and mouse plaque macrophages) targeted micelles; (2) inter-scan variability of inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo; (3) relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inversion-recovery fast spin echo/fast spin echo imaging was performed before and every 15 min up to 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted or control micelles using several groups of mice measured in an interleaved fashion. NER(plaque) (determined on inversion-recovery fast spin echo images) remained high (∼2) until 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted micelles, whereas NER(plaque) decreased after 36 h in the control group. The inter-scan variability and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium (assessed with inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry) were compared between inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inter-scan variability was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. Although gadolinium and NER(plaque) correlated well for both techniques, the NER of plaque was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. In mice injected with CB2-R targeted micelles, NER(plaque) can be best evaluated at 36-48 h post-injection. Because NER(plaque) was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo, but with high inter-scan variability, repeated inversion-recovery fast spin echo imaging and averaging of the obtained NER(plaque) values is recommended.

  18. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-11-04

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses.

  19. Comparative analysis between hard- and soft-filament toothbrushes related to plaque removal and gingival abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rosimary de Sousa; Rossi, Vanessa; Weidlich, Patrícia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this split-mouth, examiner-blind study was to compare the dental plaque removal and incidence of gingival abrasion associated with the use of hard- and soft-filament toothbrushes. The test group consisted of 20 non-dental students, mean age 25 years. After a three-day period of plaque accumulation following the use of a disclosing solution, the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index was recorded, while the presence of gingival abrasion was measured from photographs. Pairs of quadrants 1-3 and 2-4 were allocated to supervised brushing with hard- or soft-filament toothbrushes for 30 seconds, limited to the buccal aspects of the teeth. Plaque levels and gingival abrasion were again assessed. Initial and final values of the plaque index and the mean number of abrasions were compared with the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests (p < or = 0.05). Plaque indices were reduced significantly from a baseline of 4.12 in both groups to 1.21 after the use of hard-filament toothbrushes, and to 1.67 after the use of soft-filament toothbrushes. The use of hard-filament toothbrushes resulted in a significantly higher mean number of lesions when compared to the soft-filament toothbrushes; 11.6 and 7.9, respectively (p = 0.018). Hard-filament toothbrushes remove more plaque than soft filament brushes, but also cause a higher number of gingival abrasions.

  20. Visualization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease by polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Woehrer, Adelheid; Ricken, Gerda; Augustin, Marco; Mitter, Christian; Pircher, Michael; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2017-03-01

    One major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the deposition of extracellular senile plaques and vessel wall deposits composed of amyloid-beta (Aβ). In AD, degeneration of neurons is preceded by the formation of Aβ plaques, which show different morphological forms. Most of them are birefringent owing to the parallel arrangement of amyloid fibrils. Here, we present polarization sensitive optical coherence microscopy (PS-OCM) for imaging mature neuritic Aβ plaques based on their birefringent properties. Formalin-fixed, post-mortem brain samples of advanced stage AD patients were investigated. In several cortical brain regions, neuritic Aβ plaques were successfully visualized in tomographic and three-dimensional (3D) images. Cortical grey matter appeared polarization preserving, whereas neuritic plaques caused increased phase retardation. Consistent with the results from PS-OCM imaging, the 3D structure of senile Aβ plaques was computationally modelled for different illumination settings and plaque sizes. Furthermore, the birefringent properties of cortical and meningeal vessel walls in CAA were investigated in selected samples. Significantly increased birefringence was found in smaller vessels. Overall, these results provide evidence that PS-OCM is able to assess amyloidosis based on intrinsic birefringent properties.

  1. Effectiveness of Herbal and Non-Herbal Toothpastes in Reducing Dental Plaque Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra L. Yuwono

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining good oral hygiene in orthodontic patients is important and as the community interest in herbal ingredients increases, herbal toothpaste was developed. Its effectiveness against dental plaque accumulation is still under debate. Herbal toothpaste has not been tested in fixed orthodontic patients. Objective: To study the effectivenes differences between herbal toothpaste and non-herbal toothpaste. Methods: This randomized, double blind clinical trial was participated by 16 subjects aged range 15-35 years who were planned for fixed orthodontic. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the type of toothpaste used. Plaque accumulations were measured according to Löe and Sillness plaque index on Ramfjord teeth before and two weeks after bonding. Results: Wilcoxon test result showed there was no significant reduction of plaque index on herbal toothpaste usage nor significant increase on non-herbal toothpaste usage. Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences between herbal and non-herbal toothpaste. Conclusion: There was no significant differences in plaque acummulation between usage of herbal toothpaste nor usage of non-herbal toothpaste. There was no significant effectiveness differences between those toothpastes in fixed orthodontic patients, although herbal toothpaste usage showed a reduction of plaque index, whereas non-herbal toothpaste usage showed an increase of plaque index.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.143

  2. Characteristics of Anabaena variabilis influencing plaque formation by cyanophage N-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currier, T.C.; Wolk, C.P.

    1979-07-01

    Phage N-1 grown in Anabaena strain 7120 (N-1 . 7120) forms plaques on A. variabilis about 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -6/ as efficiently as on Anabaena 7120. By manipulating different characteristics of the interaction between phage and host, it was possible to increase the relative efficiency of plaque formation to 0.38. Growth of A. variabilis at 40/sup 0/C for at least three generations resulted in an increase in the rate of phage adsorption and a 10-fold increase in the efficiency of plaque formation. The efficiency of plaque formation was further increased about 42-fold, with little or no further increase in rate of adsorption, in a variant strain, A. variabilis strain FD, isolated from a culture of A. variabilis which had grown for more than 30 generations at 40/sup 0/C. The low relative efficiency of plaque formation by N-1 . 7120 on A. variabilis could be partially accounted for if A. variabilis contains a deoxyribonucleic acid restriction endonuclease which is absent from Anabaena 7120. Indirect evidence for such an endonuclease included the following: (i) phage N-1 grown in A. variabilis (N-1 . Av) had approximately a 7 x 10/sup 3/-fold higher relative efficiency of plaque formation on A. variabilis than had N-1 . 7120; and (ii) the efficiency of plaque formation by N-1 . 7120 on A. variabilis strain FD was increased by up to 146-fold after heating the latter organism at 51/sup 0/C.

  3. Saliva as the Sole Nutritional Source in the Development of Multispecies Communities in Dental Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubovics, Nicholas S

    2015-06-01

    Dental plaque is a polymicrobial biofilm that forms on the surfaces of teeth and, if inadequately controlled, can lead to dental caries or periodontitis. Nutrient availability is the fundamental limiting factor for the formation of dental plaque, and for its ability to generate acid and erode dental enamel. Nutrient availability is also critical for bacteria to grow in subgingival biofilms and to initiate periodontitis. Over the early stages of dental plaque formation, micro-organisms acquire nutrients by breaking down complex salivary substrates such as mucins and other glycoproteins. Once dental plaque matures, dietary carbohydrates become more important for supragingival dental plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid forms the major nutrient source for subgingival microorganisms. Many species of oral bacteria do not grow in laboratory monocultures when saliva is the sole nutrient source, and it is now clear that intermicrobial interactions are critical for the development of dental plaque. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the key metabolic requirements of some well-characterized oral bacteria, and the nutrient webs that promote the growth of multispecies communities and underpin the pathogenicity of dental plaque for both dental caries and periodontitis.

  4. Comparing Clinical Efficacy of Hyg and Ionic Toothbrushes in Removing Plaque from the Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alaiee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mechanical plaque control is the main way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Among the mechanical methods, daily use of toothbrush is considered as the best way to achieve oral health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and microbiological efficacy of Hygenic toothbrushes in plaque removal. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 volunteers were selected. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, one group received toothbrushes with battery and the other group received toothbrushes without the battery. At the beginning of the study plaque score was measured and recorded. Patients brushed for a week and plaque was measured again. Then in both groups the first toothbrush was taken and the second brush was received by the volunteers in a cross over manner. In this regard, the mirobiological samples (colony forming units were determined before and after brushing. Data was analyzed by means of T- tests using the spss software. Results: The results showed that toothbrushes with and without battery reduced plaque score (respectively 98/22% and 26/19%. Colony forming units was reduced for both toothbrushes with battery (6/24% and without battery (9/5%. This indicates that toothbrushes with battery significantly reduced plaque compared to the ordinary toothbrushes. Conclusion: Hygenic toothbrushes reduce plaque score and microbial counts more effectively than ordinary toothbrushes.

  5. IVUS-based FSI models for human coronary plaque progression study: components, correlation and predictive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wu, Zheyang; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Bach, Richard; Muccigrosso, David; Billiar, Kristen; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Tang, Dalin

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque progression is believed to be associated with mechanical stress conditions. Patient follow-up in vivo intravascular ultrasound coronary plaque data were acquired to construct fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models with cyclic bending to obtain flow wall shear stress (WSS), plaque wall stress (PWS) and strain (PWSn) data and investigate correlations between plaque progression measured by wall thickness increase (WTI), cap thickness increase (CTI), lipid depth increase (LDI) and risk factors including wall thickness (WT), WSS, PWS, and PWSn. Quarter average values (n = 178-1016) of morphological and mechanical factors from all slices were obtained for analysis. A predictive method was introduced to assess prediction accuracy of risk factors and identify the optimal predictor(s) for plaque progression. A combination of WT and PWS was identified as the best predictor for plaque progression measured by WTI. Plaque WT had best overall correlation with WTI (r = -0.7363, p WTI: (r = -0.3208, p < 1E-10); cap thickness: (r = 0.4541, p < 1E-10); CTI: (r = -0.1719, p = 0.0190); LD: (r = -0.2206, p < 1E-10); LDI: r = 0.1775, p < 0.0001). WSS had mixed correlation results.

  6. Visualization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease by polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Woehrer, Adelheid; Ricken, Gerda; Augustin, Marco; Mitter, Christian; Pircher, Michael; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2017-01-01

    One major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the deposition of extracellular senile plaques and vessel wall deposits composed of amyloid-beta (Aβ). In AD, degeneration of neurons is preceded by the formation of Aβ plaques, which show different morphological forms. Most of them are birefringent owing to the parallel arrangement of amyloid fibrils. Here, we present polarization sensitive optical coherence microscopy (PS-OCM) for imaging mature neuritic Aβ plaques based on their birefringent properties. Formalin-fixed, post-mortem brain samples of advanced stage AD patients were investigated. In several cortical brain regions, neuritic Aβ plaques were successfully visualized in tomographic and three-dimensional (3D) images. Cortical grey matter appeared polarization preserving, whereas neuritic plaques caused increased phase retardation. Consistent with the results from PS-OCM imaging, the 3D structure of senile Aβ plaques was computationally modelled for different illumination settings and plaque sizes. Furthermore, the birefringent properties of cortical and meningeal vessel walls in CAA were investigated in selected samples. Significantly increased birefringence was found in smaller vessels. Overall, these results provide evidence that PS-OCM is able to assess amyloidosis based on intrinsic birefringent properties. PMID:28262719

  7. A retrospective study of the probability of the evolution of parapsoriasis en plaques into mycosis fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väkevä, Liisa; Sarna, Seppo; Vaalasti, Annikki; Pukkala, Eero; Kariniemi, Arja-Leena; Ranki, Annamari

    2005-01-01

    Parapsoriasis en plaque has been suggested to be an early manifestation of mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). We explored the disease course of patients with small plaque or large plaque parapsoriasis in a 26-year retrospective cohort analysis of 105 parapsoriasis patients, who were clinically and histopathologically followed up in Helsinki and Tampere University Hospitals. Eventual later cancers of these patients were verified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In the small plaque parapsoriasis group, 7 patients (10%) and in the large plaque parapsoriasis group 12 patients (35%), developed histologically confirmed mycosis fungoides during a median of 10 and 6 years, respectively. No significant differences were found regarding the risk of developing mycosis fungoides or the tendency to remission in patients treated with or without phototherapy. Our results show that not only large plaque parapsoriasis, but also small plaque parapsoriasis, as currently defined in textbooks, can progress to mycosis fungoides. The benefits of phototherapy are equivocal in parapsoriasis treatment as far as progression to cancer is concerned.

  8. Oral hygiene indirect instruction and periodic reinforcements: effects on index plaque in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; dos Santos, Patrícia Aleixo; Baseggio, Wagner; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the indirect instruction and the influence of the periodic reinforcement on the plaque index in schoolchildren. Forty schoolchildren aged from 7 to 9 years old were selected from a public school. After determining the initial O'Leary Plaque Index all schoolchildren were submitted to a program for oral hygiene through indirect instruction -"The Smiling Robot". The schoolchildren were divided into 2 groups: with and without motivation reinforcement. The index plaque exam was performed in both groups after 30, 60 and 90 days of the educational program. Comparing the groups, the plaque index decreasing could be observed in the group with reinforcement with statistically significant difference. For the group with reinforcement, statistically significant difference among the evaluations was found. For the group without reinforcement, significant decrease in the plaque index was found after 30 days when compared to the first, third and fourth evaluations. The indirect instruction with "The Smiling Robot "promoted a positive initial impact on the decrease of plaque index in the schoolchildren. The periodic reinforcements showed more suitable results and significant reduction of the plaque index in the course of the evaluations.

  9. High wall shear stress and high-risk plaque: an emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtehardi, Parham; Brown, Adam J; Bhargava, Ankit; Costopoulos, Charis; Hung, Olivia Y; Corban, Michel T; Hosseini, Hossein; Gogas, Bill D; Giddens, Don P; Samady, Habib

    2017-01-10

    In recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaques in vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques. High WSS has been shown to induce specific changes in endothelial cell behavior, exacerbating inflammation and stimulating progression of the atherosclerotic lipid core. In line with experimental and autopsy studies, several human studies have shown associations between high WSS and known morphological features of high-risk plaques. However, despite increasing evidence, there is still no longitudinal data linking high WSS to clinical events. As the interplay between atherosclerotic plaque, artery, and WSS is highly dynamic, large natural history studies of atherosclerosis that include WSS measurements are now warranted. This review will summarize the available clinical evidence on high WSS as a possible etiological mechanism underlying high-risk plaque development.

  10. Multi-scale AM-FM motion analysis of ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Sergio; Murray, Victor; Loizou, C. P.; Pattichis, C. S.; Pattichis, Marios; Barriga, E. Simon

    2012-03-01

    An estimated 82 million American adults have one or more type of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death (1 of every 3 deaths) in the United States. When considered separately from other CVDs, stroke ranks third among all causes of death behind diseases of the heart and cancer. Stroke accounts for 1 out of every 18 deaths and is the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States. Motion estimation of ultrasound videos (US) of carotid artery (CA) plaques provides important information regarding plaque deformation that should be considered for distinguishing between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. In this paper, we present the development of verifiable methods for the estimation of plaque motion. Our methodology is tested on a set of 34 (5 symptomatic and 29 asymptomatic) ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques. Plaque and wall motion analysis provides information about plaque instability and is used in an attempt to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. The final goal for motion estimation and analysis is to identify pathological conditions that can be detected from motion changes due to changes in tissue stiffness.

  11. Association of carotid atherosclerotic plaque features with acute ischemic stroke: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huilin [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhao, Xihai [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Xiaosheng; Cao, Ye [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Hippe, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Li, Feiyu [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Xu, Jianrong, E-mail: renjixjr@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Yuan, Chun [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Background and purpose: It remains unclear whether direct vessel wall imaging can identify carotid high-risk lesions in symptomatic subjects and whether carotid plaque characteristics are more effective indicators for cerebral infarct severity than stenosis. This study sought to determine the associations of carotid plaque characteristics by MR imaging with stenosis and acute cerebral infarct (ACI) sizes on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and methods: One hundred and fourteen symptomatic patients underwent carotid and brain MRI. ACI volume was determined from symptomatic internal carotid artery territory on DWI images. Ipsilateral carotid plaque morphological and compositional characteristics, and stenosis were also determined. The relationships between carotid plaque characteristics, stenosis and ACIs size were then evaluated. Results: In carotid arteries with 30–49% stenosis, 86.7% and 26.7% were found to have lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) and intraplaque hemorrhage, respectively. Furthermore, 45.8% of carotid arteries with 0–29% stenosis developed LRNCs. Carotid morphological measurements, such as % wall volume, and the LRNC size were significantly associated with ipsilateral ACIs volume before and after adjustment for significant demographic factors (age and LDL) or stenosis in patients with carotid plaque (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: A substantial number of high-risk plaques characterized by vessel wall imaging exist in carotid arteries with lower grade stenosis. In addition, carotid plaque characteristics, particularly the % wall volume and LRNC size, are independently associated with cerebral infarction as measured by DWI lesions. Our findings indicate that characterizing atherosclerotic plaque by MR vessel wall imaging might be useful for stratification of plaque risk and infarction severity.

  12. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Holcombe

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops.

  13. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis — A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Narayanan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Conclusion: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. PMID:25838632

  14. The impact of carotid plaque screening on motivation for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodondi, Nicolas; Auer, Reto; Devine, Patrick J; O'Malley, Patrick G; Hayoz, Daniel; Cornuz, Jacques

    2008-03-01

    Showing smokers their own atherosclerotic plaques might increase motivation for smoking cessation, since they underestimate their own risk for smoking-related diseases. To assess the feasibility and optimal processes of studying the impact of carotid atherosclerotic plaque screening in smokers, we enrolled 30 daily cigarette smokers, aged 40-70 years, in an observational pre-post pilot study. All smokers underwent smoking cessation counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, a carotid ultrasound, an educational tutorial on atherosclerosis, baseline and 2-month motivation to change assessment, and assessment of smoking cessation at 2 months. Participants had a mean smoking duration of 34 years (SD = 7). Carotid plaques were present in 22 smokers (73%). Between baseline and 2 months after plaque screening, motivation for smoking cessation increased from 7.4 to 8.4 out of 10 (p = .02), particularly in those with plaques (7.2 to 8.7, p = .008). At 2 months, the smoking quit rate was 63%, with a quit rate of 73% in those with plaques vs. 38% in those without plaques (p = .10). Perceived stress, anxiety, and depression did not increase after screening. 96% of respondents answered correctly at least 80% of questions regarding atherosclerosis knowledge at baseline and after 2 months. In conclusion, studying the process of screening for carotid plaques for the purpose of increasing motivation for smoking cessation, in addition to counseling and drug therapy for smoking cessation in long-term smokers, appears feasible. The impact of carotid plaque screening on smoking cessation should be examined in larger randomized controlled trials with sufficient power to assess the impact on long-term smoking cessation rates.

  15. Uptake of inflammatory cell marker [{sup 11}C]PK11195 into mouse atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, Iina; Marjamaeki, Paeivi; Naagren, Kjell; Roivainen, Anne; Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Laine, V.J.O. [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Wilson, Ian [GE Healthcare Biosciences, Medical Diagnostics, London (United Kingdom); Leppaenen, Pia; Ylae-Herttuala, Seppo [University of Kuopio, A.I. Virtanen Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The ligand [{sup 11}C]PK11195 binds with high affinity and selectivity to peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, expressed in high amounts in macrophages. In humans, [{sup 11}C]PK11195 has been used successfully for the in vivo imaging of inflammatory processes of brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 in imaging inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of PK11195 binding sites in the atherosclerotic plaques was verified by examining the in vitro binding of [{sup 3}H]PK11195 onto mouse aortic sections. Uptake of intravenously administered [{sup 11}C]PK11195 was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of a LDLR/ApoB48 atherosclerotic mice. Accumulation of the tracer was compared between the atherosclerotic plaques and non-atherosclerotic arterial sites by autoradiography and histological analyses. The [{sup 3}H]PK11195 was found to bind to both the atherosclerotic plaques and the healthy wall. The autoradiography analysis revealed that the uptake of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 to inflamed regions in plaques was more prominent (p = 0.011) than to non-inflamed plaque regions, but overall it was not higher than the uptake to the healthy vessel wall. Also, the accumulation of {sup 11}C radioactivity into the aorta of the atherosclerotic mice was not increased compared to the healthy control mice. Our results indicate that the uptake of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 is higher in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques containing a large number of inflammatory cells than in the non-inflamed plaques. However, the tracer uptake to other structures of the artery wall was also prominent and may limit the use of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 in clinical imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. (orig.)

  16. Numerical analysis of the cooling effect of blood over inflamed atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; Ley, Obdulia

    2008-06-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques with high likelihood of rupture often show local temperature increase with respect to the surrounding arterial wall temperature. In this work, atherosclerotic plaque temperature was numerically determined during the different levels of blood flow reduction produced by the introduction of catheters at the vessel lumen. The temperature was calculated by solving the energy equation and the Navier-Stokes equations in 2D idealized arterial models. Arterial wall temperature depends on three basic factors: metabolic activity of the inflammatory cells embedded in the plaque, heat convection due to luminal blood flow, and heat conduction through the arterial wall and plaque. The calculations performed serve to simulate transient blood flow reduction produced by the presence of thermography catheters used to measure arterial wall temperature. The calculations estimate the spatial and temporal alterations in the cooling effect of blood flow and plaque temperature during the measurement process. The mathematical model developed provides a tool for analyzing the contribution of factors known to affect heat transfer at the plaque surface. Blood flow reduction leads to a nonuniform temperature increase ranging from 0.1 to 0.25 degrees Celsius in the plaque/lumen interface of the arterial geometries considered in this study. The temperature variation as well as the Nusselt number calculated along the plaque surface strongly depended on the arterial geometry and distribution of inflammatory cells. The calculations indicate that the minimum required time to obtain a steady temperature profile after arterial occlusion is 6 s. It was seen that in arteries with geometries involving bends, the temperature profiles appear asymmetrical and lean toward the downstream edge of the plaque.

  17. The use of Speckle Reduction Imaging (SRI) Ultrasound in the characterization of carotid artery plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liasis, Nikolaos [1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division, ' LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School (Greece)], E-mail: nliasis@forthnet.gr; Klonaris, Chris [1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division, ' LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School (Greece)], E-mail: chris_klonaris@yahoo.com; Katsargyris, Athanasios [1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division, ' LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School (Greece)], E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Georgopoulos, Sotirios [1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division, ' LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School (Greece)], E-mail: sgeorg@med.uoa.gr; Labropoulos, Nicos [Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (United States)], E-mail: nlabrop@yahoo.com; Tsigris, Chris [1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division, ' LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School (Greece)], E-mail: ctsigris@yahoo.com; Giannopoulos, Athanasios [1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division, ' LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School (Greece)], E-mail: dimitrak@mohaw.gr; Bastounis, Elias [1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division, ' LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School (Greece)], E-mail: ebastoun@med.uoa.gr

    2008-03-15

    Background and purpose: Speckle Reduction Imaging is a new algorithm that improves the image quality of B-mode scanning by reducing the reverberation artifacts. In the present study the value of this method for the characterization of atherosclerotic plaques in the internal carotid artery was investigated. Methods: Two hundred and twenty two patients (161 men, 61 women; mean age 73 years) referred for carotid ultrasound evaluation were included in the study. Patients with plaques of the internal carotid artery as identified by conventional B-mode scanning were investigated also with the addition of Speckle Reduction Imaging (SRI) with the use of a 4-11-MHz wide band linear transducer. Plaque morphology was rated according to a standardized protocol by two independent observers. Results: For the determination of plaque echogenicity, the reproducibility of SRI ({kappa} = 0.83) was higher than that of conventional B-mode ultrasound ({kappa} = 0.68). The interobserver agreement for plaque surface characterization was also higher for SRI ({kappa} = 0.8) than for conventional B-mode ({kappa} = 0.61). At the evaluation of the image quality through a semiquantitative analysis, SRI was rated superior in the plaque texture resolution, plaque borders determination, vessel wall demarcation and fibrous cap depiction. In addition, the level of 'speckle' was reduced with the use of SRI. Conclusions: SRI is a technique that shows good general agreement with high-resolution B-mode and can be used for the characterization of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Furthermore, because this advanced technique allows reduction of ultrasound artifacts, it improves the image quality allowing more precise visualization of plaque morphological details.

  18. High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2016-11-19

    Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.

  19. Color doppler ultrasonography and multislice computer tomography angiography in carotid plaque detection and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučaj-Ćirilović Viktorija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beckground/Aim. Cerebrovascular diseases are the third leading cause of mortality in the world, following malignant and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, their timely and precise diagnostics is of great importance. The aim of this study was to compare duplex scan Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU with multislice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA in detection of morphological and functional disorders at extracranial level of carotid arteries. Methods. The study included 75 patients with 150 carotid arteries examined in the period from January 2008 to April 2009. The patients were firstly examined by CDU, then MSCTA, followed by the surgery of extracranial segment of carotid arteries. In 10 patients, the obtained material was referred for histopathological (HP examination. We used both CDU and MSCT in the analysis of: plaque surface, plaque structure, degree of stenosis, and the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage. Results. The results obtained by CDU and MSCTA were first compared between themselves, and then to intraoperative findings. Retrospective analysis showed that MSCTA is more sensitive than CDU in assessment of plaque surface (for smooth plaques CDU 89% : MSCTA 97%; for plaques with irregular surface CDU 75% : MSCTA 87%; for ulcerations CDU 54% : MSCTA 87%. Regarding determination of plaque structure (mixed plaque CDU 66% : MSCTA 70%; correlation with HP findings CDU 94% : MSCTA 96% and localization (CDU 63% : MSCTA 65%, and in terms of sensitivity and specificity, both methods showed almost the same results. Also, there is no statistical difference between these two methods for the degree of stenosis (CDU 96% : MSCTA 98%. Conclusion. Atherosclerotic disease of extracranial part of carotid arteries primarily affects population of middle-aged and elderly, showing more associated risk factors. Sensitivity and specificity of CDU and MSCTA regarding plaque composition, the degree of stenosis and plaque localization are almost the same

  20. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal C Peedikayil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Conclusion: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.

  1. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and stomach of patients from Northern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mnica; Baraúna; Assumpo; Luisa; Caricio; Martins; Hivana; Patricia; Melo; Barbosa; Katarine; Antonia; dos; Santos; Barile; Sintia; Silva; de; Almeida; Paulo; Pimentel; Assumpo; Tereza; Cristina; de; Oliveira; Corvelo

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To establish whether virulence factor genes vacA and cagA are present in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) retrieved from gastric mucosa and dental plaque in pa-tients with dyspepsia. METHODS: Cumulative dental plaque specimens and gastric biopsies were submitted to histological exami-nation, rapid urease test and polymerase chain reac-tion (PCR) assays to detect the presence of cagA and vacA polymorphisms.RESULTS: Detection of H. pylori from dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples was greater by PCR co...

  2. Ultrasound findings of ruptured Peyronie’s plaque: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Dell'Atti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here a rare case of rupture of tunica albuginea and corpus cavernosum, in the site of a Peyronie’s plaque, which happened in a 61- year-old man during a vacuum cleaner masturbation. Ultrasound study showed an irregular hyperechoic defect at the cavernosal rupture site in correspondence of the Peyronie’s plaque. The hematoma was evacuated, partially plaque excised, and the tear repaired. Ultrasonography is an ideal technique for evaluating patients with penile trauma and can be routinely used in an emergency. It is a non-invasive method that gives faster results than cavernosography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  3. A STUDY ON TOPICAL CALCIUM DOBESILATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF LIMITED PLAQUE PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical dobesilate offers the potential for treatment of plaque psoriasis without atrophy or other local side effects associated with the use of topical corticosteroids. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-mediated pathways participate in many of the cellular events implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Thus, targeting FGF signals may be potentially therapeutic. Aims: To study the efficacy of topical calcium dobesilate for the treatment of 50 patients of limited plaque psoriasis. Methods: For the present study, fifty clinically diagnosed cases of psoriasis with limited number of plaques ( 0.05.

  4. Influence of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction on coronary plaque analysis in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA...... performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements. Lumen and vessel volumes and plaque burden measurements were based on automatic detected contours in each...

  5. Carotid Artery Stenting Successfully Prevents Progressive Stroke Due to Mobile Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Oomura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive ischemic stroke due to a mobile plaque, in which carotid artery stenting successfully prevented further infarctions. A 78-year-old man developed acute multiple infarcts in the right hemisphere, and a duplex ultrasound showed a mobile plaque involving the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery. Maximal medical therapy failed to prevent further infarcts, and the number of infarcts increased with his neurological deterioration. Our present case suggests that the deployment of a closed-cell stent is effective to prevent the progression of the ischemic stroke due to the mobile plaque.

  6. Plaque morphology of Teschen disease viruses and certain pig enteroviruses in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardiri, A H

    1968-04-01

    Plaque patterns and diameters of four virulent strains and one tissue culture mutant of Teschen disease virus were compared with six pig enteroviruses isolated in the United States. They are described as they were produced in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures. Reproducible plaques, with similar characteristics and class-types of each of the viruses tested were obtained with the application of a 45-minute virus adsorption time. Their morphologic characteristics and the proportion in which the plaque types appeared may assist in the differentiation of these virus strains.

  7. Plaque Brachytherapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Vision Prognostication Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Niloufer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Khan, Mohammad K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D., E-mail: singha@ccf.org [Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To generate a vision prognostication model after plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. Methods and Materials: All patients with primary single ciliary body or choroidal melanoma treated with iodine-125 or ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2010, were included. The primary endpoint was loss of visual acuity. Only patients with initial visual acuity better than or equal to 20/50 were used to evaluate visual acuity worse than 20/50 at the end of the study, and only patients with initial visual acuity better than or equal to 20/200 were used to evaluate visual acuity worse than 20/200 at the end of the study. Factors analyzed were sex, age, cataracts, diabetes, tumor size (basal dimension and apical height), tumor location, and radiation dose to the tumor apex, fovea, and optic disc. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the influence of baseline patient factors on vision loss. Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank analysis) were used to estimate freedom from vision loss. Results: Of 189 patients, 92% (174) were alive as of February 1, 2011. At presentation, visual acuity was better than or equal to 20/50 and better than or equal to 20/200 in 108 and 173 patients, respectively. Of these patients, 44.4% (48) had post-treatment visual acuity of worse than 20/50 and 25.4% (44) had post-treatment visual acuity worse than 20/200. By multivariable analysis, increased age (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.01 [1.00-1.03], P=.05), increase in tumor height (HR of 1.35 [1.22-1.48], P<.001), and a greater total dose to the fovea (HR of 1.01 [1.00-1.01], P<.001) were predictive of vision loss. This information was used to develop a nomogram predictive of vision loss. Conclusions: By providing a means to predict vision loss at 3 years after treatment, our vision prognostication model can be an important tool for patient selection and treatment counseling.

  8. The Terracotta Plaques of Pagan: Indian Influence and Burmese Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Rao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available    Since its inception Buddhist art aimed to make the Buddhist disciples well aware with the life and teachings of Buddha. The Buddhist followers had a belief that the attainment of Buddhahood was not an outcome of a single birth but was a successive effort and practice of ten pāramitās in his previous births. Though the origin of Jātakas was in India but its final and complete compilation was finalised in Sri Lanka by the scholars of Buddhaghoṣa School. The life scenes of Buddha in form of Jātakas depictions are ever preferred theme in Buddhist art and were carved with equal enthusiasm and potential elegance in every period irrespective to any political and social limitations. Buddhism entered Myanmar in three inflows, first in 5th Century CE through north-eastern India, secondly during 7th century CE through religious transformation from Sri Lanka and finally in 10–12 century CE through eastern India.  The period between 8th-12th centuries CE in India has been considered as a cradle of encouraging heterodox creeds and sects representing both Hinduism and Buddhism which were found to exist side by side. The art practiced during this period was flourished on well designated artistic paradigms of Gupta period but had a deep influence of Pāla art. The intense trade activities between eastern India and South East Asia and unstable political condition of India encouraged the Indian artist to look for new territories where he can easily perform his art. Pagan in central Myanmar provided suitable political and religious environment to these sculptors. As result the art and architecture performed in terracotta plaques of Pagan and its Buddhist religious monumental architecture attained deep influence of eastern India but the art of central Myanmar was not a mere repetition of its Indian neighbourhood but is evident with many local experiments and innovations.  The paper is intended intends to make present a brief analysis of the artistic

  9. The Impact of Intermittent and Repetitive Cold Stress Exposure on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Instability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiang Dai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of acute coronary syndrome caused by the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent arterial thrombosis increases as the weather gets colder. However, the association between cold stress and atherosclerotic plaque rupture is currently unknown. Methods: An atherosclerotic plaque model was established in rabbits by balloon injury and a high-fat diet with or without cold stress (4°C, 1 hour per day, 20 weeks at the onset of modeling. Additionally, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL was applied to induce the formation of macrophage foam cells in vitro. Results: Serum lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines (ox-LDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-8 were significantly higher in cold stress-exposed rabbits than in controls (PConclusions: Cold stress may enhance the instability of atherosclerotic plaques through activating ERS and enhancing cell apoptosis. Up-regulated CHOP levels mediated by PERK and ATF6 and the activated IRE1-XBP1-JNK pathway contributed to the apoptosis of foam cells.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of probiotics on bacterial species from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambori, Csilla; Morvay, Attila Alexandru; Sala, Claudia; Licker, Monica; Gurban, Camelia; Tanasie, Gabriela; Tirziu, Emil

    2016-03-31

    The antimicrobial role of probiotic Lactobacillus casei subspecies casei DG (L. casei DG) and of the mix culture of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 was tested on species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera from supragingival sites from dogs with dental disease of different breed, age, sex, weight, and diet. The research was conducted on these four genera because of their importance in zoonotic infections after dog bites. Species from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera were isolated and identified. To test the antimicrobial efficacy of L. casei DG and the mixed culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 on the pathogenic species, the agar overlay method was used. L. casei DG had a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera after 24 hours of incubation. The mixed probiotic culture made up of L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 species had no bactericidal effect on the species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera, which were resistant. However, it had a bacteriostatic effect on several species of Pasteurella and Neisseria genera. This work highlights the antimicrobial potential of probiotics in vitro, demonstrating that the probiotic L. casei DG has a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from dental plaque and that the mix culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 has only a bacteriostatic effect.

  11. Biofilms, a new approach to the microbiology of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2006-09-01

    Dental plaque has the properties of a biofilm, similar to other biofilms found in the body and the environment. Modern molecular biological techniques have identified about 1000 different bacterial species in the dental biofilm, twice as many as can be cultured. Oral biofilms are very heterogeneous in structure. Dense mushroom-like structures originate from the enamel surface, interspersed with bacteria-free channels used as diffusion pathways. The channels are probably filled with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix produced by the bacteria. Bacteria in biofilms communicate through signaling molecules, and use this "quorum-sensing" system to optimize their virulence factors and survival. Bacteria in a biofilm have a physiology different from that of planktonic cells. They generally live under nutrient limitation and often in a dormant state. Such "sleepy" bacteria respond differently to antibiotics and antimicrobials, because these agents were generally selected in experiments with metabolically active bacteria. This is one of the explanations as to why antibiotics and antimicrobials are not as successful in the clinic as could be expected from laboratory studies. In addition, it has been found that many therapeutic agents bind to the biofilm EPS matrix before they even reach the bacteria, and are thereby inactivated. Taken together, these fundings highlight why the study of bacteria in the oral cavity is now taken on by studying the biofilms rather than individual species.

  12. Biomarkers for the prediction of acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo YL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Lin Guo, Jian-Jun Li Division of Dyslipidemia, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is the main cause of mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD. Accordingly, earlier detection and diagnosis might be a key point for reducing the mortality in patients with ACS. One promising strategy is biomarker measurement in patients with ACS. Biomarkers are generally considered to be plasma measurements of molecules, proteins, or enzymes that provide independent diagnostic and prognostic values that can reflect underlying disease state and condition, especially repeated measurements. Nowadays, the most widely used biomarkers to identify or predict ACS are high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and high sensitivity troponin T/I (hs-TnT/I. The aim of the present review was principally to summarize recent evidence regarding some new biomarkers by which we could directly predict acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture, which may help to identify at-risk patients earlier than hs-CRP or hs-TnT/I. Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase-9, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2, myeloperoxidase, soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, placental growth factor, acute coronary syndrome

  13. Is chronic plaque psoriasis triggered by microbiota in the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, L; Baker, B S; Powles, A V; Fahlen, A; Engstrand, L

    2013-07-01

    There is a known association between psoriasis and Crohn disease (CD). Patients with CD are five times more likely to develop psoriasis, and, conversely, patients with psoriasis are more likely to develop CD. Many gastroenterologists now accept that CD results from a breakdown of immune tolerance to the microbiota of the intestine in genetically susceptible individuals. The microbiota of the skin have recently been investigated in psoriasis. Firmicutes was the most common phylum, and Streptococcus the most common genus identified. Beta-haemolytic streptococci have been implicated in both guttate and chronic plaque psoriasis. Furthermore, the innate immune system has been shown to be activated in psoriasis, and many of the genes associated with the disease are concerned with the signalling pathways of the innate immune system, notably interleukin-23 and nuclear factor κB. Patients with psoriasis also have an increased incidence of periodontitis, a disease thought to be due to an abnormal response to normal oral commensals. Based on the similarities between CD and psoriasis, we propose that psoriasis is due to a breakdown of immune tolerance to the microbiota of the skin. In support of this hypothesis we provide evidence for microbiota in the skin, activation of the innate immune system, and genetic abnormalities involving the innate immune system.

  14. Randomized digital plaque imaging trial evaluating plaque inhibition efficacy of a novel stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice compared with an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, P G; Boulding, A; Farmer, S; Day, T N; Mussett, A J; Barker, M L

    2012-01-01

    To assess the plaque inhibition efficacy ofa novel 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride test dentifrice (SnF2) to an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride marketed control dentifrice (AmF/SnF2) using digital plaque imaging analysis (DPIA). The 10-week study was a randomized, two-treatment, three-period, double-blind crossover design. Subjects brushed twice daily with their assigned dentifrice (SnF2 or AmF/SnF2) using a standard manual toothbrush during three treatment periods each lasting 17 days, separated by four-day washout periods. DPIA was used to analyze plaque coverage on facial surfaces of the 12 anterior teeth (canine to canine) by three assessments on Days 15, 16, and 17 at the end of each treatment period. Assessments were conducted the morning following no overnight brushing of facial surfaces (A.M. pre-brush), after 40 seconds of full mouth brushing with the assigned dentifrice (A.M. post-brush), and during the afternoon (P.M.). Twenty-seven subjects were randomized and completed the study. At each assessment time point, plaque levels for the SnF2 dentifrice were statistically significantly lower compared to those for the AmF/SnF2 dentifrice (21.4%, 22.6%, 24.3%, respectively; p dentifrice than with the AmF/SnF2 dentifrice. The plaque control benefits of the SnF2 dentifrice seen at the morning and afternoon time points indicated significantly better inhibition of plaque re-growth.

  15. Genesis and growth of extracellular-vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L.; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification areas. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque’s collagen content--two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability--are interlinked.

  16. Genesis and growth of extracellular vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L.; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification zones. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque’s collagen content – two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability - are interlinked. PMID:26752654

  17. Curcumin as a novel plaque stabilizing agent in prevention of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Shamsara

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCurcumin (diferuloylmethane is an active component of the spice turmeric and has been linked with anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities. The present hypothesis explained the involvement of anti-inflammatory effects of crcumin in prevention of acute coronary syndromes (ACS (i.e. unstable angina and myocardial infarction. ACS is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Coronary events often result from thrombi that form because of physical disruption of the atherosclerotic plaque. However, despite lipid lowing therapy with statins, significant numbers of cardiovascular events continue to occur indicating the need for additional agents for atherosclerosis management. We proposed that curcumin therapy can stabilize vulnerable 'rupture-prone' plaques by normalizing plaque properties. Thus, co-administration of curcumin along with other present options may prove to be a useful and potent natural plaque stabilizing approach in the prevention of ACS.

  18. Emergence of simian virus 40 variants during serial passage of plaque isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C; Tirrell, S M

    1982-01-01

    Three serial passage series of simian virus 40 (SV40) in CV-1 cells were initiated by infection directly from the same wild-type plaque isolate, three series were initiated by infection with another plaque isolate, and two series were initiated with each of two other plaque isolates. Aberrant SV40 genomes were not detected in any of the passage series until after the fifty undiluted passage, and each series generated a different array of variant genomes. The results show that the variants were not present in the original plaque isolates but, instead, were randomly generated during subsequent high-input multiplicity passages. Although many of the aberrant viral genomes in each passage series contained reiterations of the SV40 origin of replication and some also contained host cell sequences, there was no indication that SV40 is predisposed toward generating any particular variant. Images PMID:6283180

  19. Efficacy and mechanisms of non-antibacterial, chemical plaque control by dentifrices - An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; White, Don J.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van der Mei, Henny C.

    Objectives: The provision of antiplaque benefits to dentifrices assists patients in improving hygiene and reducing susceptibility to gingivitis and caries. Chemical plaque control involves different mechanisms and is mostly associated with antibacterial effects, but also includes effects on pellicle

  20. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...... as below vs. within-recommendations and dairy intake as =3 servings/ d. Dental plaque, defined as the percentage of tooth surfaces exhibiting plaque, was classified as =median value (9.5%). Analyses were stratified by lower and higher (>=6.8 mug/d) vitamin D intake. FINDINGS: Intakes of calcium (OR = 0.......53; 95%CI = 0.31--0.92) and dairy servings (OR = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.33--0.89) within-recommendations were significantly associated with lower plaque score after adjustments for age, gender, education, intakes of alcohol, sucrose and mineral supplements, smoking, diseases, number of teeth, visits...

  1. Multi-center MRI carotid plaque component segmentation using feature normalization and transfer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; van Dijk, Anouk C; Truijman, Martine T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Automated segmentation of plaque components in carotid artery MRI is important to enable large studies on plaque vulnerability, and for incorporating plaque composition as an imaging biomarker in clinical practice. Especially supervised classification techniques, which learn from labeled examples......, have shown good performance. However, a disadvantage of supervised methods is their reduced performance on data different from the training data, for example on images acquired with different scanners. Reducing the amount of manual annotations required for each new dataset will facilitate widespread...... implementation of supervised methods. In this paper we segment carotid plaque components of clinical interest (fibrous tissue, lipid tissue, calcification and intraplaque hemorrhage) in a multicenter MRI study. We perform voxelwise tissue classification by traditional same-center training, and compare results...

  2. Molecular pathology in vulnerable carotid plaques: correlation with [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Borgwardt, L;

    2008-01-01

    before carotid endarterectomy. Plaque mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 18 (IL-18), the macrophage-specific marker CD68 and the two proteinases, Cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS......: Consistent up-regulation of CD68 (3.8-fold+/-0.9; mean+/-standard error), Cathepsin K (2.1-fold+/-0.5), MMP-9 (122-fold+/-65) and IL-18 (3.4-fold+/-0.7) were found in the plaques, compared to reference-artery specimens. The FDG uptake by plaques was strongly correlated with CD68 gene expression (r=0.71, P=0.......02). Any correlations with Cathepsin K, MMP-9 or IL-18 gene expression were weaker. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET uptake in carotid plaques is correlated to gene expression of CD68 and other molecular markers of inflammation and vulnerability Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6...

  3. Short term effect of mechanical plaque control on salivary concentration of S. mutans and lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, S

    1986-08-01

    All visible plaque was professionally removed from teeth of 40 children who were highly infected with S. mutans and lactobacilli. Shortly before and after the removal of plaque the concentrations of those bacteria were assessed in saliva stimulated by chewing. S. mutans and lactobacilli correlated well at baseline but not after plaque elimination, e.g. more than 80% of children who were heavily infected with S. mutans could be identified by a lactobacillus test at baseline. After the elimination of plaque, the mean concentration of S. mutans dropped by 64% but lactobacilli remained unchanged. The results indicate that oral hygiene measures taken by the patient prior to sampling of saliva may mask the true concentration of salivary S. mutans and complicate the identification of high caries risk patients.

  4. Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Vulnerable Human Carotid Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    Elevated expression of cathepsins, integrins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is typically associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability. While fluorescent tagging of such molecules has been amply demonstrated, no imaging method was so far shown capable of resolving these

  5. Human macrophage foam cells degrade atherosclerotic plaques through cathepsin K mediated processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Register, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteolytic degradation of Type I Collagen by proteases may play an important role in remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques, contributing to increased risk of plaque rupture.The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human macrophage foam cells degrade the extracellular......-I in areas of intimal hyperplasia and in shoulder regions of advanced plaques. Treatment of human monocytes with M-CSF or M-CSF+LDL generated macrophages and foam cells producing CTX-I when cultured on type I collagen enriched matrix. Circulating levels of CTX-I were not significantly different in women...... with aortic calcifications compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: Human macrophage foam cells degrade the atherosclerotic plaques though cathepsin K mediated processes, resulting in increase in levels of CTX-I. Serum CTX-I was not elevated in women with aortic calcification, likely due to the contribution...

  6. Characterization of plaque components with intravascular ultrasound elastography in human femoral and coronary arteries in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. de Korte (Chris); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); H.A. Woutman; N. Bom (Klaas); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The composition of plaque is a major determinant of coronary-related clinical syndromes. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography has proven to be a technique capable of reflecting the mechanical properties of phantom material and the femoral arterial

  7. Vulnerable atherosclerotic carotid plaque evaluation by ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Cyrille; Douziech, Maxime; Therasse, Eric; Robillard, Pierre; Giroux, Marie-France; Arsenault, Frederic; Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles

    2014-08-01

    Ischemic syndromes associated with carotid atherosclerotic disease are often related to plaque rupture. The benefit of endarterectomy for high-grade carotid stenosis in symptomatic patients has been established. However, in asymptomatic patients, the benefit of endarterectomy remains equivocal. Current research seeks to risk stratify asymptomatic patients by characterizing vulnerable, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques. Plaque composition, biology, and biomechanics are studied by noninvasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasound, and ultrasound elastography. These techniques are at a developmental stage and have yet to be used in clinical practice. This review will describe noninvasive techniques in ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography imaging modalities used to characterize atherosclerotic plaque, and will discuss their potential clinical applications, benefits, and drawbacks. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Retention of Antimicrobial Activity in Plaque and Saliva following Mouthrinse Use in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Otten, M. P. T; Busscher, H. J; van der Mei, H. C; Abbas, F; van Hoogmoed, C. G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of plaque and saliva towards the prolonged activity, also called substantivity, of three antimicrobial mouthrinses (Listerine (R), Meridol (R), Crest Pro Health (R...

  9. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fei Teng Tao He Shi Huang Cun-Pei Bo Zhen Li Jin-Lan Chang Ji-Quan Liu Duane Charbonneau Jian Xu Rui Li Jun-Qi Ling

    2016-01-01

    .... Via a double- blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects...

  10. The structure and formation of the byssus attachment plaque in Mytilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarin, A; Lewis, P; Askey, J

    1976-06-01

    The byssus attachment plaque and the tissues responsible for its formation were studied in M. californianus by light microscopy and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the plaque consists of at least three phases which ultrastructurally resemble three secretions considered to be collagen, mucoid material and polyphenol. The mucoid and polyphenol appear to mix as a colloidal suspension in which the latter is the continuous phase and forms the definitive bonding surface. Plaque collagen represents an extension of thread material into the cementing substance. Stimulated secretion within the ducts and distal depression of the mussel's foot shows a continuum of increasing heterogeneity from the inner toward the outer regions. This reflects the distribution of exocrine cell apices wherein exocytosis of polyphenol granules predominate deeply, mucous granules superficially and collagen granules in between. It is proposed that the morphology of the plaque conforms to theoretical physical-chemical requirements for adhesion under water.

  11. Emergence of simian virus 40 variants during serial passage of plaque isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C; Tirrell, S M

    1982-05-01

    Three serial passage series of simian virus 40 (SV40) in CV-1 cells were initiated by infection directly from the same wild-type plaque isolate, three series were initiated by infection with another plaque isolate, and two series were initiated with each of two other plaque isolates. Aberrant SV40 genomes were not detected in any of the passage series until after the fifty undiluted passage, and each series generated a different array of variant genomes. The results show that the variants were not present in the original plaque isolates but, instead, were randomly generated during subsequent high-input multiplicity passages. Although many of the aberrant viral genomes in each passage series contained reiterations of the SV40 origin of replication and some also contained host cell sequences, there was no indication that SV40 is predisposed toward generating any particular variant.

  12. Inraoperative and Histological Visualization of Disrupted Vulnerable Plaques following Diagnostic Angiography of Moderate Carotid Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsushi Mutoh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA remains an important tool for diagnosis of carotid stenosis but is associated with risk for periprocedural complications. This is the first report of direct intraoperative and histolopathologic visualization of DSA-related carotid plaque disruption. Case. A 64-year-old man diagnosed to have a 60% right carotid stenosis received diagnostic DSA for therapeutic decision-making. He developed transient left hand numbness and weakness immediately after the procedure. Intraoperative imaging during carotid endarterectomy revealed a fragile plaque with sharp surface laceration and intraplaque hemorrhage at the bifurcation. Microscopy of the specimen demonstrated a large atheromatous plaque with fibrous hypertrophy and intraplaque hemorrhage filled with recent hemorrhagic debris. Conclusion. The visualized carotid lesion was more serious than expected, warning the danger of embolization or occlusion associated with the catheter maneuvers. Thus the highest level of practitioner training and technical expertise that ensures precise assessment of plaque characteristics should be encouraged.

  13. Glial fibrillary acidic protein isoform expression in plaque related astrogliosis in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Middeldorp, Jinte; Kooijman, Lieneke; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Moeton, Martina; Freriks, Michel; Mizee, Mark R; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid plaques are surrounded by reactive astrocytes with an increased expression of intermediate filaments including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Different GFAP isoforms have been identified that are differentially expressed by specific subpopulations of ast

  14. Iron plaques improve the oxygen supply to root meristems of the freshwater plant, Lobelia dortmanna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Claus Lindskov; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    * High radial oxygen loss (ROL) from roots of aquatic plants to reduced sediments is thought to deplete the roots of oxygen and restrict the distribution of those species unable to form a barrier to oxygen loss. Metal precipitates with high iron content (Fe-plaques) frequently form on roots...... of aquatic plants and could create such a diffusion barrier, thereby diverting a larger proportion of downward oxygen transport to the root meristems. * To investigate whether Fe-plaques form a barrier to oxygen loss, ROL and internal oxygen concentrations were measured along the length of roots...... of the freshwater plant Lobelia dortmanna using platinum sleeve electrodes and Clark-type microelectrodes. * Measurements showed that ROL was indeed lower from roots with Fe-plaques than roots without plaques and that ROL declined gradually with thicker iron coating on roots. The low ROL was caused by low diffusion...

  15. Association of the sirtuin and mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes with carotid plaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhui Dong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sirtuins (SIRTs and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases through the control of reactive oxygen species production. This study sought to investigate the association between genetic variants in the SIRT and UCP genes and carotid plaque. METHODS: In a group of 1018 stroke-free subjects from the Northern Manhattan Study with high-definition carotid ultrasonography and genotyping, we investigated the associations of 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the 11 SIRT and UCP genes with the presence and number of carotid plaques, and evaluated interactions of SNPs with sex, smoking, diabetes and hypertension as well as interactions between SNPs significantly associated with carotid plaque. RESULTS: Overall, 60% of subjects had carotid plaques. After adjustment for demographic and vascular risk factors, T-carriers of the SIRT6 SNP rs107251 had an increased risk for carotid plaque (odds ratio, OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.23-2.37, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.03 and for a number of plaques (rate ratio, RR = 1.31, 1.18-1.45, Bonferroni-corrected p = 1.4×10(-5, whereas T-carriers of the UCP5 SNP rs5977238 had an decreased risk for carotid plaque (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.74, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.02 and plaque number (RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.52-0.78, Bonferroni-corrected p = 4.9×10(-4. Some interactions with a nominal p≤0.01 were found between sex and SNPs in the UCP1 and UCP3 gene; between smoking, diabetes, hypertension and SNPs in UCP5 and SIRT5; and between SNPs in the UCP5 gene and the UCP1, SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT5, and SIRT6 genes in association with plaque phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We observed significant associations between genetic variants in the SIRT6 and UCP5 genes and atherosclerotic plaque. We also found potential effect modifications by sex, smoking and vascular risk factors of the SIRT/UCP genes in the associations with atherosclerotic

  16. Plaque assay for human coronavirus NL63 using human colon carcinoma cells

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    Drosten Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses cause a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. Human coronavirus (hCoV NL63 is associated with up to 10% of common colds. Viral plaque assays enable the characterization of virus infectivity and allow for purifying virus stock solutions. They are essential for drug screening. Hitherto used cell cultures for hCoV-NL63 show low levels of virus replication and weak and diffuse cytopathogenic effects. It has not yet been possible to establish practicable plaque assays for this important human pathogen. Results 12 different cell cultures were tested for susceptibility to hCoV-NL63 infection. Human colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2 replicated virus more than 100 fold more efficiently than commonly used African green monkey kidney cells (LLC-MK2. CaCo-2 cells showed cytopathogenic effects 4 days post infection. Avicel, agarose and carboxymethyl-cellulose overlays proved suitable for plaque assays. Best results were achieved with Avicel, which produced large and clear plaques from the 4th day of infection. The utility of plaque assays with agrose overlay was demonstrated for purifying virus, thereby increasing viral infectivity by 1 log 10 PFU/mL. Conclusion CaCo-2 cells support hCoV-NL63 better than LLC-MK2 cells and enable cytopathogenic plaque assays. Avicel overlay is favourable for plaque quantification, and agarose overlay is preferred for plaque purification. HCoV-NL63 virus stock of increased infectivity will be beneficial in antiviral screening, animal modelling of disease, and other experimental tasks.

  17. Cobalt plaque versus enucleation for uveal melanoma: comparison of survival rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, K S; Abramson, D. H.; Ellsworth, R M; Haik, B G; Bedford, M; Packer, S; Seddon, J; Albert, D.; Polivogianis, L

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-three patients treated by cobalt plaque for uveal melanoma were compared with 416 patients treated by enucleation for uveal melanoma in terms of patient survival. The median follow-up time for the patients treated by cobalt plaque was 4.3 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated up to five years following treatment based on time to tumour-related deaths. Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis was performed to determine which variables were related t...

  18. The association between gallstone disease and plaque in the abdominopelvic arteries

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    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the atheromatous plaque, in the abdominopelvic arteries as a marker of cardiac risk in patients with or without gallstone disease (GD. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-eight patients had GD and the remaining 88 patients did not. The presence or absence of gallstones was noted during abdominal ultrasonography while vascular risk factors such as plaque formation, intima-media thickness, plaque calcification, mural thrombus, stenosis, aneurysm, and inflammation were recorded during an abdominopelvic computed tomography scan. In addition, percentage of the abdominopelvic aorta surface covered by atheromatous plaque was calculated. Results: The mean age of patients with GD and without GD was 50.81 ± 16.20 and 50.40 ± 12.43, respectively. Patients with GD were more likely to have diabetes mellitus, a higher body mass index (BMI (P < 0.001, and higher cholesterol (P < 0.01, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.02 levels. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding other atherosclerotic risk factors. Patients with GD had significantly higher rates of the vascular risk factors as intima-media thickness, plaque formation, calcification, aneurysm, mural thrombosis, stenosis, and inflammation in all abdominal arterial segments other than aneurysm in the femoral arteries. In addition, patients with GD had severe atheromatous plaques in the abdominal aorta, common iliac, external iliac, and common femoral artery (CFA. In patients with GD, parameters of age, BMI, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were all correlated with the severity of the atheromatous plaque in abdominal aorta, common iliac, external iliac, and CFA. Conclusion: We demonstrated a direct relationship between GD and abdominopelvic atheromatous plaque, which is a marker for increased cardiovascular risk, for the first time in the literature

  19. In vitro atherosclerotic plaque and calcium quantitation by intravascular ultrasound and electron-beam computed tomography.

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    Gutfinger, D E; Leung, C Y; Hiro, T; Maheswaran, B; Nakamura, S; Detrano, R; Kang, X; Tang, W; Tobis, J M

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the accuracy of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) in quantitating human atherosclerotic plaque and calcium. In experiment 1, 12 human atherosclerotic arterial segments were obtained at autopsy and imaged by using IVUS and EBCT. The plaque from each arterial segment was dissected and a volume measurement of the dissected plaque was obtained by water displacement. The plaque from each arterial segment was ashed at 700 degrees F, and the weight of the remaining ashes was used as an estimate of the calcium mass. In experiment II, 11 calcified arterial segments were obtained at autopsy and imaged by using IVUS at one site along the artery. A corresponding histologic cross section stained with Masson's trichrome was prepared. In experiment I, the mean plaque volume measured by water displacement was 165.3 +/- 118.4 microliters. The mean plaque volume calculated by IVUS was 166.1 +/- 114.4 microliters and correlated closely with that by water displacement (r = 0.98, p volume by IVUS was 18.6 +/- 11.2 microliters and correlated linearly with the calcium mass by ashing (r = 0.87, p volume as well as the cross-sectional area and volume of intralesional calcium, especially if the calcium is localized at the base of the plaque. IVUS underestimates the amount of calcium present because of signal drop-off when the calcium is too thick for the ultrasound to completely penetrate. In comparison, EBCT accurately quantitates calcium mass regardless of the intralesional calcium morphologic characteristics; however, EBCT does not accurately quantitate plaque volume and will miss noncalcified atherosclerotic lesions.

  20. Relationship of periodontal clinical parameters with bacterial composition in human dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaka, Hidetake; Takeshita, Toru; Sato, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Junji; Hase, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    More than 600 bacterial species have been identified in the oral cavity, but only a limited number of species show a strong association with periodontitis. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive outline of the microbiota in dental plaque related to periodontal status. Dental plaque from 90 subjects was sampled, and the subjects were clustered based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes. Here, we evaluated (1) periodontal clinical parameters between clusters; (2) the correlation of subgingival bacterial composition with supragingival bacterial composition; and (3) the association between bacterial interspecies in dental plaque using a graphical Gaussian model. Cluster 1 (C1) having high prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The values of the parameters in Cluster 2a (C2a) having high prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria were markedly lower than those in C1. A cluster having low prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria in supragingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The bacterial patterns between subgingival plaque and supragingival plaque were significantly correlated. Chief pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, formed a network with other pathogenic species in C1, whereas a network of non-pathogenic species, such as Rothia sp. and Lautropia sp., tended to compete with a network of pathogenic species in C2a. Periodontal status relates to non-pathogenic species as well as to pathogenic species, suggesting that the bacterial interspecies connection affects dental plaque virulence.

  1. Modulation of the Myxoma Virus Plaque Phenotype by Vaccinia Virus Protein F11

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Chad R.; Evans, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) produces large plaques consisting of a rapidly expanding ring of infected cells surrounding a lytic core, whereas myxoma virus (MYXV) produces small plaques that resemble a focus of transformed cells. This is odd, because bioinformatics suggests that MYXV carries homologs of nearly all of the genes regulating Orthopoxvirus attachment, entry, and exit. So why does MYXV produce foci? One notable difference is that MYXV-infected cells produce few of the actin microfilaments...

  2. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaschi, S.; Spagnoli, L.G. (Universita degli Studi, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Anatomia ed Istologia Patologica)

    1983-07-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells.

  3. Bacterial Communities Associated with Atherosclerotic Plaques from Russian Individuals with Atherosclerosis.

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    Ziganshina, Elvira E; Sharifullina, Dilyara M; Lozhkin, Andrey P; Khayrullin, Rustem N; Ignatyev, Igor M; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic disease of the arterial wall and is the major cause of severe disease and death among individuals all over the world. Some recent studies have established the presence of bacteria in atherosclerotic plaque samples and suggested their possible contribution to the development of cardiovascular disease. The main objective of this preliminary pilot study was to better understand the bacterial diversity and abundance in human atherosclerotic plaques derived from common carotid arteries of individuals with atherosclerosis (Russian nationwide group) and contribute towards the further identification of a main group of atherosclerotic plaque bacteria by 454 pyrosequencing their 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes. The applied approach enabled the detection of bacterial DNA in all atherosclerotic plaques. We found that distinct members of the order Burkholderiales were present at high levels in all atherosclerotic plaques obtained from patients with atherosclerosis with the genus Curvibacter being predominant in all plaque samples. Moreover, unclassified Burkholderiales as well as members of the genera Propionibacterium and Ralstonia were typically the most significant taxa for all atherosclerotic plaques. Other genera such as Burkholderia, Corynebacterium and Sediminibacterium as well as unclassified Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Rhodospirillaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Burkholderiaceae were always found but at low relative abundances of the total 16S rRNA gene population derived from all samples. Also, we found that some bacteria found in plaque samples correlated with some clinical parameters, including total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and fibrinogen levels. Finally, our study indicates that some bacterial agents at least partially may be involved in affecting the development of cardiovascular disease through different mechanisms.

  4. The Accuracy of Noninvasive Imaging Techniques in Diagnosis of Carotid Plaque Morphology

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    Detelina Valchkova Lukanova

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: The ultrasound has high accuracy for diagnostics of carotid plaque morphology, magnetic resonance imaging has high potential for tissue differentiation and multidetector computed tomography determines precisely degree of stenosis and presence of ulceration and calcifications. The three noninvasive imaging modalities are complementary for optimal evaluation of the morphology of carotid plaque. This will help to determine the risk of stroke and to decide on the best treatment – carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting.

  5. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

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    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  6. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

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    Prathibha A Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum.

  7. Turbulence intensity measurements using particle image velocimetry in diseased carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision-making for the treatment of patients with diseased carotid artery is mainly based on the severity of the stenosis. However, stenosis severity alone is not a sensitive indicator, and other local factors for the assessment of stroke risk are required. Flow disturbance is of particular interest due to its proven association with increased thromboembolic activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of turbulence intensity (TI) with regards to certain geometrical features of the plaque - namely stenosis severity, eccentricity, and ulceration. A family of eight carotid-artery bifurcation models was examined using particle image velocimetry. Results showed a marked difference in turbulence intensity among these models; increasing degree of stenosis severity resulted in increased turbulence intensity, going from 0.12 m/s for mild stenosis to 0.37 m/s for severe stenosis (with concentric geometry). Moreover, independent of stenosis severity, eccentricity led to further elevations in turbulence intensity, increasing TI by 0.05-0.10 m/s over the counterpart concentric plaque. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) produced a larger portion of moderate turbulence intensity (~0.10 m/s) compared to the non-ulcerated model, more proximal to the bifurcation apex in the post-stenotic recirculation zone. The effect of plaque eccentricity and ulceration in enhancing the downstream turbulence has potential clinical implications for a more sensitive assessment of stroke risk beyond stenosis severity alone.

  8. Effect of the antibacterial agents octenidine and chlorhexidine on the plaque flora in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, C G; Bowen, W H; Robrish, S A; Kemp, C W

    1981-10-01

    The effect of the antibacterial substance octenidine on plaque formation and on oral microflora in eight monkeys fed a sucrose diet was studied. Plaque was obtained from buccal tooth surfaces of premolars and first molars in two quadrants using a swab and a dental carver and examined using culture and fluorescent antibody procedures. A significant reduction in plaque score was observed on the buccal tooth surfaces after daily topical application of 1% solutions of octenidine and chlorhexidine for 7 d; octenidine was more effective than chlorhexidine. Placebo treatment with water was without significant effect. Octenidine and chlorahexidine affected the plaque flora in a similar manner; the proportion of S sanguis increased in relation to baseline levels while the population of Actinomyces, especially the group A. viscous and A. naeslundii, was markedly reduced. S. sanguis showed an inverse relationship to members of actinomyces in response to the action of the antimicrobial agents. Both plaque sampling methods revealed similar changes in bacterial composition as a result of treatment. The data show that octenidine is an effective inhibitor of dental plaque and its antimicrobial and antiplaque properties make it worthy of further studies.

  9. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine Polymer Treatment of Complete Dentures to Inhibit Denture Plaque Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Kenji; Fukunishi, Miya; Iwasa, Fuminori; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-26

    Removable dentures made of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are prone to bacterial adherence and dental plaque formation, which is called denture plaque. Denture plaque-associated infection is a source of serious dental and medical complications in the elderly. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) is a well-known biomedical material that exhibits marked antithrombogenicity and tissue compatibility because of its high resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Therefore, MPC polymer coatings are suggested to have the potential to inhibit plaque deposition on the surface of PMMA dentures. However, coating MPC polymer on the surface of a PMMA denture is a complex procedure that requires specialized equipment, which is regarded as a major barrier to its clinical application. Here, we introduce a new MPC polymer treatment procedure that uses poly (MPC-co-BMA-co-MPAz) (PMBPAz) to prevent denture plaque deposition on removable dentures. This procedure enables the MPC coating of PMMA denture surfaces in a simple and stable manner that is resistant to various chemical and mechanical stresses due to the MPC layer of PMBPAz that is covalently bound to the PMMA surface by ultraviolet light irradiation. In addition, the procedure does not require any specialized equipment and can be completed by clinicians within 2 min. We applied this procedure in a clinical setting and demonstrated its clinical utility and efficacy in inhibiting plaque deposition on removable dentures.

  10. Automatic detection of plaques with severe stenosis in coronary vessels of CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, M. S.; Devarakota, Pandu; Kumar, Jitendra

    2010-03-01

    Coronary artery disease is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of coronary arteries and is the leading cause of death worldwide. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been proved to be very useful for accurate noninvasive diagnosis and quantification of plaques. However, the existing methods to measure the stenosis in the plaques are not accurate enough in mid and distal segments where the vessels become narrower. To alleviate this, we propose a method that consists of three stages namely, automatic extraction of coronary vessels; vessels straightening; lumen extraction and stenosis evaluation. In the first stage, the coronary vessels are segmented using a parametric approach based on circular vessel model at each point on the centerline. It is assumed that centerline information is available in advance. Vessel straightening in the second stage performs multi-planar reformat (MPR) to straighten the curved vessels. MPR view of a vessel helps to visualize and measure the plaques better. On the straightened vessel, lumen and vessel wall are segregated using a nearest neighbor classification. To detect the plaques with severe stenosis in the vessel lumen, we propose a "Diameter Luminal Stenosis" method for analyzing the smaller segments of the vessel. Proposed measurement technique identifies the segments that have plaques and reports the top three severely stenosed segments. Proposed algorithm is applied on 24 coronary vessels belonging to multiple cases acquired from Sensation 64 - slice CT and initial results are promising.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Effect of Plaques in the Left Coronary Artery

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    Thanapong Chaichana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the hemodynamic effect of simulated plaques in left coronary artery models, which were generated from a sample patient’s data. Plaques were simulated and placed at the left main stem and the left anterior descending (LAD to produce at least 60% coronary stenosis. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to simulate realistic physiological conditions that reflect the in vivo cardiac hemodynamics, and comparison of wall shear stress (WSS between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models was performed. The pressure gradient (PSG and flow velocities in the left coronary artery were measured and compared in the left coronary models with and without presence of plaques during cardiac cycle. Our results showed that the highest PSG was observed in stenotic regions caused by the plaques. Low flow velocity areas were found at postplaque locations in the left circumflex, LAD, and bifurcation. WSS at the stenotic locations was similar between the non-Newtonian and Newtonian models although some more details were observed with non-Newtonian model. There is a direct correlation between coronary plaques and subsequent hemodynamic changes, based on the simulation of plaques in the realistic coronary models.

  12. Linking CD11b+ Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer T Cells to Plaque Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

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    Miche Rombouts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death and disability in our Western society. To investigate whether the dynamics of leukocyte (subpopulations could be predictive for plaque inflammation during atherosclerosis, we analyzed innate and adaptive immune cell distributions in blood, plaques, and lymphoid tissue reservoirs in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/− mice and in blood and plaques from patients undergoing endarterectomy. Firstly, there was predominance of the CD11b+ conventional dendritic cell (cDC subset in the plaque. Secondly, a strong inverse correlation was observed between CD11b+ cDC or natural killer T (NKT cells in blood and markers of inflammation in the plaque (including CD3, T-bet, CCR5, and CCR7. This indicates that circulating CD11b+ cDC and NKT cells show great potential to reflect the inflammatory status in the atherosclerotic plaque. Our results suggest that distinct changes in inflammatory cell dynamics may carry biomarker potential reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression. This not only is crucial for a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis but also bares therapeutic potential, since immune cell-based therapies are emerging as a promising novel strategy in the battle against atherosclerosis and its associated comorbidities. The cDC-NKT cell interaction in atherosclerosis serves as a good candidate for future investigations.

  13. 16S rRNA-based detection of oral pathogens in coronary atherosclerotic plaque

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    Mahendra Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis develops as a response of the vessel wall to injury. Chronic bacterial infections have been associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The ability of oral pathogens to colonize in coronary atheromatous plaque is well known. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Campylobacter rectus in the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques of patients with coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients in the age group of 40-80 years with coronary artery disease were selected for the study. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples. The specific primers for T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were used to amplify a part of the 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square analysis, correlation coefficient and prevalence percentage of the microorganisms were carried out for the analysis. Results: Of the 51 patients, T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were detected in 49.01%, 21.51% and 45.10% of the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Conclusions: Our study revealed the presence of bacterial DNA of the oral pathogenic microorganisms in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of the bacterial DNA in the coronary atherosclerotic plaques in significant proportion may suggest the possible relationship between periodontal bacterial infection and genesis of coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. Effect of toothpaste on the plaque inhibitory properties of a cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, S; Eisenburger, M; Addy, M

    2003-03-01

    Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouth rinses have moderate plaque inhibitory activity when used alone but rarely have shown adjunctive benefits to tooth brushing with toothpaste. Several explanations for this apparent anomaly can be proferred, including loss of antiseptic activity due to interactions with toothpaste ingredients. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of toothpaste on the plaque inhibitory properties of a CPC mouth rinse using paired rinses of CPC, toothpaste slurry (TP) and water (W). The study was a single blind, randomised, seven-treatment, cross over design balanced for residual effects, involving 21 healthy, dentate subjects. The paired rinses were: W-CPC, CPC-W, TP-CPC, CPC-TP, W-TP, TP-W and W-W. Rinsing with solutions or slurries was done for 60 s twice per day. On day 1, subjects were rendered plaque free, suspended tooth cleaning and commenced the allocated rinse regimen. On day 5, plaque was scored by index. A 2(1/2) day wash out of normal oral hygiene was allowed between each regimen. The order from lowest to highest plaque scores was as follows: W-CPC = CPC-W mouth rinse adversely affected the plaque inhibitory action of this antiseptic. This in part may explain the reported lack of adjunctive benefits of CPC rinses to normal oral hygiene practices and supports the suggestion, made for chlorhexidine rinses, that their use should follow toothpaste by at least 60 min.

  15. The influence of xylitol containing toothpaste on plaque formation inhibition on fixed bridge

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    Hamim Fithrony

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plaque is the main cause of teeth and periodontal tissue damage, which usually accumulates on crown surfaces. To avoid this, plaque control is the best way that not only has a close connection to oral hygiene but also become important element in dental practice. Previously, xylitol was used as alternative sweetener for diabetic patients, but later it is used to maintain healthy teeth. Xylitol is capable to inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth which changes sugar and other carbohydrate into acid, because xylitol cannot be fermented. Purpose: This study was aimed to understand the inhibition capability of toothpaste containing xylitol to plaque formation on fixed bridge. Methods: This clinical experiment study was carried out in fifteen patients wearing fixed bridge at Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Airlangga University in Surabaya from 2005 to 2008. Samples were based on selective random sampling technique. Plaque index was analyzed by Mann Whitney test. Result: This study showed that there was significant difference of plaque scores in patients who brush their teeth using xylitol containing toothpaste compared to the control group (placebo. Conclusion: Xylitol was capable to inhibit plaque formation on fixed bridge.

  16. The effect of toothpaste containing Kayu Sugi extract on plaque formation

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    Widowati W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although many researches had revealed the beneficial effect of Kayu Sugi as a chewing stick, study on the effectiveness of its extract in toothpaste is still inadequate. Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of toothpaste, with and without Kayu Sugi extract on preventing plaque formation. Methods: The study consists of two sessions which was separated by three days washout period. The subjects were given two types of toothpaste, with and without Kayu Sugi extract to be used in the first and second session separately. The subjects were polished and plaque score were measured after one hour for the first quadrant, two hours later for the second quadrant and after four hours for the third/fourth quadrant. Subjects were not allowed to eat, drink or rinse during this four hours period. The procedures were repeated for the second session after three days washout period. The plaque score were recorded as absent (code 0 and present (code 1, and only labial and palatal/lingual surfaces of each tooth were used for plaque scoring. result: The study showed that there was no significant difference of the amount of plaque formed after polishing using two different toothpastes, with and without Kayu Sugi extract. Conclusion: We concluded that toothpaste with or without Kayu Sugi extract give similar level in preventing plaque formation.

  17. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of atherosclerotic plaques differentiation of triglyceride and cholesterol deposits

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    Christian Matthäus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases in general and atherothrombosis as the most common of its individual disease entities is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Therefore, visualization and characterization of inner arterial plaque composition is of vital diagnostic interest, especially for the early recognition of vulnerable plaques. Established clinical techniques provide valuable morphological information but cannot deliver information about the chemical composition of individual plaques. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging techniques have recently drawn considerable attention. Based on the spectroscopic properties of the individual plaque components, as for instance different types of lipids, the composition of atherosclerotic plaques can be analyzed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Here, we compare the feasibility of multimodal nonlinear imaging combining two-photon fluorescence (TPF, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS and second-harmonic generation (SHG microscopy to contrast composition and morphology of lipid deposits against the surrounding matrix of connective tissue with diffraction limited spatial resolution. In this contribution, the spatial distribution of major constituents of the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques like elastin, collagen, triglycerides and cholesterol can be simultaneously visualized by a combination of nonlinear imaging methods, providing a powerful label-free complement to standard histopathological methods with great potential for in vivo application.

  18. A clinical study of the relationship between crowding of teeth, plaque and gingival condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingervall, B; Jacobsson, U; Nyman, S

    1977-08-01

    A clinical trial was undertaken to assess whether crowded teeth were more likely to accumulate plaque and develop gingivitis than non-crowded teeth. A tooth was considered crowded if it was displaced by 2 mm and/or rotated 15 degrees or more from the normal position in the arch. The material consisted of 50 dental students aged 21 to 32 years. An initial examination comprised assessment of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and pocket depths. After this examination the subjects refrained from using interdental cleaning aids but continued with their normal toothbrushing for 40 days. After re-examination they were instructed in the effective use of dental floss. A final examination was carried out after 140 days. At the start of the trial no difference was found in regard to the Plaque Index between crowded and non-crowded teeth. The Gingival Index for growded front teeth, but not for crowded premolars, was somewhat higher than for the corresponding controls. The cessation of interdental cleaning resulted in a similar increase in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in both non-crowded and crowded teeth. The use of dental floss for approximal tooth cleaning resulted in a similar decrease in the Plaque- and Gingival Indices for both types of teeth. The results demonstrate that in a group of young adults, crowding of teeth (1) did not favour plaque accumulation on approximal tooth surfaces and (2) influenced the degree of gingival inflammation only to a minor extent.

  19. Effect of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke

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    YAN Jun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is closely related with ischemic stroke occurrence, development and recurrence. This study aims to make an evaluation of the effects of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors, serum lipid and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis were given oral administration of rosuvastatin calcium (10 mg once every night, and the course of treatment was 6 months. After treatment, the changes of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and blood lipid were measured, as well as carotid atherosclerotic intima-media thickness (IMT and the calculation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque score. According to the examination results, after 6 months' treatment with rosuvastatin, serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C decreased significantly (P < 0.01, for all, while high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.01; the total number of plaque reduced, while the number of stable plaque increased (P < 0.05; carotid artery IMT and carotid artery plaque score decreased significantly (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between before and after treatment. The results of this study show that rosuvastatin plays a role in anti-inflammation and alleviates the degree of carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

  20. Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability Is Affected by the Chemokine CXCL10 in Both Mice and Humans

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    Dolf Segers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The chemokine CXCL10 is specifically upregulated during experimental development of plaque with an unstable phenotype. In this study we evaluated the functional consequences of these findings in mice and humans. Methods and Results. In ApoE-/- mice, we induced unstable plaque with using a flow-altering device around the carotid artery. From week 1 to 4, mice were injected with a neutralizing CXCL10 antibody. After 9 weeks, CXCL10 inhibition resulted in a more stable plaque phenotype: collagen increased by 58% (P=0.002, smooth muscle cell content increased 2-fold (P=0.03, while macrophage MHC class II expression decreased by 50% (P=0.005. Also, the size of necrotic cores decreased by 41% (P=0.01. In 106 human carotid endarterectomy specimens we found that increasing concentrations of CXCL10 strongly associate with an increase in atheromatous plaque phenotype (ANOVA, P=0.003, with high macrophage, low smooth muscle cell, and low collagen content. Conclusions. In the present study we showed that CXCL10 is associated with the development of vulnerable plaque in human and mice. We conclude that CXCL10 might provide a new lead towards plaque-stabilizing therapy.

  1. Quantification of Canine Dental Plaque Using Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Corrin; Gill, Yadvinder; Colyer, Alison; Davis, Ian; Allsopp, Judi; Komarov, Gleb; Higham, Susan; Harris, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) as an alternative to the established Logan and Boyce method for determining plaque coverage of dogs' teeth. In a series of studies in conscious and anesthetized dogs, QLF showed good intra-photographer repeatability (coefficient of variation [CV] of 7.5% for undisclosed teeth) and inter-photographer reproducibility (CV of 3.2% for undisclosed teeth and 8.5% for disclosed teeth). The QLF software accurately identifies areas of plaque as demonstrated by comparison to the variability of 5 human scorers, manually marking plaque on QLF-acquired images (P = 0.1). There was good agreement with the modified Logan and Boyce method in the percentage reduction in plaque accumulation measured when dogs were fed an oral care chew versus no chew. To see a 15% difference in plaque accumulation, which is considered sufficient by the Veterinary Oral Health Council to differentiate between 2 treatments, a retrospective power analysis (90%) of the data established that only 7 dogs would be required, compared to 19 dogs for the modified Logan and Boyce method. QLF is a reliable method for measuring dental plaque in dogs with the added advantage that it is not subjective and requires fewer animals.

  2. The risk factors associated with ultrasonic tissue characterization of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Yoko; Katakami, Naoto; Kaneto, Hideaki; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Ken'ya; Kosugi, Keisuke; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the related factors of plaque echogenicity in diabetic subjects. This was a single-center, retrospective, study investigating a subgroup of patients of a previously published trial. We enrolled 179 middle-aged and older Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with carotid plaque, and examined the parameters related with echogenicity of carotid plaque evaluated by gray-scale median (GSM). Proportion of males and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in the patients with low GSM (HDL-cholesterol as independent variables and the presence of low GSM plaques as an objective variable showed that male (odds ratio (OR) 2.36, 95%CI 1.05-5.31, p = 0.037) and BMI (OR 1.12 [1.01-1.24], p = 0.029) were independently associated with low GSM plaques. Another multiple logistic regression analysis with gender, BMI, and low-HDL-cholesterolemia (HDL-C HDL-cholesterolemia (OR 2.30 [1.03-5.13], p = 0.042) and BMI (OR 1.11 [1.00-1.22], p = 0.046) were independently associated with low GSM plaques. Our study suggests that gender, BMI and low-HDL-cholesterol are important determinants of the content of the vascular wall in diabetic subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Teng; Rui Li; Jun-Qi Ling; Tao He; Shi Huang; Cun-Pei Bo; Zhen Li; Jin-Lan Chang; Ji-Quan Liu; Duane Charbonneau; Jian Xu

    2016-01-01

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaqueα andβ diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population.

  4. Thymidine plaque autoradiography of thymidine kinase-positive and thymidine kinase-negative herpesviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenser, R.B.; Jones, J.C.; Ressel, S.J.; Fralish, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plaques formed by herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus, and varicella-zoster virus were studied by plaque autoradiography after (/sup 14/C)thymidine labeling. Standard thymidine kinase-positive (TK+) viruses and TK- mutants of HSV types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus were studied, including cell cultured viruses and viruses isolated from animals. Autoradiography was performed with X-ray film with an exposure time of 5 days. After development of films, TK+ plaques showed dark rims due to isotope incorporation, whereas TK- plaques were minimally labeled. Plaque autoradiography of stock TK- viruses showed reversion frequencies to the TK+ phenotype of less than 10(-3). Autoradiography indicated that TK- virus retained the TK- phenotype after replication in vivo. In addition, it was shown that TK- HSV could be isolated from mouse trigeminal ganglion tissue after corneal inoculation of TK- HSV together with TK+ HSV. The plaque autoradiographic procedure was very useful to evaluate proportions of TK+ and TK- virus present in TK+-TK- virus mixtures.

  5. Differences between Rice Cultivars in Iron Plaque Formation on Roots and Plant Lead Tolerance

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    Xinmei Ma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand some mechanisms on the variations between rice cultivars in lead (Pb tolerance. Pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice cultivars under different soil Pb levels and the relationships between Pb phytotoxicity, uptake and iron plaque formation on roots were investigated. The results showed that the rice cultivar with indica consanguinity (Shanyou 63 were more sensitive to soil Pb stress than the cultivar with japonica consanguinity (Wuyunjing 7, particularly for the roots. Pb concentrations and distribution ratios in root tissues were higher for Shan you 63 than for Wuyunjing 7, but those in the plaques showed a reverse order. Fe distribution ratios in plaques were also larger for Wuyunjing 7 than for Shanyou 63, but the ratios in root tissues showed a reverse order. The results indicate that iron plaque formation on rice roots can provide a barrier to soil Pb stress in Pb-contaminated soils. The plaque will increase the sequestration of Pb on root surface, providing a means of external exclusion of soil Pb. But the function of the plaque is limited, only effective in relatively lower or moderate levels of soil Pb contamination.

  6. Efficacy of essential oil mouthwash with and without alcohol: a 3-Day plaque accumulation model

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    Marchetti Enrico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of a new alcohol free essential oil mouthwash with respect to a control of an essential oil with alcohol mouthwash, using an in vivo plaque regrowth model of 3-days. Methods The study was designed as a double-masked, randomized, crossover clinical trial, involving 30 volunteers to compare two different essential oil containing mouthwashes, during a 3-day plaque accumulation model. After receiving a thorough professional prophylaxis at the baseline, over the next 3-days each volunteer refrained from all oral hygiene measures and had two daily rinses with 20 ml of the test mouthwash (alcohol free essential oil or the control mouthwash (essential oil with alcohol. At the end of the each experimental period, plaque was assessed and the panelists filled out a questionnaire. Each subject underwent a 14 days washout period and there was a second allocation. Results The essential oil mouthwash with ethanol shows a better inhibitory effect of plaque regrowth in 3-days than the mouthwash test with only essential oil in the whole mouth (plaque index = 2.18 against 2.46, respectively, p Conclusion The essential oil containing mouthwash without alcohol seems to have a less inhibiting effect on the plaque regrowth than the traditional alcoholic solution. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411618

  7. Clinical Implications of Power Toothbrushing on Fluoride Delivery: Effects on Biofilm Plaque Metabolism and Physiology

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    M. Aspiras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilms are implicated in the formation of caries and periodontal disease. A major constituent of the supragingival biofilm is Streptococcus mutans, which produces lactic acid from sucrose fermentation, enhancing enamel demineralization and eventual caries development. Caries prevention through F inhibits enamel demineralization and promotes remineralization. Fluoride also exerts effects on metabolic activities in the supragingival biofilm such as aerobic respiration, acid fermentation and dentrification. In experimental S. mutans biofilms, adding 1000 ppm F to an acidogenic biofilm resulting from 10% sucrose addition increased pH to pre-sucrose levels, suggesting inhibition of acid fermentation. F effects on metabolic activity and sucrose utilization in interproximal plaque biofilms were also recorded. Addition of 10% sucrose reduced pH from neutral to 4.2, but subsequent addition of 1000 ppm F increased pH by 1 unit, inhibiting acid fermentation. 10% Sucrose addition also stimulated denitrification, increasing production of nitrous oxide (N2O. Addition of 1000 ppm F suppressed denitrification, indicating an additional mechanism by which F exerts effects in the active interproximal biofilm. Finally, fluid dynamic activity by power tooth brushing enhanced F delivery and retention in an experimental S. mutans biofilm, suggesting a potential novel benefit for this intervention beyond mechanical plaque removal.

  8. The effectivity of toothpick tooth brushing method on plaque control

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    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are associated with bacteria species which present in biofilms that colonize on dental surfaces. Several tooth brushing methods had been known and proved to be effective in maintaining oral hygiene. Among them, tooth pick technique was a relatively new method and its superiority in removing interproximal plaque was better than other methods. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectivity of toothpick tooth brushing method to conventional method on periodontal health. Methods: This research was designed as an analytical observational study. Thirty samples selected from five hundred and twelve males Indonesian Air-force members in Malang, aged 18–40 yrs, with periodontal pockets (≤ 5 mm in upper or lower teeth, without crowding, gingival index minimal > 1 (moderate gingivitis, OHI-S score minimal ≥ 1.3 (moderate, without systemic diseases, do not undergone medical therapy/drug prescriptions, without using mouth rinse during study, and without prosthesis. There were thirty samples in this research and devided to two groups, fifteen samples easch. The groups were toothpick tooth brusing method and conventional method (control group. In this study oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP and pocket depth were examined. Results: There were significant differences (p = .001 in OHI-S, GI, BOP, and PD before and after conducting each toothbrushing method, as well as differences between means (quarrel means, that were p = .003; p = .001; p = .001 and p = .001 consecutively. Conclusion: Toothpick brushing method was more effective in plaque control compared to conventional method.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal berhubungan dengan bakteri yang berkoloni dalam biofilm yang terdapat di permukaan gigi. Saat ini telah dikenal berbagai macam metode menyikat gigi tetapi masih belum ada penelitian tentang efek metode tersebut terhadap OHI-S. Penelitian in ingin

  9. {sup 106}Ruthenium Plaque Therapy (RPT) for Retinoblastoma

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    Murakami, Naoya, E-mail: namuraka@ncc.go.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Shigenobu [Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Ryoichi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology, Head and Neck Reconstruction Division, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, Koji; Kuroda, Yuki; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sakudo, Mototake; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Sumi, Minako; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of episcleral {sup 106}ruthenium plaque therapy (RPT) in the management of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: One hundred one RPTs were retrospectively analyzed that were performed in 90 eyes of 85 patients with retinoblastoma at National Cancer Center Hospital between 1998 and 2008. Each RPT had a corresponding tumor and 101 tumors were considered in the analysis of local control. Median follow-up length was 72.8 months. Median patient age at the RPT was 28 months. Median prescribed doses at reference depth and outer surface of the sclera were 47.4 Gy and 162.3 Gy, respectively. Results: Local control rate (LCR) and ocular retention rate (ORR) at 2 years were 33.7% and 58.7%, respectively. Unilateral disease, International Classification of Retinoblastoma group C or more advanced at the first presentation or at the time of RPT, vitreous and/or subretinal seeding, tumor size greater than 5 disc diameter (DD), reference depth greater than 5 mm, dose rate at reference depth lower than 0.7 Gy/hour, dose at the reference depth lower than 35 Gy, and (biologically effective dose with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 10 Gy) at the reference depth lower than 40 Gy{sub 10} were associated with unfavorable LCR. Two patients died of metastatic disease. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 12 eyes (13.3%), proliferative retinopathy in 6 (6.7%), rubeosis iris in 2 (2.2%), and posterior subcapsular cataract in 23 (25.6%). Conclusion: RPT is an effective eye-preserving treatment for retinoblastoma.

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of small plaque parapsoriasis: involvement of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeybek, N Dilara; Asan, Esin; Erbil, A Hakan; Dagdeviren, Attila

    2008-01-01

    Small plaque parapsoriasis (SPP) is one of the cutaneous T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. The aim of the present study was to show the antigenic profile of a subset of dendritic cells and lymphocytes in SPP in comparison with normal cells to provide data on the role of these two cell types in the pathogenesis of SPP. Skin biopsy specimens of lesions were obtained from 8 patients with SPP. Biopsies of the healthy skin from 9 control individuals were also analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the frozen tissue sections to reveal binding of anti-HLA Class II, anti-CD1a, anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-CD44, anti-CD45, and anti-CD68 monoclonal antibodies. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of CD1a(+), Langerhans cells (LCs), HLA-DR-immunoreactive and, CD1a-positive dermal dendritic cells and CD68(+) macrophages in the SPP group (p=0.008, 0.008, 0.002 and <0.0009, respectively). The number of lymphocytes positive for CD4, CD8 and CD45 was significantly higher than normal in the SPP group (p=0.015, <0.0009 and <0.0009, respectively). Our study demonstrates that both peptide- and lipid-based antigens are involved in the persistent antigenic exposure in SPP. Dendritic cells play a pivotal role in SPP by presenting antigens by both LC and dermal dendritic cells via MHC Class II and CD1a molecules. The CD68(+) macrophages are thought to be involved in the immune response in this pathology as an antigen-presenting cell.

  11. Relation between baseline plaque features and subsequent coronary artery remodeling determined by optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zulong; Dong, Nana; Sun, Rong; Liu, Xinxin; Gu, Xia; Sun, Yong; Du, Hongwei; Dai, Jiannan; Liu, Youbin; Hou, Jingbo; Tian, Jinwei; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-17

    Atherosclerosis often leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. We examined the influence of baseline plaque characteristics on subsequent vascular remodeling in response to changes in plaque size. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), we examined 213 plaques from 138 patients with acute coronary syndrome at baseline and repeated IVUS at the 12-month follow-up. The change in external elastic membrane (EEM) area for each 1 mm2 change in plaque area (i.e., the slope of the regression line) was calculated as a measure of vascular remodeling capacity. In plaques with static positive remodeling, the slope was smaller than in plaques without static positive remodeling. In addition, the slope of the regression line for lesions with a large plaque burden was much smaller than that for lesions with a small plaque burden. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that diabetes, calcification and static positive remodeling were inversely and independently associated with the level of change in EEM area/change in plaque area. Lesions with a large plaque burden, calcifications or static positive remodeling had less remodeling capacity, and calcification and static positive remodeling were independent predictors of reduced subsequent remodeling. Therefore, calcifications and static positive remodeling could be used as morphological biomarkers to predict decreased subsequent arterial remodeling.

  12. Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and leptin in resident macrophages characterises atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Santibanez-Koref, M.; Polvikoski, T.; Birchall, D.; Mendelow, A.D.; Keavney, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Resident macrophages play an important role in atheromatous plaque rupture. The macrophage gene expression signature associated with plaque rupture is incompletely defined due to the complex cellular heterogeneity in the plaque. We aimed to characterise differential gene expression in resident plaque macrophages from ruptured and stable human atheromatous lesions. Methods and results We performed genome-wide expression analyses of isolated macrophage-rich regions of stable and ruptured human atherosclerotic plaques. Plaques present in carotid endarterectomy specimens were designated as stable or ruptured using clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria. Macrophage-rich regions were excised from 5 ruptured and 6 stable plaques by laser micro-dissection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The profiles were characteristic of activated macrophages. At a false discovery rate of 10%, 914 genes were differentially expressed between stable and ruptured plaques. The findings were confirmed in fourteen further stable and ruptured samples for a subset of eleven genes with the highest expression differences (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis revealed that components of the PPAR/Adipocytokine signaling pathway were the most significantly upregulated in ruptured compared to stable plaques (p = 5.4 × 10−7). Two key components of the pathway, fatty-acid binding-protein 4 (FABP4) and leptin, showed nine-fold (p = 0.0086) and five-fold (p = 0.0012) greater expression respectively in macrophages from ruptured plaques. Conclusions We found differences in gene expression signatures between macrophages isolated from stable and ruptured human atheromatous plaques. Our findings indicate the involvement of FABP4 and leptin in the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture, and suggest that down-regulation of PPAR/adipocytokine signaling within plaques may have therapeutic potential. PMID:23122912

  13. Astrocytes containing amyloid beta-protein (Abeta)-positive granules are associated with Abeta40-positive diffuse plaques in the aged human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Funato, H.; Yoshimura, M.; T. Yamazaki; Saido, T C; Ito, Y; Yokofujita, J.; Okeda, R.; Ihara, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is the major component of senile plaques that emerge in the cortex during aging and appear most abundantly in Alzheimer's disease. In the course of our immunocytochemical study on a large number of autopsy cases, we noticed, in many aged nondemented cases, the presence of unique diffuse plaques in the cortex distinct from ordinary diffuse plaques by immunocytochemistry. The former were amorphous, very faintly Abeta-immunoreactive plaques resembling diffuse plaques...

  14. Detection of amyloid plaques targeted by bifunctional USPIO in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice using magnetic resonance microimaging.

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    Youssef Zaim Wadghiri

    Full Text Available Amyloid plaques are a key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The detection of amyloid plaques in the brain is important for the diagnosis of AD, as well as for following potential amyloid targeting therapeutic interventions. Our group has developed several contrast agents to detect amyloid plaques in vivo using magnetic resonance microimaging (µMRI in AD transgenic mice, where we used mannitol to enhance blood brain barrier (BBB permeability. In the present study, we used bifunctional ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO nanoparticles, chemically coupled with Aβ1-42 peptide to image amyloid plaque deposition in the mouse brain. We coupled the nanoparticles to polyethylene glycol (PEG in order to improve BBB permeability. These USPIO-PEG-Aβ1-42 nanoparticles were injected intravenously in AD model transgenic mice followed by initial in vivo and subsequent ex vivo μMRI. A 3D gradient multi-echo sequence was used for imaging with a 100 µm isotropic resolution. The amyloid plaques detected by T2*-weighted μMRI were confirmed with matched histological sections. The region of interest-based quantitative measurement of T2* values obtained from the in vivo μMRI showed contrast injected AD Tg mice had significantly reduced T2* values compared to wild-type mice. In addition, the ex vivo scans were examined with voxel-based analysis (VBA using statistical parametric mapping (SPM for comparison of USPIO-PEG-Aβ1-42 injected AD transgenic and USPIO alone injected AD transgenic mice. The regional differences seen by VBA in the USPIO-PEG-Aβ1-42 injected AD transgenic correlated with the amyloid plaque distribution histologically. Our results indicate that USPIO-PEG-Aβ1-42 can be used for amyloid plaque detection in vivo by intravenous injection without the need to co-inject an agent which increases permeability of the BBB. This technique could aid the development of novel amyloid targeting drugs by allowing therapeutic effects

  15. The Immune Response Is Involved in Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Could the RANKL/RANK/OPG System Be a Marker of Plaque Instability?

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    Fabrizio Montecucco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherogenesis is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, involving immune and vascular cells. These cells play a crucial role in all phases of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complication through cytokine, protease, and prothrombotic factor secretion. The accumulation of inflammatory cells and thus high amounts of soluble mediators are responsible for the evolution of some plaques to instable phenotype which may lead to rupture. One condition strongly associated with plaque rupture is calcification, a physiopathological process orchestrated by several soluble factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor NFκB ligand (RANKL/receptor activator of nuclear factor NFκB (RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG system. Although some studies showed some interesting correlations with acute ischemic events, at present, more evidences are needed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic value of serum sRANKL and OPG levels for clinical use. The major limitation is probably the poor specificity of these factors for cardiovascular disease. The identification of tissue-specific isoforms could increase the importance of sRANKL and OPG in predicting calcified plaque rupture and the dramatic ischemic consequences in the brain and the heart.

  16. The immune response is involved in atherosclerotic plaque calcification: could the RANKL/RANK/OPG system be a marker of plaque instability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Mach, François

    2007-01-01

    Atherogenesis is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, involving immune and vascular cells. These cells play a crucial role in all phases of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complication through cytokine, protease, and prothrombotic factor secretion. The accumulation of inflammatory cells and thus high amounts of soluble mediators are responsible for the evolution of some plaques to instable phenotype which may lead to rupture. One condition strongly associated with plaque rupture is calcification, a physiopathological process orchestrated by several soluble factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)kappaB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)kappaB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Although some studies showed some interesting correlations with acute ischemic events, at present, more evidences are needed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic value of serum sRANKL and OPG levels for clinical use. The major limitation is probably the poor specificity of these factors for cardiovascular disease. The identification of tissue-specific isoforms could increase the importance of sRANKL and OPG in predicting calcified plaque rupture and the dramatic ischemic consequences in the brain and the heart.

  17. The effect of a chlorhexidine regimen on de novo plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Satoshi; Ramberg, Per; Uzel, Naciye Guzin; Socransky, Sigmund; Lindhe, Jan

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of a pretreatment regimen that combined meticulous mechanical tooth cleaning with the daily use of chlorhexidine (rinse, gargle and tongue application) on de novo plaque formation and on the recolonization of various microbiological species in plaque and saliva during a 4-day period of no oral hygiene. Ten subjects aged 24-36 years with gingivitis were recruited. The study was designed as a double blind cross-over clinical trial including two phases. Each experimental phase comprised one preparatory period of 7 days and one plaque accumulation period of 4 days. During the preparatory period, the volunteers (i) performed meticulous mechanical tooth cleaning using toothbrush and dentifrice and (ii) were, in addition, given two sessions of professional tooth cleaning (PTC) The final PTC was delivered after bacterial sampling had been made on Day 0. In the Control group, no additional plaque control measures were included. In the Test group, the participants in addition to the mechanical measures (i) rinsed twice daily, for 60 s each time with a 0.2% chlorhexidine solution, (ii) gargled twice daily for 10 s with the chlorhexidine preparation, and finally (iii) brushed the dorsum of the tongue for 60 s, twice daily, with a 1.0% chlorhexidine gel. During the 4-day plaque accumulation period, the participants abstained from all mechanical and chemical plaque control measures. On Days 0, 1, 2 and 4 the quantity and quality of plaque formed was assessed by clinical means and by DNA probe techniques. The microbiota of the saliva was studied in samples obtained on Days 0 and 4. It was demonstrated that chlorhexidine used as a mouthrinse combined with gargling and tongue application during the preparatory period significantly retarded the amount of plaque that formed on tooth surfaces during the following 4 days of no oral hygiene. Further, the number of microorganisms present in the biofilm representing Days 0, 1 and 2 of the "plaque accumulation period

  18. Towards coronary plaque imaging using simultaneous PET-MR: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, Y.; El Fakhri, G.; Nezafat, R.; Johnson, N.; Brady, T.; Ouyang, J.

    2014-03-01

    Coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of myocardial infarction and the leading killer in the US. Inflammation is a known bio-marker of plaque vulnerability and can be assessed non-invasively using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging (FDG-PET). However, cardiac and respiratory motion of the heart makes PET detection of coronary plaque very challenging. Fat surrounding coronary arteries allows the use of MRI to track plaque motion during simultaneous PET-MR examination. In this study, we proposed and assessed the performance of a fat-MR based coronary motion correction technique for improved FDG-PET coronary plaque imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. The proposed methods were evaluated in a realistic four-dimensional PET-MR simulation study obtained by combining patient water-fat separated MRI and XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Five small lesions were digitally inserted inside the patients coronary vessels to mimic coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The heart of the XCAT phantom was digitally replaced with the patient's heart. Motion-dependent activity distributions, attenuation maps, and fat-MR volumes of the heart, were generated using the XCAT cardiac and respiratory motion fields. A full Monte Carlo simulation using Siemens mMR's geometry was performed for each motion phase. Cardiac/respiratory motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of the transformed fat-MR volumes and incorporated directly into the system matrix of PET reconstruction along with motion-dependent attenuation maps. The proposed motion correction method was compared to conventional PET reconstruction techniques such as no motion correction, cardiac gating, and dual cardiac-respiratory gating. Compared to uncorrected reconstructions, fat-MR based motion compensation yielded an average improvement of plaque-to-background contrast of 29.6%, 43.7%, 57.2%, and 70.6% for true plaque-to-blood ratios of 10, 15, 20 and 25:1, respectively. Channelized

  19. PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS IN CORONARY ATHEROMA AND SUBGINGIVAL PLAQUE – A CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Col S K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that hea rt disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of gram negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. AIMS : The present study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of P.ging ivalis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A case control study was designed with 07 patients who had underwent coronary endarterectomy for CVD and 28 controls . The periodontal examination for cases was performed one day before vascular surgery and t he controls we re clinically examined. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the Intraoral plaque samples were subjected to PCR for identification of P.gingivalis. The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and subgingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Means and proportions for personal characters, major risk factors and c linical parameters were calculated for both the groups. The significance of any difference in means was tested by using “Students t test”, and the significance of any difference in proportions was tested by using Dunn - Sidak Adjusted p Value. RESULTS : D uring the microbial analysis of plaque samples by PCR in group A it was seen that Porphyromonas gingivalis in 100 % of the samples . Microbial analysis of endarterectomy samples by PCR in group A shows that Porphyromonas

  20. Low-density lipoprotein and noncalcified coronary plaque composition in patients with newly diagnosed coronary artery disease on computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor Y; Wolak, Arik; Gutstein, Ariel; Gransar, Heidi; Wong, Nathan D; Dey, Damini; Thomson, Louise E J; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Slomka, Piotr J; Berman, Daniel S

    2010-03-15

    We sought to determine significant relations between atherogenic lipoproteins and the contribution of calcified plaque (CP), mixed plaque (MP), and noncalcified plaque (NCP) to the total plaque (TP) burden in patients without previous coronary artery disease. From 823 adult patients without previously established coronary artery disease (52% receiving statin therapy, 34% asymptomatic) but with visible coronary plaque on coronary computed tomographic angiography, we obtained segmental CP, MP, NCP, and TP counts from contrast-enhanced, electrocardiographic-gated computed tomography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine the associations of clinical factors and lipoprotein levels to CP, MP, and NCP counts and CP/TP, MP/TP, and NCP/TP count ratios. Age, male gender, diabetes, smoking, and statin therapy were significantly associated with the CP count (p NCP counts (all p values NCP/TP ratios, including an inverse association with CP/TP (p = 0.008) and a positive association with MP/TP (p = 0.032). Analyses using non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in place of LDL cholesterol yielded similar results. In conclusion, among the traditional clinical factors used to estimate cardiovascular event risk, LDL cholesterol is associated with an increased MP and NCP burden and is the sole variable that independently predicted relative predominance of CP, MP, and NCP, suggesting a potentially important role for lipoprotein levels in modulating the type of detectable coronary arterial plaque.

  1. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Marina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS. However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. Method In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months. Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen. Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS. FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Results Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4, and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4. Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5 and (2/26/4, respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10 and (9/13/10 for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9, corresponding to maximum and minimum

  2. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Tang, Dalin

    2011-07-19

    Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up) were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months). Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans) were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen). Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI) at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS) on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS). FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4), and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4). Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5) and (2/26/4), respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10) and (9/13/10) for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9), corresponding to maximum and minimum flow rates. Flow shear stress

  3. Expression of RANTES mRNA in skin lesions of feline eosinophilic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoe; Kano, Rui; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nagata, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2003-10-01

    One of the mechanisms of eosinophil infiltration is its induction by chemoattractants such as regulated upon activation, normal T-expressed and secreted (RANTES) which is a cysteine-cysteine chemokine that mediates chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils in humans and mice. Skin lesions of feline eosinophilic plaque are characterized by a predominant infiltration of eosinophils. The mechanism(s) of eosinophilic infiltration in the skin and/or mucosa of cats is unknown. It is possible that RANTES is involved. To investigate the presence of RANTES in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaques and nonaffected skin, we cloned and sequenced the full-length feline RANTES cDNA gene, in order to determine whether it is present in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaques and/or if it is present in normal adjacent skin. We were able to document the the expression of RANTES mRNAs in skin with feline eosinophilic plaque as well as in normal cat skin. The full-length cDNA sequence of the RANTES gene (742 bp) contained a single open reading frame of 276 bp encoding a protein of 92 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of feline RANTES shared 67 and 74% sequence identity with that of bovine and mouse RANTES genes, respectively. RT-PCR analysis on RANTES mRNA in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaque revealed that its expression was higher in the eosinophilic plaque skin lesions than in the normal skin. The result suggested that RANTES might play a role to induce eosinophil infiltration in feline eosinophilic plaque lesions.

  4. Statins use and coronary artery plaque composition: Results from the International Multicenter CONFIRM Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Ryo; Gransar, Heidi; Berman, Daniel S.; Cheng, Victor Y.; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cury, Ricardo C.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The effect of statins on coronary artery plaque features beyond stenosis severity is not known. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a novel non-invasive method that permits direct visualization of coronary atherosclerotic features, including plaque composition. We evaluated the association of statin use to coronary plaque composition type in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA. Methods From consecutive individuals, we identified 6673 individuals (2413 on statin therapy and 4260 not on statin therapy) with no known CAD and available statin use status. We studied the relationship between statin use and the presence and extent of specific plaque composition types, which was graded as non-calcified (NCP), mixed (MP), or calcified (CP) plaque. Results The mean age was 59 ± 11 (55% male). Compared to the individuals not taking statins, those taking statins had higher prevalence of risk factors and obstructive CAD. In multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increased the presence of MP [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–1.68), p < 0.001] and CP (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36–1.74, p < 0.001), but not NCP (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96–1.29, p = 0.1). Further, in multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increasing numbers of coronary segments possessing MP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.34–1.73, p < 0.001) and CP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.36–1.70, p < 0.001), but not coronary segments with NCP (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94–1.25, p = 0.2). Conclusion Statin use is associated with an increased prevalence and extent of coronary plaques possessing calcium. The longitudinal effect of statins on coronary plaque composition warrants further investigation. PMID:22981406

  5. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Le; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shangli; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Baoxiang; Miao, Junying

    2013-02-27

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SFO) is the major electrophilic metabolite of safrole (4-allyl-1, 2-methylenedioxybenzene), a natural plant constituent found in essential oils of numerous edible herbs and spices and in food containing these herbs, such as pesto sauce, cola beverages and bologna sausages. The effects of SFO in mammalian systems, especially the cardiovascular system, are little known. Disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the main cause of cardiovascular events. In this study, we investigated SFO-induced atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability (possibility of rupture) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. Lipid area in vessel wall reached 59.8% in high dose SFO (SFO-HD) treated group, which is only 31.2% in control group. SFO treatment changed the lesion composition to an unstable phenotype, increased the number of apoptotic cells in plaque and the endothelium in plaques was damaged after SFO treatment. Furthermore, compared with control groups, the plaque endothelium level of p75(NTR) was 3-fold increased and the liver level of p75(NTR) was 17.4-fold increased by SFO-HD. Meanwhile, the serum level of KC (a functional homolog of IL-8 and the main proinflammatory alpha chemokine in mice) in apoE(-/-) mice was up to 357pg/ml in SFO-HD treated group. Thus, SFO contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE(-/-) mice through activating p75(NTR) and IL-8 and cell apoptosis in plaque.

  6. Particulate matter air pollution exposure promotes recruitment of monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatera, Kazuhiro; Hsieh, Joanne; Hogg, James C; Tranfield, Erin; Suzuki, Hisashi; Shih, Chih-Horng; Behzad, Ali R; Vincent, Renaud; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2008-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between exposure to ambient particulate air pollution <10 microm in diameter (PM(10)) and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that PM(10) exposure causes progression of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. We postulate that the recruitment of monocytes from the circulation into atherosclerotic lesions is a key step in this PM(10)-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis. The study objective was to quantify the recruitment of circulating monocytes into vessel walls and the progression of atherosclerotic plaques induced by exposure to PM(10). Female Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, which naturally develop systemic atherosclerosis, were exposed to PM(10) (EHC-93) or vehicle by intratracheal instillation twice a week for 4 wk. Monocytes, labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in donors, were transfused to recipient rabbits as whole blood, and the recruitment of BrdU-labeled cells into vessel walls and plaques in recipients was measured by quantitative histological methodology. Exposure to PM(10) caused progression of atherosclerotic lesions in thoracic and abdominal aorta. It also decreased circulating monocyte counts, decreased circulating monocytes expressing high levels of CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) and CD49d (very late antigen-4 alpha-chain), and increased expression of CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) in plaques. Exposure to PM(10) increased the number of BrdU-labeled monocytes adherent to endothelium over plaques and increased the migration of BrdU-labeled monocytes into plaques and smooth muscle underneath plaques. We conclude that exposure to ambient air pollution particles promotes the recruitment of circulating monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques and speculate that this is a critically important step in the PM(10)-induced progression of atherosclerosis.

  7. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  8. Effect of microbial mediated iron plaque reduction on arsenic mobility in paddy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinjun; CHEN Xueping; YANG Jing; WANG Zhaosu; SUN Guoxin

    2009-01-01

    The potential of microbial mediated iron plaque reduction,and associated arsenic (As) mobility were examined by iron reducing bacteria enriched from As contaminated paddy soil.To our knowledge,this is the first time to report the impact of microbial iron plaque reduction on As mobility.Iron reduction occurred during the inoculation of iron reducing enrichment culture in the treatments with iron plaque and ferrihydrite as the electron acceptors,respectively.The Fe(Ⅱ) concentration with the treatment of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) and iron reducing bacteria increased much faster than the control.Arsenic released from iron plaque with the iron reduction,and a significant correlation between Fe(Ⅱ) and total As in culture was observed.However,compared with control,the increasing rate of As was inhibited by iron reducing bacteria especially in the presence of AQDS.In addition,the concentrations of As(Ⅲ) and As(V) in abiotic treatments were higher than those in the biotic treatments at day 30.These results indicated that both microbial and chemical reductions of iron plaque caused As release from iron plaque to aqueous phase,however,microbial iron reduction induced the formation of more crystalline iron minerals,leading to As sequestration.In addition,the presence of AQDS in solution can accelerate the iron reduction,the As release from iron plaque and subsequently the As retention in the crystalline iron mineral.Thus,our results suggested that it is possible to remediate As contaminated soils by utilizing iron reducing bacteria and AQDS.

  9. SU-E-T-652: Quantification of Dosimetric Uncertainty of I-125 COMS Eye Plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C; Ahmad, S; Firestone, B; Johnson, D; Matthiesen, C; De La Fuente Herman, T [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare dosimetrically three plan calculation systems (Plato, Varian Brachytherapy, and in-house-made Excel) available for I-125 COMS eye plaque treatment with measurement. Methods: All systems assume homogeneous media and calculations are based on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, Plato and Brachytherapy Planning are based on AAPM TG-43 and the in-house Excel program only on inverse square corrections. Doses at specific depths were measured with EBT3 Gafchromic film from a fully loaded and a partially loaded 16 mm plaque (13 and 8 seeds respectively, I-125, model 6711 GE, Oncura). Measurements took place in a water tank, utilizing solid water blocks and a 3D-printed plaque holder. Taking advantage that gafchromic film has low energy dependence, a dose step wedge was delivered with 6 MV photon beam from a Varian 2100 EX linac for calibration. The gray-scale to dose in cGy was obtained with an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner in the green channel. Treatment plans were generated for doses of 2200 cGy to a depth of 7 mm, and measurements were taken on a sagittal plane. Results: The calculated dose at the prescription point was 2242, 2344, and 2211 cGy with Excel, Brachyvision and Plato respectively for a fully loaded plaque, for the partially loaded plaque the doses were 2266, 2477, and 2193 cGy respectively. At 5 mm depth the doses for Brachyvision and Plato were comparable (3399 and 3267 cGy respectively), however, the measured dose in film was 3180 cGy which was lower by as much as 6.4% in the fully loaded plaque and 7.6% in the partially loaded plaque. Conclusion: Careful methodology and calibration are essential when measuring doses at specific depth due to the sensitivity and rapid dose fall off of I-125.

  10. Plaque-Associated Local Toxicity Increases over the Clinical Course of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid (senile) plaques, one of the two pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), are associated with dystrophic neurites and glial responses, both astrocytic and microglial. Although plaque burden remains relatively stable through the clinical course of AD, whether these features of local plaque toxicity continue to worsen over the course of the disease is unclear. We performed an unbiased plaque-centered quantification of SMI312+ dystrophic neurites, GFAP+ reactive astrocytes, and IBA1+ and CD68+ activated microglia in randomly selected dense-core (Thioflavin-S+) plaques from the temporal neocortex of 40 AD subjects with a symptom duration ranging from 4 to 20 years, and nine nondemented control subjects with dense-core plaques. Dystrophic neurites (Kendall τ = 0.34, P = 0.001), reactive astrocytes (Kendall τ = 0.30, P = 0.003), and CD68+ (Kendall τ = 0.48, P < 0.0001), but not IBA1 microglia (Kendall τ = 0.045, P = 0.655), exhibited a significant positive correlation with symptom duration. When excluding control subjects, only the positive association between CD68+ microglia and symptom duration remained significant (Kendall τ = 0.39, P = 0.0003). The presence of the APOEε4 allele did not affect these results. We conclude that plaques exert an increasing toxicity in the surrounding neuropil over the clinical course of AD, thereby potentially contributing to cognitive decline. PMID:26687817

  11. Characteristic detected on computed tomography angiography predict coronary artery plaque progression in non-culprit lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Ya Hang; Zhou, Jia Zhou; Zhou, Ying; Yang, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun Jie; Chen, Yun Dai [Dept. of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    This study sought to determine whether variables detected on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) would predict plaque progression in non-culprit lesions (NCL). In this single-center trial, we analyzed 103 consecutive patients who were undergoing CCTA and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for culprit lesions. Follow-up CCTA was scheduled 12 months after the PCI, and all patients were followed for 3 years after their second CCTA examination. High-risk plaque features and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume were assessed by CCTA. Each NCL stenosis grade was compared visually between two CCTA scans to detect plaque progression, and patients were stratified into two groups based on this. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors that were independently associated with plaque progression in NCLs. Time-to-event curves were compared using the log-rank statistic. Overall, 34 of 103 patients exhibited NCL plaque progression (33%). Logistic regression analyses showed that the NCL progression was associated with a history of ST-elevated myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] = 5.855, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.391–24.635, p = 0.016), follow-up low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (OR = 6.832, 95% CI = 2.103–22.200, p = 0.001), baseline low-attenuation plaque (OR = 7.311, 95% CI = 1.242–43.028, p = 0.028) and EAT (OR = 1.015, 95% CI = 1.000–1.029, p = 0.044). Following the second CCTA examination, major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were observed in 12 patients, and NCL plaque progression was significantly associated with future MACEs (log rank p = 0.006). Noninvasive assessment of NCLs by CCTA has potential prognostic value.

  12. Human macrophage foam cells degrade atherosclerotic plaques through cathepsin K mediated processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Lise

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic degradation of Type I Collagen by proteases may play an important role in remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques, contributing to increased risk of plaque rupture. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human macrophage foam cells degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM of atherosclerotic plaques by cathepsin K mediated processes. Methods We 1 cultured human macrophages on ECM and measured cathepsin K generated fragments of type I collagen (C-terminal fragments of Type I collagen (CTX-I 2 investigated the presence of CTX-I in human coronary arteries and 3 finally investigated the clinical potential by measuring circulating CTX-I in women with and without radiographic evidence of aortic calcified atherosclerosis. Results Immune-histochemistry of early and advanced lesions of coronary arteries demonstrated co-localization of Cathepsin-K and CTX-I in areas of intimal hyperplasia and in shoulder regions of advanced plaques. Treatment of human monocytes with M-CSF or M-CSF+LDL generated macrophages and foam cells producing CTX-I when cultured on type I collagen enriched matrix. Circulating levels of CTX-I were not significantly different in women with aortic calcifications compared to those without. Conclusions Human macrophage foam cells degrade the atherosclerotic plaques though cathepsin K mediated processes, resulting in increase in levels of CTX-I. Serum CTX-I was not elevated in women with aortic calcification, likely due to the contribution of CTX-I from osteoclastic bone resorption which involves Cathepsin-K. The human macrophage model system may be used to identify important pathway leading to excessive proteolytic plaque remodeling and plaque rupture.

  13. Outcomes of Iodine-125 Plaque Brachytherapy for Uveal Melanoma With Intraoperative Ultrasonography and Supplemental Transpupillary Thermotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiyan, Shahed N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Rao, Rajesh C. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Apicelli, Anthony J.; Acharya, Sahaja; Verma, Vivek; Garsa, Adam A.; DeWees, Todd; Speirs, Christina K.; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Harbour, J. William, E-mail: JWHarbour@med.miami.edu [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Ocular Oncology Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact on local tumor control of intraoperative ultrasonographic plaque visualization and selective application of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in the treatment of posterior uveal melanoma with iodine-125 (I-125) episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB). Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 526 patients treated with I-125 EPB for posterior uveal melanoma. Clinical features, dosimetric parameters, TTT treatments, and local tumor control outcomes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier life table method. Results: The study included 270 men (51%) and 256 women (49%), with a median age of 63 years (mean, 62 years; range, 16-91 years). Median dose to the tumor apex was 94.4 Gy (mean, 97.8; range, 43.9-183.9) and to the tumor base was 257.9 Gy (mean, 275.6; range, 124.2-729.8). Plaque tilt >1 mm away from the sclera at plaque removal was detected in 142 cases (27%). Supplemental TTT was performed in 72 patients (13.7%). One or 2 TTT sessions were required in 71 TTT cases (98.6%). After a median follow-up of 45.9 months (mean, 53.4 months; range, 6-175 months), local tumor recurrence was detected in 19 patients (3.6%). Local tumor recurrence was associated with lower dose to the tumor base (P=.02). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided plaque localization of I-125 EPB is associated with excellent local tumor control. Detection of plaque tilt by ultrasonography at plaque removal allows supplemental TTT to be used in patients at potentially higher risk for local recurrence while sparing the majority of patients who are at low risk. Most patients require only 1 or 2 TTT sessions.

  14. Effect of calcification on the mechanical stability of plaque based on a three-dimensional carotid bifurcation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kelvin KL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study characterizes the distribution and components of plaque structure by presenting a three-dimensional blood-vessel modelling with the aim of determining mechanical properties due to the effect of lipid core and calcification within a plaque. Numerical simulation has been used to answer how cap thickness and calcium distribution in lipids influence the biomechanical stress on the plaque. Method Modelling atherosclerotic plaque based on structural analysis confirms the rationale for plaque mechanical examination and the feasibility of our simulation model. Meaningful validation of predictions from modelled atherosclerotic plaque model typically requires examination of bona fide atherosclerotic lesions. To analyze a more accurate plaque rupture, fluid-structure interaction is applied to three-dimensional blood-vessel carotid bifurcation modelling. A patient-specific pressure variation is applied onto the plaque to influence its vulnerability. Results Modelling of the human atherosclerotic artery with varying degrees of lipid core elasticity, fibrous cap thickness and calcification gap, which is defined as the distance between the fibrous cap and calcification agglomerate, form the basis of our rupture analysis. Finite element analysis shows that the calcification gap should be conservatively smaller than its threshold to maintain plaque stability. The results add new mechanistic insights and methodologically sound data to investigate plaque rupture mechanics. Conclusion Structural analysis using a three-dimensional calcified model represents a more realistic simulation of late-stage atherosclerotic plaque. We also demonstrate that increases of calcium content that is coupled with a decrease in lipid core volume can stabilize plaque structurally.

  15. The Effect of Iron in MR Imaging and Transverse Relaxation of Amyloid-Beta Plaques in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meadowcroft, Mark D.; Peters, Douglas G.; Dewal, Rahul; Connor, James R.; Yang, Qing X.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of neural iron is known to occur during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Visualization of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has largely been credited to rapid proton relaxation in the vicinity of plaques due to focal iron deposition. The goal of this work was to determine the relationship between local relaxation and related focal iron content associated with Aβ plaques. Alzheimer’s disease (N=5) and control tissue (N=3) sample slices from th...

  16. The protein and lipid composition of arterial elastin and its relationship to lipid accumulation in the atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, D M; Franzblau, C; Hollander, W

    1971-08-01

    Elastin preparations from intimal layers and the media of normal and atherosclerotic human aortae were analyzed for protein and lipid content. In atherosclerotic aortae, elastin from plaques was compared with elastin from adjacent normal appearing areas of the same aorta. Arterial elastin purified by alkaline extraction appeared to be a protein-lipid complex containing free and ester cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. The lipid component of normal arterial elastin was small (1-2%). With increasing severity of atherosclerosis, there was a progressive accumulation of lipid in intimal elastin from plaques, reaching a mean lipid content of 37% in severe plaques. The increase in the lipid content of plaque elastic preparations was mainly due to large increases in cholesterol, over 80% of which was cholesteryl ester. This deposition of cholesterol in plaque elastin accounted for 20-34% of the total cholesterol content of the plaque. The increased lipid deposition in plaque elastin was associated with alterations in the amino acid composition of plaque elastin. In elastin from plaque intima, the following polar amino acids were increased significantly: aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, lysine, histidine, and arginine; whereas, cross-linking amino acids: desmosine, isodesmosine, and lysinonorleucine were decreased significantly. The amino acid and lipid composition of elastin from normal appearing aortic areas was comparable to that of normal arterial elastin except for intimal elastin directly adjacent to and medial elastin directly below the most severe plaques.The data indicate that the focal lipid deposition in early atherosclerotic plaques is due to a large extent to lipid accumulations in altered elastin protein of localized intimal areas. Continued lipid deposition in altered elastin appears to contribute substantially to the progressive lipid accumulation in the plaque. The study suggests that elastin of intimal elastic membranes may play

  17. Characterization of Recombinant, Ureolytic Streptococcus mutans Demonstrates an Inverse Relationship between Dental Plaque Ureolytic Capacity and Cariogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, K. Anne; Pearson, Sylvia; Bowen, William H.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Dental caries results from prolonged plaque acidification that leads to the establishment of a cariogenic microflora and demineralization of the tooth. Urease enzymes of oral bacteria hydrolyze urea to ammonia, which can neutralize plaque acids. To begin to examine the relationship between plaque ureolytic activity and the incidence of dental caries, recombinant, ureolytic strains of Streptococcus mutans were constructed. Specifically, the ureABCEFGD operon from Streptococcus salivarius 57.I ...

  18. Association of carotid plaque Lp-PLA(2 with macrophages and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection among patients at risk for stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Atik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the burden of Chlamydia pneumoniae in carotid plaques was significantly associated with plaque interleukin (IL-6, and serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP, suggesting that infected plaques contribute to systemic inflammatory markers in patients with stroke risk. Since lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA(2 mediates inflammation in atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that serum Lp-PLA(2 mass and activity levels and plaque Lp-PLA(2 may be influenced by plaque C. pneumoniae infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-two patients underwent elective carotid endarterectomy. Tissue obtained at surgery was stained by immunohistochemistry for Lp-PLA(2 grade, macrophages, IL-6, C. pneumoniae and CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Serum Lp-PLA(2 activity and mass were measured using the colorimetric activity method (CAM and ELISA, respectively. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by HPLC. Eleven (26.2% patients were symptomatic with transient ischemic attacks. There was no correlation between patient risk factors (smoking, coronary artery disease, elevated cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, hypertension and family history of genetic disorders for atherosclerosis and serum levels or plaque grade for Lp-PLA(2. Plaque Lp-PLA(2 correlated with serum homocysteine levels (p = 0.013, plaque macrophages (p<0.01, and plaque C. pneumoniae (p<0.001, which predominantly infected macrophages, co-localizing with Lp-PLA(2. CONCLUSIONS: The significant association of plaque Lp-PLA(2 with plaque macrophages and C. pneumoniae suggests an interactive role in accelerating inflammation in atherosclerosis. A possible mechanism for C. pneumoniae in the atherogenic process may involve infection of macrophages that induce Lp-PLA(2 production leading to upregulation of inflammatory mediators in plaque tissue. Additional in vitro and in vivo research will be needed to advance our understanding of specific C. pneumoniae and Lp-PLA(2

  19. Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    amrutesh, sunita; Malini, J; Tandur, Prakash S; Pralhad S. Patki

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal dental cream in comparison to fluoride dental cream. Objectives Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods One hundred and two patients with established dental plaque were randomly assigned to either herbal dental group or fluoride dental group for six weeks in a double-blind design. Improvement in plaque index, oral hyg...

  20. On the actual state of industrial quality assurance procedures with regard to (106)Ru ophthalmic