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Sample records for plants pisum sativum

  1. Pisum sativum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... To assess the genetic relations in Pisum genus and to examine putative duplicate accessions, 20 pea varieties (Pisum ..... correlation between PIC and PI in our study (r = -0.99 , P ..... GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel.

  2. Photosynthetic responses of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Little ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... (O3) have fundamental effects on CO2 exchange by plants. ... produce responses such as reduced photosynthetic rates and earlier senescence .... quality localities treatments and two soil regimes in Riyadh city, KSA. Pn rates.

  3. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  4. A proteomic approach to studying plant response to crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Castillejo, M; Amiour, Nardjis; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Rubiales, Diego; Jorrín, Jesús V

    2004-06-01

    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) is a parasitic plant that threatens legume production in Mediterranean areas. Pea (Pisum sativum) is severely affected, and only moderate levels of genetic resistance have so far been identified. In the present work we selected the most resistant accession available (Ps 624) and compared it with a susceptible (Messire) cultivar. Experiments were performed by using pot and Petri dish bioassays, showing little differences in the percentage of broomrape seed germination induced by both genotypes, but a significant hamper in the number of successfully installed tubercles and their developmental stage in the Ps 624 compared to Messire. The protein profile of healthy and infected P. sativum root tissue were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Approximately 500 individual protein spots could be detected on silver stained gels. At least 22 different protein spots differentiated control, non-infected, Messire and Ps 624 accessions. Some of them were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and database searching as cysteine proteinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, endochitinase, profucosidase, and ABA-responsive protein. Both qualitative and quantitative differences have been found among infected and non-infected root extracts. Thus, in the infected susceptible Messire genotype 34 spots were decreased, one increased and three newly detected, while in Ps 624, 15 spots were increased, three decreased and one newly detected. In response to the inoculation, proteins that correspond to enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism (fructokinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), nitrogen metabolism (ferredoxin-NADP reductase) and mitochondrial electronic chain transport (alternative oxidase 2) decreased in the susceptible check, while proteins that correspond to enzymes of the nitrogen assimilation pathway (glutamine synthetase) or typical pathogen defence, PR proteins, including beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidases, increased in Ps 624. Results are

  5. Effects of ambient ozone on reactive oxygen species and antioxidant metabolites in leaves of pea (pisum sativum l.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.A.; Almeelbi, T.; Basahi, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The differential response of two pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel and Victory) to ambient O3 grown under open top chambers (OTCs) was analyzed and compared. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant metabolites such as ascorbate/glutathione as well as a series of enzymes for scavenging ROS were analyzed, all aiming to reveal the differential behavior of two closely related plants when exposed to ambient O3.Antioxidant levels and activities of related enzymes in response to ambient were noticeably different among Little Marvel and Victory plants. However, the response was cultivar-specific. There was higher accumulation of ROS and relatively lower induction of antioxidants and more inhibition in photosynthetic rates in Victory than Little Marvel. There was a good correlation between tolerance to O3 and high endogenous levels of antioxidant metabolites such as ascorbate (As), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in pea plants. These portrays a higher sensitivity of Victory to ambient O3.To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the very few studies attempted to describe the changes in contents of antioxidants and activities of related enzymes in leaves of two closely related cultivars to further ourunderstanding on the defense mechanism and strategies under ambient O3. The results highlighted the possible roles of antioxidants in O3 detoxification through activation an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions. (author)

  6. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  7. Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible. In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an efficient agroinfection system by converting the two RNA genomes of the virus into binary expression vectors for Agrobacterium transformation. Results By vacuum infiltration (0.08 Mpa, 1 min) of germinating pea seeds with 2-3 cm roots with Agrobacteria carrying the binary vectors, expression of the gene for Green Fluorescent Protein as marker and the gene for the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was obtained in 80% of the infiltrated developing seedlings. Maximal production of the recombinant proteins was achieved 12-15 days after infiltration. Conclusions Compared to the leaf injection method vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds is highly efficient allowing large scale production of plants transiently expressing recombinant proteins. The production cycle of plants for harvesting the recombinant protein was shortened from 30 days for leaf injection to 15 days by applying vacuum infiltration. The synthesized aFGF was purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and its mitogenic activity on NIH 3T3 cells confirmed to be similar to a commercial product. PMID:21548923

  8. Virus-induced plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 silencing inhibits plant water transport of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juanjuan; Ye, Guoliang; Qian, Zhengjiang; Ye, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to facilitate water transport across cell membranes, but the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport, particularly in plants other than Arabidopsis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique was employed to suppress the expression of a specific plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 of Pea plants (Pisum sativum), and subsequent effects of the gene suppression on root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), leaf hydraulic conductivity (K leaf ), root cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp rc ), and leaf cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp lc ) were investigated, using hydroponically grown Pea plants. Compared with control plants, VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants displayed a significant suppression of PsPIP2;1 in both roots and leaves, while the expression of other four PIP isoforms (PsPIP1;1, PsPIP1;2, PsPIP2;2, and PsPIP2;3) that were simultaneously monitored were not altered. As a consequence, significant declines in water transport of VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants were observed at both organ and cell levels, i.e., as compared to control plants, Lp r and K leaf were reduced by 29 %, and Lp rc and Lp lc were reduced by 20 and 29 %, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PsPIP2;1 alone contributes substantially to root and leaf water transport in Pea plants, and highlight VIGS a useful tool for investigating the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport.

  9. Symbiotic N2 fixation activity in relation to C economy of Pisum sativum L. as a function of plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, A S; Salon, C; Jeudy, C; Warembourg, F R

    2003-12-01

    The relationships between symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) activity and C fluxes were investigated in pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Baccara) using simultaneous 13C and 15N labelling. Analysis of the dynamics of labelled CO2 efflux from the nodulated roots allowed the different components associated with SNF activity to be calculated, together with root and nodule synthetic and maintenance processes. The carbon costs for the synthesis of roots and nodules were similar and decreased with time. Carbon lost by turnover, associated with maintenance processes, decreased with time for nodules while it increased in the roots. Nodule turnover remained higher than root turnover until flowering. The effect of the N source on SNF was investigated using plants supplied with nitrate or plants only fixing N2. SNF per unit nodule biomass (nodule specific activity) was linearly related to the amount of carbon allocated to the nodulated roots regardless of the N source, with regression slopes decreasing across the growth cycle. These regression slopes permitted potential values of SNF specific activity to be defined. SNF activity decreased as the plants aged, presumably because of the combined effects of both increasing C costs of SNF (from 4.0 to 6.7 g C g-1 N) and the limitation of C supply to the nodules. SNF activity competed for C against synthesis and maintenance processes within the nodulated roots. Synthesis was the main limiting factor of SNF, but its importance decreased as the plant aged. At seed-filling, SNF was probably more limited by nodule age than by C supply to the nodulated roots.

  10. Chlorophyll mutation in field Pea (Pisum Sativum L.) that causes white stem in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    A white stem pea mutant recovered after exposing seeds of P. sativum cv Auralia to gamma-irradiation. The mutant has shown to have single-gene recessive inheritance, characterized morphologically and for seed productivity. New mutant 1/240 had similar phenotype to previously named mutants white stem and alts (albina-terminalis) but no allelism tests were performed between the new and the previously reported mutants. The mutation in line 1/240 may be useful as a genetic marker. (authors)

  11. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d. In the expand......To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d...

  12. INFLUENCE OF NOSTOC VAUCHER EX BORNET ET FLAHAULT STRAINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PISUM SATIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Ye. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the positive impact of cultures cyanobacteria genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault on growth and development of higher plants as an example Pisum sativum L. All the Nostoc species have a positive effect on the viability, germination energy, and biometric characteristics of Pisum sativum. The greatest positive influence was registered for N. entophytum Born. et. Flah. and N. linckia (Roth Bornetet Flahault f. linckia.

  13. Pretreatment of Cr(VI)-amended soil with chromate-reducing rhizobacteria decreases plant toxicity and increases the yield of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sumit K; Singh, Rakshapal; Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Wasnik, Kundan; Kalra, Alok

    2014-05-01

    Pot culture experiments were performed under controlled greenhouse conditions to investigate whether four Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strains (SUCR44, SUCR140, SUCR186, and SUCR188) were able to decrease Cr toxicity to Pisum sativum plants in artificially Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. The effect of pretreatment of soil with chromate-reducing bacteria on plant growth, chromate uptake, bioaccumulation, nodulation, and population of Rhizobium was found to be directly influenced by the time interval between bacterial treatment and seed sowing. Pretreatment of soil with SUCR140 (Microbacterium sp.) 15 days before sowing (T+15) showed a maximum increase in growth and biomass in terms of root length (93 %), plant height (94 %), dry root biomass (99 %), and dry shoot biomass (99 %). Coinoculation of Rhizobium with SUCR140 further improved the aforementioned parameter. Compared with the control, coinoculation of SUCR140+R showed a 117, 116, 136, and 128 % increase, respectively, in root length, plant height, dry root biomass, and dry shoot biomass. The bioavailability of Cr(VI) decreased significantly in soil (61 %) and in uptake (36 %) in SUCR140-treated plants; the effects of Rhizobium, however, either alone or in the presence of SUCR140, were not significant. The populations of Rhizobium (126 %) in soil and nodulation (146 %) in P. sativum improved in the presence of SUCR140 resulting in greater nitrogen (54 %) concentration in the plants. This study shows the usefulness of efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strain SUCR140 in improving yields probably through decreased Cr toxicity and improved symbiotic relationship of the plants with Rhizobium. Further decrease in the translocation of Cr(VI) through improved nodulation by Rhizobium in the presence of efficient Cr-reducing bacterial strains could also decrease the accumulation of Cr in shoots.

  14. Ultraviolet-B radiation causes tendril coiling in Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosché, M.; Strid, A.

    2000-01-01

    Low dose UV-B radiation (UV-B BE,300 = 0.1 W m -2 ), but neither UV-A radiation, ozone and NaCl stress, nor wounding, caused tendril coiling in Pisum sativum. This coiling occurred with both attached and detached tendrils and can be used as a specific UV-B stress marker in pea

  15. Effect of 2 MHz ultrasound irradiation on Pisum sativum roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.W.; Voorhees, S.M.; Carstensen, E.L.; Kaufman, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of 2 MHz ultrasound at intensity levels from 2.5 to 22 W/cm 2 on the growth rate and mitotic index of Pisum sativum roots was studied. The ultrasound produced an immediate reduction in the growth rate on the first postexposure day, followed by a gradual recovery to the control value. Ultrasound reduced the root meristem mitotic index. Intensity- and time-dependent relations were found for the growth rate and mitotic index reductions

  16. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  18. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M.; Hassan, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P N ), stomatal conductance (g s ), intercellular CO 2 (C i ) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O 3 ) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P N of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O 3 . The maximum impairment in P N was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O 3 levels were recorded (90 nL L −1 ). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P N and C i , indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P N vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ PSII ) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O 3 ) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O 3 has a clear influence on the physiological parameters. • O 3 decreased Photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll

  19. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M. [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, I.A., E-mail: ihassan_eg@yahoo.com [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21526 El Shatby, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P{sub N}), stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), intercellular CO{sub 2} (C{sub i}) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O{sub 3}) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P{sub N} of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O{sub 3}. The maximum impairment in P{sub N} was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O{sub 3} levels were recorded (90 nL L{sup −1}). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P{sub N} and C{sub i}, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P{sub N} vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ{sub PSII}) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O{sub 3} has a clear influence on the physiological

  20. Effect Of Heavy Metals Stress On Enzyme Activities And Chlorophyll Content Of Pea (Pisum Sativum) And Tomato Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; El Maghrabi, G.; Hashem, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on the chlorophyll in addition to catalase and peroxidase activities were studied in the leaves and roots of tomato and pea plants. Four groups were studied; the control group and other three groups treated with heavy metals. Group 1HM was treated with 1.0 mg CuSO 4 /l + 0.2 mg CdSO 4 /l + 0.1 mg ZnNO 3 /l every 10 days while in group 5 HM and group 10 HM, the doses were 5 and 10 folds the 1 HM, respectively. Leaves and roots of control and heavy metal-stressed plants were harvested after 10 weeks for chlorophyll determination. The chlorophyll content, especially chlo. b, was significantly decreased with the increase in heavy metals stress in both plants. In leaves of heavy metal-stressed plants, the peroxidase level in different stress levels was increased with increasing stress levels in tomato and pea while catalase was unchanged in leaves of tomato in comparison with the control. The activities of catalase and peroxidase in roots of heavy metal-stressed plants were increased in group 5 HM then decreased in case of group 10 HM. The increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that tomato is more tolerant to heavy metals than pea

  1. Response of root fungi in Pisum sativum to plant and soil environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Lingling

    and nutritional status of the plant and soil environments. However, limited information is available about the richness and composition of most of these root-associated fungi as studies of fungal communities remain a challenge because of below-ground high taxonomic and ecological diversity. In the present study......; thus obligate biotrophic fungi and saprotrophic fungi were markedly increased with organic fertilizer dosages, while root pathogenic fungi were decreased with organic amendments. In conclusion, the present work has shown that root-associated fungal community structure relate to plant and soil...... environmental factors. The obtained knowledge from this study can provide novel information of communities of root-associated fungi; thus improving the basic understanding of plant-root fungi-environment interactions in agroecosystems....

  2. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)

  3. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  4. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso

    2014-01-30

    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, Jamie A.; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Maule, Andrew J.; Lawson, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of N-terminally truncated eIF4E from pea were obtained and X-ray data were recorded in-house to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Crystals of an N-terminally truncated 20 kDa fragment of Pisum sativum eIF4E (ΔN-eIF4E) were grown by vapour diffusion. X-ray data were recorded to a resolution of 2.2 Å from a single crystal in-house. Indexing was consistent with primitive monoclinic symmetry and solvent-content estimations suggested that between four and nine copies of the eIF4E fragment were possible per crystallographic asymmetric unit. eIF4E is an essential component of the eukaryotic translation machinery and recent studies have shown that point mutations of plant eIF4Es can confer resistance to potyvirus infection

  7. Organic fertilization alters the community composition of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Ravnskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Organic fertilization is well known to affect individual functional groups of root associated fungi such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root pathogens, but limited information is available on the effect of organic fertilization at the fungal community composition level. The main objective...... of the present study was to examine the response of communities of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum to Protamylasse, an organic fertilizer used in pea production. Plants were grown in pots with field soil amended with four different levels of Protamylasse. 454 pyrosequencing was employed to examine......, the organic fertilizer Protamylasse clearly affects communities of root associated fungi, which seems to be linked to the life strategy of the different functional groups of root associated fungi. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  8. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  9. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...

  10. Extraction, purification, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of urease from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ΔH, E a , and ΔS, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in Pisum sativum by magnetic field, x-rays and urea and their restitution in sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, H.K.; Dave, Neelima

    1975-01-01

    Several workers (D' Amato 1948, Bowen and Wilson 1954, Von Rosen 1957) have induced chromosomal aberrations in roots of Pisum sativum L. Present paper embodies after effect of three independent treatments and their restitution in sucrose. (auth.)

  12. Regulation by S-nitrosylation of the Calvin-Benson cycle fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesús Serrato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Redox regulation is of great importance in chloroplasts. Many chloroplast enzymes, such as those belonging to the Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC, have conserved regulatory cysteines which form inhibitory disulphide bridges when physiological conditions become unfavourable. Amongst these enzymes, cFBP1, the CBC fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase isoform, is well known to be redox activated by thioredoxin f through the reduction of a disulphide bridge involving Cys153 and Cys173. Moreover, data obtained during recent years point to S-nitrosylation as another redox post-translational modification putatively regulating an increasing number of plant enzymes, including cFBP1. In this study we have shown that the Pisum sativum cFBP1 can be efficiently S-nitrosylated by GSNO and SNAP, triggering the formation of the regulatory disulphide. Using in vivo experiments with P. sativum we have established that cFBP1 S-nitrosylation only occurs during the light period and we have elucidated by activity assays with Cys-to-Ser mutants that this enzyme may be inactivated through the S-nitrosylation of Cys153. Finally, in the light of the new data, we have proposed an extended redox-regulation model by integrating the S-nitrosylation and the TRX f-mediated regulation of cFBP1. Keywords: S-nitrosylation, GSNO, Redox regulation, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, Pisum sativum, Calvin-Benson cycle

  13. Genetic variation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) demonstrates the importance of root but not shoot C/N ratios in the control of plant morphology and reveals a unique relationship between shoot length and nodulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludidi, Ndiko N; Pellny, Till K; Kiddle, Guy; Dutilleul, Christelle; Groten, Karin; VAN Heerden, Philippus D R; Dutt, Som; Powers, Stephen J; Römer, Peter; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-10-01

    Nodule numbers are regulated through systemic auto-regulatory signals produced by shoots and roots. The relative effects of shoot and root genotype on nodule numbers together with relationships to organ biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status, and related parameters were measured in pea (Pisum sativum) exploiting natural genetic variation in maturity and apparent nodulation intensity. Reciprocal grafting experiments between the early (Athos), intermediate (Phönix) and late (S00182) maturity phenotypes were performed and Pearson's correlation coefficients for the parameters were calculated. No significant correlations were found between shoot C/N ratios and plant morphology parameters, but the root C/N ratio showed a strong correlation with root fresh and dry weights as well as with shoot fresh weight with less significant interactions with leaf number. Hence, the root C/N ratio rather than shoot C/N had a predominant influence on plant morphology when pea plants are grown under conditions of symbiotic nitrogen supply. The only phenotypic characteristic that showed a statistically significant correlation with nodulation intensity was shoot length, which accounted for 68.5% of the variation. A strong linear relationship was demonstrated between shoot length and nodule numbers. Hence, pea nodule numbers are controlled by factors related to shoot extension, but not by shoot or root biomass accumulation, total C or total N. The relationship between shoot length and nodule numbers persisted under field conditions. These results suggest that stem height could be used as a breeding marker for the selection of pea cultivars with high nodule numbers and high seed N contents.

  14. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  15. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  16. Stomatal responses to carbon dioxide of isolated epidermis from a C/sub 3/ plant, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum L. , and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewer, P.C.; Neales, T.F.; Incoll, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The response of stomata in isolated epidermis to the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase was examined in a C/sub 3/ species, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum, and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) species, Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Epidermis from leaves of both species was incubated on buffer solutions in the presence of air containing various volume fractions of CO/sub 2/ (0 to 10,000 x 10/sup -6/). In both species and in the light and in darkness, the effect of CO/sub 2/ was to inhibit stomatal opening, the maximum inhibition of opening occurring in the range 0 to 360 x 10/sup -6/. The inhibition of opening per unit change in concentration was greatest between volume fractions of 0 and 240 x 10/sup -6/. There was little further closure above the volume fraction of 360 x 10/sup -6/, i.e. approximately ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/. Thus, although leaves of CAM species may experience much higher internal concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the light than those of C/sub 3/ plants, this does not affect the sensitivity of their stomata to CO/sub 2/ concentration or the range over which they respond. Stomatal responses to CO/sub 2/ were similar in both the light and the dark, indicating that effects of CO/sub 2/ on stomata occur via mechanisms which are independent of light. The responses of stomata to CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase took place without the treatments changing the pH of the buffered solutions. Thus, it is unlikely that CO/sub 2/ elicited stomatal movement by changing either the pH or the HCO/sub 3//sup -//CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ equilibria. It is suggested that the concentration of dissolved unhydrated CO/sub 2/ may be the effector of stomatal movement and that its activity is related to its reactivity with amines.

  17. Phenology of pea crop (Pisum sativum L. var. Santa Isabel) in the Bogotá plateau at open field and under plastic cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Pacheco, J.R.; Clavijo Porras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of environment effects on plant development is important to identify suitable zones and schedule crop production. In this research, plant development of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Santa Isabel) was evaluated under Bogotá flat highland, Colombia, environmental conditions (2640 m over sea level, 14°C, 80% R.H., rainfall of 800 mm/year). Two experiments were done under plastic cover [es

  18. Radiosensitivity study in the germination and growth of the pea Pisum sativum L, with seeds exposed to gamma radiation; Estudio de radiosensibilidad en la germinacion y crecimiento de la arveja Pisum sativum L, con semillas expuestas a radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilguan, J.; Carrasco, J.; Marquez, V., E-mail: ilguanjanneth@gmail.com [Escuela Superior Politecnica de Chimborazo, Facultad de Ciencias, Panamericana Sur Km 1 1/2, ECO60155 Riobamba (Ecuador)

    2016-10-15

    Seeds of Pisum sativum L. were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co irradiator belonging to the Subsecretaria de Control y Aplicaciones Nucleares del Ecuador (SCAN), the dose rate at the irradiation time was 4.86 Gy/min. The seeds were grouped in packs of 100 units and exposed at doses of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 Gy. The number of effective germinations, the days for germination, the main stem thickness, the number of branches and the size of the plant were evaluated. To validate the experimentation, the data were analyzed statistically by tests of homogeneity of variances, way ANOVA and Scheffe analysis to each variable. The number of effective germinations was given to 100% for 20 and 40 Gy then decreases to a higher dose reaching 20% to 200 Gy, being the average of the proof near to 90%. Increased germination stimulation at treatment at 20 Gy with an average of 5.0 days was evidenced. Treatment at doses of 20, 40 and 60 Gy generate a plant size greater than the proof whose mean is 68.30 cm. The mean number of branches of the proof is 5.3 with a standard deviation of 0.675, which is greater at doses of 20 and 40 Gy. In the study, is concluded that better results are obtained when irradiating seeds Pisum sativum L, between 20 and 60 Gy. (Author)

  19. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  20. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate in the germination of Pisum sativum and its effect on germinated seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Subinoy; Kumar, Mousumi; Haque, Smaranya; Kundu, Debajyoti

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds a...

  1. Radiosensitivity study in the germination and growth of the pea Pisum sativum L, with seeds exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilguan, J.; Carrasco, J.; Marquez, V.

    2016-10-01

    Seeds of Pisum sativum L. were irradiated in a "6"0Co irradiator belonging to the Subsecretaria de Control y Aplicaciones Nucleares del Ecuador (SCAN), the dose rate at the irradiation time was 4.86 Gy/min. The seeds were grouped in packs of 100 units and exposed at doses of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 Gy. The number of effective germinations, the days for germination, the main stem thickness, the number of branches and the size of the plant were evaluated. To validate the experimentation, the data were analyzed statistically by tests of homogeneity of variances, way ANOVA and Scheffe analysis to each variable. The number of effective germinations was given to 100% for 20 and 40 Gy then decreases to a higher dose reaching 20% to 200 Gy, being the average of the proof near to 90%. Increased germination stimulation at treatment at 20 Gy with an average of 5.0 days was evidenced. Treatment at doses of 20, 40 and 60 Gy generate a plant size greater than the proof whose mean is 68.30 cm. The mean number of branches of the proof is 5.3 with a standard deviation of 0.675, which is greater at doses of 20 and 40 Gy. In the study, is concluded that better results are obtained when irradiating seeds Pisum sativum L, between 20 and 60 Gy. (Author)

  2. Meiotic and mitotic analyses of a reciprocal translocation in pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.

    1974-01-01

    After X-irradiation of air-dried seeds of Pisum sativum, mutant 210 A was selected on the basis of the characteristic 'low number of seeds per pod', that segregates during following generations. Studies of pollen show a reduced fertility of 49.4% in about 50% of the plants. In meiotic metaphase I association of 4 chromosomes were observed in about 90% PMC in which more than half showed co-orientation of centromeres. A 3:1 segregation of the 4 linking chromosomes appeared in about 24% of all cases. Laggards, bridges and fragments reached a frequency of 11% in anaphase II. Seed production per pod in 2 vegetative periods varied from 63-67%; seed setting per plant fluctuated in the same year, between 55% and 43%. The analysis of karyotype proved the presumption of a simple reciprocal translocation. The exchange occurred between the long arms of the chromosomes 3 and 5. The break position is believed to be situated near the centromers of chromosome 3 and the lower half of the long arm of chromosome 5. (author)

  3. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  4. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  5. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  6. Effect of Fluoride and Bentonite on Biochemical Aspects of Oxidative Stress in Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Śnioszek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is regarded as one of the strongest oxidants, which causes oxidative changes in cells of living organisms. It may both increase the content of reactive oxygen species and inhibit the activity of antioxidative enzyme. In recent years, many researchers successfully used the properties of clay minerals in the sorption of fluoride ion from water. This raises the question of the possibility of limiting the effect of fluorine on the negative changes in plants by adding bentonite to soil. A two-year pot experiment was carried out in the Greenhouse of West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, on loamy sand and sandy loam. Each sample of soil was mixed with three different concentrations of bentonite – 1, 5, 10% of dry weight (DW of the soil and then treated with 30 mmol of F- per 1 kg of dry weight of the soil in a form of NaF solution. A control series was prepared for each soil, to which no additives were added. The medium prepared in such way was transferred to plastic pots (3 kg each and seeded with 16 pea seeds of Pisum sativum. In three phases of pea development (4 leaves unfolded, flowering and development of fruit, fresh leaf samples were collected and the concentrations of ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, total flavonoids and total polyphenols were measured. Sodium fluoride introduced to the soil changed the level of antioxidant parameters in the plant, which may suggest that fluoride is involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress. Bentonite in a dosage of 10% reduced the toxic effects of fluoride on the oxidative balance and morphological changes in the plant, which was observed especially for loamy sand, naturally poor in clay minerals.

  7. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plantsPisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... in the rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Effect of sodium fluoride on phytase activity during germination of Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauskrecht, I

    1972-01-01

    The effects of fluoride ion, in concentrations varying from 0 to 4 mM F/sup -/, on phytase activity in the course of germination of Pisum sativum L. seeds and in the course of incubation in vitro are reported. The fluoride ion in 1 mM concentration cause a significant 80% decrease of the phytase activity in the incubation medium and a 24% decrease in the course of germination. The inhibition of phytase, as well as its synthesis, by fluoride ion during germination may influence the metabolism of phosphorus at the initial stage of ontogenesis.

  9. The ultrastructure of protein bodies isolated from Pisum sativum and Iris pseudoacorus L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gabara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein bodies of Pisum sativum and Iris pseudoacorus seeds have been isolated in sucrose gradient with addition of 50mM citrate buffer, pH 5. Their ultrastructure due to isolation procedure has been described. Two types of protein bodies are present in pea and iris seeds: simple and compex ones - with many inclusions. The method of isolation, used in this paper extracts partly proteins - probably albumins, and also substances present in globoids i.e. phytin and acid phosphatase.

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  11. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  12. Succession of root-associated fungi in Pisum sativum during a plant growth cycle as examined by 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Larsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Roots are inhabited by a broad range of fungi, including pathogens and mycorrhizal fungi, with functional traits related to plant health and nutrition. Management of these fungi in agroecosystems requires profound knowledge about their ecology. The main objective of this study was to exam...

  13. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  14. Effect of sodium fluoride and sodium nitroprouside on Cicer arietinum and Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the individual and combine effect of sodium fluoride (NaF and sodium nitroprouside (SNP on germination and biochemical parameters (pigments, sugar, protein, amino acid, and phenol of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum and peas (Pisum sativum has been studied. After three days of NaF treatment, reductions were observed in percentage of seed germination, root and shoot length, and pigment content with increasing concentration of NaF (1 to 4 mg L-1. Seedlings treated with SNP, both alone and in combination of NaF, showed enhancement in seed germination as well as other growth parameters. NaF-treated seedlings were found to accumulate more soluble sugars and phenols, which were further increased by SNP treatment thereby indicating a synergistic effect of the possible reasons for the ameliorative effects of SNP in seedlings of Pisum sativum growing under NaF stress. Results also demonstrated that SNP application did not show any improvement in both morpho-physiologically and biochemically under sodium fluoride stress condition.

  15. Boron, cobalt and molybdenum in the knottiness and production on pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv Bolero culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, A.; Teixeira, N.T.; Maluf, C.E.; Campos, M.F. de

    1989-01-01

    The test carried out to study the effect of Boron, Cobalt and Molybdenum on the knottiness and production of the pea (Pisum sativum L.)cv Bolero culture, in controlled conditions. The results showed that Boron didn't affect the knottiness and it increased the production, while, Cobalt and Molybdenum promoted significant increase in the knottiness and productivity. (author) [pt

  16. The conformational stability and biophysical properties of the eukaryotic thioredoxins of Pisum sativum are not family-conserved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguado-Llera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxins (TRXs are ubiquitous proteins involved in redox processes. About forty genes encode TRX or TRX-related proteins in plants, grouped in different families according to their subcellular localization. For instance, the h-type TRXs are located in cytoplasm or mitochondria, whereas f-type TRXs have a plastidial origin, although both types of proteins have an eukaryotic origin as opposed to other TRXs. Herein, we study the conformational and the biophysical features of TRXh1, TRXh2 and TRXf from Pisum sativum. The modelled structures of the three proteins show the well-known TRX fold. While sharing similar pH-denaturations features, the chemical and thermal stabilities are different, being PsTRXh1 (Pisum sativum thioredoxin h1 the most stable isoform; moreover, the three proteins follow a three-state denaturation model, during the chemical-denaturations. These differences in the thermal- and chemical-denaturations result from changes, in a broad sense, of the several ASAs (accessible surface areas of the proteins. Thus, although a strong relationship can be found between the primary amino acid sequence and the structure among TRXs, that between the residue sequence and the conformational stability and biophysical properties is not. We discuss how these differences in the biophysical properties of TRXs determine their unique functions in pea, and we show how residues involved in the biophysical features described (pH-titrations, dimerizations and chemical-denaturations belong to regions involved in interaction with other proteins. Our results suggest that the sequence demands of protein-protein function are relatively rigid, with different protein-binding pockets (some in common for each of the three proteins, but the demands of structure and conformational stability per se (as long as there is a maintained core, are less so.

  17. [Regulatory genes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) controlling the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review of basic and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisov, A Iu; Vasil'chikov, A G; Voroshilova, V A

    2007-01-01

    The review sums up the long experience of the authors and other researchers in studying the genetic system of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), which controls sthe development of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and arbuscular mycorrhiza. A justified phenotypic classification of pea mutants is presented....... Progress in identifying and cloning symbiotic genes is adequately reflected. The feasibility of using double inoculation as a means of increasing the plant productivity is demonstrated, in which the potential of a tripartite symbiotic system (pea plants-root nodule bacteria-arbuscular mycorrhiza...

  18. Non-photosynthetic mechanisms of growth reduction in pea (Pisum sativum L.) exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Mepsted, R.; Wellburn, A.R.; Paul, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Pisum sativum cv. Guido grown under controlled environment conditions was exposed to either low or high UV-B radiation (2·2 or 9·9 kJ m –2 d –1 plant-weighted UV-B, respectively). Low or high UV-B was maintained throughout growth (LL and HH treatments, respectively) or plants were transferred between treatments when 22 d old (giving LH and HL treatments). High UV-B significantly reduced plant dry weight and significantly altered plant morphology. The growth and morphology of plants transferred from low to high UV-B were little affected, when compared with those of LL plants. By contrast, plants moved from high to low UV-B showed marked increases in growth when compared with HH plants. This contrast between HL and LH appeared to be related to the effect of UV-B on plant development. Exposure to high UV-B throughout development consistently reduced leaf areas. In fully expanded leaves there was no significant UV-B effect on cell area and reduced leaf area could be attributed to reduced cell number, suggesting effects on leaf primordia. Further reductions in the leaf area of younger leaves were the result of the slower development rate of plants grown at high UV-B, which also resulted in significant reductions in leaf number. (author)

  19. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The most common isolated fungi were Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Macrophomina ... known to affect the plant growth directly by producing ..... Evaluation of bacterial epiphytes isolated from avocado leaf and fruit surfaces ...

  20. Long-term iron deficiency: Tracing changes in the proteome of different pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lyon, David; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Lüthje, Sabine

    2016-05-17

    Iron deficiency (-Fe) is one of the major problems in crop production. Dicots, like pea (Pisum sativum L.), are Strategy I plants, which induce a group of specific enzymes such as Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FRO), Fe responsive transporter (IRT) and H(+)-ATPase (HA) at the root plasma membrane under -Fe. Different species and cultivars have been shown to react diversely to -Fe. Furthermore, different kinds of experimental set-ups for -Fe have to be distinguished: i) short-term vs. long-term, ii) constant vs. acute alteration and iii) buffered vs. unbuffered systems. The presented work compares the effects of constant long-term -Fe in an unbuffered system on roots of four different pea cultivars in a timely manner (12, 19 and 25days). To differentiate the effects of -Fe and plant development, control plants (+Fe) were analyzed in comparison to -Fe plants. Besides physiological measurements, an integrative study was conducted using a comprehensive proteome analysis. Proteins, related to stress adaptation (e.g. HSP), reactive oxygen species related proteins and proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport were identified to be changed in their abundance. Regulations and possible functions of identified proteins are discussed. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae) and is an important crop plant due to high Fe, starch and protein contents. According to FAOSTAT data (September 2015), world production of the garden pea quadrupled from 1970 to 2012. Since the initial studies by Gregor Mendel, the garden pea became the most-characterized legume and has been used in numerous investigations in plant biochemistry and physiology, but is not well represented in the "omics"-related fields. A major limitation in pea production is the Fe availability from soils. Adaption mechanisms to Fe deficiency vary between species, and even cultivars have been shown to react diversely. A label-free proteomic approach, in combination with physiological measurements

  1. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Mycoflora of pea seeds and the effectiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum on important seed-borne pathogens ... seed germination and promoted the plants growth under controlled and ..... 27. Table 3. Summary of fungal inoculation test. .... and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum.

  2. The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth parameters of field pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dušica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. seed contains a large amount of proteins, amino acids, sugars, carbohydrates, vitamins A and C, calcium and phosphorous, and hence it is widely used for many purposes. Although field pea has moderate requirements for its growth, it is sensitive to increased salt content in soil. This research included eight varieties (Javor, Jantar, Partner, Kristal, Pionir, Junior, Trezor, Dukat developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Sodium chloride solutions of various concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM were added in growing media to simulate saline conditions. The following were subsequently determined: seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings and 1000-seed weight. Among the analyzed varieties, variety Jantar expressed a high level of tolerance to increased salt content in growing media under laboratory conditions.

  3. Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L. varieties for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green pea (Pisum sativum L. has a long tradition in Serbia and Montenegro as a processing crop. Short growing season, relatively simple production, pleasant taste and high nutritional value stimulate both production and consumption of peas. The objective of this paper is to present the main characteristics of two pea varieties, domestic cultivar Tamis and imported cultivar Jof and the influence of prolonged time between harvest and processing on the changes of main characteristics. Both cultivars have grains of very high quality that can be used for industrial processing as well as for garden growing (the green market. In the present paper the results of one-year study are shown: cultivar characteristics, growing season length, and physico-chemical (tenderometer value (TM, dry matter, alcohol insoluble solids (AIS, sugar and starch measurements for texture determination. According to the results, the optimal way of processing for each variety was recommended. .

  4. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Pando, L.; Torres Aranda, M.; Romero Loli, M.

    1984-01-01

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  5. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Jerzy; Szerszunowicz, Iwona; Nałęcz, Dorota; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo) were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins). Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of ~4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW) ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for identifying pea proteins. Patterns of spots with similar isoelectric

  6. Cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco-Medina, Sergio; López-Jaramillo, Francisco Javier; Bernier-Villamor, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Lázaro, Juan-José

    2006-01-01

    The isolation, purification, crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from P. sativum is reported. A cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 199 amino acids corresponding to a type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum with its transit peptide was isolated by RT-PCR. The 171-amino-acid mature protein (estimated molecular weight 18.6 kDa) was cloned into the pET3d vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set (98.2% completeness) was collected using a rotating-anode generator to a resolution of 2.8 Å from a single crystal flash-cooled at 100 K. X-ray data revealed that the protein crystallizes in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.88, b = 66.40, c = 77.23 Å, α = 102.90, β = 104.40, γ = 99.07°, and molecular replacement using a theoretical model predicted from the primary structure as a search model confirmed the presence of six molecules in the unit cell as expected from the Matthews coefficient. Refinement of the structure is in progress

  7. Cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco-Medina, Sergio [Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-18008 Granada (Spain); López-Jaramillo, Francisco Javier, E-mail: fjljara@ugr.es [Instituto de Biotecnología, Campus Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Bernier-Villamor, Laura [Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Sevilla, Francisca [Departamento de Biología del Estrés y Patología Vegetal, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-30080 Murcia (Spain); Lázaro, Juan-José [Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The isolation, purification, crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from P. sativum is reported. A cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 199 amino acids corresponding to a type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum with its transit peptide was isolated by RT-PCR. The 171-amino-acid mature protein (estimated molecular weight 18.6 kDa) was cloned into the pET3d vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set (98.2% completeness) was collected using a rotating-anode generator to a resolution of 2.8 Å from a single crystal flash-cooled at 100 K. X-ray data revealed that the protein crystallizes in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.88, b = 66.40, c = 77.23 Å, α = 102.90, β = 104.40, γ = 99.07°, and molecular replacement using a theoretical model predicted from the primary structure as a search model confirmed the presence of six molecules in the unit cell as expected from the Matthews coefficient. Refinement of the structure is in progress.

  8. Amino acid fingerprint in the rhizosphere of Pisum sativum in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobille, Hélène; Fustec, Joëlle; Robins, Richard J.; Cukier, Caroline; Limami, Anis M.

    2017-04-01

    In cropping systems, legumes release substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) into the soil, via rhizodeposition, and constitute a sustainable source of N, instead of synthetic N fertilisers (Fustec et al. 2010). More frequent or/and intense droughts and floodings, due to climate change and intensification of agriculture, may affect N rhizodeposition (Preece & Peñuelas 2016). However, the effects of water stress on this process are poorly documented. A part of N derived from root exudates, mainly in amino acids (AAs) form, is suspected shape and regulate rhizosphere microbial community, thus playing a potential role in maintaining plant health in case of abiotic stress (Moe 2013). We hypothesized that root AA exudation could change significantly, according to water availability, and would help to understand N metabolism changes in plant-rhizosphere interactions. Because studying exudation from plant grown in unsterilized soil is challenging (Oburger et al. 2013), we have measured the rhizosphere AA fingerprint (RAAF), as the result of interactions between AA exudation and rhizospheric environment. In addition, plants were stem-labeled (cotton-wick) with 15N-urea for 72 h to provide direct evidence of a link between root AA and exudation in the soil. The RAAF was measured in Pisum sativum rhizosphere, under either a water deficit or a water excess for 72 h. Water deficit decreases biomass accumulation in shoots but not in roots. Then, water deficit had no significant effect on total AAs released into the rhizosphere but, it significantly modified the composition of RAAF, with a preferential increase of proline, alanine and glutamate and a rise in isotopic enrichment of AAs derived from oxaloacetate in tricarboxylic acidic cycle (asparagine, aspartate, threonine and isoleucine). These results support the idea that, under the early stages of water deficit, recently assimilated N is rapidly translocated to the roots, and part of it is exudated in AAs. Most of the exudated

  9. The CRC orthologue from Pisum sativum shows conserved functions in carpel morphogenesis and vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquin, Chloé; Primo, Amparo; Martínez-Fernández, Irene; Huet-Trujillo, Estefanía; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a member of the YABBY family of transcription factors involved in carpel morphogenesis, floral determinacy and nectary specification in arabidopsis. CRC orthologues have been functionally characterized across angiosperms, revealing additional roles in leaf vascular development and carpel identity specification in Poaceae. These studies support an ancestral role of CRC orthologues in carpel development, while roles in vascular development and nectary specification appear to be derived. This study aimed to expand research on CRC functional conservation to the legume family in order to better understand the evolutionary history of CRC orthologues in angiosperms. CRC orthologues from Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula were identified. RNA in situ hybridization experiments determined the corresponding expression patterns throughout flower development. The phenotypic effects of reduced CRC activity were investigated in P. sativum using virus-induced gene silencing. CRC orthologues from P. sativum and M. truncatula showed similar expression patterns, mainly restricted to carpels and nectaries. However, these expression patterns differed from those of other core eudicots, most importantly in a lack of abaxial expression in the carpel and in atypical expression associated with the medial vein of the ovary. CRC downregulation in pea caused defects in carpel fusion and style/stigma development, both typically associated with CRC function in eudicots, but also affected vascular development in the carpel. The data support the conserved roles of CRC orthologues in carpel fusion, style/stigma development and nectary development. In addition, an intriguing new aspect of CRC function in legumes was the unexpected role in vascular development, which could be shared by other species from widely diverged clades within the angiosperms, suggesting that this role could be ancestral rather than derived, as so far generally accepted. © The Author 2014. Published by

  10. Phenotypic characterization and inheritance of two foliar mutants in pea (Pisum Sativum L.): 'Reduced leaf size' and 'Orange leaf'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.; Tcekova, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Two foliar pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by reduced leaf size (2/978) and orange leaf (2/1409 M) were established. Both mutants were described morphologically and their productivity potential , pollen viability and inheritance of the mutant traits were evaluated. The mutant 2/978 was identified after irradiation of dry seeds from cv Borek with 15 Gy fast neutrons and was related to the leaf mutation 'rogue'. Reciprocal crosses between mutant 2/978 and cv Borel were executed, and F 1 and F 2 generations were analyzed. The altered leaf trait was presented in all F 1 plants suggesting a dominant character. F 2 segregation data indicated that the trait was controlled by a single dominant gene. The mutant 2/1409M originated from the mutant 2/978 after irradiation with 50 Gy γ-rays. The main mutant's phenotypic characteristic was the orange-yellow coloration of leaves and plants. After of series of crosses it was established that induced chlorophyll mutation is monogenic, recessive and both mutant traits are independently inherited. Two mutants could be used as appropriate plant material for genetic and biological investigations

  11. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-ESIMSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baralkiewicz, D.; Magorzata, K.; Piechalak, A.; Tomaszewska, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Trace elements play an important role in the functioning of life on our planet. Some of them can be highly toxic, whereas others can be essential. These effects are very often related to particular form in which the element is present. Often these different chemical forms of a particular element or its compounds are referred to as 'species'. Cadmium and lead are widespread heavy metal pollutants released into the environment by human activities. The presence of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ in the environment leads to a numerous disturbances in many metabolic processes in plants. Inhibition of growth is a major symptom. Hyphenated techniques, such as HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-ESIMSn seem to be the best analytical instruments to study metal speciation in plants. In our study, we used hyphenated techniques to identify compounds engaged in Cd and Pb metabolism and to perform analysis of metal complexes induced in Pisum sativum exposed to cadmium and lead. These identified compounds might be valuable source of information to study metal accumulation mechanism for bioremediation processes. (author)

  12. Molecular characterization of a distinct monopartite begomovirus associated with betasatellites and alphasatellites infecting Pisum sativum in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M S; Pudashini, B J; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2017-04-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) plants exhibiting leaf distortion, yellowing, stunted growth and reduction in leaf size from Rampur, Nepal were shown to be infected by a begomovirus in association with betasatellites and alphasatellites. The begomovirus associated with the disease showed only low levels of nucleotide sequence identity (characterized begomoviruses. This finding indicates that the pea samples were infected with an as yet undescribed begomovirus for which the name Pea leaf distortion virus (PLDV) is proposed. Two species of betasatellite were identified in association with PLDV. One group of sequences had high (>78%) nucleotide sequence identity to isolates of Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB), and the second group had less than 78% to all other betasatellite sequences. This showed PLDV to be associated with either LuLDB or a previously undescribed betasatellite for which the name Pea leaf distortion betasatellite is proposed. Two types of alphasatellites were identified in the PLDV-infected pea plants. The first type showed high levels of sequence identity to Ageratum yellow vein alphasatellite, and the second type showed high levels of identity to isolates of Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. These are the first begomovirus, betasatellites and alphasatellites isolated from pea.

  13. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  15. Symbiont effect of Rhizobium bacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Pisum sativum in recultivated mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, B.; Voros, I.; Kovespechy, K.; Szegi, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Research Institute)

    The frequency (F%) of spontaneous endomycorrhizal fungal infection (AMF) and the root modulation of Pisum sativum L, was studied after 8 and 15 years of recultivation in 4 soils (andesitic tuff yellow sand, yellow clay, and grey clay) disturbed by mining activities. The effects of Rhizobium inoculation and the interaction of both microsymbionts with plant production were also examined along with humus content and the humus stability coefficient, in the following variations: control, NPK fertilizer, NPK+lignite, NPK+straw and sewage sludge. Dump spoils originating from deep geological layers were poor in organic materials. After 12 years of recultivation, the humus content increased significantly. No such increase was noted in grey clay and the natural, brown forest soil used as an undisturbed (control) sample. The degradation of soils by mining brings about a decrease in the rhizobial and mycorrhizal population, so the number of spontaneous Rhizobium nodules is relatively low and does not influence the yield of peas. Inoculation with a selected effective strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae, however, enhanced dry matter production in these microbiologically degraded soils. Although the frequency of AMF infection was also higher after rhizobial inoculation, no positive correlation was found between dry matter production of peas and the F% of AMF. Spoils treated with lignite, straw, and sewage sludge had an especially high level of spontaneous mycorrhizal populations, indicating that organic materials had a favorable effect on the recultivation processes and fertility of mine spoils.

  16. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P 2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation......The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P 2 production but used...

  17. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  18. Purification and properties of asparaginase from the testa of immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Eliana P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A K+-dependent asparaginase (E.C. 3.5.1.1. was purified 1328-fold from the testas of immature pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., var. Bolero and characterized. Antibodies raised against purified asparaginase cross-reacted with the putative asparaginase band in Western blot analyses of semi-purified extracts. However, for crude extracts of pea testas, a cross-reaction was obtained with at least four protein bands, one of which was asparaginase protein. Affinity-purified antibodies to the four strongest bands of crude extracts were fairly specific for the bands from which they were purified, suggesting a mixture of specific antibodies. The Mr of asparaginase was 69,000 by Sephacryl S200 chromatography and also by mobility on native PAGE relative to BSA. There was no evidence for dissociation into subunits on SDS-PAGE, suggesting a monomeric protein of Mr 69,000. Other properties include an apparent Km of 2.4 mM, pI between 4.5 and 5, and competitive inhibition by aspartate and glycine.

  19. Profile and functional properties of seed proteins from six pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Miroljub; Cabrilo, Slavica; Pesic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Sladjana; Zilic, Sladjana; Macej, Ognjen; Ristic, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Extractability, extractable protein compositions, technological-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum) proteins from six genotypes grown in Serbia were investigated. Also, the relationship between these characteristics was presented. Investigated genotypes showed significant differences in storage protein content, composition and extractability. The ratio of vicilin:legumin concentrations, as well as the ratio of vicilin + convicilin: Legumin concentrations were positively correlated with extractability. Our data suggest that the higher level of vicilin and/or a lower level of legumin have a positive influence on protein extractability. The emulsion activity index (EAI) was strongly and positively correlated with the solubility, while no significant correlation was found between emulsion stability (ESI) and solubility, nor between foaming properties and solubility. No association was evident between ESI and EAI. A moderate positive correlation between emulsion stability and foam capacity was observed. Proteins from the investigated genotypes expressed significantly different emulsifying properties and foam capacity at different pH values, whereas low foam stability was detected. It appears that genotype has considerable influence on content, composition and technological-functional properties of pea bean proteins. This fact can be very useful for food scientists in efforts to improve the quality of peas and pea protein products.

  20. Effect of exogenous supply of boron on nodule development in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Khan, Z.U.D.; Syed, H.R.; Mehmood, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous supply of boron was evaluated on the seeds of Pisum sativum L. inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum and grown in aqua-culture. The liquid nutrition medium contained six boron concentrations (control, 1, 1.86, 2.86, 3.86, and 4.86 mg L/sup -1/ ). The results obtained from the present work showed that number of nodules, size of nodules and weight of boron treatment. Toxic effect of high concentration of boron (4.86 mg L/sup -1/ ) nodules exhibit great improvement in 2.86 mg L /sup-1/ was also recorded. There was significant reduction as compare to control in nodule weight, size and numbers. This fact becomes clear while observing the nodules growing in the boron free culture, which did not develop extensively. The comparison of the transverse sections of root-nodule area, from nutrient solutions with various boron concentrations showed that in the absence of boron, there was a considerable hypertrophy in cambial cells and a frequent disintegration of phloem and ground tissue along with xylem. The disintegration of the tissue seems to be linked with nodule bacteria. The nodular bacteria are considered to assume a parasitic habit in the absence of boron. (author)

  1. Genetic diversity studies in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P; Basal, N; Singh, A K; Rai, V P; Srivastava, C P; Singh, P K

    2013-03-13

    The genetic diversity among 28 pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes was analyzed using 32 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 44 polymorphic bands, with an average of 2.1 bands per primer, were obtained. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.657 to 0.309 with an average of 0.493. The variation in genetic diversity among these cultivars ranged from 0.11 to 0.73. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed 2 distinct clusters, I and II, comprising 6 and 22 genotypes, respectively. Cluster II was further differentiated into 2 subclusters, IIA and IIB, with 12 and 10 genotypes, respectively. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed results similar to those of UPGMA. The first, second, and third PCs contributed 21.6, 16.1, and 14.0% of the variation, respectively; cumulative variation of the first 3 PCs was 51.7%.

  2. Development and Characterization of 37 Novel EST-SSR Markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat markers were developed based on expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR and screened for polymorphism among 23 Pisum sativum individuals to assist development and refinement of pea linkage maps. In particular, the SSR markers were developed to assist in mapping of white mold disease resistance quantitative trait loci. Methods and Results: Primer pairs were designed for 46 SSRs identified in EST contiguous sequences assembled from a 454 pyrosequenced transcriptome of the pea cultivar, ‘LIFTER’. Thirty-seven SSR markers amplified PCR products, of which 11 (30% SSR markers produced polymorphism in 23 individuals, including parents of recombinant inbred lines, with two to four alleles. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.43 and from 0.31 to 0.83, respectively. Conclusions: These EST-SSR markers for pea will be useful for refinement of pea linkage maps, and will likely be useful for comparative mapping of pea and as tools for marker-based pea breeding.

  3. Effects of moderately enhanced levels of ozone on the acyl lipid composition and dynamical properties of plasma membranes isolated from garden pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sellden, G.; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma membranes were isolated from leaves of 16-day-old garden pea, Pisum sativum L., that had been grown in the absence or presence of 65 nl l(-1) ozone for 4 days prior to membrane isolation, Plasma membranes from ozone-fumigated plants contained significantly more acyl lipids per protein than....../stigmasterol and lipid/protein ratios, and suggesting that ozone-fumigated pea plants may be more susceptible to freezing injuries....... lipids, as well as in PC and PE, The amount of free sterols per protein was unaltered, but the percentage of campesterol increased, concomitant with a decrease in stigmasterol, The dynamical properties of the isolated plasma membranes were assessed using Laurdan fluorescence spectroscopy, which monitors...

  4. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K.; Chattaway, J.A.; Dawson, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ] in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and [5- 32 P]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and [2- 3 H]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P 3 was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate [Ins(4,5)P 2 ] whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P 2 ] was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P 4 . Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 and Ins(1,4,5,X)P 4 was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca 2+ . This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom

  5. The purification and characterization of a third storage protein (convicilin) from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Tyler, M; Boulter, D

    1980-01-01

    A third storage protein, distinct from legumin and vicilin, has been purified from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.). This protein has been named 'convicilin' and is present in protein bodies isolated from pea seeds. Convicilin has a subunit mol.wt. of 71 000 and a mol.wt. in its native form of 290 000. Convicilin is antigenically dissimilar to legumin, but gives a reaction of identity with vicilin when tested against antibodies raised against both proteins. However, convicilin contains no ...

  6. Influence of s-Triazines on Some Enzymes of Carbohydrates and Nitrogen Metabolism in Leaves of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. T.; Singh, B.; Salunkhe, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Foliar applications of 2 milligrams per liter of 2-chloro-4,6-bis (ethylamino)-s-triazine, 2-methylmercapto-4-ethylamino-6-isobutylamino-s-triazine, and 2-methoxy-4-isopropylamino-6-butylamino-s-triazine caused increases in the activities of starch phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase, cytochrome oxidase, and glutamate dehydrogenase 5, 10, and 15 days after treatment in the leaves of 3-week-old seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The results indicate that sublethal concentrations of s-triazine compounds affect the physiological and biochemical events in plants which favor more utilization of carbohydrates for nitrate reduction and synthesis of amino acids and proteins. PMID:16657830

  7. Effects of long-term reduced tillage on weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivated under conditions of conventional (CT, reduced (RT and herbicide tillage (HT. It demonstrated the highest weed density per m2 in plots with the herbicide (HT and reduced (RT systems and significantly lower weed infestation in plots cultivated in the conventional system (CT. In addition, more weeds occurred at the third leaf stage (13/14 in BBCH scale than at the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH of pea. The highest biomass was produced by weeds in the herbicide system (HT, a lower one – in the reduced system (RT, and the lowest one – in the conventional system (CT. The air-dry weight of weeds depended also on pea development stage. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the air-dry weight of weeds was significantly higher than at the third leaf stage (13/14 BBCH. The tillage system was also observed to influence the species composition of weeds. This trait was also affected by the period of weed infestation assessment. At the third leaf stage of pea (13/14 BBCH, there occurred 26 weed species, including 24 annual ones. The most abundant species included: Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Med., Matricaria inodora L., Thlaspi arvense L., and Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the pea crop was colonized by 24 weed species, including 3 perennial ones. At this stage the predominant species included: Avena fatua L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Papaver rhoeas L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.B., Matricaria inodora L., and Galeopsis tetrahit L.

  8. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at www.peamarker.arriam.ru.

  9. Boron Supply Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum by Interacting with Cell Wall Pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop growth in acidic soils. Boron (B alleviates Al toxicity in plants, which is mainly considered to be due to the formation of Rhamnogalacturonan II-B (RGII-B complexes, which helps to stabilize the cytoskeleton. It is unclear yet whether this is due to the increasing of net negative charges and/or further mechanisms. Kinetics of Al accumulation and adsorption were investigated using entire cells, cell wall and pectin of root border cells (RBCs of pea (Pisum sativum, to reveal the mechanism of B in interacting with alkali-soluble and chelator-soluble pectin for an increased Al tolerance in RBCs. The results show that B could rescue RBCs from Al-induced cell death by accumulating more Al in the cell wall, predominately in alkali-soluble pectin. Boron also promotes Al3+ adsorption and inhibits Al3+ desorption from alkali-soluble pectin. Thus, more Al3+ is immobilized within the alkali-soluble pectin fraction and less in the chelator-soluble pectin, rendering Al3+ less mobile. Boron induces an increase of RG-II (KDO,2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid content for forming more borate-RGII complexes, and the decrease of pectin methyl-esterification, thus creates more negative charges to immobilize Al3+ in cell wall pectin. The study provides evidence that abundant B supply enhances the immobilization of Al in alkali-soluble pectin, thus most likely reducing the entry of Al3+ into the symplast from the surroundings.

  10. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  11. Kinetics of Ca2+- and ATP-dependent, voltage-controlled anion conductance in the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells of Pisum sativum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, J.T.M.; van Volkenburgh, E.

    Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to measure anion currents through the plasma membrane of protoplasts of mesophyll cells of expanding pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. Voltage-induced changes of the currents could be modelled with single exponential activation and deactivation kinetics. The

  12. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; Navrátilová, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2007), s. 427 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : DNA * Pisum sativum L. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.180, year: 2007

  13. Batch Scale Removal of an Organic Pollutant Amaranth Dye from Aqueous Solution using Pisum sativum Peels and Arachis hypogaea Shells as Adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Afzal, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize low cost and environmentally friendly adsorbents for batch scale removal of Amaranth dye from aqueous medium. Peels of Pisum sativum (Pea) and Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) were utilized to investigate their dye removing capacity. The optimized adsorption conditions for Pisum sativum (P.S.P) and Arachis hypogaea (A.H.S) were: adsorbent dose; 0.6 and 0.4 g, contact time; 45 and 10 minutes, pH; 2.0 for both, agitation speed; 150 and 100 rpm and temperature; 60 and 50 degree C for P.S.P and A.H.S respectively. The adsorption data well suited to Langmuir isotherm. Maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 144.93 and 10.53 mg/g for P.S.P and A.H.S respectively. Feasibility of the process was indicated by negative values of thermodynamic parameters delta G/sup 0/ for both adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicated that adsorption of Amaranth dye from aqueous medium by Pisum sativum peels and Arachis hypogaea shells followed pseudo-seconder order kinetics. It was concluded that Pisum sativum peels are more effective adsorbent for removal of Amaranth from aqueous solution as compared to Arachis hypogaea shells. (author)

  14. Effect of pre-sowing magnetic field treatment to garden pea (pisum sativum l.) seed on germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Muhammad, D.; Haq, Z.U.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of garden pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. climax) were exposed to full-wave rectified sumusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields of strength 60 mT, 120 mT and 180 mT for 5, 10 and 15 min prior to sowing. The magnetically treated seeds were sown according to the protocol of International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Magnetically treated seed showed significant increase in germination. The emergence index, final emergence index and vigor index increased by 86.43%, 13.21% and 204.60%, respectively. It was found that exposure of 5 min for magnetic field strengths of 60 mT and 180 mT significantly enhanced the germination parameters of the pea and these treatments can be used practically to accelerate the germination in garden pea. (author)

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model (MLM taking population structure (Q and relative kinship (K into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  16. Rhizobium Impacts on Seed Productivity, Quality, and Protection of Pisum sativum upon Disease Stress Caused by Didymella pinodes: Phenotypic, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Ranjbar Sistani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In field peas, ascochyta blight is one of the most common fungal diseases caused by Didymella pinodes. Despite the high diversity of pea cultivars, only little resistance has been developed until to date, still leading to significant losses in grain yield. Rhizobia as plant growth promoting endosymbionts are the main partners for establishment of symbiosis with pea plants. The key role of Rhizobium as an effective nitrogen source for legumes seed quality and quantity improvement is in line with sustainable agriculture and food security programs. Besides these growth promoting effects, Rhizobium symbiosis has been shown to have a priming impact on the plants immune system that enhances resistance against environmental perturbations. This is the first integrative study that investigates the effect of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae (Rlv on phenotypic seed quality, quantity and fungal disease in pot grown pea (Pisum sativum cultivars with two different resistance levels against D. pinodes through metabolomics and proteomics analyses. In addition, the pathogen effects on seed quantity components and quality are assessed at morphological and molecular level. Rhizobium inoculation decreased disease severity by significant reduction of seed infection level. Rhizobium symbiont enhanced yield through increased seed fresh and dry weights based on better seed filling. Rhizobium inoculation also induced changes in seed proteome and metabolome involved in enhanced P. sativum resistance level against D. pinodes. Besides increased redox and cell wall adjustments light is shed on the role of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and metabolites such as the seed triterpenoid Soyasapogenol. The results of this study open new insights into the significance of symbiotic Rhizobium interactions for crop yield, health and seed quality enhancement and reveal new metabolite candidates involved in pathogen resistance.

  17. A novel lipid transfer protein from the pea Pisum sativum: isolation, recombinant expression, solution structure, antifungal activity, lipid binding, and allergenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Ivan V; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Finkina, Ekaterina I; Melnikova, Daria N; Rumynskiy, Eugene I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V

    2016-04-30

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) assemble a family of small (7-9 kDa) ubiquitous cationic proteins with an ability to bind and transport lipids as well as participate in various physiological processes including defense against phytopathogens. They also form one of the most clinically relevant classes of plant allergens. Nothing is known to date about correlation between lipid-binding and IgE-binding properties of LTPs. The garden pea Pisum sativum is widely consumed crop and important allergenic specie of the legume family. This work is aimed at isolation of a novel LTP from pea seeds and characterization of its structural, functional, and allergenic properties. Three novel lipid transfer proteins, designated as Ps-LTP1-3, were found in the garden pea Pisum sativum, their cDNA sequences were determined, and mRNA expression levels of all the three proteins were measured at different pea organs. Ps-LTP1 was isolated for the first time from the pea seeds, and its complete amino acid sequence was determined. The protein exhibits antifungal activity and is a membrane-active compound that causes a leakage from artificial liposomes. The protein binds various lipids including bioactive jasmonic acid. Spatial structure of the recombinant uniformly (13)C,(15)N-labelled Ps-LTP1 was solved by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. In solution the unliganded protein represents the mixture of two conformers (relative populations ~ 85:15) which are interconnected by exchange process with characteristic time ~ 100 ms. Hydrophobic residues of major conformer form a relatively large internal tunnel-like lipid-binding cavity (van der Waals volume comes up to ~1000 Å(3)). The minor conformer probably corresponds to the protein with the partially collapsed internal cavity. For the first time conformational heterogeneity in solution was shown for an unliganded plant lipid transfer protein. Heat denaturation profile and simulated gastrointestinal digestion assay showed that Ps

  18. Different patterns of vein loading of exogenous [14C]sucrose in leaves of pisum sativum and coleus blumei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgeon, R.; Wimmers, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Vein loading of exogenous [ 14 C]sucrose was studied using short uptake and wash periods to distinguish between direct loading into veins and loading via mesophyll tissue. Mature leaf tissue of Pisum sativum L. cv Little Marvel, or Coleus blumei Benth. cv Candidum, was abraded and leaf discs were floated on [ 14 C]sucrose solution for 1 or 2 minutes. Discs were then washed for 1 to 30 min either at room temperature or in the cold and were frozen, lyophilized, and autoradiographed. In P. sativum, veins were clearly labeled after 1 minute uptake and 1 minute wash periods. Autoradiographic images did not change appreciably with longer times of uptake or wash. Vein loading was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. These results indicate that uptake of exogenous sucrose occurs directly into the veins in this species. When C. blumei leaf discs were floated on [ 14 C]sucrose for 2 minutes and washed in the cold, the mesophyll was labeled but little, if any, minor vein loading occurred. When discs were labeled for 2 minutes and washed at room temperature, label was transferred from the mesophyll to the veins within minutes. These results indicate that there may be different patterns of phloem loading of photosynthetically derived sucrose in these two species

  19. Different patterns of rDNA distribution in Pisum sativum nucleoli correlate with different levels of nucleolar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highett, M.I.; Rawlins, D.J.; Shaw, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization with probes to rDNA, labelled either with digoxygenin or directly with fluorescein, to determine the arrangement of these genes within the nucleoli of Pisum sativum L. root cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image the three-dimensional structures revealed, but we have also compared this technique with deconvolution of conventional (wide-field) fluorescence images measured with a cooled CCD camera, and have shown that the results are remarkably similar. When the deconvolution technique was applied to the confocal data it gave clearer images than could be achieved by confocal microscopy alone. We have analysed the distribution of rDNA in the different cell types observable in root tips: the quiescent centre; active meristematic cells; and relatively differentiated root cap, epidermal and cortical cells. In addition to four perinucleolar knobs of condensed, inactive rDNA genes, corresponding to the four nucleolar organizers in P. sativum, which were the most brightly labelled structures, several characteristic patterns of intranucleolar labelling were apparent, including bright foci, large central chromatin masses, and fine, decondensed interconnecting fibres. The larger and more active the nucleolus, the smaller the proportion of condensed perinucleolar rDNA. In some large and active meristematic nucleoli, all the internal rDNA is decondensed, showing that transcription cannot be restricted to the bright foci, and is most likely to occur on the decondensed fibres. (author)

  20. Systemic Induction of the Defensin and Phytoalexin Pisatin Pathways in Pea (Pisum sativum against Aphanomyces euteiches by Acetylated and Nonacetylated Oligogalacturonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Selim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligogalacturonides (OGs are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum. In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs, with polymerization degrees (DPs of 2–25, in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs − Ac whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs + Ac. OGs were applied by injecting the upper two rachises of the plants at three- and/or four-weeks-old. Five-week-old roots were inoculated with 105 zoospores of A. euteiches. The root infection level was determined at 7, 10 and 14 days after inoculation using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results showed significant root infection reductions namely 58, 45 and 48% in the plants treated with 80 µg OGs + Ac and 59, 56 and 65% with 200 µg of OGs − Ac. Gene expression results showed the upregulation of genes involved in the antifungal defensins, lignans and the phytoalexin pisatin pathways and a priming effect in the basal defense, SA and ROS gene markers as a response to OGs. The reduction of the efficient dose in OGs + Ac is suggesting that acetylation is necessary for some specific responses. Our work provides the first evidence for the potential of OGs in the defense induction in pea against Aphanomyces root rot.

  1. Genome-wide SNP identification, linkage map construction and QTL mapping for seed mineral concentrations and contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yu; Coyne, Clarice J; Grusak, Michael A; Mazourek, Michael; Cheng, Peng; Main, Dorrie; McGee, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Background Marker-assisted breeding is now routinely used in major crops to facilitate more efficient cultivar improvement. This has been significantly enabled by the use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify loci and markers associated with traits of interest. While rich in a range of nutritional components, such as protein, mineral nutrients, carbohydrates and several vitamins, pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, remains behind many othe...

  2. Early nodule senescence is activated in symbiotic mutants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) forming ineffective nodules blocked at different nodule developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, Tatiana A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2018-04-03

    Plant symbiotic mutants are useful tool to uncover the molecular-genetic mechanisms of nodule senescence. The pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants SGEFix - -1 (sym40), SGEFix - -3 (sym26), and SGEFix - -7 (sym27) display an early nodule senescence phenotype, whereas the mutant SGEFix - -2 (sym33) does not show premature degradation of symbiotic structures, but its nodules show an enhanced immune response. The nodules of these mutants were compared with each other and with those of the wild-type SGE line using seven marker genes that are known to be activated during nodule senescence. In wild-type SGE nodules, transcript levels of all of the senescence-associated genes were highest at 6 weeks after inoculation (WAI). The senescence-associated genes showed higher transcript abundance in mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules at 2 WAI and attained maximum levels in the mutant nodules at 4 WAI. Immunolocalization analyses showed that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate accumulated earlier in the mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules. Together, these results showed that nodule senescence was activated in ineffective nodules blocked at different developmental stages in pea lines that harbor mutations in four symbiotic genes.

  3. Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and polyploidization: a flow cytometric and comet assay study in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eleazar; Azevedo, Raquel; Fernandes, Pedro; Santos, Conceição

    2011-07-18

    Chromium(VI) is recognized as the most toxic valency of Cr, but its genotoxicity and cytostaticity in plants is still poorly studied. In order to analyze Cr(VI) cyto- and gentotoxicity, Pisum sativum L. plants were grown in soil and watered with solutions with different concentrations of Cr up to 2000 mg/L. After 28 days of exposure, leaves showed no significant variations in either cell cycle dynamics or ploidy level. As for DNA damage, flow cytometric (FCM) histograms showed significant differences in full peak coefficient of variation (FPCV) values, suggesting clastogenicity. This is paralleled by the Comet assay results, showing an increase in DNA damage for 1000 and 2000 mg/L. In roots, exposure to 2000 mg/L resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M checkpoint. It was also verified that under the same conditions 40% of the individuals analyzed suffered polyploidization having both 2C and 4C levels. DNA damage analysis by the Comet assay and FCM revealed dose-dependent increases in DNA damage and FPCV. Through this, we have unequivocally demonstrated for the first time in plants that Cr exposure can result in DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and polyploidization. Moreover, we critically compare the validity of the Comet assay and FCM in evaluating cytogenetic toxicity tests in plants and demonstrate that the data provided by both techniques complement each other and present high correlation levels. In conclusion, the data presented provides new insight on Cr effects in plants in general and supports the use of the parameters tested in this study as reliable endpoints for this metal toxicity in plants. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  5. Adequação do teste de condutividade elétrica para sementes de Pisum sativum subsp. Arvense Suitability of electrical conductivity test for seeds of Pisum sativum subsp. Arvense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gomes Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da semente na produção agrícola é um dos principais fatores a ser considerado na implantação da cultura, de forma que se torna importante a obtenção de informações sobre a germinação e o vigor das sementes, além da necessidade de avaliá-los. Dentro desse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo adequar a metodologia do teste de condutividade elétrica para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Pisum sativum subsp. arvense. Para tanto, foram utilizados dez lotes de sementes da cultivar IAPAR 83, empregando-se períodos de condicionamento de 8, 16, 20, 24 e 28 horas, combinados às temperaturas de 20 e 25°C e volumes de 75 e 250mL de água. Além destes, foram conduzidos os testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação e emergência de plântulas. Para ambas as avaliações, foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os testes de vigor, assim como o teste de germinação foram sensíveis para avaliar a qualidade das sementes dos diferentes lotes estudados, porém houve variações na ordenação deles quanto ao vigor. O volume de água, o tempo e a temperatura de embebição influenciaram os valores de condutividade elétrica. Concluiu-se que o teste de condutividade elétrica utilizando 250mL de água, na temperatura de 25°C por 24 horas é promissor para a diferenciação de lotes de sementes de P. sativum subsp. arvense.Seed quality in agricultural production is a major factor to be considered in the deployment of a crop, so it becomes important to obtain information about seed vigor and germination and. This study had the objective to adjust the methodology of the electrical conductivity test to evaluate the physiological quality of Pisum sativum subsp. arvense seeds. Ten lots of the cultivar 'IAPAR 83' were studied to establish the methodology for the electrical conductivity test. It was studied germination, first count of germination and seedling emergence in greenhouse

  6. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  7. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  8. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  9. The influence of water stress on biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and on N rhizodeposition during reproductive growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahieu, S.; Germont, Florent; Aveline, A.

    2009-01-01

    are estimated. Moreover, grain legume crops are largely influenced by water stress while the world area exposed to drought periods may increase in the coming years due to global warming. This work aims to quantify biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and N...... rhizodeposition by a pea (Pisum sativum L.) when influenced by water stress. In a controlled environment, pea plants were exposed to a severe drought or not stressed, either at flowering or during pod filling. N rhizodeposition was measured using the split root method and plants were harvested at the end...... of flowering (59 days after sowing, DAS 59), at the end of the drought period applied during pod filling (DAS 74) and at maturity (DAS 101). Water stress strongly affected pea dry weight and N accumulation. In both stressed treatments, nodule biomass and N content were reduced by about 65% in the absence...

  10. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses, but decrea......Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses...... relative to the total N-accumulation was greater with strain 128c53 due to a higher production of nodule tissue. The root bleeding sap of the symbiosis with the greater yield (strain 1044) contained high levels of asparagine and aspartic acid. In the 128c53 symbiosis, glutamine plus homoserine accounted...... for a higher percentage of the organic solutes transporting newly assimilated N from the root system than in the association with 1044. The Rhizobium strain effect on amino compound composition of the bleeding sap may indicate an influence of the bacteroids on either the N-assimilatory enzyme system...

  11. Influence of sulfur and nitrogen supply on the susceptibility of Pisum sativum to SO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H; Jaeger, H J; Steubing, L

    1974-01-01

    The susceptibility of Pisum to SO/sub 2/ injury was examined in relation to the sulfur and nitrogen nutrition. The injury was measured by comparing the dry matter yield to control and treated plants. SO/sub 2/ effects on metabolism were established by determining the content of organic and inorganic sulfur and, indirectly, by measuring total nitrogen, amino acid nitrogen, and protein nitrogen. The plants grown in nutrient solutions deficient in sulfur or nitrogen showed a decreased sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ pollution compared to the control. The higher content of amino acid nitrogen and organic sulfur of the plants grown in a nitrogen-deficient solution suggests that an increased synthesis of sulfur containing amino acids occurs. The slighter injury of the plants deficient in sulfur may be explained by the delayed sulfur supply.

  12. Changes in the protein patterns in pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots under the influence of long- and short-term chilling stress and post-stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowiec, Anna; Swigonska, Sylwia; Weidner, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Amongst many factors restricting geographical distribution of plants and crop productivity, low temperature is one of the most important. To gain better understanding of the molecular response of germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) to low temperature, we investigated the influence of long and short chilling stress as well as post-stress recovery on the alterations in the root proteomes. The impact of long stress was examined on the pea seeds germinating in the continuous chilling conditions of 10 °C for 8 days (LS). To examine the impact of short stress, pea seeds germinating for 72 h in the optimal temperature of 20 °C were subjected to 24-h chilling (SS). Additionally, both stress treatments were followed by 24 h of recovery in the optimal conditions (accordingly LSR and SR). Using the 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS protein identification, it was revealed, that most of the proteins undergoing regulation under the applied conditions were implicated in metabolism, protection against stress, cell cycle regulation, cell structure maintenance and hormone synthesis, which altogether may influence root growth and development in the early stages of plant life. The obtained results have shown that most of detected alterations in the proteome patterns of pea roots are dependent on stress duration. However, there are some analogical response pathways which are triggered regardless of stress length. The functions of proteins which accumulation has been changed by chilling stress and post-stress recovery are discussed here in relation to their impact on pea roots development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of a ready-to-eat child food fortified with pea-based iron (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Villaquirán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional problems at the global level which mainly affects the vulnerable population as children under 5 years of age. Fortified foods of child consumption are part of the intervention strategies, which are made from the mixture of ingredients such as cereals, fruits, legumes, among others. Pea is a legume that can be used in order to take advantage of its nutritional properties. Objective: To design a ready-to-eat child food with peas (Pisum sativum, fortified with iron and sanitized by pasteurization. Materials and methods: The appropriate percentage of peas in the food was selected by sensory analysis. The selection of iron salt was made by physicochemical and sensory analysis using ferrous sulphate and chelate iron. Subsequently, the growth of mesophilic microorganisms was evaluated in order to select the pasteurization heat treatment. The useful life evaluation was carried out through sensory tests. Finally, the physico-chemical, compositional and microbiological evaluation of the sanitized food was implemented. Results: The addition of peas in percentages not greater than 6.5% within the food formulation was acceptable for parents of children under 5. On the other hand, the selected salt to generate less changes on the color and acidity of the food during storage was chelate iron. The results of heat treatment showed that for reducing the initial concentration of mesophiles and obtaining a good quality food according to the Colombian regulations in force, it was necessary to submit the food to 85 °C for 13 minutes (0.45 D, which managed to maintain the initial quality of the food for 12 days under refrigeration. Conclusions: The developed food complies with the sensory and microbiological criteria demanded in the Colombian regulations in force and is suitable for consumption. Besides, it can be catalogued as high in iron and a good source of protein, contributing with 25% and

  14. Evaluation of yielding of mixtures of Pisum sativum L. with Triticum aestivum L. grown in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Księżak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the productivity and quality of feed obtained from the mixtures of field pea (Pisum sativum L. with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., depending on the pea cultivar and its percentage in the weight of sown seeds under the conditions of organic farming. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2011–2013 in a randomized split-plot design with four replications. The first factor was a pea ‘Wiato’ or ‘Tarchalska’. The secondary factor was density of a pea mixture sown: 40, 60, and 80%. The yield of mixture seeds as well as the yield and structure of individual components were evaluated. The contents of crude protein and crude fiber, fat, ash, phosphorus, and potassium were determined in cereal grain and pea seeds. The examined factors and weather conditions during the growing season had a significant impact on the growth and yield of pea–spring wheat mixtures. The seed yields of the mixtures with the semi-leafless ‘Tarchalska’ were lower than with ‘Wiato’ (with bipinnate leaves. Increasing the pea percentage in seed material resulted in lower mixture yields. The percentage of pea seeds (regardless of foliage type in the mixture yields was significantly lower than the weight of sown seeds. Increasing the pea percentage in the mixture yield positively influenced the contents of protein, fat, and ash but it caused a decrease in the content of fiber. The pea percentage at sowing had little influence on the content of phosphorus in the mixture seed yields, but it slightly increased the content of potassium, regardless of the pea cultivar. The mixtures with the ‘Wiato’ and ‘Tarchalska’ cultivars contained a similar amount of protein, fiber, and fat, while the mixtures with ‘Tarchalska’ accumulated more ash.

  15. Effect of replacing a soy diet with Vicia faba and Pisum sativum on performance, meat and fat traits of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sirtori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing genetically modified organism-free legumes as a replacement of soybean on the basis of performance, carcass composition and quality of local pig meat (Cinta Senese. Twenty-four Cinta Senese barrows were divided into 3 dietary groups and were each fed with a diet containing different protein sources: soybean meal (SOY, Vicia faba (FABA and Pisum sativum (PEA (8 pigs for each group. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained approximately 14.5% crude protein and 14.8 MJ/kg of digestible energy (on dry matter. Each group was reared outdoors in a paddock of 3500 m2. In vivo performances were not different among groups. At slaughter, differences in subcutaneous fat thickness appeared only in the outer layer, at the last thoracic vertebra level, which was lowest in the PEA group. No differences were found in the sample joint composition. With regard to the chemico-physical traits of meat and fat, the FABA group had the highest values of redness in lean and backfat, while the PEA group showed higher moisture and lower fat content in meat compared to the SOY group. Differences in the fatty acid profile of backfat were found only for the C16:1 percentage that was higher in FABA than SOY pigs. In conclusion, Vicia faba and Pisum sativum could be a good alternative to soybean in the growing-fattening of Cinta Senese pigs.

  16. The Pisum Genus: Getting out of Pea Soup!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has long been a model for plant genetics and is a widely grown pulse crop producing protein-rich seeds in a sustainable manner. However, many questions remain open about (sub)species relationships in the Pisumgenus. The ongoing pea genome sequencing project and the recent geno...

  17. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Alice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum. Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data

  18. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders. PMID:26809053

  19. The symbiosis between Rhizobium leguminosarum and Pisum sativum : regulation of the nitrogenase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Rhizobium can form a symbiosis with plants of the family Leguminosae. Both bacteria and plant show considerable biochemical and morphological changes in order to develop and carry out the symbiosis. The Rhizobia

  20. Effect of Fluoride and Bentonite on Biochemical Aspects of Oxidative Stress in Pisum sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Martyna Śnioszek; Arkadiusz Marcin Telesiński; Beata Smolik; Helena Zakrzewska

    2018-01-01

    Fluoride is regarded as one of the strongest oxidants, which causes oxidative changes in cells of living organisms. It may both increase the content of reactive oxygen species and inhibit the activity of antioxidative enzyme. In recent years, many researchers successfully used the properties of clay minerals in the sorption of fluoride ion from water. This raises the question of the possibility of limiting the effect of fluorine on the negative changes in plants by adding bentonite to soil. A...

  1. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  2. Rhythmical changes of a level nitric oxide (NO in roots etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. and influence of exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Glyan’ko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studied time dynamics (during 60 mines a level oxide nitric (NO in cross cuts of roots 2 – day etiolated seedlings of pea sowing (Pisum sativum L. by use of fluorescent probe DAF-2DA and a fluorescent microscope depending on action exogenous calcium (Ca2+. During an exposition of seedlings on water, solution CaCl2 are shown fluctuation in level NO in roots – his increase and decrease that testifies to the certain rhythm in generation NO. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ change time dynamics of level NO in comparison with variant “water”. Ca2+chelate EGTA removes action exogenous calcium on rhythmical change of a level NO in roots. Results are discussed in aspect of close interference of signaling systems and molecules (Ca2+, NO, Н2О2.

  3. Characteristics of 36C103- influx into nitrate reductase deficient mutant E1 pisum sativum seedlings: evidence for restricted ''induction'' by nitrate compared with wild type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deane-Drummond, C.E.; Jacobsen, E.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of nitrate uptake into seedlings of Pisum sativum L. cv. Rondo mutant E 1 defective for nitrate reductase (NR) and of its parent variety Rondo have been investigated using 36 C10 3 - as an analogue for nitrate. The apparent Michaelis Menten constants (K m ) for 36 ClO 3 - influx measured over 10 min were similar for mutant E 1 and the wild type (Wt). There was a 28% increase in 36 C10 3 - into Wt seedlings following nitrate pretreatment but this was not found when mutant seedlings were used. N starvation increased 36 C10 3 - influx into both mutant and Wt seedlings, and the rate of cycling E/I was also enhanced to a similar extent. The results are discussed in terms of current ideas on the regulation of nitrate uptake and assimilation. (author)

  4. Inheritance of the narrow leaf mutation in Pea (Pisum Sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Three pea mutant lines 2/111, 2/174 and 3/106 with reduced narrow oblong leaves were produced after gamma irradiation. They were characterized morphologically and for seed productivity elements. The size and shape of the stipules and the leaflets were evaluated by L/W (length/width) indices. Reciprocal crosses between mutants and normal plants were executed, and F1, F2 generations were analysed. It was established that mutants 2/111 and 3/106 have intermediate inheritance and they are allelic with each other; mutant 2/174 revealed single-gene recessive inheritance with deficiency of mutant plants. It was concluded that 2/174 was not allelic with 2/111 and 3/106. Mutants 2/111 and 3/106 exhibited a phenotype similar to previously described mutant fom (folium oblongum). Allelic test between the new mutants and these described previously was not performed. The reported here lines are utilized to increase understanding of the control of leaf development in pea. (authors)

  5. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siczek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides. To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M or water (control before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  6. Selection Signatures in the First Exon of Paralogous Receptor Kinase Genes from the Sym2 Region of the Pisum sativum L. Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Sulima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the initial step of the symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia, the bacterial signal molecule known as the Nod factor (nodulation factor is recognized by plant LysM motif-containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs. The fifth chromosome of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaertn. contains a cluster of paralogous LysM-RLK genes, one of which is known to participate in symbiosis. In the syntenic region of the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome, three genes have been identified: PsK1 and PsSym37, two symbiosis-related LysM-RLK genes with known sequences, and the unsequenced PsSym2 gene which presumably encodes a LysM-RLK and is associated with increased selectivity to certain Nod factors. In this work, we identified a new gene encoding a LysM-RLK, designated as PsLykX, within the Sym2 genomic region. We sequenced the first exons (corresponding to the protein receptor domain of PsSym37, PsK1, and PsLykX from a large set of pea genotypes of diverse origin. The nucleotide diversity of these fragments was estimated and groups of haplotypes for each gene were revealed. Footprints of selection pressure were detected via comparative analyses of SNP distribution across the first exons of these genes and their homologs MtLYK2, MtLYK3, and MtLYK4 from M. truncatula retrieved from the Medicago Hapmap project. Despite the remarkable similarity among all the studied genes, they exhibited contrasting selection signatures, possibly pointing to diversification of their functions. Signatures of balancing selection were found in LysM1-encoding parts of PsSym37 and PsK1, suggesting that the diversity of these parts may be important for pea LysM-RLKs. The first exons of PsSym37 and PsK1 displayed signatures of purifying selection, as well as MtLYK2 of M. truncatula. Evidence of positive selection affecting primarily LysM domains was found in all three investigated M. truncatula genes, as well as in the pea gene PsLykX. The data

  7. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Sandalio, Luisa M; Romero-Puertas, María C

    2012-03-01

    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H(2)O(2) level under abiotic stress.

  8. Cytoembryologic study of gamma-ray induced sterile Pisum sativum L. mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molkhova, E.; Vasileva, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three new pea mutant forms are described - 1878, Crampled petal Waxless type, and Lathyrus type - which were induced by different gamma-ray ( 60 Co) doses and rates. The flowers of the 1878 and Crampled petal Waxless type mutants were very much deformed, while those of the Lathyrus type had smaller flowers with normal morphology. The three mutant forms were entirely sterile and were propagated by segregation in the progeny of heterozygous sister plants. PMC meiosis and the development of the male gametophyte of the Lathyrus type mutant had a normal course, while in the mutant forms Crampled petal Waxless type and 1878 slight disturbances were observed, but the pollen of all three mutants was not functional. The development of the female gametophyte of the three mutants stops at an early phase and only in the Lathyrus type mutant in single cases embryosacks were formed with differentiated sex apparatus and early stages of embryo and endosperm development were scored, but they also soon degenerate. It is pointed out that sterility of the three pea mutant forms studied depends on factors, which stop at different stages the normal development of the generative organs, of the female gametophyte and of embryogenesis. (author)

  9. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  10. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  11. Feeding value estimation of spring forage pea (Pisum sativum L. in organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nikolova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The isolated and combined action of organic products Biofa (foliar fertilizer, Polyversum (growth regulator, NeemAzal and Pyrethrum (biological insecticides on energy and protein feeding value of the dry mass of spring forage pea grown in the conditions of organic farming is studied. As a standard of comparison the synthetic products Flordimeks (plant growth regulator and Nurele E (insecticide are used alone or in combination. The field experiment is conducted in the period 2011 – 2013 at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. Treatments are performed once in budding and twice in budding and flowering vegetative stages for control of economically important pests. It is found that treatment with organic products in the budding stage influences the energy feeding value positively, increasing it from 0.6 to 5.2% for UFL and from 0.7 to 7.1% for UFV. The highest energy feeding value distinguished combined introduction of Nimazal and Polyverzum (UFL – 0.850 and UFV – 0.768. Double use of biological preparations is associated with a pronounced increase in forage energy feeding value from 1.1 to 9.2% for UFL and from 0.9 to 11.9% for UFV. Compared to a single treatment, an average five- and four-fold increase is established for UFL and UFV, respectively. The treatment with biological regulator Polyverzum has the greatest impact (0.864 and 0.783 for the UFL and UFV, followed by Polyverzum+NeemAzal (0.856 and 0.773 for the UFL and UFV. Protein feeding value in a single treatment is decreased by 5.6% on average. Only Biofa treatment leads to an increase of 15.3% (PBD – 117.6. Double-application is associated with an increase of the forage protein feeding value from 0.2 to 14.4% for the PBD, from 0.1 to 9.8% for PDIN and from 1.8 to 6.4% for PDIE. The highest values distinguished the treatment with NeemAzal (PBD – 99.1; PDIN – 82.3; PDIE – 91.0, followed by NeemAzal+Biofa (PBD – 99.8; PDIN – 89.7; PDIE – 89.2 and

  12. Pisum sativum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dr ashraf

    Pea genotypes exhibited significant genetic variation in drought tolerance. Polymerase .... dehydrin gene, forward (dhn +ve) and reverse (dhn -ve) primers were designed ... Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI) was.

  13. Individual members of the light-harvesting complex II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene family in pea (Pisum sativum) show differential responses to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerness, A.H.S.; Liu, L.; Thomas, B.; Thompson, W.F.; Jordan, B.R.; White, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work, UV-B-repressible and UV-B-inducible genes were identified in the pea, Pisum sativum L., by rapid amplification of 3′ cDNA ends through use of the polymerase chain reaction. Of the UV-B-repressible clones, psUVRub and psUVDeh represent genes encoding Rubisco activase and dehydrin, respectively. A third clone, psUVZinc, did not correspond closely in overall nucleotide sequence to any gene registered in GenBank; however, a short deduced peptide shared similarity with the photosystem-II reaction center X protein of the chlorophyll a+c-containing alga, Odontella sinensis. The UV-B-inducible clones, psUVGluc, psUVAux and psUVRib, were related to genes encoding β-1, 3-glucanase, auxin-repressed protein, and a 40S ribosomal protein, respectively. The modulation of these pea genes indicates how UV-B, through its actions as a physical stressor, affects several important physiological processes in plants. (author)

  14. Regulation of gene expression by low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation in Pisum sativum: Isolation of novel genes by suppression subtractive hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sävenstrand, H.; Brosché, M.; Strid, A.

    2002-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate genes differentially regulated by low levels (UV-B BE,300 0.13 W m -2 ) of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 290–320 nm) in Pisum sativum. Six genes were regulated, two of which were novel. The mRNA levels for these two (PsTSDC and PsUOS1) were increased and depressed by UV-B treatment, respectively. Domains in the PsTSDC translation product was similar to TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor-similar) domains and a NB-ARC domain (nucleotide-binding domain in APAF-1, R gene products and CED-4). The PsUOS1 translation product was similar to an open reading frame in Arabidopsis. Genes encoding embryo-abundant protein (PsEMB) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase (PsSAMS) were induced by UV-B, whereas the transcript levels for genes encoding sucrose transport protein (PsSUT) or ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (PsR5P3E) were decreased. These regulation patterns are novel, and the PsEMB and PsR5P3E sequences are reported for the first time. The stress-specificity of regulation of these genes were tested by ozone fumigation (100 ppb O 3 ). Qualitatively, the similarity of expression after both UV-B and ozone exposure suggests that, for these genes, similar stress-response pathways are in action. (author)

  15. Nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict in pea (Pisum sativum L. is associated with nuclear and plastidic candidate genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera S Bogdanova

    Full Text Available In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L., nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized.

  16. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-05

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Pprotein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (Pprotein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased α-helix:β-sheet ratio, with the largest (Pprotein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Conflict in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Is Associated with Nuclear and Plastidic Candidate Genes Encoding Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Vera S.; Zaytseva, Olga O.; Mglinets, Anatoliy V.; Shatskaya, Natalia V.; Kosterin, Oleg E.; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized. PMID:25789472

  18. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  19. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  20. Aqueous pathways dominate permeation of solutes across Pisum sativum seed coats and mediate solute transport via diffusion and bulk flow of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Sylvia; Burghardt, Markus; Popp, Christian; Riederer, Markus

    2013-05-01

    The permeability of seed coats to solutes either of biological or anthropogenic origin plays a major role in germination, seedling growth and seed treatment by pesticides. An experimental set-up was designed for investigating the mechanisms of seed coat permeation, which allows steady-state experiments with isolated seed coats of Pisum sativum. Permeances were measured for a set of organic model compounds with different physicochemical properties and sizes. The results show that narrow aqueous pathways dominate the diffusion of solutes across pea seed coats, as indicated by a correlation of permeances with the molecular sizes of the compounds instead of their lipophilicity. Further indicators for an aqueous pathway are small size selectivity and a small effect of temperature on permeation. The application of an osmotic water potential gradient across isolated seed coats leads to an increase in solute transfer, indicating that the aqueous pathways form a water-filled continuum across the seed coat allowing the bulk flow of water. Thus, the uptake of organic solutes across pea testae has two components: (1) by diffusion and (2) by bulk water inflow, which, however, is relevant only during imbibition. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Characterization of a rapid, blue light-mediated change in detectable phosphorylation of a plasma membrane protein from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, T.W.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    When crude microsomal membranes from apical stem segments of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska are mixed in vitro with γ-[ 32 P]ATP, a phosphorylated band of apparent molecular mass 120 kilodaltons can be detected on autoradiographs of sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis gels. If the stem sections are exposed to blue light immediately prior to membrane isolation, this band is not evident. Comparisons of the kinetics, tissue distribution, and dark recovery of the phosphorylation response with those published for blue light mediated phototropism or rapid growth inhibition indicate that the phosphorylation could be linked to one or both of the reactions described. However, the fluence-response relationships for the change in detectable phosphorylation match quite closely those reported for phototropism but not those for growth inhibition. Blue light has also been found to regulate the capacity for in vitro phosphorylation of a second protein. It has an apparent molecular mass of 84 kilodaltons and is localized primarily in basal stem sections

  2. Induction of host defences by Rhizobium during ineffective nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) carrying symbiotically defective mutations sym40 (PsEFD), sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS) and sym42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kira A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Brewin, Nicholas J; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2015-11-01

    Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise

  3. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All

  4. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of the seed coat of field pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes in relation to cracks and damage of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the morphological characteristics of the seed and micromorphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics of the seed coat of pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes, Jezero, Javor and NS Junior. Our aim was to investigate whether these genotypes can be differentiated based on seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, depending on the harvest treatment. The observations and measurements of seed coat cross-sections were performed using light microscopy. The seed coat surface was observed using SEM. A tuberculate seed coat surface characterized all examined pea genotypes, and the average diameter of the tubercle was about 12 μm. Statistical and laboratory analyses revealed that major damage was the most frequent defect type as the result of mechanized harvest in all the examined genotypes. Genotype NS Junior had the shortest seed length (6.1 mm. Micromorphological analysis revealed that the seed surface was tuberculate in all genotypes. The genotype Jezero had the highest number of tubercle ribs (11.0 and a significantly higher proportion of parenchyma tissue (50.6%, while NS Junior was characterized by the greatest share of macrosclereids (49.8%. The highest number of osteosclereids (832/mm2 was counted in genotype Javor. In addition, genotype NS Junior stands out due to the highest percentage of crude fiber (62.75 g/100g in the seed coat. There was a marked difference among the studied genotypes with regard to the seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, which is confirmed by the results of multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA. These results suggested that the morphological, micromorphological and anatomical characteristics of the seed might have an impact on the seed coat damage level at harvest. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 31024 and Grant no. 173002

  5. Genome-wide SNP identification, linkage map construction and QTL mapping for seed mineral concentrations and contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu; Coyne, Clarice J; Grusak, Michael A; Mazourek, Michael; Cheng, Peng; Main, Dorrie; McGee, Rebecca J

    2017-02-13

    Marker-assisted breeding is now routinely used in major crops to facilitate more efficient cultivar improvement. This has been significantly enabled by the use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify loci and markers associated with traits of interest. While rich in a range of nutritional components, such as protein, mineral nutrients, carbohydrates and several vitamins, pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, remains behind many other crops in the availability of genomic and genetic resources. To further improve mineral nutrient levels in pea seeds requires the development of genome-wide tools. The objectives of this research were to develop these tools by: identifying genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using genotyping by sequencing (GBS); constructing a high-density linkage map and comparative maps with other legumes, and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) for levels of boron, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorous, sulfur, and zinc in the seed, as well as for seed weight. In this study, 1609 high quality SNPs were found to be polymorphic between 'Kiflica' and 'Aragorn', two parents of an F 6 -derived recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Mapping 1683 markers including 75 previously published markers and 1608 SNPs developed from the present study generated a linkage map of size 1310.1 cM. Comparative mapping with other legumes demonstrated that the highest level of synteny was observed between pea and the genome of Medicago truncatula. QTL analysis of the RIL population across two locations revealed at least one QTL for each of the mineral nutrient traits. In total, 46 seed mineral concentration QTLs, 37 seed mineral content QTLs, and 6 seed weight QTLs were discovered. The QTLs explained from 2.4% to 43.3% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide SNPs and the genetic linkage map developed in this study permitted QTL identification for pea seed mineral

  6. Evaluación y correlación de componentes de rendimiento en líneas avanzadas de arveja Pisum sativum con gen afila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pantoja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el departamento de Nariño las variedades de arveja Pisum sativum que se cultivan son prediminantemente plantas de porte alto y abundante ramificación, que requieren sistemas de tutorado costosos para evitar el volcamiento y la proliferación de enfermedades. Producir cambios en la arquitectura de la planta utilizando variedades con gen afila que remplaza hojas por zarcillos, puede contribuir a desarrollar sistemas de tutorado mas simples y a disminuir el uso de fibras de polipropileno para el amarre reduciendo los costos de producción del cultivo. Esta investigación se realizó en la granja Lope perteneciente al Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA, Pasto-Colombia, con el objetivo de evaluar genotipos de arveja P. sativumy contribuir a la obtención de nuevas variedades con gen afila para mejorar la competitividad de la leguminosa en el departamento de Nariño. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (BCA con tres repeticiones y 22 tratamientos, durante el semestre A del 2013. Los tratamientos consistieron en 20 lineas F5 de arveja volubles semiafilas obtenidas en la Universidad de Nariño y dos variedades testigo no afilas (Andina y Sindamanoy. Se obtuvo diferencias entre genotipos en las variables número de granos por vaina, peso de vaina verde, peso de grano verde por vaina y rendimiento. El rendimiento correlacionó genotípicamente con número de granos por vaina, peso de vaina verde y peso de grano verde por vaina. En el análisis de sendero la mayor contribución indirecta positiva, fue el peso de grano por vaina verde vía peso de vaina verde, por lo tanto estas variables e se usaroncomo criterio de selección que permitió identificar como promisorias a las líneas UDENAR11, UDENAR12, UDENAR14, UDENAR19 y UDENAR20.

  7. Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum and lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets’ diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 42 days trial was carried out using 140 piglets weaned at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated according to  weight and sex to the 5 dietary treatments with 7 replicates for each treatments (4 pens x 4 castrated males and 3 pens  x 4 females. The piglets were fed according to the following experimental design: 1 control diet (CTR with soybean  meal (SBM 44% c.p. as protein source; 2 CRT diets with 200 g/kg of raw pea (Pisum sativum (RP; 3 CTR diet with  200 g/kg extruded pea (EP; 4 CRT diet with 170 g/kg raw lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia (RL; 5 CTR diet with  170 g/kg of extruded lupin (EL. During the trial, animals were weighed at 0 - 21 and 42 days from the start of the trial.  Feed intake was monitored and feed conversion ratio was calculated for the periods 0-21 d and 22-42 d. At the end of  the trial, blood samples were taken for 14 animals for each dietary treatment (2 animals per replicate and analysed for  total protein, urea and liver activity (ALT, AST and ALP parameters. Average daily weight gain and feed intake did not  differ according to dietary treatments whereas during the total experimental period (0-42 d, feed conversion ratio was  higher for EP vsCTR diet (2.35 vs2.09, respectively; P   compared with diets containing the raw ingredients did not differ. Feed conversion ratio for the RP was numerically high-  er than for the EP (2.35 vs2.16 and 2.76 vs2.32, respectively during 22-42 d and 0-42 d periods. Blood parameters  did not show significant difference among dietary treatments except for higher total protein for CTR diet vsRL diet, EL  and RP (67.3 vs62.2, 62.8 and 63.6 g/l, respectively; PvsRL  and RL (4.7 vs3.7 and 3.8 mmol/l respectively; P 

  8. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  9. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) reduces the inhibitory effect of soil nitrate on N2 fixation of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterly, Clayton R; Armstrong, Roger; Chen, Deli; Tang, Caixian

    2016-01-01

    Additional carbohydrate supply resulting from enhanced photosynthesis under predicted future elevated CO2 is likely to increase symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes. This study examined the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration on the growth, nodulation and N fixation of field pea (Pisum sativum) in a semi-arid cropping system. Field pea was grown for 15 weeks in a Vertosol containing 5, 25, 50 or 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) under either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Under aCO2, field pea biomass was significantly lower at 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than at 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) soil. However, increasing the soil N level significantly reduced nodulation of lateral roots but not the primary root, and nodules were significantly smaller, with 85% less nodule mass in the 90 NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than in the 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) treatment, highlighting the inhibitory effects of NO3(-). Field pea grown under eCO2 had greater biomass (approx. 30%) than those grown under aCO2, and was not affected by N level. Overall, the inhibitory effects of NO3(-) on nodulation and nodule mass appeared to be reduced under eCO2 compared with aCO2, although the effects of CO2 on root growth were not significant. Elevated CO2 alleviated the inhibitory effect of soil NO3(-) on nodulation and N2 fixation and is likely to lead to greater total N content of field pea growing under future elevated CO2 environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of low doses of short-term gamma irradiation on growth and development through two generations of Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, R.; Misset, M.T. [UMR-CNRS 6553 Ecobio, Equipe Evolution des Populations et des Especes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu Bat. 14, Rennes Cedex F 35042 (France); Chenal, C. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie, Universite de Rennes 1, Centre Regional de Lutte contre le Cancer, Rennes Cedex F 35062 (France)

    2004-03-29

    The effects of short-term gamma radiation on pea plants were investigated by exposing 5-day-old seedlings with doses ranging from 0 to 60 Gy, and studying plant growth and development over two generations after irradiation. Doses higher than 6 Gy significantly inhibited the G1 plant growth and productivity, and no seedling survived irradiation with 40 Gy and above. These effects were transmitted and were even more severe in the next generation, G2. Irradiated G1 ({>=}10 Gy) and G2 ({>=}0.4 Gy) plants were significantly smaller than controls. The mean number of pods produced per plant was reduced by at least 20% at all doses in both G1 and G2. In parallel, the mean numbers of ovules and normally developed seeds per pod were significantly reduced after 10 Gy in G1 and after 0.4 Gy in G2, leading to a significant drop in seed production. This effect was correlated with a linear decrease in male fertility linked to abnormal meiosis (tetrads with micronuclei) as a function of doses from 0 to 10 Gy, in G1 and G2 plants. These long-term changes in plant development demonstrate a genomic instability induced by irradiation. However, there were neither quantitative nor qualitative changes in storage proteins in G1 seeds at any of the irradiation doses tested from 0 to 10 Gy.

  11. Effects of low doses of short-term gamma irradiation on growth and development through two generations of Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaka, R.; Misset, M.T.; Chenal, C.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of short-term gamma radiation on pea plants were investigated by exposing 5-day-old seedlings with doses ranging from 0 to 60 Gy, and studying plant growth and development over two generations after irradiation. Doses higher than 6 Gy significantly inhibited the G1 plant growth and productivity, and no seedling survived irradiation with 40 Gy and above. These effects were transmitted and were even more severe in the next generation, G2. Irradiated G1 (≥10 Gy) and G2 (≥0.4 Gy) plants were significantly smaller than controls. The mean number of pods produced per plant was reduced by at least 20% at all doses in both G1 and G2. In parallel, the mean numbers of ovules and normally developed seeds per pod were significantly reduced after 10 Gy in G1 and after 0.4 Gy in G2, leading to a significant drop in seed production. This effect was correlated with a linear decrease in male fertility linked to abnormal meiosis (tetrads with micronuclei) as a function of doses from 0 to 10 Gy, in G1 and G2 plants. These long-term changes in plant development demonstrate a genomic instability induced by irradiation. However, there were neither quantitative nor qualitative changes in storage proteins in G1 seeds at any of the irradiation doses tested from 0 to 10 Gy

  12. SELECTIVITY OF CYANAZINE AND LINURON ON SEVERAL CULTIVARS OF Pisum sativum IN THE ‘CERRADO’ REGION SELETIVIDADE DE CYANAZINE E LINURON EM CULTIVARES DE ERVILHA (Pisum sativum L. NA REGIÃO DOS CERRADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The herbicides cyanazine and linuron were tested on the pea cultivars Marina, Mikado and Triofin, in Goiânia, State of Goiás, from May to August 1989. The number of pods/plant, grains/pod, weight of 100 grains and yield of grains were not affected by the herbicides used. There was no interaction effect of herbicides and cultivars. Only a slight toxic effect on the foliage of young plants of all cultivars was caused by linuron and on young plants of Mikado by cyanazine at 1,250 g.a.i./ha. In most treatments, Marina and Mikado proved to be more productive than Triofin.

    Foi instalado em Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, no período de maio a agosto de 1989, um ensaio para verificar a seletividade dos herbicidas cyanazine e linuron para as cultivares de ervilha Marina, Mikado e Triofin. Linuron provocou uma fraca fitotoxicidade em todas as cultivares, enquanto que cyanazine a 1.250 g.i.a./ha foi levemente fitotóxico apenas para a cultivar Mikado. O número de vagens por planta e grãos por vagem, peso de 100 grãos secos e a produção de grãos não foram afetados pela ação dos herbicidas. Não houve interação herbicidas versus cultivares. Na maioria dos tratamentos, Marina e Mikado mostraram-se mais produtivas que Triofin.

  13. Short term physiological implications of NBPT application on the N metabolism of Pisum sativum and Spinacea oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruchaga, Saioa; Artola, Ekhiñe; Lasa, Berta; Ariz, Idoia; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Moran, Jose Fernando; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2011-03-01

    The application of urease inhibitors in conjunction with urea fertilizers as a means of reducing N loss due to ammonia volatilization requires an in-depth study of the physiological effects of these inhibitors on plants. The aim of this study was to determine how the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) affects N metabolism in pea and spinach. Plants were cultivated in pure hydroponic culture with urea as the sole N source. After 2 weeks of growth for pea, and 3 weeks for spinach, half of the plants received NBPT in their nutrient solution. Urease activity, urea and ammonium content, free amino acid composition and soluble protein were determined in leaves and roots at days 0, 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9, and the NBPT content in these tissues was determined 48h after inhibitor application. The results suggest that the effects of NBPT on spinach and pea urease activity differ, with pea being most affected by this treatment, and that the NBPT absorbed by the plant caused a clear inhibition of the urease activity in pea leaf and roots. The high urea concentration observed in leaves was associated with the development of necrotic leaf margins, and was further evidence of NBPT inhibition in these plants. A decrease in the ammonium content in roots, where N assimilation mainly takes place, was also observed. Consequently, total amino acid contents were drastically reduced upon NBPT treatment, indicating a strong alteration of the N metabolism. Furthermore, the amino acid profile showed that amidic amino acids were major components of the reduced pool of amino acids. In contrast, NBPT was absorbed to a much lesser degree by spinach plants than pea plants (35% less) and did not produce a clear inhibition of urease activity in this species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of rate and time of nitrate supply on nitrogen fixation and yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen

    1986-01-01

    contributed with 82, 13 and 5% of total plant N, respectively. The supply of low rates of nitrate fertilizer at sowing (“starter N”) increased the vegetative dry matter production, but not the seed yield significantly. Nitrogen fixation was not significantly decreased by the lower rates of nitrate but higher...

  15. Effect of various levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some vegetative growth attributes of pea ( pisum sativum L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achakzai, A.K.K.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha/sup -1/) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/ O ha/sub -1/ were prepared, and designated as T/sub 1/ to T/sub 7/, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertiliser's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant/sub -1/, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant/sup -1/ (6.94), secondary branches plant/sub -1/ (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant/sup -1/ (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg/sup -1/) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas. (author)

  16. Genetic study of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants with changed shape and/or dentation of leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the morphological differences between normal plants and mutants (due to irradiation) with different shape and/or dentation of leaflets and to evaluate their productivity and genetic potential. Dry seeds have been submitted to gamma irradiation with doses 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy.The mutants studies in this research introduce an important source for further investigation of genetics of the mutant traits - dentation of leaflets, shape and especially flowering time that is controlled by genetically determined responses to photo period and temperature. Due to the clear phenotypic expression of the shape and leaves in some plants it is considered that the development of the leaves mutants is and important finding for pea genetics making tham valuable morphological markers for genetic investigations

  17. Analysis of Protein by Spectrophotometric and Computer Colour Based Intensity Method from Stem of Pea (Pisum sativum at Different Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Mushtaque Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study proteins were analyzed from pea plants at three different growth stages of stem by spectrophotometric i.e Lowry and Bradford quantitative methods and computer colour intensity based method. Though Spectrophotometric methods are regarded as classical methods, we report an alternate computer based method which gave comparable results. Computer software was developed the for protein analysis which is easier, time and money saving method as compared to the classical methods.

  18. Both epiphytic and endophytic strains of Rhodococcus fascians influence transporter gene expression and cytokinins in infected Pisum sativum L. seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhandapani, P.; Song, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Jameson, P. E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2018), s. 231-242 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Amino acid transporter * Cell wall invertase * Cytokinin * Pea * Rhodococcus fascians * Sucrose transporter * Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2016

  19. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  20. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  1. Biogenic synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract and its effect on magnetic and Methyl orange dye degradation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Cheera; Yuvaraja, Gutha; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri, E-mail: ponneri.venkateswarlu@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    We have been developed facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using an aqueous extract of Pisum sativum peels (PS) is used as reducing and capping agent. The as synthesized PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs are characterized by diverse techniques such as FTIR, powder XRD, TEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibits high specific surface area (∼17.6 m{sup 2}/g) and agglomerated spherical in shape with the size range of 20–30 nm. The magnetic properties of PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs sample clearly exhibits ferromagnetic nature with a saturation magnetization of 64.2 emu/g. Further, the catalytic properties of PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs for degradation of Methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution have been investigated by UV–visible spectroscopy. The results show that PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs is an efficient catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye than previously reported ones. - Highlights: • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs are synthesized using Pisum sativum peels extract. • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs exhibits high specific surface area 17.6 m{sup 2}/g and ferro magnetic behavior. • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs exhibits good catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye.

  2. EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION OF MACRO MUTATIONS, EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY UNDER M2 GENERATION IN PEA (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind KUMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the spectrum of macro mutants, effectiveness and efficiency of different doses of gamma rays in pea variety (Arkel. The seeds were treated with gamma rays viz., 00kR (dry control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR, 25kR, 30kR, 35kR, 40kR (dry seeds and presoaked seeds of the same was exposed to 00kR (wet control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR (kilo Roentgen biological damage was calculated in M1 and M2 generation based on lethality (L and pollen sterility. The irradiated seeds were sown in the M1 field their respective controls and harvested in bulk to raise the M2 generation in Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications. The spectrum of macro mutants i.e., plant stature (tall, dwarf, small dwarf, maturity (early, late, pod shape (bold, long, short, seed colour (brown, light white, light green and seed shape (small, bold, wrinkled were observed in M2 generation. The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its effectiveness but also upon if efficiency. Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit mutagen dose, whereas mutagenic efficiency is measure of proportion of mutations in relation of undesirable changes like lethality and sterility are used for gamma rays. A result of the indicated positive relationship in M2 generation with macro mutation, effectiveness and efficiency was found to be highest at lowest doses.

  3. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-10-01

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  4. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  5. Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. strains against pea (Pisum sativum L. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Checa Coral

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The antagonistic effectiveness of native strains of Trichoderma spp. on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. in vitro, greenhouse and field conditions, were evaluated. in vitro conditions, the antagonistic capacity of 12 strains of Trichoderma spp., C2, C7, C12 and C21 strains, exhibited a better behavior measured by the following variables: inhibition halo and mycelial growth. In greenhouse conditions, the four strains, which showed the best in vitro antagonistic behavior, were evaluated using a DIA experimental design with factorial arrangement for three factors, which corresponded to strain, concentration and dose. The results of this evaluation, showed that C12 and C21 strains at doses of 20 mL, and at concentrations of 108 and 106 conidia.mL-1, respectively. The best antagonistic response was determined by variables as follows: plant height, fresh root weight and incidence. Under field conditions, the evaluations were carried out in the municipalities of Ipiales, Pupiales and Gualmatán, in the department of Nariño, Colombia. In each location, a BCA experimental design was used with four treatments and five replicates, treatments were as follows: C12 strains at 108 concentration, C21 at 106 concentration, chemical control and absolute control. In Gualmatan location, C12 and C21 strains, showed no antagonistic capacity, whereas in Ipiales and Pupiales locations, strain C12, presented a lower incidence of F. oxysporum than the control, but with no effect on yields. In Pupiales location, C21 strain surpassed in performance to the control treatment, even though the two treatments had similar incidence.

  6. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  7. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  8. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  9. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an English translation of a paper published in Russian (but with proper Latin formulations at taxonomical novelties to make them validly published on March 15, 2017 in Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Vol. 22 (2: 158-169. The Abyssinian pea (Pisum abyssinicum A. Br., concerned in this review, is known from Ethiopia and Yemen, where it is cultivated along with the common pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum. The continuously reproduced notion of its possible spontaneous occurrence in the wild ascends to suppositions made in the XIX century and is not based on any actual data. P. abyssinicum is of practical interest owing to its extra early ripening and resistance to bacterial blight. Morphologically it is very similar to P. sativum but its crossability with it is bad as either seed or pollen parent. Traditionally this reproductive barrier was associated with karyological differences. The Abyssinian pea karyotype is variable as 1–2 reciprocal translocations were reported. At the same time there are accessions not differing from the standard karyotype of P. sativum with respect to reciprocal translocations, yet their crossability with the latter is very low and the pollen fertility of F1 and F2 hybrids is lowered. Data were reported on influence of the region of Linkage Group III, containing a gene known to participate in the conflict of nucleus and plastids in remote crosses of peas, on the pollen fertility of hybrids with abyssinian pea. With their karyological variability, the known accessions of the Abyssinian pea are very close to each other genetically, as they diverged just about 4 000 years ago. The presence of alleles of molecular markers common with Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Smith on the one hand and with P. sativum L. subsp. elatius (Bieb. Schmalh. on the other hand evidences in favour of an old hypotheses by L.I. Govorov that the Abyssinian pea originated from their spontaneous hybrid. This spontaneous cross may

  10. Estudio de la adaptabilidad de cuatro genotipos de guisante (pisum setivum L. var. macrocarpon bajo dos densidades y en dos localidades Adaptabilidad study of varieties of edible pod pea Pisum sativum L. Var. macrocarpon under two densities and two locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Miguel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó y comparó el comportamiento agronómico de cuatro variedades de guisante Pisum satim L. var. macrocarpon bajo dos densidades y en dos localidades
    mediante cultivos a libre exposición durante dos semestres. Se midieron variables de tipo morfofisiológico y reproductivo. Las cuatro variedades se adaptaron bien al medio ambiente ya que sus rendimientos fueron bastante aceptables. La variedad Super Mel Sugar logró los mejores puntajes
    en rendimiento y calidad además de la mayor capacidad de adaptación. La variedad Oregon Sugar Pod 11 con buenos rendimientos presentó problemas en el mercado por la deformación de sus vainas. La variedad Dwarf Grey Sugar produce vainas pequeñas cuya calidad se limita a
    mercados de congelación o industrialización pero con altos rendimientos. La variedad Mammouth Melting Sugar obtuvo los rendimientos más bajos, sin embargo su calidad y popularidad la colocan en los primeros lugares del mercado actualmente.
    Four experiments were set to evaluate and to compare the agronomical behavior of four varieties of edible pod pea (Pisum satívum L. var. macrocarpon under two den sities and, two locations during two semesters of 1989. Some of the
    morphophysiologic and reproductive variables showed highly significant differences for varieties and locations. The varieties also showed good adaptation to the environments used since their yield was quite good. Super Mel Sugar varlety had the best production and quality: Oregon Sugar Pod II, with high productions, had some problems of marketing because of the deformated pods; Dwarf Grey Sugar produced small pods no good for fresh market; Mammouth Melting Sugar had the lowest production, even though its quality, and popularity in the fresh markets.

  11. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    OpenAIRE

    Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Severine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yves

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the ...

  12. Characteristics of 36ClO3 and 36Cl- uptake into pisum sativum L. seedlings: Limitations and uses of 36CPO3- as an analogue for NO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deane-Drummond, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of 36 Cl 3 - influx and 36 ClO 3 - influx into pisum sativum L.cv. Feltham First seedlings have been investigated. The kinetics of these fluxes at different external substrate concentrations were generated by computer fits to the data, and for 36 Cl - influx apparent Vsub(maxCl - ) and Ksub(m.Cl - ) were 1.62 u mol g - 1 fresh wt. h - l and 0.135 mol m -3 , respectively, (r 2 = 0.90); for 36 ClO 3 - influx apparent Vsub(max ClO 3 - ) and Ksub(m ClO 3 - ) were 15.29 u mol g -1 fresh wt. h - l and 0.69 mol m -3 respectively (r 2 =0.95). When a range of nitrate concentrations were added to 36 ClO 3 - there was no significant difference between NO 3 - or ClO 3 - at low concentrations (0.25 mol m -3 ), but some divergence at higher concentrations. Initial 36 ClO 3 - /NO 3 - influx into P. sativum seedlings was higher than that following extended incubation, which approached that of steady state net nitrate uptake. The difference between 36 ClO 3 - accumulation (J) was used to measure nitrate efflux (E). There was no detectable 36 Cl - efflux when a similar procedure was adopted using 36 Cl - efflux when a similar procedure for J was set by 1, and was stimulated in conditions of N starvation or innoculation with Rhizobium. The rate of substrate cycling (E/1) and the parameter (1 + E/J) were increased in the former case and when a mixed source of N was used in the culture medium, 36 Cl - influx was inhibited by NH 4 + regimes in these experiments. The purported anion blocker diisothiocyanostilbene-2-2' disulphonate (DIDS) inhibited 36 Cl - influx, but in the latter case only that 'induced' by N-starvation. The results are discussed in terms of current models for nitrate uptake. (author)

  13. Estudio de las cinéticas de pérdida de agua y absorción de aceite durante la fritura de arveja (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lizeth Barrios Barrios

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La fritura es un proceso en el que se evidencia pérdida de humedad y ganancia de aceite en los productos. Cambios atribuidos a la temperatura del proceso y el tiempo de residencia del producto en aceite caliente. En este estudio se realizó la cinética de perdida de humedad y absorción de aceite durante la fritura por inmersión de arveja (Pisum sativum L. variedad Sureña. Se evaluó tres temperaturas 160, 180 y 200 °C, y tiempos de entre 0 y 8 min; la relación producto/aceite se mantuvo contante 1:6 (p/v. La cinética de absorción de aceite se estudió con un modelo exponencial, mientras que la pérdida de humedad se estudió con el modelo de newton. Los modelos estudiados describen adecuadamente los dos fenómenos de transferencia de masa. Las constantes cinéticas calculadas a 160, 180 y 200 °C fueron: absorción de aceite (0.0084, 0.0088 y 0.0094 s-1 y pérdida de humedad (0.0125, 0.0144 y 0,0194 s-1 mientras que los valores de difusividad obtenidos fueron (0.1551 x 10-9, 0.1787 x 10-9 y 0.2371x 10-9 m2/s. Tanto la difusividad como los parámetros cinéticos presentan dependencia con la temperatura al evaluarlos, con la ecuación de Arrhenius se obtuvo la energía de activación 18.13 kJ/mol.

  14. Durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in pea er1 plants is conferred by natural loss-of-function mutations in PsMLO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphry, M.; Reinstädler, A.; Ivanov, S.; Bisseling, T.; Panstruga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function alleles of plant-specific MLO (Mildew Resistance Locus O) genes confer broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in monocot (barley) and dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato) plants. Recessively inherited powdery mildew resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) er1 plants is, in many aspects,

  15. Biochemical responses to Fe deficiency in Pisum sativum L., cv. Sparkle and dgl mutant: Is the PM H+-ATPase the sole activity involved in H+ extrusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of processes regulating Fe acquisition by plants provides useful knowledge for breeding programs aimed to obtain Fe-efficient and/or biofortified varieties. In fact, total Fe uptake is an important, though not sufficient prerequisite to increase Fe density in plant tissues. Like the majori...

  16. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  17. Influence of gibberellic acid on the growth and flowering initiation of two types of peas (Pisum sativum L. differing in photoperiod response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Łukasik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that GA3 (0.03 mg per one plant caused significant delay of the flowering of two different genotypes of peas under conditions of an increasing natural day length (March - May. It was expressed both in a greater number of vegetative nodes and in a greater number of days to the first flower. Under conditions of a decreasing day length (August - November most of G type plants treated with GA3 reacted with complete inhibition of the flowering. In K type pea, GA3 treatment in the discussed conditions affected only the number of days from the sowing time to the appearence of the first flower. This stage was greater in treated plants in comparison with the control ones.

  18. The same allele of translation initiation factor 4E mediates resistance against two Potyvirus spp. in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, M.; Møller, I.S.; Tulinius, G.

    2007-01-01

    to linkage group VI together with other Potyvirus resistances. One of these, sbm1, confers resistance to strains of Pea seedborne mosaic virus and previously has been identified as a mutant allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E gene (eIF4E). Sequence comparison of eIF4E from BYMV...... was overcome, and virus from these plants had a codon change causing an Arg to His change at position 116 of the predicted viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Accordingly, plants carrying the wlv resistance gene were infected upon inoculation with BYMV-W derived from cDNA with a His codon at position 116...

  19. Localizatlon of expansin-like protein in apoplast of pea (Pisum sativum L. root nodules during interaction with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Sujkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During nodule development on pea roots, apoplast undergoes changes in activity of plant cell wall proteins such as expansins (EXPs. Because the accumulation of EXP protein has been correlated with the growth of various plant organs, we investigated using Western Blot and immunolocalization studies with antibody against PsEXP1, whether this protein was accumulated in the expanding cells of nodule. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 30-kDa band specific for pea root nodules. The EXP proteins content rose during growth of pea root nodules. Expansin(s protein was localized in nodule apoplast as well as in the infection thread walls. The enhanced amount of expansin-like proteins in meristematic part of nodule, root and shoot was shown. The localization of this protein in the meristematic cell walls can be related to the loosening of plant cell wall before cell enlargement. Both, plant cell enlargement and infection thread growth require activity of expansin(s. Possible involvement of EXPs in the process of pea root nodule development is also discussed.

  20. Development and production response of edible and forage varieties of pea (Pisum sativum L. to temporary soil drought under different levels of phosphorus application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in weather conditions in Central Europe has led to the need to review current standards for fertilization of pulse crops. Physiologists claim that phosphorus may play a significant role in raising tolerance to a temporary lack of water in the soil. The objective of the 2-year field study (2011–2012 was to assess the effect of phosphorus application on characteristics of the aerial and underground plant parts of different varieties of pea and elements of their yield structure. The study showed that a higher phosphorus application rate led to significant intensification of photosynthesis and thus to more rapid vegetative development in the plants, manifested as a greater number of leaves and greater leaf area. The higher rate of phosphorus application significantly influenced the flowering process of pea during soil drought. The number of flowering nodes increased significantly as phosphorus application increased. The plants fertilized with the higher level of phosphorus produced a greater weight of root nodules with more Rhizobium bacterial colonies. Increased phosphorus fertilization had a significant role during the year of permanent semi-drought, 2012, resulting in a significantly greater number and weight of pods as well as a greater number and weight of seeds per plant, and thus a larger final yield.

  1. [Content of salicylic and jasmonic acids in pea roots (Pisum sativum L.) at the initial stage of symbiotic or pathogenic interaction with bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudikovskaya, E G; Akimova, G P; Rudikovskii, A V; Katysheva, N B; Dudareva, L V

    2017-01-01

    A change in the contents of endogenous salicylic and jasmonic acids in the roots of the host plant at the preinfectious stage of interaction with symbiotic (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and pathogenic (Agrobacterium rizogenes) bacteria belonging for to the family Rhizobiaceae was studied. It was found that the jasmonic acid content increased 1.5–2 times 5 min after inoculation with these bacterial species. It was shown that dynamics of the change in the JA and SA contents depends on the type of infection. Thus, the JA content decreased in the case of pathogenesis, while the SA content increased. At the same time, an increased JA content was observed during symbiosis. The observed regularities could indicate the presence of different strategies of hormonal regulation for interaction with symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae in peas plants.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST FROM KITCHEN WASTE ON THE YIELD-ENHANCING CHARACTERISTICS OF PEAS PISUM SATIVUM L. VAR. SACCHARATUM SER. BAJKA VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Pączka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W and (10W – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5. Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out to be useful in the cultivation of peas. No significant differences in the impact of all the analysed substrates on the sprouting of this plant were found. A 10% vermicompost addition (10W was shown to be the most favourable substrate. Its positive influence was shown in the impact on the increase of total average mass (by 33%; p<0.001 and height of the plants (by 12%; p<0.05 and average mass (by 39%; p<0.001 and length (by 12%; p<0.05 of stems.

  3. Effect of humic acid on the growth, yield, nutrient composition, photosynthetic pigment and total sugar contents of peas (pisum sativum l)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Hussain, F.; Akhtar, M.E.; Gurmani, A.R.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) applied as soil and foliar at 15, 30 and 45 ppm on the growth, biochemical content, nutrient concentrations and yield of peas. Soil as well as foliar application of HA increased the plant growth and grain yield of peas; however magnitude of increase was higher in soil application than foliar. Highest plant growth and grain yield was achieved with soil application of 15 ppm HA followed by 30 ppm and foliar application of 45 ppm HA respectively. Percentage increase in dry grain yield due to 15 ppm was 37%, with 30 ppm was 29% and foliar application of 45 ppm was 25%. Nutrient concentrations (P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were increased with soil and foliar application of HA. The concentrations of nutrients were relatively higher in shelf than grain. Maximum concentration of P, K and Fe was obtained with the soil application of HA at 15 ppm. Humic acid applied at 15, 30 as soil as well as foliar application at 45 ppm significantly increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and total sugar content. Our results indicate that soil application of HA at 15 and 30 ppm, while foliar application at 45 ppm can increase growth, nutrients concentration, chlorophyll content and yield of Peas in calcareous soil conditions. (author)

  4. Fungi isolated from soil before the seeding and after harvest of pea (Pisum sativum L. after application of bio-control product EM 1 TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Okorski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed during the years 2003- -2005. An influence of EM (Effective Microorganisms on the composition and number of fungi isolated from soil was found in the experiment. A total of 18111 fungal cultures were isolated from the roots of pea at flowering stage. The highest amount and the lowest diversity of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere of pea treated with pesticides (3257 colonies. The greatest diversity of fungi was found in the case of rhizosphere and rhizoplane, where EM was used in soil with the supplement of pesticides. The greatest amount and diversity of fungi were found from the plant roots of the control object. During the flowering stage, the fungi most frequently isolated from soil belonged to the genus Penicillium (40.78% of all isolates and Fusarium (33.37% of all isolates.

  5. Proteomic analysis of embryonic axis of Pisum sativum seeds during germination and identification of proteins associated with loss of desiccation tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is an important stage in life cycle of higher plants. The germination processes and its associated loss of desiccation tolerance, however, are still poorly understood. In present study, pea seeds were used to study changes in embryonic axis proteome during germination by 2-DE...... and mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 139 protein spots showing a significant (>2-fold) change during germination. The results show that seed germination is not only the activation of a series of metabolic processes, but also involves reorganization of cellular structure and activation...... of protective systems. To uncouple the physiological processes of germination and its associated loss of desiccation tolerance, we used the fact that pea seeds have different desiccation tolerance when imbibed in water, CaCl2 and methylviologen at the same germination stage. We compared the proteome amongst...

  6. Response Of Pea Pisum Sativum L. To Organic And Inorganic N-Fertilization With Or Without Benzofurantriol Using 15N Stable Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sherbieny, A.A.E.; Dahdouh, S.M.; Soliman, S.M.; Ahmed, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on sandy soil at Inshas, Sharkia Governorate-Egypt under drip irrigation system for evaluating the response of pea crop to different combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizers. The results indicated that organic compost added solely or in combination with mineral fertilizer was useful as increased growth parameter (fresh weight) of pea plant this effect was more pronounced when combined with bio-fertilizers. N-uptake in hay under Rhizobium bio-fertilization caused marked increased under all condition of N-fertilization or no N-fertilization. Also, the results showed that nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) in hay was the highest with application of 100% mineral fertilizer without using bio-fertilizer

  7. Field Trial on Pea ( Pisum Sativum L.) Grown on Sand Soil and Subjected to Water Regimes and Nitrogen Forms with Aid of 15 N Stable Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, A.E.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; Al-Gindy, A.M.; Arafa, Y.E.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment on sand soil was conducted to trace the effects of different water regimes on pea growth and nutritional values as fertilized with urea and ammonium sulfate fertilizers. 15 N/ 14 N isotope dilution technique was followed to distinguish between the different N proportions derived to pea plants and in the same time estimating the efficientuse of both two nitrogen forms (%NUE). Irrigation water regimes and fertilization treatments were applied under drip irrigation system. Two water regimes epresented 100% (W1) and 75% (W2) of water requirement in combination with three N fertilizer rates, i.e. N 0 , N 100 and N 75 were applied. Two nitrogen fertilizer forms represent urea and ammonium sulfate were performed. The overall means of seed yield as affected by nitrogen fertilization treatments reflected relative increase accounted for 45.8, and 38.7%; 41.7 and 36.2% over the unfertilized control for NU 100 , and NU 75 ; NAS 100 and NAS 75 , respectively. It seems that 100% water regime (W1) made nitrogen fertilizer, especially with high rate, more available for plant uptake comparing to the low water quantity regime. Pea crop had accumulated more nitrogen from urea comparing to ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Nitrogen uptake, in general, significantly correlated to application N rates. Water regime (W1) in combination with ammonium sulfate fertilizer resulted in the better percentage or absolute values of N derived from fertilizer by pea seeds. It was clear that efficient use of ammonium sulfate, to some extent, was affected by different wa - ter regimes. This holds true either at 100% (N1) or 75% (W2) application rates. On the other hand, urea added at rate of 75% was more efficiently used by seeds than those added at rate of 100% of the recommended N rate

  8. Relationship between proportion and composition of albumins, and in vitro protein digestibility of raw and cooked pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei Joon; Kim, Tae Wan; Baik, Byung-Kee

    2010-08-15

    Peas provide an excellent plant protein resource for human diets, but their proteins are less readily digestible than animal proteins. To identify the relationship between composition and in vitro digestibility of pea protein, eight pea varieties with a wide range of protein content (157.3-272.7 g kg(-1)) were determined for the proportion of albumins and globulins, their compositions using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) before and after heat treatment using a multi-enzyme (trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase) method. The proportion of albumins based on total seed protein content decreased from 229 to 147 g kg(-1) as seed protein content increased from 157.3 to 272.7 g kg(-1), while the proportion of globulins increased from 483 to 590 g kg(-1). The IVPDs of eight raw pea seeds were 79.9-83.5%, with significant varietal variations, and those were improved to 85.9-86.8% by cooking. Albumins, including (pea albumins 2) PA2, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and lipoxygenase, were identified as proteolytic resistant proteins. Globulins were mostly digested by protease treatment after heating. The quantitative ratio of albumins and globulins, and the quantitative variations of albumin protein components, including lipoxygenase, PA2, lectins and trypsin inhibitors, appear to influence the protein digestibility of both raw and cooked pea seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Generation of pea mutants for resistance to Ascochyta blight and powdery mildew and their characterization using isozyme markers [Pisum sativum L.; India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kant, A.; Kaushal, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    To induce resistance in pea against Ascochyta blight and powdery mildew through mutagenesis, two locally grown cultivars Lincoln and Palam Priya were subjected to three doses each of gamma rays (10, 15 and 20 kR) and chemical mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%). Reduced germination was observed in response to mutagen treatment in both cultivars. Phenotypic changes were observed in M1 and M2 generations of both the cultivars. In M2 generation twenty-seven mutants of Lincoln and sixteen of Palam Priya were found resistant to Ascochyta blight under natural epiphytotic conditions. High level of resistance in M2 generation against powdery mildew could not be achieved. Plant progenies in the M3 generation were also evaluated for resistance to Ascochyta pinodes as well as Erysiphe pisi through detached leaf technique. Six mutants of Lincoln and only one of Palam Priya were found resistant to A. pinodes. One mutant of Palam Priya (P15-3) showed resistance to both the pathogens. Increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in all the resistant mutants. New isoforms of peroxidase could be detected in the mutant P15-3 (Palam Priya) and also in L0.2-1 (Lincoln). However, not much variation for esterase could be observed [it

  10. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) of the early response of Pisum sativum to Orobanche crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Ma Ángeles; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Rubiales, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) is considered to be the major constraint for legume crops in Mediterranean countries. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. For the efficient control of the parasite, a better understanding of its interaction and associated resistance mechanisms at the molecular level is required. The pea response to this parasitic plant and the molecular basis of the resistance was studied using a proteomic approach based on 2D DIGE and MALDI-MSMS analysis. For this purpose, two genotypes showing different levels of resistance to O. crenata, as well as three time points (21, 25, and 30 d after inoculation) have been compared. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 43 differential protein spots under the experimental conditions (genotypes/treatments), 22 of which were identified using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MSMS fragmentation. Most of the proteins identified were metabolic and stress-related proteins and a high percentage of them (86%) matched with specific proteins of legume species. The behaviour pattern of the identified proteins suggests the existence of defence mechanisms operating during the early stages of infection that differed in both genotypes. Among these, several proteins were identified with protease activity which could play an important role in preventing the penetration and connection to the vascular system of the parasite. Our data are discussed and compared with those previously obtained in pea and Medicago truncatula.

  11. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was 0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural and functional characterization of plant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pisum sativum with a broad specificity for natural and synthetic aminoaldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tylichová, M.; Kopečný, D.; Moréra, S.; Briozzo, P.; Lenobel, René; Snégaroff, J.; Šebela, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 396, č. 4 (2010), s. 870-882 ISSN 0022-2836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/0555; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase * betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase * NAD+ complex Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.008, year: 2010

  13. Genetic divergence and its implication in breeding of desired plant type in coriander -Coriandrum sativum L.-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy germplasm lines of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. of diverse eco-geographical origin were undertaken in present investigation to determine the genetic divergence following multivariate and canonical analysis for seed yield and its 9 component traits. The 70 genotypes were grouped into 9 clusters depending upon the genetic architecture of genotypes and characters uniformity and confirmed by canonical analysis. Seventy percent of total genotypes (49/70 were grouped in 4 clusters (V, VI, VIII and IX, while apparent diversity was noticed for 30 percent genotypes (21/70 that diverged into 5 clusters (I, II, III, FV, and VII. The maximum inter cluster distance was between I and IV (96.20 followed by III and IV (91.13 and I and VII (87.15. The cluster VI was very unique having genotypes of high mean values for most of the component traits. The cluster VII had highest seeds/umbel (35.3 ± 2.24, and leaves/plant (12.93 ± 0.55, earliest flowering (65.05 ± 1.30 and moderately high mean values for other characters. Considering high mean and inter cluster distance breeding plan has been discussed to select desirable plant types.

  14. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Séverine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8) cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  15. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Costechareyre

    Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera. The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8 cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  16. Volatiles from Coriandrum sativum: comparation of in vitro and ex vitro grown plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Dias, I.; Sousa, Maria João; Figueiredo, A. Cristina; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, Luís G.

    2010-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (coriander) is commonly used, raw or cooked, in Portuguese Gastronomy. Coriander is also used in traditional medicine as a carminative and as a digestive aid. The fruits essential oil is used in food flavouring and in perfumery and is also responsible for the digestive and stimulant effect as well as for fungicide and bactericidal activity.

  17. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the

  18. Studies on gamma irradiated medicinal plants and spices (1): Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Chosdu, R.; Sudiro, S.; Syuib, F.

    1981-01-01

    Medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of myristica argentea, myristica fragrans, coriandrum sativum and foeniculum vulgare were stored for 0 and 6 months, with and without gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. No detectable changes were seen in infrared and UV spectra, GLC chromatograms and refraction indeces of steam distilled, essential oils from the irradiated medicinal plants. The same results were also obtained from irradiated samples stored for 6 months at ambient conditions. Storage for 6 months caused significant changes in the gas liquid chromatograms and UV spectra of all samples compared to non-stored samples. The moisture content of all samples packed in polyethylene bags seems to be constant after 6 months of storage. No measurable changes were found in the amount of essential oil content caused by irradiation. (author)

  19. Studies on gamma irradiated medicinal plants and spices (1): Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Chosdu, R; Sudiro, S [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakartc (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre; Syuib, F [Bandung Inst. of Tech. (Indonesia). Pharmacy Dept.

    1981-10-01

    Medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of myristica argentea, myristica fragrans, coriandrum sativum and foeniculum vulgare were stored for 0 and 6 months, with and without gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. No detectable changes were seen in infrared and UV spectra, GLC chromatograms and refraction indices of steam distilled, essential oils from the irradiated medicinal plants. The same results were also obtained from irradiated samples stored for 6 months at ambient conditions. Storage for 6 months caused significant changes in the gas liquid chromatograms and UV spectra of all samples compared to non-stored samples. The moisture content of all samples packed in polyethylene bags seems to be constant after 6 months of storage. No measurable changes were found in the amount of essential oil content caused by irradiation.

  20. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  1. The effect of gamma radiation on seeds and plants of different genotypes of Pisum arvense (L.s.s.) in the M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents results concerning radiosensitivity of seeds of field pea (Pisum arvense L.s.s.) and the analysis of the M 1 generation plants. For the present studies seeds of seven established (homozygous) lines, derived from crosses between forms and varieties of different agriculturo-geographical regions of Europe, were chosen. These lines differed by a number of morphological and physiological characters. The seeds were exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of: 1 kR/5 hrs, 6 kR/25 hrs, 12 kR/100 hrs, 25 kR/100 hrs and 50 kR/100 hrs. While analysing after the irradiation such phenomena as germinating and emergence capacity, survival of plants after emergence, morphological changes of plants, fertility and chromosome aberrations, it has been found that the radiosensitivity of various lines is convincingly different. Attempts to find certain correlations between the presence of definite genes in the lines, the size and structure of chromosomes, the structure of seeds (size, shape, coloration) gave negative results. Results obtained by the author and those of the literature indicate that radiosensitivity of pea seeds and characters of the M 1 generation plants are very complicated phenomena and it is difficult to establish definite regularities. (author)

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture.

  3. Phylogenetic reconstruction at the species and intraspecies levels in the genus Pisum (L.) (peas) using a histone H1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Olga O; Bogdanova, Vera S; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2012-08-10

    A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pisum (peas), embracing diverse wild and cultivated forms, which evoke problems with species delimitation, was carried out based on a gene coding for histone H1, a protein that has a long and variable functional C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of the coding sequence of the gene His5 of H1 subtype 5 in 65 pea accessions. Early separation of a clear-cut wild species Pisum fulvum is well supported, while cultivated species Pisum abyssinicum appears as a small branch within Pisum sativum. Another robust branch within P. sativum includes some wild and almost all cultivated representatives of P. sativum. Other wild representatives form diverse but rather subtle branches. In a subset of accessions, PsbA-trnH chloroplast intergenic spacer was also analysed and found less informative than His5. A number of accessions of cultivated peas from remote regions have a His5 allele of identical sequence, encoding an electrophoretically slow protein product, which earlier attracted attention as likely positively selected in harsh climate conditions. In PsbA-trnH, a 8bp deletion was found, which marks cultivated representatives of P. sativum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Food Functionality of Pisum sαtivum L.(pea)and the Development Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    谷口 (山田), 亜樹子

    2017-01-01

    The author measured the main ingredients of Pisum sativum L.(pea), including the antioxidant. The water, protein, lipids, carbohydrate, and ash contents were approximately 13.6%, 21.5%, 2.2%, 60.2%, and 2.5%, respectively. Pea had abundant minerals and high nutritive value. Pea is also known for its antioxidants and high food functionality. The author describes simple dishes containing pea.

  5. Effect of phosphate and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas ( Pisum sativum ) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Lars; Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of inorganic phosphate levels and the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on disease severity of Aphanomyces euteiches in pea roots were studied. Disease severity on roots and epicotyl as well as the oospore number within infected root tissue were correlated with the phosphorus (P) level...... to measure the activity of the pathogen in roots. The enzyme activity increased with disease severity and disease incidence, except in plants supplemented with P at the highest level, where a peak in activity was seen 12 days after inoculation with the pathogen, followed by a decrease in activity...

  6. Influence of fitotoxic metabolites of Altenaria porri (Ellis Ciferri on plants and calluses of Allium sativum L., aimed to the fitoimprovement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliam González Moya

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain phytotoxic metabolites from Alternaria porri and to know their influences on garlic plants and calli in plant breeding for resistanse to alternariosis, a research was carried out. Filtrates were obtained in Fries medium 30 days after fungus incubation which was statically cultivated at 28±1 0C and constant darkness. Biological assays using several filtrate concentrations were developed in garlic plants of different ages (clone ‘Criollo’ through punture method and also in garlic calli (clone ‘Chileno’. The highest phytotoxic effect was observed in 110 days old plants when they were inoculated with filtrates concentrated at 70% initial volume. Calli showed weight losses and changed their coloration when filtrate was concentrated above 40%. Key Words: Allium sativum, In vitro selection, Plant breeding

  7. Movement of mercury-203 in plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.; Butler, G.P.

    1977-10-01

    Seeds of Pisum sativum, varieties Little Marvel and Alaska, were planted in soils contaminated with radioactive ionic mercury, methylmercury or phenylmercury compounds. After saturation, stems, leaves, and pods were harvested and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Utilizing a least squares three-way analysis of covariance coupled with a Studentized Range Test, significant differences were noted among the levels of the three mercury compounds in the plants, between mercury levels in the two pea varieties and among mercury levels in the different pea tissues examined. Phenylmercury levels differed consistently from levels of ionic mercury and methylmercury suggesting a separate pathway for it in peas

  8. Absorption of technetium by plants in relation to soil type contamination level and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousny, J.M.; Myttenaere, C. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1981-01-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum (var. Merveille de Kelvedon) were grown on seven typical european soils contaminated with different levels of /sup 99/Tc(0.17; 1.7 and 17 ..mu..Ci/kg). Added initially as pertechnetate, the technetium absorption has been studied for three successive cultures. The translocation of technetium from soil to plant leaves is high, but its transfer is reduced in soils rich in organic matter (Fen) or poorly drained (Braunerde). Aging reduces the technetium transfer and modify its relative distribution in plant (relatively more technetium is found in fruits); these results let suppose some modification of the technetium chemical form in soils with time.

  9. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS RESEARCH JOURNAL – Volume 20 – 2014. University of Mauritius ... values of the snack surface showed that the fried snacks were darker than the non-fried ...... Fractal colour: A new approach for the evaluation.

  10. Secondary metabolism responses in two Pisum sativum L. cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both cultivars were grown in the absence or presence of Fe with the addition of bicarbonate for twelve days. Higher concentrations of phenols and flavonoids were observed in Fe-deficient tissues of both cultivars; however, the increase was greater in the tolerant cultivar than in the susceptible one. The activity of shikimate ...

  11. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research objectives were: to evaluate the quality of a pea snack prepared using four different methods of cooking, namely, frying, baking, steaming and microwave; to determine the effect of blending dried green pea with chickpea dhal on the quality of a fried pea snack. Green pea and chickpea snacks were prepared ...

  12. ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002. Six (five foreign and one inland cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process, Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978 and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966. According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2 di=0.010 and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2 di =0.160. Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2 di =0.034 was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments.

  13. CELL POPULATION KINETICS OF EXCISED ROOTS OF PISUM SATIVUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1965-01-01

    The cell population kinetics of excised, cultured pea roots was studied with the use of tritiated thymidine and colchicine to determine (1) the influence of excision, (2) the influence of sucrose concentration, (3) the average mitotic cycle duration, and (4) the duration of mitosis and the G 1, S, and G 2 periods of interphase.1 The results indicate that the process of excision causes a drop in the frequency of mitotic figures when performed either at the beginning of the culture period or after 100 hours in culture. This initial decrease in frequency of cell division is independent of sucrose concentration, but the subsequent rise in frequency of division, after 12 hours in culture, is dependent upon sucrose concentration. Two per cent sucrose maintains the shortest mitotic cycle duration. The use of colchicine indicated an average cycle duration of 20 hours, whereas the use of tritiated thymidine produced an average cycle duration of 17 hours. PMID:5857253

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smýkal, P.; Aubert, G.; Burstin, J.; Coyne, C.J.; Ellis, N.T.H.; Flavell, A.J.; Ford, R.; Hýbl, M.; Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; McPhee, K.E.; Redden, R.J.; Rubiales, D.; Weller, J.L.; Warkentin, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-115 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : breeding * germplasm * genetic diversity * pea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Genetic Diversity in Ethiopian Field Pea (Pisum sativum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    የተሇያዩ እጅቦች ወስጥ ተመድበዋል፡፡ ሃያ በአንዯኛው ምድብ ውስጥ፣ 11 በሁሇተኛው፣ 5 በሦስተኛው፣ 41. በአራተኛው፣ 17 በአምስተኛው፣ 18 ..... F: GCCGAGGTACAAAAGAAGT. R: CTGGAAACCAAGAAAAGTG. 323. PM2. 32544169-1;. 32542559. (aac)6. F: CAATGATGGGTGGAAGATG. R: AGGCAGTGATTCAGACGGT. 337. PM3.

  16. Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes in Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plants may be exposed to various stresses and water deficit is the most important limiting factor of growth and yield in many parts of the world and Iran. Stress induced growth decrement can be because of cell development decrease due to decrement of turgor pressure and meiosis and photosynthesis decrease due to stomata closure. Determination of desired planting density is one of the success factors of plant growth and production. Garlic (Allium sativum has been an important medicinal plant over centuries in human life. According to the importance of medicinal plants and studying the effects of drought stress on them, the goal of this research is to investigate the effect of drought stress and planting density on growth and morphological characteristics of two ecotypes of garlic and determining the preferable ecotype and density from the perspective of these traits. Materials and methods This experiment was performed in 2012 in a farm in south east of Semnan. It was conducted on a split-plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress with 60, 80 and 100 percent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc were the main plot factors and factorial combination of three planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes of Tabas and Toroud were the levels of sub plot factors. To estimate water requirement of garlic, daily measured meteorology parameters of Semnan synoptic station were used and water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 instructions. From mid-January, the sampling of leaf area, bulb and leaf fresh and dry weight was started with destructive method every other week and continued until middle of Jun. three plant were selected randomly from each plot in each turn. From middle of May, height and number of leaves were measured. Leaf area measurement was done by leaf area meter (Delta-T. To estimate growth indices, dry weight of aerial and

  17. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  18. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic Medicinal Plant (Allium sativum L. under the Conditions of Different Organic and Chemical Fertilizers Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Esmaeilian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, the effect of exogenous organic amendments on soil properties and plant growth characteristics has received renewed attention. Although the utilization of mineral fertilizers could be viewed as the best solution in terms of plant productivity, this approach is often inefficient in long-term in tropical ecosystems due to the limited ability of low-activity clay soils to retain nutrients. Intensive use of agrochemicals in agricultural systems is also known to have irreversible effects on soil and water resources. Vermicompost is currently being promoted to improve soil quality, reduce water and fertilizer needs and therefore increase the sustainability of agricultural practices in tropical countries. Vermicomposting is a process which stabilizes organic matter under aerobic and mesophilic conditions through the joint action of earthworms and microorganisms. The products of vermicomposting have been successfully used to suppress plant pests and diseases, as well as increase crop productivity. Cow manure is an excellent fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. It also adds organic matter to the soil which may improve soil structure, aeration, soil moisture-holding capacity, and water infiltration. Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help plants' nutrients uptake by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil. They accelerate certain microbial processes in soil which augment the extent of availability of nutrients in a form easily assimilated by plants. Very often microorganisms are not as efficient in natural surroundings as one would expect them to be and therefore artificially multiplied cultures of efficient selected microorganisms play a vital role in accelerating the microbial processes in soil. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a very powerful medicinal plant that is

  19. Determination of mineral constituents in medicinally important plants Nigell sativa, Myristica fragrans Houtt and allium sativum Linn. using atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.J.; Jakhrani, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Medicinal properties have been attributed to a large variety of plants cultivated in different parts of Pakistan. Only few of these plants have been analyzed for their mineral content and large number remain unanalyzed. It is imperative to analyse the plants for their trace element content, which have healing power for mankind in numerous ailment and disorders. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to see the commonly occurring elements among some medicinal plants and in its decoction such as Nigella sativa, Allium sativum, Myristica fragrans houtt, for fifteen elements has been carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Two procedures were employed for decomposition of organic matter present in the plant samples. The result obtained from both the procedures was compared with each other. For all three plant samples relatively higher results were obtained when samples were decomposed with Nitric acid and hydrogen per oxide mixture. The level of essential elements was to be found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The level of important elements such as Zinc, Iron was present in considerable amount. (author)

  20. Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes in virus-free garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Magalí Diana; Yañez-Santos, Anahí Mara; Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Quiroga, Mariana Paola; Marfil, Carlos Federico; Conci, Vilma Cecilia; García-Lampasona, Sandra Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report assessing epigenetic variation in garlic. High genetic and epigenetic polymorphism during in vitro culture was detected.Sequencing of MSAP fragments revealed homology with ESTs. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a worldwide crop of economic importance susceptible to viral infections that can cause significant yield losses. Meristem tissue culture is the most employed method to sanitize elite cultivars.Often the virus-free garlic plants obtained are multiplied in vitro (micro propagation). However, it was reported that micro-propagation frequently produces somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level, which is an undesirable trait when breeders are seeking to maintain varietal stability. We employed amplification fragment length polymorphism and methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) methodologies to assess genetic and epigenetic modifications in two culture systems: virus-free plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro multiplication and field culture. Our results suggest that garlic exhibits genetic and epigenetic polymorphism under field growing conditions. However, during in vitro culture system both kinds of polymorphisms intensify indicating that this system induces somaclonal variation. Furthermore, while genetic changes accumulated along the time of in vitro culture, epigenetic polymorphism reached the major variation at 6 months and then stabilize, being demethylation and CG methylation the principal conversions.Cloning and sequencing differentially methylated MSAP fragments allowed us to identify coding and unknown sequences of A. sativum, including sequences belonging to LTR Gypsy retrotransposons. Together, our results highlight that main changes occur in the initial 6 months of micro propagation. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epigenetic assessment in garlic.

  1. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great r...

  2. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliviera, R. S.; Ma, Y.; Rocha, I.; Carvalho, M. F.; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 7 (2016), s. 320-328 ISSN 1528-7394 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Coriandrum sativum Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 2.731, year: 2016

  4. Influência de épocas de plantio e cultivares no rendimento total da cultura do alho (Allium sativum l. em Santa Maria, RS Planting date and cultivar influence on the total yield of garlic (Allium sativum L. in Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nadir Trevisan

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no ano agrícola de 1984, afim de avaliar a influência de três épocas de plantio (27 de abril, 18 de maio e 14 de julho na produção total de bulbos de nove cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os maiores rendimentos totais de bulbos foram obtidos no plantio de 18 de maio. Gigante Lavínia foi a cultivar mais produtiva. As cultivares São Lourenço e Gigante Inconfidentes destacaram-se pelos rendimentos, os quais não diferiram significativamente entre si.The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Santa Maria, in southernmost Brazil, during the growing season of 1984, to determine the influence of three different planting dates (April 27, May 18 and July 14 on the yield of nine garlic, Allium sativum Z., cultivars. The experimental design was a split plot complete block, with planting dates as main plots and cultivars as subplots. Blocks were replicated four times. The highest yields were obtained with planting date May 18. Gigante Lavínia ranked first among cultivars. The outstanding performances of São Lourenço and Gigante Inconfidentes were not significantly different.

  5. A Protocol for Rapid, Measurable Plant Tissue Culture Using Stem Disc Meristem Micropropagation of Garlic ("Allium Sativum L.")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Gerry; Jones, Meriel

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the mass propagation of plants. Problems with existing techniques, such as slow growth and contamination, have restricted the practical work in plant tissue culture carried out in schools. The new protocol using garlic meristematic stem discs explained in this article addresses many of…

  6. Relations between protein production, protein quality and environmental factors in Pisum mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.; Mueller, H.P.; Wolff, G.

    1975-01-01

    The seed protein content of 138 radiation-induced Pisum mutants was determined. The variability of this genetically well-defined material agrees approximately with that of the world collection of Pisum sativum. Some environmental factors to a great extent influence the protein production of the mutants and the initial line. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the relations between the genetically controlled protein production and its dependence upon the environmental factors. This is especially evident if the protein situation of the same genotypes cultivated under the moderate climatic conditions of middle Europe is compared with the subtropical conditions of India. A generally firm correlation between seed size and protein content could not be found in material regarding 148 different mutants of our assortment. Therefore, the selection of small-grained mutants does not result in a selection of protein-rich genotypes in Pisum sativum. Considering all the criteria positively and negatively influencing the protein production, a positive situation could be found in some mutants, especially in the fasciated ones. Furthermore, an improvement of the protein quality could be reached by a genetically conditioned alteration of the globulin-albumin ratio leading to an increase of some essential amino acids such as methionine and lysine. The combined action of mutant genes results in unexpected changes of the protein quantity as well as the quality of the recombinants in relation to their parental mutants. The comparison of some essential amino acids of our useful mutants with those of the varieties of other genera of the Leguminosae shows certain trends of biochemical alterations realized during evolutionary development of the family. (author)

  7. Degradation of PVC/HC blends. II. Terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Profire, Lenuţa; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The behavior at degradation by soil burial of some plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with a variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, physiologic state of the plants, assimilatory pigments) were studied. Using the growth test of the terrestrial plants, we followed the development of Triticum (wheat), Helianthus annus minimus (little sunflower), Pisum sativum (pea), and Vicia X hybrida hort, during a vegetation cycle. After the harvest, for each plant, the quantities of chlorophyll and carotenoidic pigments and of trace- and macroelements were determined. It was proved that, in the presence of polymer blends, the plants do not suffer morphological and physiological modifications, the products released in the culture soil being not toxic for the plants growth.

  8. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  9. Effects of Different Fertilizer Managements on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. as a Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bigonah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of mycorrhiza and vermin compost on quantitative characteristics and essential oil content of seeds of Coriander, a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2010 at Agriculture Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: 1 vermin compost, 2 mycorrhiza, 3 phosphorus, 4 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, 5 mycorrhiza + phosphorus, 6 vermin compost + phosphorus, 7 control (without fertilizer. Each plot was divided to two parts, in order to study green biological yield and seed production. Green biological yield harvested in two times at 5% flowering stage and harvesting seed yield was done when majority of plants got yellow. The result showed that vermin compost and control treatments had the highest and the lowest seed yield and plant height respectively. Mycorrhiza and mycorrhiza + phosphorus treatments had the highest number of umbel per plant, and the lowest number of umbel was shown in control treatment. Control and vermin compost treatments had the highest and lowest essential oil contents of seeds, respectively. In addition vermin compost and mycorrhiza treatments in the first and second cuts had the highest of green biological yield and dry weight of leaf per plant, respectively. Control treatment had the lowest biological yield and dry weight of leaf per plant, in both cuts.

  10. The Effect of Drought Stress and Plant Density on Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Akbari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is the most important growth limiting factor for crop production. Sugar accumulation under drought stress strengthens and stabilizes cell membranes and maintains the water absorption and turgid property. Under stress conditions, proline will also maintain the turgor pressure and decreased the damages caused to plant membrane. Although proline concentrations may have undesirable effects on plant growth, because of deflecting photosynthetic resources to the processes that are not involved in plant growth. Chloroplasts and its pigments are also affected by drought stress. Density is one of the factors that has a significant impact on plant growth. Garlic is one of the edible plants which has generated considerable interest throughout human history because of its pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of drought stress and plant density on some biochemical and physiological treats of two garlic ecotypes and determining the more resistant ecotype. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in 2011-2012 in a farm land at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design in three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation regimes (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC that were assigned as the main plot and the factorial combination of 3 levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants. m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud made up the sub-plots. The water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 crop water requirements instruction. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate evapotranspiration. To calculate the content of soluble sugar, proline and leaves pigment, the samples were collected in a random way from the youngest fully expended leaves one month before the final harvest. Relative water content was estimated by measuring dry weight, fresh weight

  11. Effects of lead on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N.; Molinari, M.T.

    1973-01-01

    The poisonousness of lead nitrate to seedlings of several plant species has been tested in Petri dishes, with 10/sup -1/, 10/sup -2/, 10/sup -3/, 10/sup -4/ M conc. Distilled water and KNO/sub 3/ solutions 2 X 10/sup -1/, 2 X 10/sup -2/, 2 X 10/sup -3/, 2 X 10/sup -4/ M were employed as controls. The tested species show a decreasing sensitivity: Capsicum annum > Beta vulgaris > Phalaris canariensis > Vicia sativa > Helianthus annuus > Oryza sativa > Triticum vulgare Avena sativa > Pisum sativum. Avena sativa shows a diminution of 34% in ww, 23% in dw, 26% in chlorophyll content in comparison with the controls after 21 days 10/sup -4/ M lead nitrate. The chlorophyll content, referred to dry weight, is related to lead concentration. Since the early stages of chlorophyll biosynthesis are similar, if not identical, with those for Haemoglobin, lead could interfere as it does in haemoglobin synthesis.

  12. The Effect of Coriander Sativum Seeds on Performance in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) as diet ingredient on the ... coriander seed, the antibiotic, the 4% and the 0.5% coriander seed. ... of this, aromatic plants and essential oils extracted from these plants have ..... Effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on performance of broilers after.

  13. In vitro plant regeneration of two cucumber (Cucumis sativum L. genotypes: Effects of explant types and culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grozeva Stanislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different phytohormone concentrations on callusogenesis and organogenesis in two cucumber genotypes were studied. It was established that the rate of plant regeneration depends on genotype, explant type and culture medium. Hypocotyls were found to be more responsive than cotyledons in morphogenesis. In vitro planlet-regenerants have been obtained in hypocotyls explants on culture medium with 1.0 and 2.0 mgL-1 BA for cultivar Gergana and in 1.0 and 3.0 mgL-1K-line 15B. Induction of regeneration in cotyledons were established only in cultivar Gergana on culture medium supplemented with 3.0 mgL-1 BA and in combination of 0.5 mgL-1IAA.

  14. The Effects of Drought Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Anti-oxidant of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes with Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva akbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress reduces plant growth by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, translocation, ion uptake, carbohydrates, nutrient metabolism and growth promoters. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an annual bulb crop that has been cultivated since ancient times and was used as a spice and condiment for many centuries. Garlic is an important plant because of its pharmaceutical properties. The optimum yield of this bulb crop depends on well-managed irrigation, fertilization and cultivation practices. In the final and middle stages of growth, garlic is sensitive to water stress and low irrigation is unsuitable in these stages. This experiment was established to study the influence of drought stress and planting density on yield and its components and the non-enzymatic anti-oxidant content of two different garlic ecotypes. Materials and methods This study was conducted in 2011-2012 in a farmland at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation rates (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC as the main plot and the factorial combination of three levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud as the sub-plots. To estimate the crop water requirement, different meteorological parameters were collected from Semnan weather station and were used based on FAO-56 water irrigation calculation instructions. After harvesting, ten garlic plants were sampled randomly in each plot and bulb yield components were measured. To calculate the leaves anti-oxidant content, DPPH method was used. The statistical significances of mean values were assessed by analysis of variance and LSD tests at p≤0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS and Mstat-C softwares. Results and discussion

  15. Effect of abscisic acid and blue radiation on photosynthesis and growth of pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedlecka, M.; Romanowska, E.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the net photosynthetic rate (PN), the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities, the chlorophyll (Chl) content and growth of pea plants (Pisum sativum) grown under ''white'' (WR) or blue radiation (BR), were investigated. BR as compared to WR enhanced PN, the activities of examined enzymes, and Chl content. In spite of higher PN of the plants grown under BR, dry matter of their shoots was lower in comparison with WR. ABA-treated plants grown under both WR and BR showed reduction in PN. ABA had no effect on the activities of both RuBPC and PEPC and the Chl content. Independent on the radiation quality, ABA reduced stem elongation, but did not affect the biomass of whole shoots

  16. The nucleus of differentiated root plant cells: modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lingua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclei of plant cells show marked differences in chromatin organisation, related to their DNA content, which ranges from the type with large strands of condensed chromatin (reticulate or chromonematic nuclei to one with mostly decondensed chromatin (chromocentric or diffuse nuclei. A loosening of the chromatin structure generally occurs in actively metabolising cells, such as differentiating and secretory cells, in relation to their high transcriptional activity. Endoreduplication may occur, especially in plants with a small genome, which increases the availability of nuclear templates, the synthesis of DNA, and probably regulates gene expression. Here we describe structural and quantitative changes of the chromatin and their relationship with transcription that occur in differentiated cells following an increase of their metabolism. The nuclei of root cortical cells of three plants with different 2C DNA content (Allium porrum, Pisum sativum and Lycopersicon esculentm and their modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhization, which strongly increase the metabolic activity of colonised cells, are taken as examples.

  17. Modulation of the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from Vibrio cholerae by Allium sativum extract and the bioactive agent allyl sulfide plus synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial susceptibility by A. sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Merissa M; Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared T; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ponce, Robert C; Garcia, John A; Ranaweera, Indrika; Sanford, Leslie M; Hernandez, Alberto J; Willmon, T Mark; Tolson, Grace L; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-10-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux. Thus, we tested whether A. sativum extract acts in synergy with antimicrobials and that a main bioactive component allyl sulfide inhibits EmrD-3 efflux. We found that A. sativum extract and allyl sulfide inhibited ethidium bromide efflux in cells harboring EmrD-3 and that A. sativum lowered the MICs of multiple antibacterials. We conclude that A. sativum and allyl sulfide inhibit EmrD-3 and that A. sativum extract synergistically enhances antibacterial agents.

  18. Antibacterial effect of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on Staphyloccus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has had an important dietary and medicinal role for centuries. It is a large annual plant of the Liliaceae family, which grows in most of Africa and in Ethiopia. Ethiopian garlic is used in traditional medicine for infectious disease and some other cases. The present study tested the aqueous extract ...

  19. Rumor has it...: relay communication of stress cues in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Quansah, Lydia; Fait, Aaron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that plants are able not only to perceive and adaptively respond to external information but also to anticipate forthcoming hazards and stresses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that unstressed plants are able to respond to stress cues emitted from their abiotically-stressed neighbors and in turn induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants located further away from the stressed plants. Pisum sativum plants were subjected to drought while neighboring rows of five unstressed plants on both sides, with which they could exchange different cue combinations. On one side, the stressed plant and its unstressed neighbors did not share their rooting volumes (UNSHARED) and thus were limited to shoot communication. On its other side, the stressed plant shared one of its rooting volumes with its nearest unstressed neighbor and all plants shared their rooting volumes with their immediate neighbors (SHARED), allowing both root and shoot communication. Fifteen minutes following drought induction, significant stomatal closure was observed in both the stressed plants and their nearest unstressed SHARED neighbors, and within one hour, all SHARED neighbors closed their stomata. Stomatal closure was not observed in the UNSHARED neighbors. The results demonstrate that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted by the roots of their drought-stressed neighbors and, via 'relay cuing', elicit stress responses in further unstressed plants. Further work is underway to study the underlying mechanisms of this new mode of plant communication and its possible adaptive implications for the anticipation of forthcoming abiotic stresses by plants.

  20. Oxidation and reduction of pyridine nucleotides in alamethicin-permeabilized plant mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, F.I.; Michalecka, A.M.; Møller, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    method to permearbilize mitochondria and study the highly branched electron-transport chain in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) and pea leaf (Pisum sativum) mitochondria. We show that AlaM permeabilized the inner membrane of plant mitochondria to NAD(P)H, allowing the quantification of internal NAD......M-treated mitochondria was much higher than what has been previously measured by other techniques. Our results also show a difference in substrate specificities for complex I in mitochondria as compared with inside-out submitochondrial particles. AlaM facilitated the passage of cofactors to and from the mitochondrial...... environment not only in plant mitochondria but also in other membrane-enclosed compartments, such as intact cells, chloroplasts and peroxisomes....

  1. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum; Medial prefrontal cortex; Neurobehaviour;. Histomorphology ..... brain atrophy mouse model. Clin Exp.

  2. A High-Density Integrated DArTseq SNP-Based Genetic Map of Pisum fulvum and Identification of QTLs Controlling Rust Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Barilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pisum fulvum, a wild relative of pea is an important source of allelic diversity to improve the genetic resistance of cultivated species against fungal diseases of economic importance like the pea rust caused by Uromyces pisi. To unravel the genetic control underlying resistance to this fungal disease, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population was generated from a cross between two P. fulvum accessions, IFPI3260 and IFPI3251, and genotyped using Diversity Arrays Technology. A total of 9,569 high-quality DArT-Seq and 8,514 SNPs markers were generated. Finally, a total of 12,058 markers were assembled into seven linkage groups, equivalent to the number of haploid chromosomes of P. fulvum and P. sativum. The newly constructed integrated genetic linkage map of P. fulvum covered an accumulated distance of 1,877.45 cM, an average density of 1.19 markers cM−1 and an average distance between adjacent markers of 1.85 cM. The composite interval mapping revealed three QTLs distributed over two linkage groups that were associated with the percentage of rust disease severity (DS%. QTLs UpDSII and UpDSIV were located in the LGs II and IV respectively and were consistently identified both in adult plants over 3 years at the field (Córdoba, Spain and in seedling plants under controlled conditions. Whenever they were detected, their contribution to the total phenotypic variance varied between 19.8 and 29.2. A third QTL (UpDSIV.2 was also located in the LGIVand was environmentally specific as was only detected for DS % in seedlings under controlled conditions. It accounted more than 14% of the phenotypic variation studied. Taking together the data obtained in the study, it could be concluded that the expression of resistance to fungal diseases in P. fulvum originates from the resistant parent IFPI3260.

  3. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  4. A Combined Comparative Transcriptomic, Metabolomic, and Anatomical Analyses of Two Key Domestication Traits: Pod Dehiscence and Seed Dormancy in Pea (Pisum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Smýkal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the agriculture was one of the turning points in human history, and a central part of this was the evolution of new plant forms, domesticated crops. Seed dispersal and germination are two key traits which have been selected to facilitate cultivation and harvesting of crops. The objective of this study was to analyze anatomical structure of seed coat and pod, identify metabolic compounds associated with water-impermeable seed coat and differentially expressed genes involved in pea seed dormancy and pod dehiscence. Comparative anatomical, metabolomics, and transcriptomic analyses were carried out on wild dormant, dehiscent Pisum elatius (JI64, VIR320 and cultivated, indehiscent Pisum sativum non-dormant (JI92, Cameor and recombinant inbred lines (RILs. Considerable differences were found in texture of testa surface, length of macrosclereids, and seed coat thickness. Histochemical and biochemical analyses indicated genotype related variation in composition and heterogeneity of seed coat cell walls within macrosclereids. Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry and Laser desorption/ionization–mass spectrometry of separated seed coats revealed significantly higher contents of proanthocyanidins (dimer and trimer of gallocatechin, quercetin, and myricetin rhamnosides and hydroxylated fatty acids in dormant compared to non-dormant genotypes. Bulk Segregant Analysis coupled to high throughput RNA sequencing resulted in identification of 770 and 148 differentially expressed genes between dormant and non-dormant seeds or dehiscent and indehiscent pods, respectively. The expression of 14 selected dormancy-related genes was studied by qRT-PCR. Of these, expression pattern of four genes: porin (MACE-S082, peroxisomal membrane PEX14-like protein (MACE-S108, 4-coumarate CoA ligase (MACE-S131, and UDP-glucosyl transferase (MACE-S139 was in agreement in all four genotypes with Massive analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE data. In

  5. A xylogalacturonan epitope is specifically associated with plant cell detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willats, William George Tycho; McCartney, L.; Steele-King, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (LM8) was generated with specificity for xyloglacturonan (XGA) isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L.) testae. Characterization of the LM8 epitope indicates that it is a region of XGA that is highly substituted with xylose. Immunocytochemical analysis indicates that this epitop...

  6. Mutations induced by the action of metal ions in Pisum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rosen, G

    1957-01-01

    Simple metal ions may induce both radiomimetic effects and genuine gene mutations of the same type which occurs from ionizing radiation and from treatment with some chemical agencies as e.g., mustard gas. The main material during the experiments has been species of Pisum. The biochemical principle which lies behind these reactions is the complex-forming ability among those reactive bivalent metal elements. The author assumes that interruptions of the chelate formation in the cell synthesis form the real background to the observed activity of the metal ions. The possible role in the evolution of the plant- and animal kingdom and the probable value for plant-breeding of the mutation activity observed are suggested. A new field for mutation experiments may here be opened and the results must hitherto be judged as interesting and promising. 13 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G; Lawson, David M; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING) resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea) and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk) class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K) resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius) as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for either halving

  8. Plant responsiveness to root-root communication of stress cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2012-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3-24 h after the beginning of stress induction. The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios.

  9. Efecto de la temperatura de almacenamiento sobre la viabilidad de bacterias simbióticas fijadoras de nitrógeno utilizadas en la elaboración de inoculantes biológicos para arveja (Pisum sativum y soya (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Moreno Conn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El nitrógeno es un elemento requerido en grandes cantidades por los cultivos, sin embargo, en el suelo es uno de los elementos más limitantes ya que se encuentra en formas poco disponibles para las plantas y debe ser incorporado a través de la fertilización química o por medio de la fijación biológica llevada a cabo por microorganismos. Las bacterias simbióticas fijadoras de nitrógeno han sido ampliamente utilizadas para la elaboración de inoculantes, constituyéndose en una alternativa viable para mejorar el rendimiento de los cultivos a través de un mejor suministro de este elemento. Estos inoculantes para que puedan ser comercializados deben cumplir con ciertos requisitos de calidad que garanticen el buen funcionamiento del producto. En este estudio se evalúo la viabilidad de las cepas ICA L9 e ICA J96 en inoculantes almacenados a temperaturas de 4±2, 18±3 y 28±2 °C durante 180 días y la actividad biológica en plantas de arveja y soya. Las cepas utilizadas pertenecen al Banco de Germoplasma de Microorganismos de Corpoica; para los ensayos biológicos se emplearon semillas de arveja variedad “Santa Isabel” y soya variedad “Corpoica Superior 6”. Al evaluar la viabilidad de los inoculantes almacenados a 4±2 °C, 18±3 °C y 28±2 °C, se evidenció que la temperatura no afectó la supervivencia y la concentración de rizobios después de 180 días de almacenamiento permitiendo observar un número de unidades formadoras de colonias por gramo superior a 108, valor que garantiza la calidad del inoculante. En cuanto a la actividad biológica, se observó que las cepas inoculadas fueron infectivas y efectivas para la fijación biológica del nitrógeno, comparado con los testigos absolutos. Nitrogen is an element required in large amounts by most crops, however, in soil is one of the most limiting and located in ways not available to the plant and must be incorporated through chemical fertilization or by biological

  10. Arsenic-induced stress activates sulfur metabolism in different organs of garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants accompanied by a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Torres, Carmelo; Feriche-Linares, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruíz, Marta; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination is a major environmental problem which affects most living organisms from plants to animals. This metalloid poses a health risk for humans through its accumulation in crops and water. Using garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants as model crop exposed to 200μM arsenate, a comparative study among their main organs (roots and shoots) was made. The analysis of arsenic, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and lipid peroxidation contents with the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle), and the main components of the NADPH-generating system, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) was carried out. Data showed a correlation among arsenic accumulation in the different organs, PCs content and the antioxidative response, with a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots. Overall, our results demonstrate that there are clear connections between arsenic uptake, increase of their As-chelating capacity in roots and a decline of antioxidative enzyme activities (catalase and the ascorbate peroxidase) whose alteration provoked As-induced oxidative stress. Thus, the data suggest that roots act as barrier of arsenic mediated by a prominent sulfur metabolism which is characterized by the biosynthesis of high amount of PCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative evaluation of phytoremediation of metal contaminated soil of firing range by four different plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia R. Tariq

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytoremediation potential of Helianthus annuus, Zea maize, Brassica campestris and Pisum sativum was studied for the soil of firing range contaminated with selected metals i.e. Cd, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr and Pb. The seedlings of the selected plants germinated in a mixture of sand and alluvial soil were transferred to the pots containing the soil of firing ranges and allowed to grow to the stage of reproductive growth. Subsequently they were harvested and then analyzed for selected metals by using AAS. Among the studied plants, P. sativum exhibited highest removal efficiency (i.e. 96.23% and bioconcentration factor for Pb thereby evidencing it to be Pb hyperaccumulator from the soil of firing ranges. Z. maize appreciably reduced the levels of all the selected metals in the soil but the highest phytoextraction capacity was shown for Pb i.e. 66.36%, which was enhanced to approximately 74% on EDTA application. H. annuus represented the highest removal potential for Cd i.e. 56.03% which was further increased on EDTA application. Thus it proved to be an accumulator of Cd after EDTA application. It was therefore concluded that different plants possess different phytoremediation potentials under given set of conditions.

  12. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Doumayrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus–vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum, and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  13. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Sheber, Melissa; Bonning, Bryony C; Miller, W Allen

    2016-11-18

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus-vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP) are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus , Luteoviridae ) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus , Tombusviridae ) are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum , and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  14. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Radiation effects on some physico-biochemical changes in pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Mohammad, N.; Durrani, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of irradiation treatment (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kGy) on fresh pea cultivars was investigated. Results indicated that significant decrease in colour (% transmittance) and ascorbic acid occurred due to storage period. Visual observation indicated no sprouting until 6th days after which sprouting started in both the unirradiated cultivars . At higher irradiation dose (4.00 kGy) sprouts died soon after emergence. Peas irradiated at 2.0-4.0 kGy doses showed rottage after 9-12 days of storage in both the varieties. Higher irradiation doses enhanced the rate of rot compared with lower doses. p-8 was more resistant to Rottage than Moon cultivar of pea

  16. Toward the crystallization of photosystem II core complex from Pisum sativum L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prudnikova, T.; Gavira, J. A.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Molina, E.P.; Hunalová, Ivana; Sviridova, E.; Schmidt, V.; Kohoutová, J.; Kutý, Michal; Kaftan, D.; Vácha, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2010), s. 3391-3396 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : crystal-structure * cyanobacterial * elongatus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2010

  17. Effect of Gamma Radiation and temperature on storage quality of Pea (Pisum sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Sarder, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of radiation, storage temperature and storage period of pea was investigated. During the entire storage period of 12 months, no major changes occurred in weight loss, insect infestation, moisture content, water activity (a w ) and protein content of the pea stored at room temperature (RT) and at 4 0 C. Reconstitution properties and tenderness after cooking were affected at room temperature storage. Both reconstitution properties and tenderness gradually decreased with the increase of storage period when pea was stored at RT. The initial reconstitution properties (94%) decreased to 77% at the end of 12 months and the initial tenderness (97%) decreased to 13% when pea was stored at room temperature. On the other hand the reconstitution properties and tenderness were found 92% and 83% respectively in pea stored at 4 0 C.(author)

  18. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  19. Some new aspects of the pea (Pisum sativum L. root nodule ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Borucki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unequal cell divisions were observed in the meristem of pea root nodule. Since after such divisions only the bigger cells become infected then those divisions play a significant role in the formation of the three-dimensional structure of the bacteroidal tissue. In the infected cells of the young ineffective bacteroidal tissue the first host reaction to the incompatibility of the symbiotic system is the RER membranes aggregation. In effective symbiosis RER membranes form permanent sites of contact with the peribacteroidal membranes thus connecting all the symbiosoms in the cell. Possibly that ensures the synchronisation of the differentiation processes of the bacteroids and/or their simultaneous degeneration. The presence of membraneous structures in the form of rings is a characteristic feature of effective bacteroids. It is postulated that the structures are directly connected with nitrogen assimilation. Structures X and Y which are present in the bacteroids of the effective and ineffective symbiosis may be connected with the adaptation of bacterial cells to lowered oxygen pressure in bacteroidal tissue and their transformation (structures X into bacteroids. The presence of the cytoplasm (or cytoplasmatic remnants of the infected cells was observed in the intercellular spaces. It is sugested that it is a way, so far unknown, of the gas diffusion regulation in bacteroidal tissue.

  20. Localization of acid phosphatase activity in the apoplast of root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Sujkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activity of acid phosphatase (AcPase in the apoplast of pea root nodule were investigated. The activity was determined using lead and cerium methods. The results indicated a following sequence of AcPase activity appearance during the development of the infection thread: 1 low AcPase activity appears in the outer part of cells of symbiotic bacteria; 2 bacteria show increased AcPase activity, and the enzyme activity appears in the thread walls; 3 activity exhibits also matrix of the infection thread; 4 bacteria just before their release from the infection threads show high AcPase activity; 5 AcPase activity ceases after bacteria transformation into bacteroids. The increase in bacterial AcPase activity may reflect a higher demand for inorganic phosphorus necessary for propagation of the bacteria within the infection threads and/or involved in bacteria release from the infection threads.

  1. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Geçgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  2. Marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance of 672 worldwide pea (Pisum sativum L.) collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Fang, Li; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Zhang, Hongyan; Han, Wenliang; Hua, Zeke; Hao, Junjie; Zong, Xuxiao

    2017-07-19

    Frost stress is one of the major abiotic stresses causing seedling death and yield reduction in winter pea. To improve the frost tolerance of pea, field evaluation of frost tolerance was conducted on 672 diverse pea accessions at three locations in Northern China in three growing seasons from 2013 to 2016 and marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance were performed with 267 informative SSR markers in this study. Sixteen accessions were identified as the most winter-hardy for their ability to survive in all nine field experiments with a mean survival rate of 0.57, ranging from 0.41 to 0.75. Population structure analysis revealed a structured population of two sub-populations plus some admixtures in the 672 accessions. Association analysis detected seven markers that repeatedly had associations with frost tolerance in at least two different environments with two different statistical models. One of the markers is the functional marker EST1109 on LG VI which was predicted to co-localize with a gene involved in the metabolism of glycoproteins in response to chilling stress and may provide a novel mechanism of frost tolerance in pea. These winter-hardy germplasms and frost tolerance associated markers will play a vital role in marker-assisted breeding for winter-hardy pea cultivar.

  3. Line X tester analysis in pea (Pisum sativum L.): Identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... parents together with the information regarding nature and magnitude of gene effects controlling quantitative traits (Basbag et al., 2007). GCA and SCA which identify the hybrids with high yield are the most important criteria in breeding programs (Ceyhan, 2003). High GCA and. SCA for seed yield and yield ...

  4. [14C]-Sucrose uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum, argenteum mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, K.; Raschke, K.

    1991-01-01

    Guard cells rely on import for their supply with reduced carbon. The authors tested by silicone oil centrifugation the ability of guard cell protoplasts to accumulated [ 14 C]-sucrose. Uptake rates were corrected after measurement of 14 C-sorbitol and 3 H 2 O spaces. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics, with a high-affinity component below 1 mM external sucrose (apparent K m 0.8 mM at 25C) and a low-affinity nonsaturable component above. Uptake depended on pH (optimum at pH 5.0). Variations in the concentrations of external KCl, CCCP, and valinomycin indicated that about one-half of the sucrose uptake rate could be related to an electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma. Total uptake rates measured at 5 mM external sucrose seem to be sufficient to replenish emptied plastids with starch within a few hours

  5. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  6. SACCHARIFICATION ENZYMATIC APPLIED TO THE FRESH PEA POD VARIETY PISUM SATIVUM L. FOR OBTAIN REDUCING SUGAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Andrés González González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the process of enzymatic saccharification applied to the fresh pea pod variety Santa Isabel, a content rich vegetable material lignocellulose, which can be exploited to obtain sugars. For effects of the research they thought about to apply nine treatments keeping in mind: the solvent type (deionized water and sulfuric acid, the enzyme type (Novozymes® and Alkozym®, the so much dilution relationship of the solvent like of the enzyme, one also kept in mind the use or not of autoclave like part of the treatment applied to the samples. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the sugars was carried out for liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC using a team LC-2010 AHT Shimadzu®, with a detector of refraction index RID-10A Shimadzu® and a column Shodex SC1011, using deionized water as the phase mobile. Similarly it was a chemical characterization of the pea pods certain percentage of moisture, protein, fiber, fat and ash. It also performed analysis of Lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose. The Statistical analysis for the content of sugars was performed by analysis of variance and comparison of means by Tukey test, in order to find the best treatment; Finding that treatment 8, the works best for obtaining glucose and fructose, but considering not to use sulfuric acid, the best treatment would be 4; which applies to all three sugars identified and quantified (sucrose, glucose and fructose. For data obtained from the analysis of lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose was applied to analysis of variance to establish whether the samples subjected to hydrolysis treatments show a significant difference in content of lignocellulosic material

  7. Breeding approaches for crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) management in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Fernández-Aparicio, Monica; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Castillejo, Mari A; Prats, Elena; Sillero, Josefina C; Rispail, Nicolas; Fondevilla, Sara

    2009-05-01

    Pea cultivation is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle East farming systems by the occurrence of Orobanche crenata Forsk. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. Most control methods are either unfeasible, uneconomical, hard to achieve or result in incomplete protection. The integration of several control measures is the most desirable strategy. [corrected] Recent developments in control are presented and re-evaluated in light of recent developments in crop breeding and molecular genetics. These developments are placed within a framework that is compatible with current agronomic practices. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The application of knowledge gained from basic genomic research and genetic engineering will contribute to more rapid pea improvement for resistance against O. crenata and/or the herbicide.

  8. Cytokinin profiling of long-term in vitro pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoot cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plačková, Lenka; Hrdlička, Jakub; Smýkalová, I.; Cvečková, M.; Novák, Ondřej; Griga, M.; Doležal, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2015), s. 125-132 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytokinins * Pea * Quantification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2015

  9. A brief review on the early distribution of pea (Pisum sativum L. in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea was a part of the everyday diet of the European hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in pea are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Pea seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals and lentil, pea has definitely become associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Pea entered Europe in its southeast regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that pea had been present in nearly all regions of Europe. Most of European peoples have their own words denoting pea, meaning that it preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages.

  10. The effect of UV-B radiation on chloroplast translation in Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, M.M.; Jagendorf, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    UV-B radiation has previously been reported to reduce growth, flowering, and net photosynthesis. The present study examines the effect of UV-B radiation on isolated chloroplast of 7-10 day old pea seedlings. Amount of ( 3 H)-Leu incorporated into isolated chloroplasts was measured in the presence or absence of UV-B exposure. Preliminary experiments show a 30% inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated chloroplasts after only 20 mins of UV-B exposure (6.9 J/m 2 /30 min). Percent inhibition of chloroplast translation is directly correlated with UV-B exposure over a 60 min time span. Preliminary studies also show no change in both cold and radiolabeled protein profiles as expressed on 1-D PAGE and autofluorography. Comparative studies on the sensitivity of e - flow vs protein synthesis following UV-B exposure are underway. Further work on the role of oxygen free radicals and the specific site of action of UV-B damage to the translation machinery of chloroplasts will be discussed

  11. Use of gamma irradiation for prolonging shelf life of Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.K.; Nair, Reena

    2008-01-01

    Garden pea pods of variety Arkel were irradiated with 5 doses of 60 Co gamma rays ranging from 0.5-3 kGy and stored at ambient temperature up to 9 days along with control to study the effect of radiation in prolonging shelf life of pea pods and stabilizing its market demand. Physiological weight loss percentage decrease as the doses of gamma radiation increased. Minimum weight loss was noted in pods treated with 3 kGy gamma radiation as compared to control. Decay loss percent showed inverse relation with dose of gamma radiation. The minimum decay loss was recorded in 3 kGy and the organisms identified for decay loss were Alternaria and Cladosporium species of fungi. With regard to sugar content, pea pods irradiated with 1 kGy gamma rays recorded maximum sugar content. Pods irradiated with 0.5 kGy and 1 kGy gamma rays retained their green colour for a long period (up to 9th day of storage). Based on 9 point's hedonic scale the overall acceptability for appearance, taste and texture was observed in 1 kGy treatment. (author)

  12. Fatty acid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L., var. Citrina during seed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, F.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil content and fatty acid composition of four sizes of raw and canned pea were determined. In the seed growth period, considered (from 4.7 mm to 10.2 mm of diameter, crude oil content was not modified and its level showed a mean value of 2.52% on a dry weight basis. Generally, in raw pea the following fatty acid composition was obtained C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:0 > C18:3 > C18:0; however, during seed growth C18:2 increased and C18:3 decreased. These variations are discussed in relation to environmental temperature and cotyledon/testa ratio modifications during seed growth. A low oil content, which remains constant during seed growth, and a lower linolenic acid content in fine (FN size showed that when Citrina variety is used for processing, peas should be harvested when a FN size are predominant in crop. During canning, crude oil content is not modified in any size, but some differences in fatty acid composition occur between raw and canned peas because, in general, the degree of saturation decreases during canning.Se ha determinado el contenido lipídico y la composición en ácidos grasos de cuatro tamaños de guisantes crudos y enlatados. Durante el período de crecimiento considerado (4.7-10.2 mm de diámetro, el contenido lipídico no es modificado, y el contenido medio fue de 2.52% expresado en peso seco. En general, el predominio de los ácidos grasos en el guisante crudo se ajusta a la fórmula C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:C > C18:3 > C18:0; sin embargo, durante el crecimiento de la semilla incrementa C18:2 y decrecen C18:0 y C18:3. Estas variaciones son discutidas en relación a la temperatura ambiental y a la modificación del cociente cotiledón/testa durante el crecimiento de la semilla. Un bajo contenido lipídico, que permanece constante durante el crecimiento de la semilla, y el menor contenido de C18:3 en el tamaño FN (8.3-8.8 mm, ponen de manifiesto que cuando la variedad Citrina es utilizada para la elaboración de productos procesados, la cosecha debe ser realizada cuando existe un predominio del tamaño FN. El contenido lipídico durante el enlatado no es modificado en ningún tamaño, aunque se producen algunas modificaciones en la composición de ácidos grasos debidas, en general, a que durante el enlatado se produce una disminución en el grado de saturación.

  13. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    , the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes...... involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis....

  14. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  15. Uptake and distribution of mercury within higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauford, W; Barber, J; Barringer, A R

    1977-04-15

    The uptake and distribution of inorganic mercury (HgCl/sub 2/) within higher plants (Pisum sativum and Mentha spicata) was examined using solution culture and radiotracer techniques. Plants were found to tolerate an external level of 1 mgHg/kg of solution but both physiological and biochemical processes were affected at 5 mgHg/kg and 10 mgHg/kg. The uptake of Hg into plants grown in hydroponic solution was a function of external concentration. Over the concentration range considered the accumulation of Hg in the roots was linear on a log-log basis although the uptake of the element into the shoots appeared to be two-phased. The distribution of Hg in plants was asymmetrical with much greater amounts of the element in the roots than the shoots. Although the level of Hg increased generally in plant tissues with increasing external levels, the proportion retained in the roots, relative to the shoots, was constant (approximately 95%). Two binding characteristics of the Hg within plant tissue were detected. A major proportion of Hg was tightly bound, being unaffected by treatment with ethanol and hydrochloric acid. The remaining Hg in the tissue was removed by either water or hydrochloric acid treatment. Cell fractionation indicated that the major binding component of Hg in plant tissues was the cell wall.

  16. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  17. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  18. Effect of Irradiation of 60CO Gamma Rays on Growth of Garlic (Allium Sativum L) Plants Cv. Lumbu Hijau at Low Land Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismiyati Sutarto; Kumala Dewi; Arwin; Nurrohma

    2004-01-01

    Garlic originally come from the sub tropical area. In Indonesia, garlic is grown generally in high land area with an altitude between 1000 - 1600 m above sea level. Therefore, the area for growing and producing garlic is limited. Besides, genetic variation of garlic is very narrow since garlic belongs to vegetatively propagated crops. An effort for increasing genetic variation of garlic was done by exposing garlic cloves to gamma rays in order to obtain garlic mutant lines adapted to low land area. Garlic cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma rays 0 (untreated) 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy at the Centre for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology. Each dose consisted of 150 garlic cloves. Untreated and irradiated garlic cloves were grown at Bandar Buat Experimental Station (50 m above sea level), Padang, West Sumatera. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replication. The parameter observed were percentage of grown plants and survival harvested plants, plant height, leaf number, chlorophyll content, number of stomata, plant age, number of cloves per bulbs, fresh, dry weight and diameter of bulbs. The result indicated that the dose of gamma rays 6 Gy is an advantage dose for obtaining well adapted garlic mutant lines in the low land area. (author)

  19. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  20. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L. induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in a plastic tunnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Xiao

    Full Text Available A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and manganese (Mn in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  1. Low-temperature conditioning of "seed" cloves enhances the expression of phenolic metabolism related genes and anthocyanin content in 'Coreano' garlic (Allium sativum) during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Zavala-Gutiérrez, Karla G; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2013-11-06

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves accelerated the development of the crop cycle, decreased plant growth, and increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in the outer scale leaves of the bulbs at harvest time, leading to 3-fold content increase compared with those conditioned at room temperature. Cold conditioning of "seed" cloves also altered the anthocyanin profile during bulb development and at harvest. Two new anthocyanins are reported for the first time in garlic. The high phenolics and anthocyanin contents in bulbs of plants generated from "seed" cloves conditioned at 5 °C for 5 weeks were preceded by overexpression of some putative genes of the phenolic metabolism [6-fold for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and anthocyanin synthesis [1-fold for UDP-sugar:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT)] compared with those conditioned at room temperature.

  2. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  3. "Chitin-specific" peroxidases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, I V; Cherepanova, E A; Khairullin, R M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. Some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. Activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. Only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (Avena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), garden radish (Raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Link et Otto) were sorbed on chitin. Both anionic and cationic isoforms from pea (Pisum sativum), galega(Galega orientalis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were sorbed on chitin. Peroxidase activation under the influence of chitin was correlated to the processes that occur during hypersensitive reaction and lignification of sites, in which pathogenic fungus penetrates into a plant. The role of chitin-specific isoperoxidases in inhibition of fungal growth and connection of this phenomenon with structural characteristics of isoperoxidases are also discussed.

  4. Effects of steam distillation on extraction, composition, and functional properties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual plant commonly used as fresh green herb, spice, or for its essential oil. A newly-developed process combined steam distillation and mechanical pressing to recover the essential oil and edible oil, respectively, from dehulled coriander seeds. The c...

  5. Transcriptome of Dickeya dadantii infecting Acyrthosiphon pisum reveals a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costechareyre, Denis; Chich, Jean-François; Strub, Jean-Marc; Rahbé, Yvan; Condemine, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii has recently been shown to be able to kill the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. While the factors required to cause plant disease are now well characterized, those required for insect pathogeny remain mostly unknown. To identify these factors, we analyzed the transcriptome of the bacteria isolated from infected aphids. More than 150 genes were upregulated and 300 downregulated more than 5-fold at 3 days post infection. No homologue to known toxin genes could be identified in the upregulated genes. The upregulated genes reflect the response of the bacteria to the conditions encountered inside aphids. While only a few genes involved in the response to oxidative stress were induced, a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides (AMP) was induced. Expression of a great number of efflux proteins and transporters was increased. Besides the genes involved in LPS modification by addition of 4-aminoarabinose (the arnBCADTEF operon) and phosphoethanolamine (pmrC, eptB) usually induced in Gram negative bacteria in response to AMPs, dltBAC and pbpG genes, which confer Gram positive bacteria resistance to AMPs by adding alanine to teichoic acids, were also induced. Both types of modification confer D. dadantii resistance to the AMP polymyxin. A. pisum harbors symbiotic bacteria and it is thought that it has a very limited immune system to maintain these populations and do not synthesize AMPs. The arnB mutant was less pathogenic to A. pisum, which suggests that, in contrast to what has been supposed, aphids do synthesize AMP.

  6. Transcriptome of Dickeya dadantii infecting Acyrthosiphon pisum reveals a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Costechareyre

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii has recently been shown to be able to kill the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. While the factors required to cause plant disease are now well characterized, those required for insect pathogeny remain mostly unknown. To identify these factors, we analyzed the transcriptome of the bacteria isolated from infected aphids. More than 150 genes were upregulated and 300 downregulated more than 5-fold at 3 days post infection. No homologue to known toxin genes could be identified in the upregulated genes. The upregulated genes reflect the response of the bacteria to the conditions encountered inside aphids. While only a few genes involved in the response to oxidative stress were induced, a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides (AMP was induced. Expression of a great number of efflux proteins and transporters was increased. Besides the genes involved in LPS modification by addition of 4-aminoarabinose (the arnBCADTEF operon and phosphoethanolamine (pmrC, eptB usually induced in Gram negative bacteria in response to AMPs, dltBAC and pbpG genes, which confer Gram positive bacteria resistance to AMPs by adding alanine to teichoic acids, were also induced. Both types of modification confer D. dadantii resistance to the AMP polymyxin. A. pisum harbors symbiotic bacteria and it is thought that it has a very limited immune system to maintain these populations and do not synthesize AMPs. The arnB mutant was less pathogenic to A. pisum, which suggests that, in contrast to what has been supposed, aphids do synthesize AMP.

  7. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Anaeigoudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1 vehicle, (2 PTZ (90 mg/kg, (3 water fraction (WF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, (4 n-butanol fraction (NBF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, and (5 ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg. Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p< 0.01. In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p< 0.001. Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (pConclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.

  8. Degradation of aromatic compounds in plants grown under aseptic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mithaishvili, T.; Ugrekhelidze, D.; Tsereteli, B.; Sadunishvili, T.; Kvesitadze, G. [Durmishidze Inst. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Tbilisi (Georgia); Scalla, R. [Lab. des Xenobiotiques, INRA, Toulouse (France)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the work is to investigate the ability of higher plants to absorb and detoxify environmental pollutants - aromatic compounds via aromatic ring cleavage. Transformation of {sup 14}C specifically labelled benzene derivatives, [1-6-{sup 14}C]-nitrobenzene, [1-6-{sup 14}C]-aniline, [1-{sup 14}C]- and [7-{sup 14}C]-benzoic acid, in axenic seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) were studied. After penetration in plants, the above xenobiotics are transformed by oxidative or reductive reactions, conjugation with cell endogenous compounds, and binding to biopolymers. The initial stage of oxidative degradation consists in hydroxylation reactions. The aromatic ring can then be cleaved and degraded into organic acids of the Krebs cycle. Ring cleavage is accompanied by {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution. Aromatic ring cleavage in plants has thus been demonstrated for different xenobiotics carrying different substitutions on their benzene ring. Conjugation with low molecular peptides is the main pathway of aromatic xenobiotics detoxification. Peptide conjugates are formed both by the initial xenobiotics (except nitrobenzene) and by intermediate transformation products. The chemical nature of the radioactive fragment and the amino acid composition of peptides participating in conjugation were identified. (orig.)

  9. [Enhanced Resistance of Pea Plants to Oxidative: Stress Caused by Paraquat during Colonization by Aerobic Methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Doronina, N Y; Trotsenko, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of colonization of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) by aerobic methylobacteria of five different species (Methylophilus flavus Ship, Methylobacterium extorquens G10, Methylobacillus arboreus Iva, Methylopila musalis MUSA, Methylopila turkiensis Sidel) on plant resistance to paraquat-induced stresses has been studied. The normal conditions of pea colonization by methylobacteria were characterized by a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases) and in the concentrations of endogenous H2O2, proline, and malonic dialdehyde, which is a product of lipid peroxidation and indicator of damage to plant cell membranes, and an increase in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (the content of chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids). In the presence of paraquat, the colonized plants had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, stable photosynthetic indices, and a less intensive accumulation of the products of lipid peroxidation as compared to noncolonized plants. Thus, colonization by methylobacteria considerably increased the adaptive protection of pea plants to the paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

  10. In vitro and in vivo Nematocidal Activity of Allium sativum and Tagetes erecta Extracts Against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio- Landín, Josefina; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Salinas-Sánchez, David Osvaldo; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; Hernández-Velázquez, Victor Manuel; Valladares-Cisneros, María Guadalupe

    2015-12-01

    In the Mexican ethno-medicine, a number of plants have shown a successful anthelmintic activity. This fact could be crucial to identify possible green anti-parasitic strategies against nematodes affecting animal production. This research evaluated the in vitro and in vivo nematocidal effects of two single and combined plant extracts: bulbs of Allium sativum (n-hexane) and flowers of Tagetes erecta (acetone). The in vivo assay evaluated the administration of extracts either individually or combined against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected gerbils. The in vitro larvicidal activity percentage (LAP) of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts against H. contortus (L3) was determined by means of individual and combined usage of the extracts. Similarly, the extracts were evaluated in terms of reduction in the parasitic population in gerbils infected with H. contortus by individual and combined usage. The LAP at 40 mg/mL was 68% with A. sativum and 36.6% with T. erecta. The combination caused 83.3% mortality of parasites. The oral administration of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts at 40 mg/mL, caused 68.7% and 53.9% reduction of the parasitic burden, respectively. Meanwhile, the combined effect of both extracts shown 87.5% reduction. This study showed evidence about the effect of A. sativum and T. erecta plant extracts by means of individual and combined usage against H. contortus in in vitro and in vivo bioassays in artificially H. contortus-infected gerbils as a model.

  11. Antioxidative response of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka

    2017-09-25

    In this study, Lepidium sativum L. was used in repeated phytoextraction processes to remove Hg from contaminated soil, assisted by combined use of compost and iodide (KI). L. sativum L. is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and has been used in environmental tests. Its short vegetation period and ability to accumulate heavy metals make it suitable for use in repeated phytoextraction. The antioxidant enzymatic system of the plant (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) was analysed, to understand the effects of increasing Hg accumulation and translocation. Phytoextraction was repeated six times to decrease Hg contamination in soil, and the efficiency of each step was assessed. The results indicate that L. sativum L. is able to take up and accumulate Hg from contaminated soil. A corresponding increase in enzymatic antioxidants shows that the plant defence system is activated in response to Hg stress. Using compost and KI increases total Hg accumulation and translocation to the above-ground parts of L. sativum L. Repeating the process decreases Hg contamination in pot experiments in all variants of the process. The combined use of compost and KI during repeated phytoextraction increases the efficiency of Hg removal from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutagenic effects of sodium azide and γ-irradiation in Pisum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, C.; Muehlbauer, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium azide was an effective mutagen in Pisum when used at a concentration of 10 -3 M and at pH 3. Effects on dry, sound seeds of 'Juneau' so treated for 3 or 4 hr and for 3 hr in the presence of oxygen were compared with responses to 5, 10 and 20 kR of γ-rays for evaluating relative effectiveness in producing mutants. Leaf aberrations were observed on γ-irradiated plants but not on azide-treated plants, an indication that azide did not cause chromosome damage. At the treatment levels used, sodium azide was as effective in total yield of mutants but produced fewer stunted and variously deformed plants than γ-rays. (author)

  13. Lead induced changes in phosphorylation of PSII proteins in low light grown pea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wioleta, Wasilewska; Anna, Drożak; Ilona, Bacławska; Kamila, Kąkol; Elżbieta, Romanowska

    2015-02-01

    Light-intensity and redox-state induced thylakoid proteins phosphorylation involved in structural changes and in regulation of protein turnover. The presence of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in plant growth and photosynthesis. Plants have evolved a number of mechanisms to protect photosynthetic apparatus. We have characterized the effect of lead on PSII protein phosphorylation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown in low light conditions. Pb ions affected only slightly photochemical efficiency of PSII and had no effect on organization of thylakoid complexes. Lead activated strongly phosphorylation of PSII core D1 protein and dephosphorylation of this protein did not proceed in far red light. D1 protein was also not degraded in this conditions. However, phosphorylation of LHCII proteins was not affected by lead. These results indicate that Pb(2+) stimulate the phosphorylation of PSII core proteins and by disturbing the disassembly of supercomplexes play a role in PSII repair mechanism. LHCII phosphorylation could control the distribution of energy between the photosystems in low light conditions. This demonstrates that plants may respond to heavy metals by induction different pathways responsible for protein protection under stress conditions.

  14. Photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted Hg phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate metabolic answer of Lepidium sativum L. on Hg, compost, and citric acid during assisted phytoextraction. The chlorophyll a and b contents, total carotenoids, and activity of peroxidase were determined in plants exposed to Hg and soil amendments. Hg accumulation in plant shoots was also investigated. The pot experiments were provided in soil artificially contaminated by Hg and/or supplemented with compost and citric acid. Hg concentration in plant shoots and soil substrates was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) method after acid mineralization. The plant photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods. The study shows that L. sativum L. accumulated Hg in its aerial tissues. An increase in Hg accumulation was noticed when soil was supplemented with compost and citric acid. Increasing Hg concentration in plant shoots was correlated with enhanced activation of peroxidase activity and changes in total carotenoid concentration. Combined use of compost and citric acid also decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents in plant leaves. Presented study reveals that L. sativum L. is capable of tolerating Hg and its use during phytoextraction assisted by combined use of compost and citric acid lead to decreasing soil contamination by Hg.

  15. Candidate Herbaceous Plants for Phytoremediation of Energetics on Ranges. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    fescue P medium medium N-W NE, NH G.c. CCREL 10 Hordeum sativum Barley TNT A medium medium N&S AK, HW 4 Lolium multiflorum Ryegrass TNT AP... Allium schoenopra- sum Wild chives TNT P small small N AK 4 Brassica rapa Canola RDX,HMX AB medium medium N&S AK, HW, IL, PR, VI 4, 20 Bupleurum...TNT, HMX A medium medium N&S IL, PR, VI JAAP 4, 12.,13 Pisum sativum Pea TNT A small large N&S 4 Raphanus sativus Radish RDX A tap small N

  16. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  17. De novo assembly and characterization of the garlic (Allium sativum) bud transcriptome by Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiudong; Zhou, Shumei; Meng, Fanlu; Liu, Shiqi

    2012-10-01

    Garlic is widely used as a spice throughout the world for the culinary value of its flavor and aroma, which are created by the chemical transformation of a series of organic sulfur compounds. To analyze the transcriptome of Allium sativum and discover the genes involved in sulfur metabolism, cDNAs derived from the total RNA of Allium sativum buds were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Approximately 26.67 million 90 bp paired-end clean reads were achieved in two libraries. A total of 127,933 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly and were compared with the sequences in public databases. Of these, 45,286 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the Nr database, 29,514 showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and, 20,706 and 21,952 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Moreover, genes involved in organic sulfur biosynthesis were identified. These unigenes data will provide the foundation for research on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in Allium sativum. Key message The obtained unigenes will provide the foundation for research on functional genomics in Allium sativum and its closely related species, and fill the gap of the existing plant EST database.

  18. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  19. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Furletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  20. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  1. Respiratory metabolism of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemipetra: Aphididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Jedlička, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2012), s. 491-502 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/09/P382 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hemiptera * Aphididae * Acyrthosiphon pisum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2012 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1734

  2. Analysis of the state of posttranslational calmodulin methylation in developing pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A specific calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used in a radiometric assay to analyze the degree of methylation of lysine-115 in pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Calmodulin was isolated from dissected segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by incubation with the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of [ 3 H]methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. By this approach, the presence of unmethylated calmodulins were demonstrated in pea tissues, and the levels of methylation varied depending on the developmental state of the tissue tested. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments of both etiolated and green plants, and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The incorporation of methyl groups into these calmodulin samples appears to be specific for position 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position competitively inhibited methyl group incorporation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in the ability of methylated and unmethylated calmodulins to activate pea NAD kinase raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation of calmodulin could be another mechanism for regulating calmodulin activity

  3. Gaseous environment of plants and activity of enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.F.; Zemlyanukhin, A.A.; Igamberdiev, A.U.; Salam, A.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors investigated the action of hypoxia and high CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on activity of phosphofructokinase, aldolase, glucose phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.), corn scutella (Zea mays L.), and hemp cotyledons (Cannabis sativa L.). The first 4-12h of hypoxia witnessed suppression of enzymes of the initial stages of glycolysis (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase)and activation of enzymes of its final stages (alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase) and enzymes linking glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). An excess of CO 2 in the environment accelerated and amplified this effect. At the end of a 24-h period of anaerobic incubation, deviations of enzyme activity from the control were leveled in both gaseous environments. An exception was observed in the case of phosphofructokinase, whose activity increased markedly at this time in plants exposed to CO 2 . Changes in activity of the enzymes were coupled with changes in their kinetic parameters (apparent K m and V max values). The activity of isocitrate lyase was suppressed in both variants of hypoxic gaseous environments, a finding that does not agree with the hypothesis as to participation of the glyoxylate cycle in the metabolic response of plants to oxygen stress. Thus, temporary inhibition of the system of glycolysis and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway constituted the initial response of the plants to O 2 stress, and CO 2 intensified this metabolic response

  4. Biosynthesis of digalactosyldiacylglycerol in plastids from 16:3 and 18:3 plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemskerk, J.W.M.; Heinz, E. (Univ. of Hamburg (West Germany)); Storz, T.; Schmidt, R.R. (Univ. of Konstanz (West Germany))

    1990-08-01

    Intact chloroplasts isolated from leaves of eight species of 16:3 and 18:3 plants and chromoplasts isolated from Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. flowers synthesize galactose-labeled mono-, di-, and trigalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG, and TGDG) when incubated with UDP-(6-{sup 3}H)galactose. In all plastids, galactolipid synthesis, and especially synthesis of DGDG and TGDG, is reduced by treatment of the organelles with the nonpenetrating protease thermolysin. Envelope membranes isolated from thermolysin-treated chloroplasts of Spinacia oleracea L. (16:3 plant) and Pisum sativum L. (18:3 plant) or membranes isolated from thermolysin-treated chromoplasts are strongly reduced in galactolipid:galactolipid galactosyltransferase activity, but not with regard to UDP-Gal:diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase. For the intact plastids, this indicates that thermolysin treatment specifically blocks DGDG (and TGDG) synthesis, whereas MGDG synthesis is not affected. Neither in chloroplast nor in chromoplast membranes is DGDG synthesis stimulated by UDP-Gal. DGDG synthesis in S. oleracea chloroplasts is not stimulated by nucleoside 5{prime}-diphospho digalactosides. Therefore, galactolipid:galactolipid galactosyltransferase is so far the only detectable enzyme synthesizing DGDG.

  5. Biosynthesis of digalactosyldiacylglycerol in plastids from 16:3 and 18:3 plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, J.W.M.; Heinz, E.; Storz, T.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Intact chloroplasts isolated from leaves of eight species of 16:3 and 18:3 plants and chromoplasts isolated from Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. flowers synthesize galactose-labeled mono-, di-, and trigalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG, and TGDG) when incubated with UDP-[6- 3 H]galactose. In all plastids, galactolipid synthesis, and especially synthesis of DGDG and TGDG, is reduced by treatment of the organelles with the nonpenetrating protease thermolysin. Envelope membranes isolated from thermolysin-treated chloroplasts of Spinacia oleracea L. (16:3 plant) and Pisum sativum L. (18:3 plant) or membranes isolated from thermolysin-treated chromoplasts are strongly reduced in galactolipid:galactolipid galactosyltransferase activity, but not with regard to UDP-Gal:diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase. For the intact plastids, this indicates that thermolysin treatment specifically blocks DGDG (and TGDG) synthesis, whereas MGDG synthesis is not affected. Neither in chloroplast nor in chromoplast membranes is DGDG synthesis stimulated by UDP-Gal. DGDG synthesis in S. oleracea chloroplasts is not stimulated by nucleoside 5'-diphospho digalactosides. Therefore, galactolipid:galactolipid galactosyltransferase is so far the only detectable enzyme synthesizing DGDG

  6. Light represses transcription of asparagine synthetase genes in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Fongying; Coruzzi, G. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    Asparagine synthetase (AS) mRNA in Pisum sativum accumulates preferentially in plants grown in the dark. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrate that expression of both the AS1 and AS2 genes is negatively regulated by light at the level of transcription. A decrease in the transcriptional rate of the AS1 gene can be detected as early as 20 min after exposure to light. Time course experiments reveal that the levels of AS mRNA fluctuate dramatically during a normal light/dark cycle. This is due to a direct effect of light and not to changes associated with circadian rhythm. A novel finding is that the light-repressed expression of the AS1 gene is as dramatic nonphotosynthetic organs such as roots as it is in leaves. Experiments demonstrate that the small amount of light which passes through the soil is sufficient to repress AS1 expression in roots, indicating that light has a direct effect on AS1 gene expression in roots. The negative regulation of AS gene expression by light was shown to be a general phenomenon in plants which also occurs in nonlegumes such as Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum. Thus, the AS genes can serve as a model with which to dissect the molecular basis for light-regulated transcriptional repression in plants.

  7. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole brains were removed and the medial prefrontal cortex excised and processed for histomorphologic studies by haematoxylin and eosin, and cresyl fast violet techniques. Neurobehavioural test revealed less spontaneous alternation in 156 mg/kg Allium sativum group, while the prefrontal cortices of the test groups ...

  8. Synergistic antiosteoporotic effect of Lepidium Sativum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates (BP) therapy is a vital option to reduce the risk of bone fracture in people who suffer from osteoporosis. Yet, bisphosphonate have displayed several side effects. Lepidium sativum (LS) seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine to ...

  9. ( Allium sativum Linn), ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  10. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegink, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with 14 C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. 14 C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little 14 C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much 14 C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I 5 0 for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria

  11. Оптимизация продукционного процесса гороха ( Pisum sativum L. в условиях Южной Степи Украины

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    КАЛИТКА В. В.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the study (2012-2014 there was revealed the effect of the microbial preparation (Rizobofit and plant growth regulators (Gumaksid and AKM on the symbiotic nitrogen fixation, photosynthetic activity and grain productivity in garden pea. Experiments were conducted six times in accordance with the methodology and techniques provided for laboratory and field studies. We used common methodologies to determine leaf area, photosynthetic potential, dry mass, net photosynthetic productivity, the number of active tubers, yield indices and nitrogen content. The results show that the use ofthe biological product in combination with plant growth regulators to treat seeds and vegetative pea plants stimulates the photosynthetic activity, increases net photosynthetic productivity, provides grain yield increase of 0.87 - 1.79 t/ha with the biological yield in the control group of 2.45 t/ha, increases protein yield from 1 hectare by 1.6 - 2.2 times compared to the control group through the enhanced symbiotic nitrogen fixation and biological nitrogen assimilation. Реферат. Входе проведенных исследований (2012-2014 гг. было изучено влияние микробного препарата (Ризобофит и регуляторов роста растений (Гумаксид и АКМ на симбиотическую азотфиксацию, фотосинтетическую деятельность и зерновую продуктивность гороха посевного. Опыты закладывали в шести кратной повторности в соответствии с методикой и техникой постановки лабораторно - полевых опытов. Площадь листовой поверхности, фотосинтетический потенциал, массу сухого вещества растений, чистую прод

  12. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant height, plant density per 0.25 m2, number of pea aphids and parasitoids per plant, ladybird beetles per plot, and finally grain yield per plot were recorded. Based on the results of the ANOVA, plant height was significantly different between treated and untreated plots especially after the vegetative stage. The density of ...

  13. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-02-01

    To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms.

  15. Immunoanalysis of isoflavonoids in pea .I.Pisum sativum./I. and mung bean .I.Vigna radiata./I.: Evidence of 7-methoxy-isoflavonoids in .I.Pisum sativum./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčík, O.; Hill, M.; Černý, Ivan; Lachman, J.; Al-Maharik, N.; Wähälä, K.; Adlercreutz, H.; Hampl, R.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 11 (1998), s. 963 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii. 16.11.1998-18.11.1998, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA311/97/468 Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Importance of fruit wall in seed yield of pea (Pisum Sativum L.) and mustard (Brassica campestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna-Chopra, R.; Sinha, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Dry weight changes in fruit wall and seed during fruit development in the pea and mustard were suggestive of the importance of fruit wall during seed development. So the relative photosynthetic potential of leaves and reproductive parts in the above crops were studied. In addition, the translocation of current photosynthates to the developing seeds was also assessed when fruits and leaves were fed 14 CO 2 independently. Considerable amount of photosynthetic carboxylase activity was observed in the fruit wall of both pea and mustard on unit fresh weight, chlorophyll and organ basis. On unit chlorophyll basis fruit wall had several times more activity than leaves. Both fruit wall as well as leaves translocated current photosynthates to the developing fruits. In the early stages, translocation from the leaves was more efficient but in the later stages, more translocation occurred from the fruit wall as compared with the leaves. Above results are discussed in relation to the importance of reproductive organs in the developing seeds. (author)

  19. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2017-09-06

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R 2 = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  20. Preprotein import into chloroplasts via the Toc and Tic complexes is regulated by redox signals in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Anna; Benz, J Philipp; Buchanan, Bob B; Soll, Jürgen; Bölter, Bettina

    2009-11-01

    The import of nuclear-encoded preproteins is necessary to maintain chloroplast function. The recognition and transfer of most precursor proteins across the chloroplast envelopes are facilitated by two membrane-inserted protein complexes, the translocons of the chloroplast outer and inner envelope (Toc and Tic complexes, respectively). Several signals have been invoked to regulate the import of preproteins. In our study, we were interested in redox-based import regulation mediated by two signals: regulation based on thiols and on the metabolic NADP+/NADPH ratio. We sought to identify the proteins participating in the regulation of these transport pathways and to characterize the preprotein subgroups whose import is redox-dependent. Our results provide evidence that the formation and reduction of disulfide bridges in the Toc receptors and Toc translocation channel have a strong influence on import yield of all tested preproteins that depend on the Toc complex for translocation. Furthermore, the metabolic NADP+/NADPH ratio influences not only the composition of the Tic complex, but also the import efficiency of most, but not all, preproteins tested. Thus, several Tic subcomplexes appear to participate in the translocation of different preprotein subgroups, and the redox-active components of these complexes likely play a role in regulating transport.

  1. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.

  2. Linking fungal communities in roots, rhizosphere, and soil to the health status of Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lihui; Ravnskov, Sabine; Larsen, John

    2012-01-01

    the three fields identified a number of OTUs that were more abundant in healthy roots. Pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum were abundant in diseased roots in some fields. Patterns of disease and causal agents of root rot were different among the three fields, which were also reflected in fungal communities...

  3. Alteration in expression of defence genes in Pisum sativum after exposure to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in the amounts of mRNA for different types of defence genes after exposure of peas to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation are demonstrated. The expression of the genes which encode the chalcone synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and glutathione reductase was induced, while a decrease was found for the chloroplastic radical-scavenging enzyme, superoxide dismutase. (author)

  4. Evaluación de la habilidad combinatoria y heterosis de siete progenitores de arveja Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Natalia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia se carece de información referente al tipo de control genético en la arveja que gobierna la precocidad, el rendimiento y sus componentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la habilidad combinatoria y heterosis en cuatro líneas y tres variedades comerciales de arveja, para once variables agronómicas. Se desarrolló un diseño dialélico (Griffing, método 1, modelo 1 con siete materiales, bajo condiciones de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se hizo el análisis de varianza y se obtuvieron los valores estimados para habilidad combinatoria general (HCG y específica (HCE, y se calcularon los valores de heterosis sobre la media parental (HMP y sobre el mejor padre (HBP. La HCG fue altamente significativa para ocho de los caracteres evaluados y la HCE fue significativa para: nudos hasta la primera flor, longitud de vaina, número de semillas por vaina y peso de 100 semillas. Las variedades ‘Pequinegra’, ‘Santa Isabel’ e ‘ICA Tominé’ fueron los mejores combinadores generales. La variedad ‘Pequinegra’ tuvo efectos recíprocos altamente significativos en caracteres asociados con precocidad. En cuanto a la evaluación de heterosis, los híbridos F1 tuvieron un mejor comportamiento que la media de sus parentales en cinco de los componentes de rendimiento. Aún cuando sólo tres de las progenies en estudio fueron más precoces que el mejor padre, para la HMP se hallaron valores negativos que indican precocidad para más de la mitad de los cruces evaluados. Se encontró una asociación importante entre el tamaño de la vaina y el peso de 100 semillas.

  5. Characterisation by proteomics of peribacteroid space and peribacteroid membrane preparations from pea (¤Pisum sativum¤) symbiosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalbach, G.; Erik, P.; Wienkoop, S.

    2002-01-01

    PBM preparations from pea symbiosomes always contain abundant amounts of bacteroid proteins as a contaminate. Interestingly, in addition to a few PS/PBM proteins a number of endomembrane proteins (less likely representing a contaminate), including V-ATPase, BIP, and an integral membrane protein known...

  6. Partner, Kristal and Dukat: A new generation of the Novi Sad spring protein pea (Pisum sativum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Vojislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the trials of the Department of Variety Protection and Registration of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia were carried out on four locations, including three new Novi Sad spring pea line, L-536, L-537 and L-538, and the control cultivar Javor. In average, the grain yield of all three lines was higher in comparison to the control cultivar, with the highest average yield in Partner (2732 kg ha-1. All three cultivars have shown that in favourable years may give grain yields higher than 3500 kg ha-1. The crude protein content ranged from 278.3 g kg-1, in Javor, to 307.0 g kg-1, in Dukat. .

  7. Functional analysis of the isoforms of an ABI3-like factor of Pisum sativum generated by alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagete, Andrés P; Riera, Marta; Franco, Luis; Rodrigo, M Isabel

    2009-01-01

    At least seven isoforms (PsABI3-1 to PsABI3-7) of a putative, pea ABI3-like factor, originated by alternative splicing, have been identified after cDNA cloning. A similar variability had previously only been described for monocot genes. The full-length isoform, PsABI3-1, contains the typical N-terminal acidic domains and C-terminal basic subdomains, B1 to B3. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the gene is expressed just in seeds, starting at middle embryogenesis; no gene products are observed in embryo axes after 18 h post-imbibition although they are more persistent in cotyledons. The activity of the isoforms was studied by yeast one-hybrid assays. When yeast was transformed with the isoforms fused to the DNA binding domain of Gal4p, only the polypeptides PsABI3-2 and PsABI3-7 failed to complement the activity of Gal4p. Acidic domains A1 and A2 exhibit transactivating activity, but the former requires a small C-terminal extension to be active. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PsABI3 is able to heterodimerize with Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5, thus proving that PsABI3 is functionally active. The minimum requirement for the interaction PsABI3-AtABI5 is the presence of the subdomain B1 with an extension, 81 amino acids long, at their C-terminal side. Finally, a transient onion transformation assay showed that both the active PsABI3-1 and the inactive PsABI3-2 isoforms are localized to nuclei. Considering that the major isoforms remain approximately constant in developing seeds although their relative proportion varied, the possible role of splicing in the regulatory network of ABA signalling is discussed.

  8. Phytoremediation of mercury in pristine and crude oil contaminated soils: Contributions of rhizobacteria and their host plants to mercury removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhoh, N A; Ali, N; Al-Awadhi, H; Dashti, N; Al-Mailem, D M; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

    2010-11-01

    The rhizospheric soils of three tested legume crops: broad beans (Vicia faba), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum), and two nonlegume crops: cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum) contained considerable numbers (the magnitude of 10(5)g(-1) soil) of bacteria with the combined potential for hydrocarbon-utilization and mercury-resistance. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding genes of rhizobacteria associated with broad beans revealed that they were affiliated to Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Exiquobacterium aurantiacum, Pseudomonas veronii, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacillus brevis, Arthrobacter sp. and Flavobacterium psychrophilum. These rhizobacteria were also diazotrophic, i.e. capable of N(2) fixation, which makes them self-sufficient regarding their nitrogen nutrition and thus suitable remediation agents in nitrogen-poor soils, such as the oily desert soil. The crude oil attenuation potential of the individual rhizobacteria was inhibited by HgCl(2), but about 50% or more of this potential was still maintained in the presence of up to 40 mgl(-1) HgCl(2). Rhizobacteria-free plants removed amounts of mercury from the surrounding media almost equivalent to those removed by the rhizospheric bacterial consortia in the absence of the plants. It was concluded that both the collector plants and their rhizospheric bacterial consortia contributed equivalently to mercury removal from soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V

    1912-01-23

    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  10. The Application of Contrast Media for In Vivo Feature Enhancement in X-Ray Computed Tomography of Soil-Grown Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Samuel D; Gostling, Neil J; Cheung, Jessica H; Roose, Tiina; Sinclair, Ian; Marchant, Alan

    2017-06-01

    The use of in vivo X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) to study plant root systems has become routine, but is often hampered by poor contrast between roots, soil, soil water, and soil organic matter. In clinical radiology, imaging of poorly contrasting regions is frequently aided by the use of radio-opaque contrast media. In this study, we present evidence for the utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) in the study of plant root systems using μCT. Different dilutions of an ionic and nonionic ICM (Gastrografin 370 and Niopam 300) were perfused into the aerial vasculature of juvenile pea plants via a leaf flap (Pisum sativum). The root systems were imaged via μCT, and a variety of image-processing approaches used to quantify and compare the magnitude of the contrast enhancement between different regions. Though the treatment did not appear to significantly aid extraction of full root system architectures from the surrounding soil, it did allow the xylem and phloem units of seminal roots and the vascular morphology within rhizobial nodules to be clearly visualized. The nonionic, low-osmolality contrast agent Niopam appeared to be well tolerated by the plant, whereas Gastrografin showed evidence of toxicity. In summary, the use of iodine-based contrast media allows usually poorly contrasting root structures to be visualized nondestructively using X-ray μCT. In particular, the vascular structures of roots and rhizobial nodules can be clearly visualized in situ.

  11. Hydroponic Phytoremediation of Nickel by Coriander (Coriandrum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Tagharobiyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses are one of the most important factors of agricultural products reduction in the world. The influence of different concentrations of nickel nitrate (0, 100, 200 and 500 μM in Hoagland’s solution on dry matter, catalase enzyme, flavonoids, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase Enzyme, MDA and accumulation of Ni were studied in coriander (Coriandrum sativum plants. Treatment with Ni led to significant increase in flavonoids, hydrogen peroxide, MDA and other aldehyde. Exposure of coriander plant to Ni altered catalase enzymes, leading to significant decrease in their contents. In both shoots and roots of coriander plants, significant decrease in dry matter was observed. Ni accumulation increased significantly in shoots and roots. Ni increased in the roots more than the shoots. According to a more accumulation of Ni in the roots, the expansion of plants root can help to better adaptability with the toxicity of metals. It may be used as an indicator to illustrate the differences between plant species.

  12. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, V.; Fischer, M.D.; Wäckers, F.L.; Volkl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. EFN and A. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, Lasius niger, while Ac. pisum usually remains uninfested.

  14. Antioxidant and schistosomicidal effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Schistosoma mansoni different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantawy, M M; Aly, H F; Zayed, N; Fahmy, Z H

    2012-07-01

    The schistosomicidal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) powder were tested in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni miracidia, schistosomula, cercaria and adult worms. Results indicate their strong biocidal effects against all stages of the parasite and also show scavenging inhibitory effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present work, the in vivo effects of A. sativum and A. cepa on lipid peroxide and some antioxidant enzymes; thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) (as they have a crucial role in host protection against invading parasite) were also studied. The data demonstrate that, there was a significant inhibition in SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH in infected liver while, significant elevation was detected in lipid peroxide as compared to the normal control. The current resultS clearly revealed that, the used both edible plants enhance the host antioxidant system indicated by lowering in lipid peroxide and stimulation of SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH enzyme levels. Enhancement of such enzymes using A. sativum and A. cepa could in turn render the parasite vulnerable to damage by the host and may play a role in the antischistosomal potency of the used food ingredients.

  15. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  16. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... mineralization of N was highly correlated to the concentrations of soluble C and N and the lignin:N ratio of residues. The contribution of residue-derived N to the inorganic N pool was at its maximum 30 DAI (10-55%) and declined to on average 5% after 3 years of decomposition. Residual organic labelled N...... in the top 10 cm soil declined rapidly during the initial 86 DAI for all residue types. Leaching of soluble organic materials may have contributed to this decline. At 216 DAI 72, 59 and 45% of the barley, mature pea and green pea residue N, respectively, were present in organic N-forms in the topsoil. During...

  17. Plant storage proteins – the main nourisching products – from biosynthesis to cellular storage depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chmielnicka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Storage proteins of legumes are one of the main components of the human and animal diet. The substances collected in their seeds have the pro-health values, supporting the prevention of many civilization diseases. However, there are still many uncertainties about the mechanisms leading to the production of nutritious seeds. It is also difficult to identify which of their constituents and in what final form are responsible for the observed protective effects in vivo. In this work, on the background of different types of storage proteins, these deposited mainly in legumes were in the focus of interest. They were characterized on the example of pea (Pisum sativum proteins. Mechanisms associated with their biosynthesis and transport to specific cellular compartments was presented. Ways of their post-translational processing, segregation and storage in the specific vacuoles were also discussed. Therefore, the paper presents the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning the processes making the accumulated protein deposits ready to use by plants, animals and humans.

  18. Protein changes in Lepidium sativum L. exposed to Hg during soil phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-08-03

    Some investigations have been carried out in this study to find the best technique of soil reclamation in mercurypolluted soil. In this study, we examined Lepidium sativum L. as a plant useful for Hg phytoextraction. The simultaneous application of compost and thiosulfate was explored as a possible method of enhancing the process of phytoextraction. The results of the investigations of plant protein changes during assisted Hg phytoextraction were also provided. The results of the study show that combined use of compost and thiosulfate significantly increased both the total Hg accumulation and its translocation to aerial plant tissues. Plant protein analysis showed that L. sativum L. has the ability to respond to environmental stress condition by the activation of additional proteins. The additional proteins, like homocysteine methyltransferase, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases (long and short chains), 14-3-3-like protein, and biosynthesis-related 40S ribosomal protein S15, were activated in plant shoots only in experiments carried out in Hg-polluted soil. There were no protein changes observed in plants exposed to compost and thiosulfate. It suggests that the combined use of compost and thiosulfate decreased Hg toxicity.

  19. Nitrogen metabolism in plants using 15N as tracer. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes in fertilizer efficiency studies on grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.; Atkins, C.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are described for studying the economy of carbon and nitrogen in annual nodulated legumes. Budgets for utilization of net photosynthate are constructed for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), including expenditure in respiration and dry matter accumulation of plant parts, carbon consumption in growth, respiration and export of fixed nitrogen by nodules, and the provision of recent photosynthate and earlier-fixed carbon to fruits. Sources of nitrogen to fruits are defined, and efficiencies of conversion of net photosynthate to protein of above-ground vegetative parts and of seeds are computed. Consideration is given to the timing of events associated with loss of symbiotic activity after flowering. Literature giving estimates of the respiratory requirements of nitrogen fixation by nodules is reviewed. Rates of respiration of nodules of cowpea, white lupin and pea (Pisum sativum L.) are assessed from a theoretical viewpoint, basing the estimates on ATP requirements for assimilation of N 2 into nitrogenous solutes, and published values for respiration costs in plant tissues. Expressed as CO 2 output per unit of nitrogen assimilated, these estimates greatly exceed the experimentally-observed CO 2 efflux of nodules of the species. This discrepancy is examined in relation to the capacity of nodules to fix CO 2 and the uncertainty of the in vivo requirement of nitrogenase for ATP

  20. Effects of steam distillation and screw-pressing on extraction, composition and functional properties of protein in dehulled coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual plant commonly used as fresh green herb, spice, or for its essential oil. An integrated process combined steam distillation, dehulling, and screw pressing to recover the essential oil and edible oil from coriander fruit. The current work determine...

  1. Study of solution speciation, soil retention and soil-plant transfer of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrand, E.

    2005-12-01

    Within the framework of the risks prevention policy of Andra, the radioactive zirconium introduction ( 93 Zr and 95 Zr) into the environment could be carried out starting from the nuclear waste whose storage is envisaged in deep geological layers. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the parameters and phenomena influencing speciation (various chemical forms) and the soil-plant transfer of zirconium. Experiments of adsorption/desorption of zirconium with different ligands likely to be present in soils (goethite and humic acid) and with two soils, with contrasted characteristics, close to the underground research laboratory of Andra (Meuse) were carried out. These results of adsorption were then confronted with those obtained by the MUSIC and NICA-DONNAN models carried out using the computer code ECOSAT. Zr presents a strong affinity for the two types of soils and the soils constituents. Specific interactions of internal sphere type with the goethite were highlighted using the model. Soil-solution partition coefficients, or K d , values increase with pH and contact time. Various types of edible plants, pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L cv. St Pierre) were cultivated in hydroponic conditions and in soils spiked with various sources of Zirconium. The maximum zirconium contents are mainly measured in the roots of the plants. The soil-plant transfer factors measured during these experiments show a weak bioavailability of zirconium. An influence of speciation on Zr bioavailability is however highlighted. Some chemical forms, such as oxychloride or acetate, are more easily mobilized than others by the plant. (author)

  2. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eColla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L. coleoptile elongation rate test (experiment 1, a rooting test on tomato cuttings (experiment 2; and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. growth test (experiment 3, and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. nitrogen uptake trial (experiment 4. Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the four concentrations tested (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid (IAA treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21%, 35%, 24%, and 26%, respectively in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L significantly increased the shoot length of the giberellin (GA-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5%, 15% and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances.

  3. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by ..... fatty acids having double bonds, largely present in the phospholipids of .... disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, possess antioxidant prop- erties and can ...

  4. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2010-03-02

    Electron microscopy (EM) techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb) in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10(-3) to 10(-4) M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER) with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification and tolerance under Pb stress. Vacuoles are

  5. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Donghua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron microscopy (EM techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification

  6. Shoot to root communication is necessary to control the expression of iron-acquisition genes in Strategy I plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; Romera, Francisco J; Stacey, Minviluz G; Stacey, Gary; Villar, Eduardo; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Previous research showed that auxin, ethylene, and nitric oxide (NO) can activate the expression of iron (Fe)-acquisition genes in the roots of Strategy I plants grown with low levels of Fe, but not in plants grown with high levels of Fe. However, it is still an open question as to how Fe acts as an inhibitor and which pool of Fe (e.g., root, phloem, etc.) in the plant acts as the key regulator for gene expression control. To further clarify this, we studied the effect of the foliar application of Fe on the expression of Fe-acquisition genes in several Strategy I plants, including wild-type cultivars of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh], pea [Pisum sativum L.], tomato [Solanum lycopersicon Mill.], and cucumber [Cucumis sativus L.], as well as mutants showing constitutive expression of Fe-acquisition genes when grown under Fe-sufficient conditions [Arabidopsis opt3-2 and frd3-3, pea dgl and brz, and tomato chln (chloronerva)]. The results showed that the foliar application of Fe blocked the expression of Fe-acquisition genes in the wild-type cultivars and in the frd3-3, brz, and chln mutants, but not in the opt3-2 and dgl mutants, probably affected in the transport of a Fe-related repressive signal in the phloem. Moreover, the addition of either ACC (ethylene precursor) or GSNO (NO donor) to Fe-deficient plants up-regulated the expression of Fe-acquisition genes, but this effect did not occur in Fe-deficient plants sprayed with foliar Fe, again suggesting the existence of a Fe-related repressive signal moving from leaves to roots.

  7. Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2011-08-12

    Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes.

  8. Investigation of coriander germination (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriander seed yield (Coriandrum sativum L. depends of many factors during vegetation period, and also depend of seed quality. Coriander fruit (Coriandri fructus which is used like spice and in medicinal purpose, and also in food and pharmacy, in the same time is and seed material. Because of that, it is very important to take care about its quality. In this paper is analyzed seed material obtained from field experiments village Mošorin, in 2011, and investigated was conducted in harvest year, and one year later. In harvest year, germination energy in average was 38,21%, and total germination 72,75%. After one year, germination energy was statistically significant smaller - 16,50%, as like total germination which was 67,42%.

  9. The in vitro effect of Ferula asafoetida and Allium sativum extracts on Strongylus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Mousa; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Fard, Vahid R. Besharati; Esfandiarpour, Rahim

    2018-01-01

    The high incidence of equine gastrointestinal worms and their increased resistance against anthelmintics has encouraged research into the effectiveness of rational phytotherapy. This study investigates the in vitro anti-parasitic effects of extracts of Ferula asafoetida and Allium sativum, two native plants that are widespread in Iran on Strongylus spp. larvae. Faecal samples were collected from horses, examined by routine parasitology methods and positive samples were used for future examination. After incubation, the third-stage larvae were harvested by the Baermann technique. A hydroalcoholic extract from the plants was used for the antiparasitic study, while tap water was used for controls. Trials for each concentration and control group were performed in three replicates. The results showed that that during the first day of exposure, the hydroalcoholic extract of F. asafoetida at concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml killed over the 90% of the larvae, and A. sativum extract at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/ml killed over the 95% of larvae (p<0.05). The results obtained from the bioassay showed that two plant extracts have a larvicidal effect on the Strongylus spp. larval stages compared with the control group.

  10. Study of solution speciation, soil retention and soil-plant transfer of zirconium; Etude de la speciation en solution, de la retention dans les sols et du transfert sol-plante du zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrand, E

    2005-12-15

    Within the framework of the risks prevention policy of Andra, the radioactive zirconium introduction ({sup 93}Zr and {sup 95}Zr) into the environment could be carried out starting from the nuclear waste whose storage is envisaged in deep geological layers. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the parameters and phenomena influencing speciation (various chemical forms) and the soil-plant transfer of zirconium. Experiments of adsorption/desorption of zirconium with different ligands likely to be present in soils (goethite and humic acid) and with two soils, with contrasted characteristics, close to the underground research laboratory of Andra (Meuse) were carried out. These results of adsorption were then confronted with those obtained by the MUSIC and NICA-DONNAN models carried out using the computer code ECOSAT. Zr presents a strong affinity for the two types of soils and the soils constituents. Specific interactions of internal sphere type with the goethite were highlighted using the model. Soil-solution partition coefficients, or K{sub d}, values increase with pH and contact time. Various types of edible plants, pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L cv. St Pierre) were cultivated in hydroponic conditions and in soils spiked with various sources of Zirconium. The maximum zirconium contents are mainly measured in the roots of the plants. The soil-plant transfer factors measured during these experiments show a weak bioavailability of zirconium. An influence of speciation on Zr bioavailability is however highlighted. Some chemical forms, such as oxychloride or acetate, are more easily mobilized than others by the plant. (author)

  11. Interactive effects of temperature and UVB radiation on methane emissions from different organs of pea plants grown in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Awatif M; Derby, Samantha R; Strickland, Samantha K; Qaderi, Mirwais M

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on variation of methane (CH 4 ) emissions from plant organs exposed to multiple environmental factors. We investigated the interactive effects of temperature and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on CH 4 emissions from different organs of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. UT234 Lincoln). Plants were grown hydroponically under two temperatures (22/18°C and 28/24°C; 16h day/8h night) and two levels of UVB radiation [0 and 5kJm -2 d -1 ] in controlled-environment growth chambers for ten days, after two weeks of initial growth under ambient temperatures. Methane emission, dry mass, growth index, electrical conductivity (EC), pectin, total chlorophyll content, gas exchange and flavonoids were measured in the appropriate plant organs - leaf, stem and root. Higher temperatures increased CH 4 emissions, leaf mass ratio, and shoot: root mass ratio. Neither temperature nor UVB had significant effects on leaf, stem, root and total dry mass, EC, pectin, total chlorophyll, as well as specific leaf mass. Among plant organs, there were differences in CH 4 , EC, pectin and total chlorophyll. Methane and EC were highest for the stem and lowest for the leaf; leaf had highest, but stem had lowest, pectin content; total chlorophyll was highest in the leaf but lowest in the root. Higher temperatures decreased leaf flavonoids, net carbon dioxide assimilation, and water use efficiency. Overall, environmental stressors increased aerobic CH 4 emission rates, which varied with plant organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiplatelet activity of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyasat, Bahi; Sabha, Dina; Grotzinger, Kristina; Kempfert, Joerg; Rauwald, Johann-Wilhelm; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Dhein, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has a well-established reputation as a protective agent against cardiovascular disease, while nearly nothing is known about its cousin Allium ursinum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiaggregatory mechanism of garlic and to compare the effects of A. ursinum and A. sativum. In a prospective study, extracts were prepared from A. sativum powder made from fresh A. sativum bulbs and fresh A. ursinum leaves by maceration. The extracts were characterized by thin layer chromatography. Their in vitro effects on human platelet aggregation were examined by light transmission aggregometry after induction by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, A23187, epinephrine and arachidonic acid (ARA) in platelets from healthy volunteers. A. ursinum and A. sativum exert similar antiaggregatory effects: they inhibit platelet aggregation induced via the ADP pathway and to a lesser extent aggregation induced by epinephrine, whereas ARA-, collagen- and A23187-induced aggregation was not affected. It became clear that the alcoholic extract of A. ursinum is the potent form, while the aqueous extract exerted an unspecific activity. The effects were strictly dose related. A. ursinum and A. sativum extracts exhibited similar potencies. Both A. ursinum and A. sativum exert antiaggregatory effects. Garlic extracts are acting by inhibition of the ADP pathway; their mechanisms of action are comparable to that of the clinically used drug clopidogrel. The pharmacologically active component of the extracts appears to be lipophilic rather than hydrophilic, but the precise chemical substance is still unknown. This is the first report on the antiplatelet activity of A. ursinum. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The LSD1-Type Zinc Finger Motifs of Pisum sativa LSD1 Are a Novel Nuclear Localization Signal and Interact with Importin Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shanping; Huang, Kuowei; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Xiangchun; Huang, Ping; An, Chengcai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of the Arabidopsis mutant lsd1 highlight the important role of LSD1 in the negative regulation of plant programmed cell death (PCD). Arabidopsis thaliana LSD1 (AtLSD1) contains three LSD1-type zinc finger motifs, which are involved in the protein-protein interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further understand the function of LSD1, we have analyzed cellular localization and functional localization domains of Pisum sativa LSD1 (PsLSD1), which is a homolog ...

  14. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and Its Bacterial Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Skaljac, Marisa; Grotmann, Jens; Kirfel, Phillipp; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-08-24

    Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ) with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  15. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Its Bacterial Symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  16. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  17. Role of uranium speciation in the uptake and translocation of uranium by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbs, S. D.; Brady, D. J.; Kochian, L. V. [US Plant, Soil, and Nutrition Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Uranium (U) uptake and translocation by plants was characterized using a computer speciation model to develop a nutrient culture system that provided U as a single predominant species in solution. A hydroponic uptake study determined that at pH 5.0, the uranyl (UO2{sup 2+}) cation was more readily taken up and translocated by peas (Pisum sativum) than the hydroxyl and carbonate U complexes present in the solution at pH 6.0 and 8.0, respectively. A subsequent experiment tested the extent to which various monocot and dicot species take up and translocate the uranyl cation. Of the species screened, tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and red beet (Beta vulgaris) were the species showing the greatest accumulation of U. In addition to providing fundamental information regarding U uptake by plants, the results obtained also have implications for the phytoremediation of U-contaminated soils. The initial characterization of U uptake by peas suggested that in the field, a soil pH of <5.5 would be required in order to provide U in the most plant-available form. A pot study using U-contaminated soil was therefore conducted to assess the extent to which two soil amendments, HEDTA and citric acid, were capable of acidifying the soil, increasing U solubility, and enhancing U uptake by red beet. Of these two amendments, only citric acid proved effective, decreasing the soil pH to 5.0 and increasing U accumulation by a factor of 14. The results of this pot study provide a basis for the development of an effective phytoremediation strategy for U-contaminated soils. (author)

  18. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation method for the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Mano

    Full Text Available The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium. We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max and pea (Pisum sativum. The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements.

  19. Role of uranium speciation in the uptake and translocation of uranium by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbs, S.D.; Brady, D.J.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium (U) uptake and translocation by plants was characterized using a computer speciation model to develop a nutrient culture system that provided U as a single predominant species in solution. A hydroponic uptake study determined that at pH 5.0, the uranyl (UO2 2+ ) cation was more readily taken up and translocated by peas (Pisum sativum) than the hydroxyl and carbonate U complexes present in the solution at pH 6.0 and 8.0, respectively. A subsequent experiment tested the extent to which various monocot and dicot species take up and translocate the uranyl cation. Of the species screened, tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and red beet (Beta vulgaris) were the species showing the greatest accumulation of U. In addition to providing fundamental information regarding U uptake by plants, the results obtained also have implications for the phytoremediation of U-contaminated soils. The initial characterization of U uptake by peas suggested that in the field, a soil pH of <5.5 would be required in order to provide U in the most plant-available form. A pot study using U-contaminated soil was therefore conducted to assess the extent to which two soil amendments, HEDTA and citric acid, were capable of acidifying the soil, increasing U solubility, and enhancing U uptake by red beet. Of these two amendments, only citric acid proved effective, decreasing the soil pH to 5.0 and increasing U accumulation by a factor of 14. The results of this pot study provide a basis for the development of an effective phytoremediation strategy for U-contaminated soils. (author)

  20. Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this review is to update and assess the clinical evidence based on rigorous trials of the effectiveness of garlic (A. sativum). Systematic searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, Amed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Natural Standard, and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (search date December 2006). Our own files, the bibliographies of relevant papers and the contents pages of all issues of the review journal FACT were searched for further studies. No language restrictions were imposed. To be included, trials were required to state that they were randomized and double blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of garlic were included if based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. The literature searches identified six relevant systematic reviews and meta-analysis and double-blind randomized trials (RCT) that were published subsequently. These relate to cancer, common cold, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease and pre-eclampsia. The evidence based on rigorous clinical trials of garlic is not convincing. For hypercholesterolemia, the reported effects are small and may therefore not be of clinical relevance. For reducing blood pressure, few studies are available and the reported effects are too small to be clinically meaningful. For all other conditions not enough data are available for clinical recommendations.

  1. Extraction, characterisation and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Huang, Gangliang

    2018-07-15

    Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl 2 was 7.35×10 3 . It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of gamma ray doses suitable for mutation induction in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, Bassam; Ayyoubi, Zouhair

    1993-04-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (Control, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 rads). The cloves were planted in 4 replicates at Deer Alhajar station of the Dept. of Radiation Agriculture. Number of surviving plants was recorded at 2 months after planting and at harvest. Length of foliage was measured at harvest time and weight of cloves was taken two weeks after harvest. Visual readings in the field on plant shape and leaf color were also taken. The results indicated a negative effect of gamma radiation on plant survival especially at doses of 750 and 1000 rads where no plants survived until harvest. Plant length and clove weight were reduced even at 500 rad dose. Percentage of yellow and necrotic plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. No stimulation of plant growth was noticed as a result of irradiation with low doses of gamma rays. Treatment with 500 rads of gamma radiation was considered the best among tested doses for garlic mutagenesis (Using cloves) since it gave acceptable rate of survival and morphologic variation. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  3. Combined Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Injury ... treated in different doses of single and combined extracts of Allium sativum, ... was no visible sign of ulceration or perforation observed on the stomach and ...

  4. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QFB ALE

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Plant extracts are an important part in agroecology, as they benefit environment in combating ... to public health and a major concern for infection control ..... extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Allium sativum against food.

  5. Characterization of Chloroplastic Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolases as Lysine-methylated Proteins in Plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininno, Morgane; Brugière, Sabine; Pautre, Virginie; Gilgen, Annabelle; Ma, Sheng; Ferro, Myriam; Tardif, Marianne; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    In pea (Pisum sativum), the protein-lysine methyltransferase (PsLSMT) catalyzes the trimethylation of Lys-14 in the large subunit (LS) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the enzyme catalyzing the CO2 fixation step during photosynthesis. Homologs of PsLSMT, herein referred to as LSMT-like enzymes, are found in all plant genomes, but methylation of LS Rubisco is not universal in the plant kingdom, suggesting a species-specific protein substrate specificity of the methyltransferase. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of the LSMT-like enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLSMT-L), with a focus on its substrate specificity. We show that, in Arabidopsis, LS Rubisco is not naturally methylated and that the physiological substrates of AtLSMT-L are chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase isoforms. These enzymes, which are involved in the assimilation of CO2 through the Calvin cycle and in chloroplastic glycolysis, are trimethylated at a conserved lysyl residue located close to the C terminus. Both AtLSMT-L and PsLSMT are able to methylate aldolases with similar kinetic parameters and product specificity. Thus, the divergent substrate specificity of LSMT-like enzymes from pea and Arabidopsis concerns only Rubisco. AtLSMT-L is able to interact with unmethylated Rubisco, but the complex is catalytically unproductive. Trimethylation does not modify the kinetic properties and tetrameric organization of aldolases in vitro. The identification of aldolases as methyl proteins in Arabidopsis and other species like pea suggests a role of protein lysine methylation in carbon metabolism in chloroplasts. PMID:22547063

  6. Molecular Evolution of the Substrate Specificity of Chloroplastic Aldolases/Rubisco Lysine Methyltransferases in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sheng; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Mininno, Morgane; Gigarel, Océane; Brugière, Sabine; Bastien, Olivier; Tardif, Marianne; Ravanel, Stéphane; Alban, Claude

    2016-04-04

    Rubisco and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) are involved in CO2 fixation in chloroplasts. Both enzymes are trimethylated at a specific lysine residue by the chloroplastic protein methyltransferase LSMT. Genes coding LSMT are present in all plant genomes but the methylation status of the substrates varies in a species-specific manner. For example, chloroplastic FBAs are naturally trimethylated in both Pisum sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the Rubisco large subunit is trimethylated only in the former species. The in vivo methylation status of aldolases and Rubisco matches the catalytic properties of AtLSMT and PsLSMT, which are able to trimethylate FBAs or FBAs and Rubisco, respectively. Here, we created chimera and site-directed mutants of monofunctional AtLSMT and bifunctional PsLSMT to identify the molecular determinants responsible for substrate specificity. Our results indicate that the His-Ala/Pro-Trp triad located in the central part of LSMT enzymes is the key motif to confer the capacity to trimethylate Rubisco. Two of the critical residues are located on a surface loop outside the methyltransferase catalytic site. We observed a strict correlation between the presence of the triad motif and the in vivo methylation status of Rubisco. The distribution of the motif into a phylogenetic tree further suggests that the ancestral function of LSMT was FBA trimethylation. In a recent event during higher plant evolution, this function evolved in ancestors of Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Rosaceae to include Rubisco as an additional substrate to the archetypal enzyme. Our study provides insight into mechanisms by which SET-domain protein methyltransferases evolve new substrate specificity. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of speciation on the radionuclide uptake of plants; Einfluss der Speziation auf die Radionuklidaufnahme von Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawussi, Frank

    2017-01-25

    The bioavailability for plants and uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. The knowledge of the chemical and physical processes serves as basis for the transfer to different plant parts and finally for the estimation of the ingestion dose after consumption by man. Within the scope of the present work, the uptake of radionuclides was investigated in pea plants (Pisum sativum), paprika plants (Capsicum annuum) and potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) at low concentration (10{sup -5} to 10{sup -7} mol l{sup -1} for uranium and 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9} mol l{sup -1} for plutonium) in hydroponic solution. Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides within the solution which was measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), capillary electrophoresis coupled to inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS), and theoretically calculated by the speciation code PHREEQC. The speciation, the solubility and therefore the plant availability of radionuclides mainly depend on the pH value and the redox potential of the solution. These parameters were monitored regularly. During the contamination period, the redox potential did not chance significantly. In contrast, the pH value showed characteristic changes depending on plants species. Especially in case of potato plants, the dissolved radionuclide fraction correlated with the changes of the pH value. In the plant roots, high amounts of radionuclides (10% to 50% of the added total quantity) were measured. Besides the uptake in the roots, the radionuclides can also adsorb to the exterior root surface. The transfer factor, which describes the Pu uptake ratio from the nutrient solution into the plant parts (dry mass), showed for the potato tubers values between 0.03 and 0.80 (Bq kg{sup -1}/ Bq l{sup -1}), depending on the initial Pu concentration. In addition of the complexing agent EDTA in solution (10{sup -4} mol l{sup -1}), the plutonium uptake increases up to 58

  8. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Deavours, B; Richard, S; Ferrer, J; Blount, J; Huhman, D; Dixon, R; Noel, J

    2006-01-01

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  9. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-J.; Deavours, B.E.; Richard, S.B.; Ferrer, J.-L.; Blount, J.W.; Huhman, D.; Dixon, R.A.; Noel, J.

    2007-07-10

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  10. A thirty percent increase in UV-B has no impact on photosynthesis in well-watered and droughted pea plants in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.J.; Nogues, S.; Morison, J.I.L.; Greenslade, P.D.; McLeod, A.R.; Baker, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that field experiments which increase UV-B irradiation by a fixed amount irrespective of ambient light conditions (‘square-wave’), may overestimate the response of photosynthesis to UV-B irradiation. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were grown in the field and subjected to a modulated 30% increase in ambient UK summer UV-B radiation (weighted with an erythemal action spectrum) and a mild drought treatment. UV-A and ambient UV control treatments were also studied. There were no significant effects of the UV-B treatment on the in situ CO 2 assimilation rate throughout the day or on the light-saturated steady-state photosynthesis. This was confirmed by an absence of UV-B effects on the major components contributing to CO 2 assimilation; photosystem II electron transport, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carboxylation, and stomatal conductance. In addition to the absence of an effect on photosynthetic activities, UV-B had no significant impact on plant biomass, leaf area or partitioning. UV-B exposure increased leaf flavonoid content. The UV-A treatment had no observable effect on photosynthesis or productivity. Mild drought resulted in reduced biomass, a change in partitioning away from shoots to roots whilst maintaining leaf area, but had no observable effect on photosynthetic competence. No UV-B and drought treatment interactions were observed on photosynthesis or plant biomass. In conclusion, a 30% increase in UV-B had no effects on photosynthetic performance or productivity in well-watered or droughted pea plants in the field. (author)

  11. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  12. Comparative Hypolipidaemic Effects of Allium cepa, Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in 108 out of a total of 117 adult Rattus novergicus using 150mg/kg b wt of alloxan monohydrate. Increasing dosages (200, 250 and 300mg/kg bw ip) of A. cepa, A. sativum and Z. officinale aqueous extracts were given to the diabetic rats for six weeks while the control rats got either normal ...

  13. Investigation of antibacterial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum ), mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Menthe spp.) and onion (Allium cepa) in in vitro conditions against the Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens. E. coli was isolated from the infected tissues of the chickens which were ...

  14. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of ... correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1 ... Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and then dried at room temperature ..... the authors named in this article and all liabilities ... health maintenance: A review.

  15. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible toxicological risks of Allium sativum aqueous extract upon consumption were assessed in mice and rats using acute and sub-chronic treatments. 36 male Swiss albino mice were used, and the various doses administered were 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g/kg body weight. Mice were observed for behavioural changes ...

  16. ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  17. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell death was ...

  18. Whole-transcriptome analysis of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Sakai suggests plant-species-specific metabolic responses on exposure to spinach and lettuce extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Crozier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonisation. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 ‘Sakai’, to colonise the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, vining green pea (Pisum sativum and prickly lettuce (L. serriola, a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analysed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce. Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant-microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonisation. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 hour transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days plant colonisation or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 versus 18 oC has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types

  19. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three dimensional structures of receptor site rather than by analogy to other

  20. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ali, Sara E; Hodaya, Rashad H; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Sultani, Haider N; Laub, Annegret; Eissa, Tarek F; Abou-Zaid, Fouad O F; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-05-08

    Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum , flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum . Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens

  1. Biological activities of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important bacterial pathogens, their phytochemical and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Uzma Azeem; Ali, Shaukat; Shahnawaz, Amna Mir; Shafique, Irsa; Zafar, Atiya; Khan, Muhammad Abdul Rauf; Ghous, Tahseen; Saleem, Azhar; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2017-05-01

    The spread of bacterial infectious diseases is a major public threat. Herbs and spices have offered an excellent, important and useful source of antimicrobial agents against many pathological infections. In the current study, the antimicrobial potency of fresh, naturally and commercial dried Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts had been investigated against seven local clinical bacterial isolates such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Serratia marcesnces by the agar disc diffusion method. All tested pathogens except P. aeruginosa and E. coli were most susceptible to ethanolic and methanolic extracts of A. sativum. Similarly, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts of Z. officinale showed a greater zone of inhibition of tested pathogens except for P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We found that all extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale have a strong antibacterial effect compared to recommended standard antibiotics through activity index. All results were evaluated statistically and a significant difference was recorded at Psativum and Z. officinale proposed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phenols, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Retention factor of diverse phytochemicals provides a valuable clue regarding their polarity and the selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Significant inhibition of S. aureus was also observed through TLC-Bioautography. FT-IR Spectrometry was also performed to characterize both natural and commercial extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale to evaluate bioactive compounds. These findings provide new insights to use A. sativum and Z. officinale as potential plant sources for controlling pathogenic bacteria and potentially considered as cost-effective in the management of diseases and to the threat of drug resistance phenomenon.

  2. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to

  3. Sulphur fertilization influences the sulphur species composition in Allium sativum: sulphomics using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Andrea; Ronzan, Marilena; Feldmann, Joerg

    2017-10-18

    Garlic (A. sativum) contains a large number of small sulphur (S)-containing metabolites, which are important for its taste and smell and vary with A. sativum variety and growth conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of different sulphur-fertilization regimes on low molecular weight S-species by attempting the first sulphur mass balance in A. sativum roots and bulbs using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS. Species unspecific quantification of acid soluble S-containing metabolites was achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS/MS. For identification of the compounds, high resolution ESI-MS (Orbitrap LTQ and q-TOF) was used. The plants contained up to 54 separated sulphur-containing compounds, which constitute about 80% of the total sulphur present in A. sativum. The roots and bulbs of A. sativum contained the same compounds, but not necessarily the same amounts and proportions. The S-containing metabolites in the roots reacted more sensitively to manipulations of sulphur fertilization than those compounds in the bulbs. In addition to known compounds (e.g. γ-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine) we were able to identify and partially quantify 31 compounds. Three as yet undescribed S-containing compounds were also identified and quantified for the first time. Putative structures were assigned to the oxidised forms of S-1-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-2-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-allyl/propenyl-containing PC-2 and 2-amino-3-[(2-carboxypropyl)sulfanyl]propanoic acid. The parallel use of ICP-MS/MS as a sulphur-specific detector and ESI-MS as a molecular detector simplifies the identification and quantification of sulphur containing metabolites without species specific standards. This non-target analysis approach enables a mass balance approach and identifies the occurrence of the so far unidentified organosulphur compounds. The experiments showed that the sulphur-fertilization regime does not influence sulphur-speciation, but the concentration of some S

  4. Scientific basis of use of fruits Coriandrum sativum L. In food technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Frolova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the world recognized the need for environmentally friendly products for a healthy food and quality life. Products with natural ingredients, including flavoring become very popular. Coriander is one of herbs that functions as both, spice as well as herbal medicine. Coriandrum sativum L. is a major aromatic crop in Ukraine. The plants of Coriandrum sativum contain the essential oils and other compounds in the seeds and leaves and have an important role as flavorings. The main objective was to investigate possibility effective utilization of coriander essential oil in national economy of Ukraine. It was necessary to study the chemical compounds of coriander fruits by instrumental analysis and odor by sensory analysis with following creating new aroma compositions. Search had been carried out throughout 2009 - 2014 years. The aerial parts of aromatic plants were harvested at the plots of National Botanical Garden of National Academy of the Sciences of Ukraine. Essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation procedure in National University of food technology. Main and specific components of essential oils from seeds coriander were characterized. Qualitative structure of essential oils was determined by the gas-liquid chromatography method on the chromatograph Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass-spectrometric detector 5973. The run of components was done using Device of Fractional Distillation. Linalool, limonene, geranyl acetate, d-camphor, myrcene and geraniol were found as the major components. In the composition of essential oils each component has its own flavor, the combination of which determines the flavor of the oil. We investigated the possibility of target separation of essential oils of coriander fruits into fractions of different flavor. The article presents the results of research sequential processing fruits Coriandrum sativum to obtain a series of natural flavors. Principles and laws of the vacuum distillation were used for

  5. Allium sativum L. regulates in vitro IL-17 gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutia, Mouna; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Abouelazz, Omar; Elouaddari, Anass; Al Jahid, Abdellah; Elhou, Abdelhalim; Nadifi, Sellama; Jamal Eddine, Jamal; Habti, Norddine; Badou, Abdallah

    2016-09-29

    Allium sativum L. (A.S.) "garlic", one of the most interesting medicinal plants, has been suggested to contain compounds that could be beneficial in numerous pathological situations including cancer. In this work, we aimed to assess the immunomodulatory effect of A.S. preparation on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. Nontoxic doses of A.S. were identified using MTT assay. Effects on CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation were studied using flow cytometry. The effect of A.S. on cytokine gene expression was studied using qRT-PCR. Finally, qualitative analysis of A.S. was performed by HPLC approach. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA test. The nontoxic doses of A.S. preparation did not affect neither spontaneous nor TCR-mediated CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation. Interestingly, A.S. exhibited a statistically significant regulation of IL-17 gene expression, a cytokine involved in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In contrast, the expression of IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was unaffected. Qualitative analysis of A.S. ethanol preparation indicated the presence of three polyphenol bioactive compounds, which are catechin, vanillic acid and ferulic acid. The specific inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-17 without affecting cell proliferation in human PBMCs by the Allium sativum L. preparation suggests a potential valuable effect of the compounds present in this plant for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer, where IL-17 is highly expressed. The individual contribution of these three compounds to this global effect will be assessed.

  6. Влияние отбора на изменчивость признака «число неплодущих узлов» в гибридных популяциях гороха овощного (Pisum Sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    СТРИГУН В. М.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing the theory and practice of selection is very important for improving the breeding process. In order to improve its efficiency, it is necessary to search for opportunities to reduce the time, volume and expenses required by the breeding work. In this respect, understanding the nature of variability of quantitative traits in plants, especially in vegetable pea, under the influence of ongoing selection in hybrid populations, allows to identify the most favourable generation for this purpose. This paper presents the results regarding the effect of conducted selections on the variability of the trait „number of infertile nodes” in the crossing combination Vega / Rannij Gribovskij 11. Based on the analysis of statistical parameters characterizing the variability of traits under the influence of selection, the conclusion was drawn that it is more appropriate to perform it in the early hybrid generations, beginning the selection in F2 and F3 . Реферат. Разработка теории и практики отбора имеет важное значение для совершенствования селекционного процесса. Для повышения его эффективности необходимым условием является поиск возможности сокращения времени, объёмов и средств проводимой селекционной работы. В этом отношении понимание характера изменчивости количественных признаков у растений, в частности у гороха овощного, под воздействием проводимых отборов в гибридных популяциях позволяет установить наиболее благоприятное поколение его проведения. В статье представлены

  7. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Lepidium sativum germination to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in soil(s) artificially and historically contaminated with mixtures of PAR The level of germination of L. sativum decreased with increasing...

  8. Monitoring the efficacy of mutated Allium sativum leaf lectin in transgenic rice against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Sen, Senjuti; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2016-03-01

    Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. It is associated with significant reduction in rice productivity worldwide. A mutant variant of mannose binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) was previously reported to exhibit strong antifungal activity against R. solani. In this study, the mASAL gene has been evaluated for its in planta antifungal activity in rice plants. mASAL was cloned into pCAMBIA1301 binary vector under the control of CaMV35S promoter. It was expressed in an elite indica rice cv. IR64 by employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses of transgenic plants confirmed the presence and stable integration of mASAL gene. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of various tissue sections of plant parts clearly indicated the constitutive expression of mASAL. The segregation pattern of mASAL transgene was observed in T1 progenies in a 3:1 Mendelian ratio. The expression of mASAL was confirmed in T0 and T1 plants through western blot analysis followed by ELISA. In planta bioassay of transgenic lines against R. solani exhibited an average of 55 % reduction in sheath blight percentage disease index (PDI). The present study opens up the possibility of engineering rice plants with the antifungal gene mASAL, conferring resistance to sheath blight.

  9. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  10. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez; Sahily Rojas Pérez; Nilvia Norma Agüero Batista

    2016-01-01

    Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los ...

  11. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  12. Effect of micronized pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute of soybean meal on tissue fatty acid composition and quality of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczorowska, Bożena; Samolińska, Wioletta; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of micronized pea seeds introduced into feed mixes for broilers on the slaughter yield, blood lipid parameters, content of fatty acids in selected tissues, and meat quality. The studies involved 150 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks split into three groups (for 42 days). The feed rations differed in terms of the source of proteins: in the control group (C), it was post-extraction soybean meal (SBM) 100%; in group I, SBM 50% and micronized peas 50%; and in group II, micronized peas only, 100%. Irradiated pea seeds added to the feed ration for chicks reduced the fattening grade of carcasses (P seeds in feed mixes decreased the share of saturated fatty acids in the muscles and abdominal fat and had a positive effect on the n-6/n-3 ratio, hypocholesterolemic / hypercholesterolemic ratio, as well as the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (P < 0.05). © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Cell radiosensitivity variation in synchronously-dividing root meristems of Pisum sativum L. and Zea mays L. during the mitotic cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, I.N.; Grodzinsky, D.M. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziologii Rastenij)

    1982-04-01

    The cell divisions in pea and maize seedling root meristems were synchronized by treatment with 0.03 per cent hydroxyurea for 24 hours. At different times after block cessation (removing seedlings from hydroxyurea), i.e. according to certain phases and subphases of the mitotic cycle, the seedlings were treated with /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation at doses from 3 to 32 Gy. Evaluation of seedling radioresistance by the survival of the main root meristem on the tenth day after irradiation led to the following sequence of cell stages in order of increasing resistance. For the pea root meristem: G/sub 2/, M, late G/sub 1/, early S, late S, middle S and early G/sub 1/. For the maize root meristem: late G/sub 2/, M, G/sub 1/, early S, early G/sub 2/, late S and middle S.

  14. Cell radiosensitivity variation in synchronously-dividing root meristems of Pisum sativum L. and Zea mays L. during the mitotic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, I.N.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The cell divisions in pea and maize seedling root meristems were synchronized by treatment with 0.03 per cent hydroxyurea for 24 hours. At different times after block cessation (removing seedlings from hydroxyurea), i.e. according to certain phases and subphases of the mitotic cycle, the seedlings were treated with 60 Co γ-radiation at doses from 3 to 32 Gy. Evaluation of seedling radioresistance by the survival of the main root meristem on the tenth day after irradiation led to the following sequence of cell stages in order of increasing resistance. For the pea root meristem: G 2 , M, late G 1 , early S, late S, middle S and early G 1 . For the maize root meristem: late G 2 , M, G 1 , early S, early G 2 , late S and middle S. (author)

  15. A novel er1 allele and the development and validation of its functional marker for breeding pea (Pisum sativum L.) resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Deng, Dong; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Wu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaoming; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-05-01

    A novel er1 allele, er1 -7, conferring pea powdery mildew resistance was characterized by a 10-bp deletion in PsMLO1 cDNA, and its functional marker was developed and validated in pea germplasms. Pea powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi DC is a major disease worldwide. Pea cultivar 'DDR-11' is an elite germplasm resistant to E. pisi. To identify the gene conferring resistance in DDR-11, the susceptible Bawan 6 and resistant DDR-11 cultivars were crossed to produce F1, F2, and F(2:3) populations. The phenotypic segregation patterns in the F2 and F(2:3) populations fit the 3:1 (susceptible:resistant) and 1:2:1 (susceptible homozygotes:heterozygotes:resistant homozygotes) ratios, respectively, indicating that resistance was controlled by a single recessive gene. Analysis of er1-linked markers in the F2 population suggested that the recessive resistance gene in DDR-11 was an er1 allele, which was mapped between markers ScOPE16-1600 and c5DNAmet. To further characterize er1 allele, the cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 from the parents were obtained and a novel er1 allele in DDR-11 was identified and designated as er1-7, which has a 10-bp deletion in position 111-120. The er1-7 allele caused a frame-shift mutation, resulting in a premature termination of translation of PsMLO1 protein. A co-dominant functional marker specific for er1-7 was developed, InDel111-120, which co-segregated with E. pisi resistance in the mapping population. The marker was able to distinguish between pea germplasms with and without the er1-7. Of 161 pea germplasms tested by InDel111-120, seven were detected containing resistance allele er1-7, which was verified by sequencing their PsMLO1 cDNA. Here, a novel er1 allele was characterized and its an ideal functional marker was validated, providing valuable genetic information and a powerful tool for breeding pea resistance to powdery mildew.

  16. Accumulation of defence-related transcripts and cloning of a chitinase mRNA from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) inoculated with Ascochyta pisi Lib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Knud; de Neergaard, Eigil; Madriz-Ordeñana, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The race specific resistance of pea to Ascochyta pisi Lib. was shown to be exhibited as a hypersensitive response associated with the production of polyphenolic substances in epidermal and mesophyll cells. The levels of transcripts representing a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (chitinase......) and an enzyme of phytoalexin biosynthesis (chalcone synthase) were shown to accumulate more rapidly during the hypersensitive response than during lesion development in the compatible interaction. A full-length (1143 bp) cDNA sequence of a pea chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) (coding for an approx. 34 500 Da protein......) was deduced by combining the overlapping sequences of three clones obtained following PCR amplification of cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated 24 h after inoculation of pea leaves with Ascochyta pisi. The combined sequences were identified as a class I chitinase corresponding to the basic A1-chitinase enzyme...

  17. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (T o ), peak (T p ), and conclusion (T c ) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial variation of N-2-fixation in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the field scale determined by the N-15 natural abundance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Holdensen, Lars; Wulfsohn, D.

    2010-01-01

    variability could be explained by the variability in selected abiotic soil properties. All measured soil variables showed substantial variability across the field and the pea dry matter production ranged between 4.9 and 13.8 Mg ha−1 at maturity. The percent of total N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa...... dry matter production and N2-fixation. A number of other models were tested, but the best was only able to explain less than 40% of the variance in %Ndfa using seven soil properties. Together with the use of interpolated soil data, high spatial variation of soil 15N natural abundance, a mean increase...

  19. Effect of salinization, Rbizobium inoculation, genotypic variation and P-application on drymatter yield and utilization of P by pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens Culinaris Medic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dravid, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Irrigation with saline water significantly reduced the drymatter production and uptake of phosphorus in both pea and lentil crops. Between the two crops pea was found relativley more tolerant to a given level of salinity. Soil application of phosphate in association with rbizobium inoculated seeds enhanced drymatter production, total P uptake, P derived from fertilizer and its utilization in both the crops. Amongst the cultivars tested, KPSD-5 of pea and PL-639 of lentil extracted native soil phosphorus more efficiently while cultivar Pusa-10 of pea and cultivar PL-406 of lentil showed more affinity towards applied phosphorus. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Herencia del número de vainas por nudo y su relación con características afines en arveja (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Edgar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2010-2011 en el Centro de Investigaciones Fitoecogenéticas de Pairumani (CIFP en Cochabamba-Bolivia, se cruzaron ocho líneas parentales de arveja bajo el diseño dialélico Griffing IV, con el objetivo de determinar las bases genéticas que condicionan el número de vainas por nudo, la relaciones genéticas con caracteres afines y las líneas que posean genes favorables para incrementar el número de vainas por nudo. Las progenies F1 evaluadas de acuerdo al diseño experimental de filas y columnas incompletas con cuatro repeticiones, indican que el número de vainas/nudo está condicionado por efectos aditivos y de dominancia; sin embargo, los efectos aditivos fueron de mayor importancia con una heredabilidad en sentido estrecho moderado (0.49. Por otro lado, el número de vainas/nudo está alta y positivamente correlacionada con el número de vainas/planta y densidad de grano, en las cuales los efectos aditivos fueron de mayor importancia y heredabilidades en sentido estrecho de 0.72 y 0.36, respectivamente. El número de vainas/nudo está alta y negativamente correlacionada con días a floración, días a madurez en verde, largo de vaina, ancho de vaina, peso de grano, altura de planta y altura a la primera vaina, en las cuales excepto en altura de planta y altura a la primera vaina, los efectos aditivos fueron de mayor importancia, con una heredabilidad en sentido estrecho entre 0.19 y 0.81. Para desarrollar variedades con mayor número de vainas por nudo se puede optar por desarrollar variedades con vainas a menor altura, de granos más pequeños y con vainas más delgadas; o variedades con más días a madurez en verde, de granos menos densos, pedúnculo corto y vainas cortas. Las líneas M-2, calle-calle, Pairumani-1, PH-91-3 poseen genes favorables para desarrollar variedades con mayor número de vainas por nudo y por ende mayor cantidad de vainas por planta, pero con vainas pequeñas y delgadas, y de ciclo corto, además de mayor cantidad de granos por vaina y granos más densos. Pairumani-3, Lincoln, Snap Pea e INIAP-433 poseen genes favorables para desarrollar variedades con menor número de vainas por nudo, pero con vainas largas y anchas, con mayor peso de grano, mayor altura planta y con mayor altura a la primera vaina.

  1. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea. PMID:29444142

  2. Modulation by phytochrome of the blue light-induced extracellular acidification by leaf epidermal cells of pea (Pisum sativum L.) : a kinetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    Blue light induces extracellular acidification, a prerequisite of cell expansion, in epidermis cells of young pea leaves, by stimulation of the proton pumping-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. A transient acidification, reaching a maximum 2.5-5 min after the start of the pulse, could be

  3. Proteomics offers insight to the mechanism behind Pisum sativum L. response to pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, H.; Černý, M.; Habanová, H.; Šafářová, D.; Abushamsiya, K.; Navrátil, M.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, FEB2017 (2017), s. 78-88 ISSN 1874-3919 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Proteome * Pea seed-borne mosaic virus PSbMV * Potyvirus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  4. Comparación de las lectinas extraídas de la semilla y la raíz de arverja (pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ernesto Luque T.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se aisló la lectina de la semilla de arverja (ESA y se purificó por cromatografia de afinidad, a través de una columna de Sephadex G-IOO. La lectina de raíz (ERA se aisló de las paredes celulares de la raíz de arverja. Entre los extractantes utilizados el que mostró mejores resultados fue el citrato de sodio 0.1 M, pH 4.2.

  5. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišić, Adnan; Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  6. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Šišić

    Full Text Available Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST FROM KITCHEN WASTE ON THE YIELD-ENHANCING CHARACTERISTICS OF PEAS PISUM SATIVUM L. VAR. SACCHARATUM SER. BAJKA VARIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Pączka; Joanna Kostecka

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms) to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W) – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W) and (10W) – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5)). Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out t...

  8. The value of different vegetative indices (NDVI, GAI for the assessment of yield potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. at different growth stages and under varying management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and GAI (green area index in order to indicate the productivity and developmental effects of Rhizobium inoculants and microelement foliar fertilizer on pea crops. Two inoculants, Nitragina (a commercial inoculant and IUNG (a noncommercial inoculant gel and a foliar fertilizer (Photrel were studied over a 4-year period, 2009–2012. The cultivars chosen for the studies were characterized by different foliage types, namely a semileafless pea ‘Tarchalska’ and one with regular foliage, ‘Klif’. Foliar fertilizer significantly increased the length of the generative shoots and the number of fruiting nodes in comparison to the control, which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest index. Pea seed yield was highly dependent on the interaction between the years of growth and the microbial inoculant, and was greater for ‘Tarchalska’ (4.33 t ha−1. Presowing inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization resulted in a significantly higher value of GAI at the flowering (3.91 and 3.81, respectively and maturity stages (4.82 and 4.77, respectively, whereas the value of NDVI was higher for these treatments only at the maturity stage (0.67 and 0.79, respectively. A significantly greater yield (5.0–5.4 t ha−1 was obtained after inoculation with IUNG during the dry years.

  9. The involvement of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase and zeatin reductase in regulation of cytokinin levels in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaudinová, Alena; Dobrev, Petre; Šolcová, Blanka; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Friedecký, D.; Motyka, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2005), s. 188-200 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Aromatic cytokinin * cis-zeatin * Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2005

  10. Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma on the Structure of Seeds, Growth and Metabolism of Endogenous Phytohormones in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stolárik, T.; Henselová, M.; Martinka, M.; Novák, Ondřej; Záhoranová, A.; Černák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2015), s. 659-676 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Endogenous hormones * Germination * Growth parameters Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2015

  11. Physicochemical, thermal and functional characterisation of protein isolates from Kabuli and Desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a comparative study with soy (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withana-Gamage, Thushan S; Wanasundara, Janitha P D; Pietrasik, Zeb; Shand, Phyllis J

    2011-04-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds are a good source of protein that has potential applications in new product formulation and fortification. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of chickpea protein isolates (CPIs) and compare them with those of soy (SPI) and pea (PPI) protein isolates. Extracted CPIs had mean protein contents of 728-853 g kg(-1) (dry weight basis). Analysis of their deconvoluted Fourier transform infrared spectra gave secondary structure estimates of 25.6-32.7% α-helices, 32.5-40.4% β-sheets, 13.8-18.9% turns and 16.3-19.2% disordered structures. CPIs from CDC Xena, among Kabuli varieties, and Myles, among Desi varieties, as well as SPI had the highest water-holding and oil absorption capacities. The emulsifying properties of Kabuli CPIs were superior to those of PPI and Desi CPIs and as good as those of SPI. The heat-induced gelation properties of CPIs showed a minimum protein concentration required to form a gel structure ranging from 100 to 140 g L(-1) . Denaturation temperatures and enthalpies of CPIs ranged from 89.0 to 92.0 °C and from 2.4 to 4.0 J g(-1) respectively. The results suggest that most physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of CPIs compare favourably with those of SPI and are better than those of PPI. Hence CPI may be suitable as a high-quality substitute for SPI in food applications. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  13. Abstracts of Plenary Lectures and Posters. International Symposium of the Structure and Function of Plant Lipids (7th) held in Davis, California on July 27-August 1, 1986,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    IAA) on pea (Pisum sativum L.) stems have shown that within one hour of treatment a decrease of incorporation of [l 4 Cjcholine into...the results were similar as obtained in the in vivo experiment. 94 PYL-CoA ELONGATION SYSTEI4S IN Allium porrum MICROSC14ES. R. Lessire, J.J...demonstrated that C1 s-CoA and C20 -CoA are the best substrates for exogenous acyl-CoA elongation, using Allium porrur epidermal cell microscrmes as the

  14. Symbiotic effectiveness of pea-rhizobia associations and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected strains were isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) plants in the Loess Plateau of China. Analyses focused on the nodule number, nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, nitrogenase activity, total N accumulation of per plant and seed yield.

  15. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  16. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, and Allium hirtifolium Boiss Against Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Razavi Satvati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium which can cause life-threatening infections in humans. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth and is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. Nowadays modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine. Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Allium hirtifolium Boiss are commonly found in Iran and used as antimicrobial agents in folklore medicine. Objectives: In this study, antimicrobial activities of aqueous extracts of some plants were examined in vitro against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts of T. terrestris, A. sativum, S. officinalis and A. hirtifolium Boiss were examined using disc and well diffusion methods, and the19 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of aqueous extracts were determined against E. faecalis using agar and broth dilution methods. Results: The obtained results showed that the extract of A. hirtifolium Boiss inhibited the growth of E. faecalis (MIC of 10 mg/mL. Other plants had no effect on the target bacterium. Conclusion: According to the best effect of A. hirtifolium extract on E. faecalis and stability of this extract in thermal condition, we may purify this extract and use it for treatment of infections.

  17. Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Allium Sativum Linn on the Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This decrease was therefore dose-dependent and when expressed as percentage range from 20.16% to 62.61%. The above results suggest that an aqueous extract of Allium sativum decreases intestinal motility in rabbits. KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, garlic, intestinal motility. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical ...

  18. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only

  19. Uptake and distribution of Pu, Am, Cm and Np in four plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R G; Cline, J F [Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)

    1978-12-01

    The relative uptake of the nitrate forms of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Sm, {sup 244}Cm and {sup 237}Np from soil into selectee parts of four different plant species grown under field conditions were observed. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), peas (Pisum sativum, var. Blue Bonnet), barley (Hordeum vulgare, var. U. Cal. Briggs), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa, var. Ranger) were grown outdoors in contaminated soil contained in small weighing lysimeters constructed from 13.2 cm diameter by 1-meter-long polyvinyl chloride pipe. The amended soil, containing 0.1 to 1.0 mCi of each isotope individually per 3.4 kg soil, was situated in a 20 cm band and covered by 10 cm of uncontaminated soil to eliminate chances of windblown contamination to the surrounding environs. The plants were harvested at maturity, divided into selected components and radiochemically analyzed by alpha-energy analysis. There did not appear to be any effect of soil concentration on the plant uptake of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am or {sup 244}Cm for the two levels utilized (approximately 0.03 and 0.3 {mu}Ci/g soil). The relative uptake of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu were not significantly different. Likewise, {sup 241} Am uptake values were not significantly different from the {sup 244}Cm values. The relative plant uptake of the four different transuranium element was: Np > Cm {approx} Am > Pu. The relative uptake values of Np were 2,200 to 45,000 times greater than for Pu, while Am and Cm values were 10 to 20 times greater. The seeds were significantly lower than the rest of the above ground plant parts for all four transuranics. The legumes accumulated approximately ten times more than the grasses. A hypothetical comparison of the radionuclide content of plants grown in soil contaminated with LMFBR fuels indicate that Am, Cm and Np concentrations would exceed Pu values. (author)

  20. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  1. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Rausch

    Full Text Available Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance.

  2. ENSAYO PRELIMINAR DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA DE EXTRACTOS DE ALLIUM SATIVUM, CORIANDRUM SATIVUM, EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLATA, ORIGANUM VULGARE, ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS Y THYMUS VULGARIS FRENTE A CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Q., Martha I; Vargas A., Andrés F; Pérez C., Jorge E; Mejía G., Luis F

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana frente a Clostridium perfringens (cepa ATCC: 13124) por el método de Kirby Bauer en agar SPS de los aceites esenciales o extractos vegetales obtenidos con solventes orgánicos de diferente polaridad a partir de Allium sativum (ajo), Coriandrum sativum (cilantro), Eugenia Caryophyllata (clavo de olor), Origanum vulgare (orégano), Rosmarinus officinalis (romero) y Thymus vulgaris (tomillo), utilizando la vancomicina como control. Los extractos obtenidos por ...

  3. Functional characterization of the adipokinetic hormone in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jedlička, Pavel; Steinbauerová, V.; Šimek, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2012), s. 51-58 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/09/P382 Grant - others:European Union FP7(CZ) MOBITAG, GA 229518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * Acyrthosiphon pisum * neuropeptide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1095643312000256

  4. The effects of boron on improving aluminium tolerance in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the role of boron (BO33- on improving tolerance of coriander plant (Coriandrum sativum L. subjected to different concentrations of aluminum (Al3+ was evaluated. In this regard, an experiment was implemented with seven different concentrations of aluminum including: 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 mg/L Al3+ and three concentrations of boron including: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L BO33- with the control treatment. The experiment was concluded based on completely randomized design with three replications. Seeds of coriander were germinated in germinator and seedlings were grown in Hogland´s solution with different boron and aluminium concentrations. Results showed that different levels of Al3+, decreased dry weight, leaf area, length of shoot and root, amount of chlorophyll and aluminium, while proline concentration and Al3+accumulation increased. Nearly, in all concentrations of Al3+, plant height, dry weight and chlorophyll content promoted with increasing boron concentrations, but proline concentration was decreased. It could be concluded that application of boron along with Al3+, might have proved plant growth and neutralized effects of Al toxicity.

  5. Assessment of phytoremediation ability of Coriander sativum for soil and water co-contaminated with lead and arsenic: a small-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Nisha; Kukreja, Aayush; Yadav, Mahavir; Tiwari, Archana

    2017-07-01

    A study was conducted to access the phytoremediation potential of Coriandrum sativum for lead (Pb) and Arsenic (As). Metal tolerance index and pot experiment were conducted. Viable seeds were spread on filter paper and planted in soil placed in pots. The amount of Pb and As in control and in tailing soil was 0.27, 0.141, 1.77, and 0.35 ppm. The study was carried out in triplicates for a period of 4 weeks under natural conditions. The physico-chemical properties of soil were determined using the standard methods. Germination of seeds of Coriander sativum was inhibited more rigorously in filter paper as compared to soil medium. Shoot height and root length were significantly reduced in filter paper medium under Pb and As stress. These were inhibited by 33 and 40%, respectively, from the first to fourth weeks. Seedling growth was less affected in soil medium while greatly reduced in filter paper medium. Soil sustained almost equal stress in the fourth week as compared to the third week in filter paper medium. Shoot height was enormously affected by Pb and As compared to root length in filter paper medium, whereas slight inhibition of growth was observed in soil medium. Coriander sativum grown in pots was effective in removing Pb and As from control and tailing soils in comparison with seeds grown on filter paper. On this basis, it could be used in restoring soil polluted with Pb and As.

  6. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-D-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-06-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms. One isoform, which was previously identified in the tetrad stage, displayed maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the remaining two isoforms, which were novel, were most active at pH 6.0 and 7.3. The corresponding in vivo values ranged from pH 4.75 to 6.0. In contrast, in A. atropurpureum, a sexually propagating species, three callase isoforms, active at pH 4.8-5.2, 6.1, and 7.3, were identified in samples of microsporangia that had released their microspores. The corresponding in vivo value for this plant was 5.9. The callose wall persists around A. sativum meiotic cells, whereas only one callase isoform, with an optimum activity of pH 4.8, is active in the acidic environment of the microsporangium. However, this isoform is degraded when the pH rises to 6.0 and two other callase isoforms, maximally active at pH 6.0 and 7.3, appear. Thus, factors that alter the pH of the microsporangium may indirectly affect the male gametophyte development by modulating the activity of callase and thereby regulating the degradation of the callose wall.

  7. Dietary Plant Lectins Appear to Be Transported from the Gut to Gain Access to and Alter Dopaminergic Neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans, a Potential Etiology of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Wang, Mingming; Wei, Wenqian; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Adhikari, Binita; King, Jason F.; King, Michael L.; Peng, Nan; Laine, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins from dietary plants have been shown to enhance drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of rats, be transported trans-synaptically as shown by tracing of axonal and dendritic paths, and enhance gene delivery. Other carbohydrate-binding protein toxins are known to traverse the gut intact in dogs. Post-feeding rhodamine- or TRITC-tagged dietary lectins, the lectins were tracked from gut to dopaminergic neurons (DAergic-N) in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) [egIs1(Pdat-1:GFP)] where the mutant has the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to a dopamine transport protein gene labeling DAergic-N. The lectins were supplemented along with the food organism Escherichia coli (OP50). Among nine tested rhodamine/TRITC-tagged lectins, four, including Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E), Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA), appeared to be transported from gut to the GFP-DAergic-N. Griffonia Simplicifolia and PHA-E, reduced the number of GFP-DAergic-N, suggesting a toxic activity. PHA-E, BS-I, Pisum sativum (PSA), and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (Succinylated) reduced fluorescent intensity of GFP-DAergic-N. PHA-E, PSA, Concanavalin A, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin decreased the size of GFP-DAergic-N, while BS-I increased neuron size. These observations suggest that dietary plant lectins are transported to and affect DAergic-N in C. elegans, which support Braak and Hawkes’ hypothesis, suggesting one alternate potential dietary etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A recent Danish study showed that vagotomy resulted in 40% lower incidence of PD over 20 years. Differences in inherited sugar structures of gut and neuronal cell surfaces may make some individuals more susceptible in this conceptual disease etiology model. PMID:27014695

  8. Dietary plant lectins appear to be transported from the gut to gain access to and alter dopaminergic neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans, a potential etiology of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene eZheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins from dietary plants have been shown to enhance drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of rats, be transported trans-synaptically as shown by tracing of axonal and dendritic paths, and enhance gene delivery. Other carbohydrate-binding protein toxins are known to traverse the gut intact in dogs. Post-feeding rhodamine- or TRITC-tagged dietary lectins, the lectins were tracked from gut to dopaminergic neurons (DAergic-N in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans (egIs1[Pdat-1::GFP] where the mutant has the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP gene fused to a dopamine transport protein gene labeling dopaminergic neurons, The lectins were supplemented along with the food organism Escherichia coli (OP50. Among nine tested rhodamine/TRITC-tagged lectins, four, including Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA, and Arachis hypogaea (PNA, appeared to be transported from gut to the GFP-DAergic-N. Griffonia Simplicifolia (GSL-I and PHA-E, reduced the number of GFP-DAergic-N suggesting a toxic activity. PHA-E, BS-I, Pisum Sativum (PSA, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (Succinylated reduced fluorescent intensity of GFP-DAergic-N. PHA-E, PSA, Concanavalin A, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin decreased the size of GFP-DAergic-N, while BS-I increased neuron size. These observations suggest that dietary plant lectins are transported to and affect DAergic-N in C. elegans, which support Braak and Hawkes’ hypothesis, suggesting one alternate potential dietary etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. A recent Danish study showed that vagotomy resulted in 40% lower incidence of PD over 20 years. Differences in inherited sugar structures of gut and neuronal cell surfaces may make some individuals more susceptible in this conceptual disease etiology model.

  9. The rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, J.F.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with

  10. Effect of Magnesium Salts on Growth and Production of Garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D. experiment with three replicates was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of magnesium salts on growth, yield components and some inorganic minerals of leaves of garlic (Allium sativum L. local variety. The salts (MgSO4.7H2O, Mg(NO32.6H2O and MgCl2.6H2O addition to untreated plants as control. The concentration of Mg were used was constant (1.97 g Mg. L-1 which comes from 2% MgSO4.7H2O. The results revealed that vegetative growth of garlic was affected significantly by magnesium salts. Highest number of leaves was found in plants treated with MgCl2, the treatment which gave the lowest plant height, each of MgSO4 and Mg(NO32 had the highest shoot dry weight. Foliar spraying with Mg(NO32 produced highest shoot dry matter percent and highest percent of leaves Phosphorus leaves content, significantly compared to other treatments. The results showed that spraying plants with Mg(NO32 and MgSO4 improved yield components where head diameter , head weight, cloves number per head and bulbs yield were increased. Foliar spray with MgSO4 had a significant effects on head scale thickness, whereas there were non- significant effects between different Magnesium salts spraying on each of clove dry matter and percent of TSS content. This study concluded that spraying plants with MgSO4 or Mg(NO32 twice (45 days after planting and a month later increased garlic yield and yield quality.

  11. Efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha cultivada em solos de várzea Boron effects on nodule development in pea plants cultivated in lowland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Rogério de Azevedo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha (Pisum sativum L. cv. Torta de Flor Roxa, cultivada em solos de várzea em condições de casa de vegetação, entre maio e julho de 1998. Amostras de Neossolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico, Gleissolo Melânico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado foram coletadas na camada de 0-20 cm. Essas amostras foram previamente cultivadas com rabanete, e receberam calcário, P, K, S, Cu e Zn e seis doses de B (0,0, 0,25, 0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 6,0 mg dm-3. Por ocasião do cultivo da ervilha aplicou-se apenas K (100 mg dm-3. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x6, com três repetições. Foram cultivadas três plantas por vaso, cujas sementes, na época da semeadura, foram submetidas à inoculação com estirpes de Rhizobium leguminosarum (BR 618 e BR 619. Para verificação da existência de estirpes nativas de rizóbio, cultivaram-se sem inoculação nas sementes, três vasos, de cada solo, que haviam recebido a mesma dose de calcário, a mesma adubação básica e 0,5 mg dm-3 de boro. Aos 45 dias após o plantio, em pleno florescimento, colheu-se o experimento. Não foram observadas estirpes nativas nos solos avaliados. Nos solos Gleissolo Háplico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado, as doses de B influenciaram a nodulação e a atividade da nitrogenase.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of boron on nodule development in pea Pisum sativum L. plants cultivated in lowland soils under greenhouse conditions from May to July, 1998. Samples of Alluvial Soil, Low Humic Gley, Humic Gley and artificially drained Bog Soil were collected from a layer 0-20 cm deep. The samples were previously cultivated with radish plants that received lime, P, K, S, Cu and Zn and doses of B (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg dm-3. Before pea cultivation only K was applied (100 mg dm-3. The experimental design was totally

  12. Allium Sativum Methanolic Extract (garlic) Improve Therapeutic Efficacy of Albendazole Against Hydatid Cyst: In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Mohammadi, K H; Heidarpour, M; Borji, H

    2018-04-25

    After gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of prepared methanolic extract of Allium sativum, 40 laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were allocated into four treatment groups, including 1- Albendazole (100 mg/kg); 2- Allium sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L); 3- A. sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L) + Albendazole (50 mg /kg); and 4- untreated control group. After 30 days of daily treatment, total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst as well as blood serum bilirubin and liver enzymes were compared between the mice of different groups. The total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst were significantly lower in treated groups A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 and Albendazole 100 in comparison to those of the control group (p sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50, when compared to the control group. In addition, bilirubin concentration revealed significant decrease in A. sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 groups, when compared to the Albendazole group. In conclusion, administration of A. sativum 10 mL/L improved the anti-hydatidosis activity of Albendazole 50 mg /kg, due to parasitological effects similar to Albendazole 100 mg /kg but less hepatotoxic effects.

  13. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  14. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  15. A multicentric, double-blind randomized, homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The pathogenetic response elicited during the proving trial expands the scope of use of the drug A. sativum and will benefit the research scholars and clinicians. The generated symptoms of this drug will carry more value when verified clinically.

  16. Uptake and phytotoxic effect of benzalkonium chlorides in Lepidium sativum and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Libby, Mark; Winnick, Daniel; Palmer, John; Sumarah, Mark; Ray, Madhumita B; Macfie, Sheila M

    2018-01-15

    Cationic surfactants such as benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are used extensively as biocides in hospitals, food processing industries, and personal care products. BACs have the potential to reach the rooting zone of crop plants and BACs might thereby enter the food chain. The two most commonly used BACs, benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) and benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA), were tested in a hydroponic system to assess the uptake by and phytotoxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Individually and in mixture, BACs at concentrations up to 100 mg L -1 did not affect germination; however, emergent seedlings were sensitive at 1 mg L -1 for lettuce and 5 mg L -1 for garden cress. After 12 d exposure to 0.25 mg L -1 BACs, plant dry weight was reduced by 68% for lettuce and 75% for garden cress, and symptoms of toxicity (necrosis, chlorosis, wilting, etc.) were visible. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of BACs in the roots and shoots of both plant species. Although no conclusive relationship was established between the concentrations of six macro- or six micro-nutrients, growth inhibition or BAC uptake, N and Mg concentrations in BAC-treated lettuce were 50% lower than that of control, indicating that BACs might induce nutrient deficiency. Although bioavailability of a compound in hydroponics is significantly higher than that in soil, these results confirm the potential of BACs to harm vascular plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The essential oil of Allium sativum as an alternative agent against Candida isolated from dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Juache, Alejandro; Aranda-Romo, Saray; Bermeo-Escalona, Josué R; Gómez-Hernández, Araceli; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Shama; Shetty, Sukanya; Suchetha Kumari; Madhu, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  19. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on garlic (Allium sativum L.): a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaymurat, Talgar; Gu, Jianxiu; Xu, Changshan; Yang, Zhikun; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Yuxue; Liu, Yichun

    2012-05-01

    The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the root growth, root apical meristem mitosis and mitotic aberrations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) were investigated. ZnO NPs caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of root length. When treated with 50 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24 h, the root growth of garlic was completely blocked. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was estimated to be 15 mg/L. The mitosis index was also decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ZnO NPs also induced several kinds of mitotic aberrations, mainly consisted of chromosome stickiness, bridges, breakages and laggings. The total percentage of abnormal cells increased with the increase of ZnO NPs concentration and the prolongation of treatment time. The investigation provided new information for the possible genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on plants.

  20. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Garlic (Allium sativum: diet based therapy of 21st century–a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional and nutraceutical foods provide an opportunity to improve one’s health by reducing health care costs and to support economic development in rural communities. For this reason, various phyto-based functional foods are becoming popular worldwide owing to number of evidences for their safer therapeutic applications. Garlic (Allium sativum L., is an essential vegetable that has been widely utilized as seasoning, flavoring, culinary and in herbal remedies. The consumption of traditional plants especially garlic has progressively increased worldwide because of their great effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost. Garlic is well known to contain an array of phytochemicals. These bioactive molecules are playing pivotal role in maintaining human health and having potential to reduce various ailments. It has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its various bioactive components that can be used in different diet based therapies to cure various life-style related disorders. The present review is an attempt to explore the functional/nutraceutical role of garlic against various threats including dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, cardiovascular disorders, antioxidant capacity and carcinogenic perspectives.

  2. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Microwave drying characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarimeseli, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    Effect of microwave power output on effective moisture diffusivity, colour parameters and rehydration characteristics of coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) was investigated by using a microwave drier. Within the range of microwave power values, 180-360 W, effective moisture diffusivities were found to be 6.3 x 10 -11 -2.19 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and the result could successfully be presented with the model suggested by Midilli et al. No significant differences in the colour parameters were obtained between the fresh and dried samples and the changes in their values were not dependent on the power outputs of the microwave drier. The highest rehydration capacity was recorded for the samples dried at 180 W and lowest at 900 W.

  4. Microwave drying characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarimeseli, Ayse [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inonu University, 44069 Malatya (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Effect of microwave power output on effective moisture diffusivity, colour parameters and rehydration characteristics of coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) was investigated by using a microwave drier. Within the range of microwave power values, 180-360 W, effective moisture diffusivities were found to be 6.3 x 10{sup -11}-2.19 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s and the result could successfully be presented with the model suggested by Midilli et al. No significant differences in the colour parameters were obtained between the fresh and dried samples and the changes in their values were not dependent on the power outputs of the microwave drier. The highest rehydration capacity was recorded for the samples dried at 180 W and lowest at 900 W. (author)

  5. Molecular aspects of the nitrogen fixing system in pea root nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseling, T.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Pisum sativum and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Some general aspects of nodule formation and the regulation of the proteins nitrogenase and leghemoglobin (Lb) have been studied. Synthesis of these proteins was studied by 35 SO 4 labelling of intact pea plants. The sequence of appearance of the proteins was determined with specific radioimmunoassays for each protein. (Auth.)

  6. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  7. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  8. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lated with the specific nodule bacteria. These legumes form abundai nodules in their roots indicating the presence in the soil of the specific nodult bacteria in sufficiently large numbers. But in the case of the garden pe;3. (Pisum sativum) the growth of the plant is poor and there are only poorly developed nodules to be found ...

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a reverse genetic tool to study development of symbiotic root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Grønlund, Mette; Stougaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can provide a shortcut to plants with altered expression of specific genes. Here, we report that VIGS of the Nodule inception gene (Nin) can alter the nodulation phenotype and Nin gene expression in Pisum sativum. PsNin was chosen as target because of the disti...

  10. Characterization of the chlorophyll thermoluminescence afterglow in dark-adapted or far-red-illuminated plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, T.; Ducruet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Far red illumination of photosynthetic material induces a delayed luminescence rise, or afterglow, which has been reported in plant leaves, protoplasts or intact chloroplasts and in algal cells. but does not occur in isolated thylakoids. The rise kinetics is accelerated by increasing temperature and we show, by slowly heating a leaf sample after a far-red illumination, that the afterglow emission can be optimally resolved as a sharp thermoluminescence band. Plant material was mainly pea (Pisum sativum L., cv Kazar and Merveille de Kelvedon) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv Marketer). Comparisons were done with rape, spinach, tobacco, avocado and maize. A 0.2 degree C-1s to 0.5 degree C-1s temperature gradient, started above 0 degree C after a far red illumination, revealed a new thermoluminescence AG band, peaking between 40 degree C and 50 degree C. It exhibited the characteristic properties of the luminescence afterglow recorded at a constant temperature. The AG band was very sensitive to short incubations at both freezing and moderately warm temperatures. Increasing duration of far red illumination caused two kinetically distinct effects on the AG band and on the B band (S-2S-3 Q-B- recombination), which can be ascribed to different behaviors of proton gradients in stroma and in grana lamellae, respectively. The induction of an afterglow by far red light lasted for several minutes in the dark, at 10 degree C. Flash sequences fired in these conditions confirmed the presence of S-2 and S-3 states stable in the dark, producing luminescence by recombination with back-transferred electrons. In some plant batches, an AG band could be induced by 2 or 3 flashes in the absence of far red light, which demonstrates that a metabolic state leading to AG emission may arise spontaneously in plant leaves. The strong temperature dependence of the AG emission is discussed in terms of heat-induced conformational changes in the thylakoid membrane. We conclude that

  11. Identification of distinct quantitative trait loci associated with defence against the closely related aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and A. kondoi in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Su-Min

    2012-03-21

    Aphids are a major family of plant insect pests. Medicago truncatula and Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid, PA) are model species with a suite of resources available to help dissect the mechanism underlying plant-aphid interactions. A previous study focused on monogenic and relatively strong resistance in M. truncatula to PA and other aphid species. In this study a moderate resistance to PA was characterized in detail in the M. truncatula line A17 and compared with the highly susceptible line A20 and the more resistant line Jester. The results show that PA resistance in A17 involves both antibiosis and tolerance, and that resistance is phloem based. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n=114) from a cross between A17 and A20 revealed that one locus, which co-segregated with AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis) on chromosome 3, is responsible for the reduction of aphid biomass (indicator of antibiosis) for both PA and bluegreen aphid (BGA, A. kondoi), albeit to a lesser degree for PA than BGA. Interestingly, two independent loci on chromosomes 5 and 3 were identified for the plant biomass reduction (indicator of plant tolerance) by PA and BGA, respectively, demonstrating that the plant\\'s tolerance response to these two closely related aphid species is distinct. Together with previously identified major resistant (R) genes, the QTLs identified in this study are powerful tools to understand fully the spectrum of plant defence against sap-sucking insects and provide opportunities for breeders to generate effective and sustainable strategies for aphid control. 2012 The Author.

  12. Extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms in aposymbiotic pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabachi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2003-03-01

    Aposymbiotic pea aphids, which were deprived of their intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera, exhibit growth retardation and no fecundity. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed that these aposymbiotic aphids, when reared on broad bean plants, accumulated a large amount of histamine. To assess the possibility of extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms other than Buchnera, we enumerated eubacteria and fungi in aphids using the real-time quantitative PCR method that targets genes encoding small-subunit rRNAs. The result showed that these microorganisms were extremely abundant in the aposymbiotic aphids reared on plants. Microbial communities in aposymbiotic aphids were further profiled by phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rDNAs. Of 172 nonchimeric sequences of fungal 18S rDNAs, 138 (80.2%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Among them, 21 clustered within a monophyletic group consisting of insect-pathogenic fungi and yeast-like symbionts of homopteran insects. Thirty-one (18.0%), two (1.2%), and one (0.6%) clones were clustered within the Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Oomycota, respectively. Of 167 nonchimeric sequences of eubacterial 16S rDNAs, 84 (50.3%) belonged to the gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria to which most primary endosymbionts of insects and prolific histamine producers belong. Forty (24.0%), 25 (15.0%), 10 (6.0%), and five (3.0%) clones were clustered within alpha-Proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Actinobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria, respectively. Three had no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions. None of the sequences studied in this study coincided exactly with those deposited in GenBank.

  13. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii , Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that combat oxidative damage in biological entities. An antioxidant achieves this by slowing or preventing the oxidation process that can damage cells in the body. It does this by getting oxidized itself in place of the cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of four herbs viz. Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii, Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica which have frequent use in Indian cuisine. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts have shown significant amount reducing power. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum had significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.21± 0.3 mg/L and 0.176 ± 0.008 mg/L respectively. The aqueous leaf extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L showed low scavenging activity. Among all the leaf extracts, the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica has exhibited significantly high NO radical scavenging activity (80% with IC50 value of 0.11 ± 0.17 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples have showed significantly high superoxide radical scavenging activity. The activity was maximum for the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica, IC50 value is 4.36 ± 0.41 mg/L. anti lipid peroxide activities were very high ( 90 % for aqueous leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum (IC50 = 0.064 ± 0.85 mg/L and Centella asiatica (IC50 = 0.066 ± 0.9mg/L at a concentration of 0.16 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples were found to contain large amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exhibited high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These in vitro assays indicate that these plant extracts are significant source of natural antioxidants which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  14. Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum, possessing a unique genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S; Tsuneyoshi, T; Furutani, H

    1993-09-01

    Rod-shaped flexuous viruses were partially purified from garlic plants (Allium sativum) showing typical mosaic symptoms. The genome was shown to be composed of RNA with a poly(A) tail of an estimated size of 10 kb as shown by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. We constructed cDNA libraries and screened four independent clones, which were designated GV-A, GV-B, GV-C and GV-D, using Northern and Southern blot hybridization. Nucleotide sequence determination of the cDNAs, two of which correspond to nearly one-third of the virus genomic RNA, shows that all of these viruses possess an identical genomic structure and that also at least four proteins are encoded in the viral cDNA, their M(r)s being estimated to be 15K, 27K, 40K and 11K. The 15K open reading frame (ORF) encodes the core-like sequence of a zinc finger protein preceded by a cluster of basic amino acid residues. The 27K ORF probably encodes the viral coat protein (CP), based on both the existence of some conserved sequences observed in many other rod-shaped or flexuous virus CPs and an overall amino acid sequence similarity to potexvirus and carlavirus CPs. The 11K ORF shows significant amino acid sequence similarities to the corresponding 12K proteins of the potexviruses and carlaviruses. On the other hand, the 40K ORF product does not resemble any other plant virus gene products reported so far. The genomic organization in the 3' region of the garlic viruses resembles, but clearly differs from, that of carlaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis based upon the amino acid sequence of the viral capsid protein also indicates that the garlic viruses have a unique and distinct domain different from those of the potexvirus and carlavirus groups. The results suggest that the garlic viruses described here belong to an unclassified and new virus group closely related to the carlaviruses.

  15. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold.

  16. An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Synergy of Garlic (Allium sativum and Utazi (Gongronema latifolium on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eja, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the on-going search for potent and resistance-free antimicrobial medicinal plants, the antimicrobial and synergistic effects of the plants, Allium sativum (E1 and Gongronema latifolium (E2 on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The sensitivities of E. coli and S. aureus to E1 and E2 and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the plant extracts, individually and in combination with themselves, and with ciprofloxacin (CPX and ampicillin (AMP, were tested using standard procedures. E1 and E2 individually showed appreciable antimicrobial effect (zones of inhibition > 16mm. The combination of E1 and E2 against the test organisms was not effective due to antagonism between E1 and E2. E1 or E2 when combined with CPX, completely suppressed the effect of CPX against E. coli, and rather produced additive effect on S. aureus similar to the combination of E2 and AMP against S. aureus, although CPX alone was more effective than either E1 or E2, unlike AMP. Synergism was observed in the combination of E1 and AMP against S. aureus. It is concluded that synergism associated with the combination of medicinal plants is doubtful. However, the synergistic or additive effect between garlic and conventional drugs to some strains of bacteria which are resistant to some conventional drugs, gives hope of fighting drug resistance.

  17. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  18. Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriga, Balaji; Mopuri, Ramgopal; MuraliKrishna, T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum L. DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP DAYA AWET TAHU PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Hendra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tahu termasuk bahan pangan yang cepat mengalami kerusakan sehingga dapat digolongkan ke dalam golongan high perishable food. Komposisi tahu yang banyak mengandung protein dan air menyebabkan tahu merupakan media yang cocok untuk tumbuhnya mikroba sehingga tahu menjadi cepat mengalami kerusakan. Bawang putih (Allium sativum L juga bersifat antimikroba E.coli, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus sureus dan Aerobacter aerogenes. Manfaat lainya adalah dapat mengurangi jumlah bakteri aerob, kaliform dan mikroorganisme lainnya sehingga bahan makanan yang ditambahkan bawang putih akan lebih awet. Rumusan masalah apakah ekstrak bawang putih berpengaruh terhadap lamanya penyimpanan tahu putih? Tujuan Penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak bawang putih (Allium sativum L. terhadap daya awet Tahu putih. Hipotesis Penelitian ini adalah, diduga ada pengaruh pemberian konsentrasi ekstrak bawang putih (Allium sativum L. terhadap daya awet tahu putih. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari 6 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Berdasarkan analisis Varian menunjukkan bahwa signifikansi taraf signifikan pada Tabel 1 F hitung perlakuan lebih besar dari F tabel 0,05 dan F tabel 0,01 yaitu 2,93 4,58 artinya pemberian ekstrak kulit bawang putih (Allium sativum L. memberikan pengaruh sangat nyata terhadap daya awet tahu putih. Berdasarkan rata-rata jumlah mikroorganisme yang ada pada tahu putih, maka di ketahui bahwa konsentrasi Perlakuan P1 (80 gr ekstrak bawang putih (Allium sativum L. dengan masa simpan 1 x 24 jam berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap daya awet  tahu putih.

  20. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  1. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Leon Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice’s footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine.

  2. Data on the water balance in plants in the presence of fluor in the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J

    1969-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the water balance of Pisum sativm to fluorine compounds. The results indicate that fluorine compounds in the substrate caused a withering of the above soil portions of the plants due to a disruption in the water balance. Water intake was generally observed to be reduced along with an increase in F concentration.

  3. Modulation of ovomucoid-specific oral tolerance in mice fed plant extracts containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tanja; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of feeding extracts of four different legumes (red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), soyabean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum) on the specific immune response against a food protein. Mice were fed ovomucoid and the specific immune response...... influenced the immune response against ovomucoid; however, this was not as pronounced as for kidney bean and was only significant (Ppea extract was fed and peanut extract had a non-significant effect on induction of oral tolerance...... and on the general immune response. Plasma antibodies against kidney-bean lectin, but not against the three other legume lectins, were detected. Our current findings show that other dietary components can influence the specific immune response against food proteins. Various dietary components may thus contribute...

  4. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms “Allium sativum,” “Garlic,” “Allicin,” “Ajoene,” “Leishmania,” “in vitro,” “in vivo,” and “clinical trial,” alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26721553

  5. Scolicidal effect of Allium sativum flowers on hydatid cyst protoscolices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Esboei, B; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Fathi, H; Rezaei Anzahaei, F

    2016-01-01

    he s Because there is no effective and safe drug therapy for hydatid cyst, finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. In this study, the scolicidal effect of ultrasonic methanol extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) flower is investigated. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and were exposed to different concentrations of extract for various exposure times. The viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% Eosin staining. The scolicidal activity of extract at a concentration of 50 mg ml-1 was 59, 76, 81 and 86% after 10, 30, 60, and 180 min of exposure respectively. The scolicidal effect at 100 mg ml-1 was 67, 78, 85 and 98% after various exposure times, respectively. The results of this study showed that the ultrasonic extract has high scolicidal activity and might be used as a natural scolicidal agent. Garlic flower extracts is a potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  6. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  7. Detección molecular de potyvirus en hojas y minibulbillos de ajo, Allium sativum, asociados a un programa de producción de semilla limpia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parra Fuentes

    2014-07-01

    that favors the spread of diseases, especially bacteria, fungi and viruses, which affect the quality and crop yield. For this reason, the molecular identification by RT-PCR of potyvirus: LYSV and OYDV in the production system of clean seed garlic of three national clones were implemented. In the production phase of clean seed was establishing garlic meristems micropropagation. Potyvirus presence in 586 seedlings was analyzed by ELISA and for RT-PCR in 70. RNA was extracted from leaves and small bulbs, yielding 1.7 to 226 ng/µl, and with this RNA, between 35 to 50 ng of cDNA. The results showed that the disinfection protocol produced a 73.6% viability of plants. ELISA analysis showed 96% sanitation of seedling to potyvirus, whereas, Leek Yellow Strip Virus, LYSV was identified in 8.6% of samples used RT-PCR methodology. Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV was not detected in any sample. The results show that the in vitro culture of meristem of garlic, is an excellent alternative for seed production, showing a 92% efficiency. Moreover, efficient diagnostics of LYSV potyvirus was validated in leaves and small bulbs of garlic. Key words: Allium sativum, ELISA, micropropagation, LSYV, potyvirus, OYDV, RT-PCR. Recibido: octubre 18 de 2013                 Aprobado: octubre 1 de 2014

  8. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Cichorium intybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, B.; Mathieu, A.-S.; Van den Ende, W.; Vergauwen, R.; Périlleux, C.; Javaux, M.; Lutts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a cash crop cultivated for inulin production in Western Europe. This plant can be exposed to severe water stress during the last 3 months of its 6-month growing period. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a progressive decline in water availability on plant growth, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism and to determine its impact on inulin production. Water stress drastically decreased fresh and dry root weight, leaf number, total leaf area, and stomatal conductance. Stressed plants, however, increased their water-use efficiency and leaf soluble sugar concentration, decreased the shoot-to-root ratio and lowered their osmotic potential. Despite a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, the photosynthesis light phase remained unaffected under water stress. Water stress increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity in the leaves but not in the roots. Water stress inhibited sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1 fructosyltransferase after 19 weeks of culture and slightly increased fructan 1-exohydrolase activity. The root inulin concentration, expressed on a dry-weight basis, and the mean degree of polymerization of the inulin chain remained unaffected by water stress. Root chicory displayed resistance to water stress, but that resistance was obtained at the expense of growth, which in turn led to a significant decrease in inulin production. PMID:22577185

  9. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  12. Geographical gradient of the eIF4E alleles conferring resistance to potyviruses in pea (Pisum) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Eva; Šafářová, Dana; Navrátil, Milan; Hanáček, Pavel; Coyne, Clarice; Flavell, Andrew; Vishnyakova, Margarita; Ambrose, Mike; Redden, Robert; Smýkal, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E was shown to be involved in resistance against several potyviruses in plants, including pea. We combined our knowledge of pea germplasm diversity with that of the eIF4E gene to identify novel genetic diversity. Germplasm of 2803 pea accessions was screened for eIF4E intron 3 length polymorphism, resulting in the detection of four eIF4E(A-B-C-S) variants, whose distribution was geographically structured. The eIF4E(A) variant conferring resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype was found in 53 accessions (1.9%), of which 15 were landraces from India, Afghanistan, Nepal, and 7 were from Ethiopia. A newly discovered variant, eIF4E(B), was present in 328 accessions (11.7%) from Ethiopia (29%), Afghanistan (23%), India (20%), Israel (25%) and China (39%). The eIF4E(C) variant was detected in 91 accessions (3.2% of total) from India (20%), Afghanistan (33%), the Iberian Peninsula (22%) and the Balkans (9.3%). The eIF4E(S) variant for susceptibility predominated as the wild type. Sequencing of 73 samples, identified 34 alleles at the whole gene, 26 at cDNA and 19 protein variants, respectively. Fifteen alleles were virologically tested and 9 alleles (eIF4E(A-1-2-3-4-5-6-7), eIF4E(B-1), eIF4E(C-2)) conferred resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype. This work identified novel eIF4E alleles within geographically structured pea germplasm and indicated their independent evolution from the susceptible eIF4E(S1) allele. Despite high variation present in wild Pisum accessions, none of them possessed resistance alleles, supporting a hypothesis of distinct mode of evolution of resistance in wild as opposed to crop species. The Highlands of Central Asia, the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa and China were identified as important centers of pea diversity that correspond with the diversity of the pathogen. The series of alleles identified in this study provides the basis to study the co-evolution of potyviruses and the

  13. Conversion of Isatin to Isatate as Related to Growth Promotion in Avena Coleoptile and Pisum Stem Sections 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.-R.; Galston, A. W.; Milstone, L.

    1966-01-01

    Isatin, (indole 2,3-dione), which promotes elongation of Pisum stem sections at concentrations exceeding 0.1 mm, promotes elongation of Avena coleoptile sections only at higher concentrations, exceeding 1 mm. Aged isatin solutions are more active than fresh solutions, due to the slow, spontaneous conversion to isatate (o-aminophenylglyoxylate). A concentration of 0.1 mm aged isatin is as active in Avena coleoptile sections as in peas. Isatate has been independently synthesized and its auxin activity in both Avena coleoptile and Pisum stem sections confirmed. The synthetic isatate is more effective than isatin in both systems. This suggests that the auxin activity of isatin is due to its conversion to isatate. PMID:16656429

  14. Improvement of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) resistance to white rot and storability using gamma irradiation induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Mirali, N.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2001-01-01

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6, and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotia and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (author)

  15. Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. Garlic's properties result from a combination of variety biologically active substances which all together are responsible for its curative effect. The compounds contained in garlic synergistically influence each other so that they can have different effects. The active ingredients of garlic include enzymes (e.g. alliinase), sulfur-containing compounds such as alliin and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (e.g. allicin). There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The concentration of Allicin (main active ingredient) and the source of garlic's distinctive odor depend on processing method. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemicals rather quickly. It's documented that products obtained even without allicin such as aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, liver and other areas. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cold or the prevention of atherosclerosis and the development of tumors. Many available publications indicates possible antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Due to the chemical complexity of garlic and the use of different processing methods we obtain formulations with varying degrees of efficacy and safety.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult ...

  17. A comparative profile of methanol extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum in diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Abhishek; Shri, Richa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action - Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN. Results: Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa. PMID:21713142

  18. Effects of rice husks and their chars from hydrothermal carbonization on the germination rate and root length of Lepidium sativum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Mukhina, Irina; Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Kalderis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    Currently, char substrates gain a lot of interest, since they are being discussed as a component in growing media, which may become one option for the replacement of peat. Among different thermal conversion processes of biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been found to produce chars with similar acidic pH values like peat. The question however is, if these hydrochars, which may contain toxic phenolic compounds are suitable to be introduced as a new substitute for peat in horticulture. In this study rice husk were hydrothermally carbonized at 200° C for 6 hours, yielding in hydrochars containing organic contaminants such as phenols and furfurals, which may affect plants and soil organisms. We investigated potential toxic effects on the germination rate and the root length of cress salad (Lepidium sativum) in four fractions: i) soil control, ii) raw rice husk + soil, iii) unwashed rice char + soil and iv) acetone/water washed rice char + soil. It could be shown that phenols and furfurals, which were removed from the hydrochar after washing by 80 to 96% did not affect the germination rate and the root length of the cress plants. The lowest germination rate and root length were found in the soil control, the highest in the non-washed hydrochar treatment, indicating a fertilization effect and growth stimulation of cress salad by hydrochar. If this result can be confirmed for other target and non-target organisms in future studies, a new strategy for the production of growing media may be developed.

  19. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  20. New cyclic sulfides, garlicnins I2, M, N, and O, from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2018-01-01

    One atypical thiolane-type sulfide, garlicnin I 2 (1), two 3,4-dimethylthiolane-type sulfides, garlicnins M (2) and N (3), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin O (4), were isolated from the acetone extracts of Chinese garlic bulbs, Allium sativum and their structures were characterized. Hypothetical pathways for the production of the respective sulfides were discussed.

  1. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. The average time of paralysis and death of L. nilotica for Niclosomide (1,250 mg/kg) and the methanol extract of A. sativum L. (600 μg/ml) were 6.22 ± 2.94 and 68.44 ± 28.39 min, respectively. Distilled water and garlic tablets at a dose of 400 mg were determined as the inert group. In this research, the attraction time of the leeches' death among different treatments is significant. In this study, it was determined that Niclosomide, with an intensity of 4+, and methanolic extracts of A. sativum L., with an intensity of 3+, have a good anti-leech effect and can be shown to be effective in cases of leech biting, while distilled water was negative.

  2. New cyclic sulfides extracted from Allium sativum: garlicnins P, J2, and Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2018-01-01

    Two atypical cyclic-type sulfides, garlicnin P (1) and garlicnin J 2 (2), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin Q (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic, Allium sativum, bulbs cultivated in the Kumamoto city area, and their structures characterized. Their production pathways are also discussed.

  3. Atypical Cyclic Sulfides, Garlicnins G, I, and J, Extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Pan, Cheng; El-Aasr, Mona; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Newly characterized, atypical sulfides, garlicnins G (1), I (2), and J (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic bulbs, Allium sativum. Their production pathways are regarded as different from those of cyclic sulfoxides, 3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives such as onionins A 1 -A 3 , garlicnins B 1 -B 4 and C 1 -C 3 .

  4. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  5. Observation of the garlic antimicrobial activity (Allium sativum) in compulsory Secondary Education laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  6. Observation of the garlic antimicrobial activity (Allium sativum in compulsory Secondary Education laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El ajo (Allium sativum ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  7. In vitro activity of Allium sativum and Aloe vera extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase of antibiotic resistance needs to be taken as a threat to both animals and human being. In this study the arbitrary concentration of 25%, 50% and 75% of individual and combined Allium sativum and Aloe vera were tested against Salmonella Gallinarum. The antimicrobials were extracted using aqueous ...

  8. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium sativum L. exposed to three different concentrations of Cd (100 M, 1 mM and 10 mM) for 9 days was carried out. The results showed that Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes – high vacuolization in cytoplasm, deposition of electron-dense material in ...

  9. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M.

    1990-01-01

    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by 14 C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from [ 14 C]glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored

  10. Effect of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronidazole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Delfan, B; Pournia, Y; Rashidipour, M

    2016-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the common causes of worldwide diarrhea in children. Appropriate medicinal treatment for giardiasis is available but there are some evidences of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, and unpleasant side effects. In order to reach a more natural drug with suitable efficacy and the lowest side effects, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica , and Allium sativum on G. lamblia cysts were evaluated in vitro, as well as antigiardial effect of the extracts was compared with metronidazole as the drug of choice. 2 and 5 mg of the plants extracts and powder of metronidazole 250 mg pills were added to 1 ml of G. lamblia cysts suspension (containing 5,000 cyst/ml normal saline), and the percentages of bioavailability of G. lamblia cysts were examined at the 2nd and 4th h after exposure and in 4 and 37 °C temperatures using eosin 0.1 % and a haemocytometer. The data were analyzed by multiway ANOVA test, Tukey's test, and the SPSS software, version 18. The examinations demonstrated that olive leaf extract had the most fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (37.90 ± 7.01 %), followed by the extract of S. khuzestanica (32.52 ± 9.07 %). Metronidazole 250 mg pills had relatively effective fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (28.75 ± 10.30 %), whereas A. sativum (garlic) had the lowest fatality effect on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (22.65 ± 10.47 %). With respect to higher fatality effect of olive leaf and S. khuzestanica extracts compared with metronidazole in vitro, these plants can be used as suitable candidates to make new antigiardial drugs with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiasis in children.

  11. In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Nazer, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is still the main treatment for hydatid disease. Recurrence of the infection is one of the end points of surgery in treating the hydatid cyst which results from the dissemination of protoscolices-rich fluid. Installation of a scolicidal agent into the cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent recurrence. Many scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of the cyst's content, but most of them are not safe due to their undesired side effects. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum is investigated. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg ml(-1)) of garlic extract were used for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 25 mg ml(-1) killed 87.9, 95.6, 96.8, 98.7, 99.6, and 100% of protoscolices following 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of application, respectively. Moreover, the scolicidal activity of Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) was 100% after 10 min of application. Methanolic extract of Allium sativum had a high scolicidal activity in vitro and thus might be used as a scolicidal agent in the surgical treatment of the hydatid cyst. However, further investigation on the in vivo efficacy of Allium sativum extract and its possible side effects is proposed.

  12. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice's footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine. © R. Gamboa-Leon et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  13. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  14. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.

  15. Vigor de sementes de coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. provenientes de sistemas orgânico e convencional Evaluation of force of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. seeds from the organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.D. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. é uma hortaliça amplamente consumida no Brasil como condimento. É muito importante, especialmente para a horticultura do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. É provável que, em relação ao valor de mercado, seja a segunda hortaliça folhosa em importância para o Brasil, com grande volume de importação e produção nacional de sementes. Problemas relacionados ao baixo vigor das sementes e ao estabelecimento da cultura são uma constante nesta espécie. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a influência do sistema de produção orgânico e convencional sobre o potencial fisiológico das sementes de coentro. Foram avaliados lotes de sementes de coentro, cultivar Verdão, provenientes de sistemas de cultivo convencional e orgânico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de cinqüenta sementes. Foram avaliados o grau de umidade, porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem do teste de emergência, peso de mil sementes, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas e teste de condutividade. As avaliações realizadas mostraram que os sistemas de cultivo de modo geral não diferem entre si quanto ao potencial fisiológico das sementes.The coriander (Coriandum sativum L. is an herb widely consumed in Brazil as a condiment. It is very important, particularly for horticulture in North and Northeast of Brazil. IT is likely that, in terms of market value, it is the second herb hardwood dusts in importance for Brazil, losing only to the lettuce and the high volume of imports and domestic production of seed. Problems related to the low seed vigor and the establishment of culture are a constant in this species. In the present work lots of coriander seeds, the cv. Verdão, from systems of conventional and organic were evaluated, having as objective is to verify the influence of the physiological potential of the seeds on the initial development of

  16. Peroxiredoxin 1 protects the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum from oxidative stress induced by Micrococcus luteus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongdong; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are generated in organisms in response to infections caused by invading microbes. However, excessive ROSs will inflict oxidative damage on the host. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are antioxidative enzymes that may eliminate ROSs efficiently. In this study, ApPrx1 from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum was cloned, and its function was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In the presence of DTT, recombinant ApPrx1 protein from Escherichia coli showed antioxidative activity by eliminating H2O2 effectively. The H2O2 levels were significantly higher in Micrococcus luteus-infected aphids than in uninfected aphids, and ApPrx1 expression was remarkably up-regulated when the aphids were infected with M. luteus or injected with H2O2. When ApPrx1 expression was reduced by dsRNA injection, the survival of the aphids decreased significantly after M. luteus infection. Knockdown of ApPrx1 decreased M. luteus loads inside the aphids 48h post-infection. While under infection conditions, the H2O2 levels were much higher in ApPrx1 knockdown aphids than in dsGFP-injected aphids, indicating that the decreased survival of the aphids was caused by increased oxidative stress. Taken together, our results reveal that ApPrx1 plays a protective role in oxidative stress caused by bacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incorporation of Allium sativum in yogurt: In vitro study on inhibition of diabetes- and hypertension-associated enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabboo Amirdivani Amirdivani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inclusion of Allium sativum on yogurt formation and subsequent storage (4°C, up to 28 days on proteolysis, microbial activity, the inhibition of a-amylase, a-glucosidase and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE-1 in vitro were investigated. A. sativum-yogurt showed higher rates of pH reduction and increment of TA than plain-yogurt during incubation at 41°C. Highest proteolysis,  on day 7 showed in A. sativum-yogurt (62.7±0.80 mg/mL, which was 2-flod higher than plain yogurt (31.0±0.96 mg/mL. Bacterial counts in A.sativum-yogurt were higher for Lactobacillus spp. but lower for S. thermophillus (p<0.05 compared to those in plain yogurt throughout refrigerated storage. Highest inhibitory activities for α-amylase were recorded on day 14 of storage for A. sativum- and plain-yogurts (IC50= 13.7±1.99and 26.3±2.15mg respectively; p<0.05 and on day 7 for α-glucosidase (IC50= 120.7±22.71 and 192.3±33.24mg respectively; p<0.05. The highest anti-ACE-I activity was observed on day 7 of refrigerated storage with A. sativum-yogurt (IC50=6.9±0.23mg being more potent than plain-yogurt (IC50=9.7±0.12mg; p<0.05. A. sativum-yogurt was not favoured for overall aroma, sourness and bitterness in the sensory evaluations but recorded the same overall preference as plain yogurt. A. sativum enhanced the fermentation of yogurt in favour of the population of Lactobacillus spp, stimulated proteolysis of milk proteins and increased the in vitro inhibition of key enzymes associated with diabetes and hypertension.

  18. Influence of lead and the metallic ions of copper, zinc, thorium, beryllium and thallium on the germination of seeds. [Pepidium sativum; Sinapis alba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilling, W J

    1926-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether lead salts had any special retarding influence on the germination and early growth of seeds and whether any other metals (Cu, Zn, Th, Be, Tl) possessed the action in more marked degree. The experiments were done chiefly with cress (Pepidium sativum) and mustard (Sinapis alba). Results indicated that lead has a definite inhibiting action on germination and, in strengths of 0.27%, practically checks it, while exercising a deleterious effect on the growth of the seedling. With 0.12% strength, germination is delayed four days and averages 40% below the control with slow and stunted growth. 0.05% lead reduces germination by 20%, delays it by a day, but the young plants make good growth. The results indicated that other metallic ions possess, like lead, the power of inhibiting germination and growth of seeds.

  19. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Amir, Mohd; Baig, Mohd Affan; Qureshi, M Irfan; Ali, Sher; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI) from a plant Allium sativum (garlic) with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI) was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD) spectroscopy. ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max)" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C) but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min) and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM). The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH. To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites. Therefore, ASPI

  20. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

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    Tooba Naz Shamsi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI from a plant Allium sativum (garlic with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials.Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD spectroscopy.ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM. The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH.To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites