WorldWideScience

Sample records for plants local impacts

  1. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  2. Impact of plant invasions on local arthropod communities: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive plants can have a major impact on local plant and animal communities. However, effects of plant invasions on arthropod communities and the potential drivers have rarely been studied. 2. We present a meta-analysis of 56 studies on the impact of plant invasions on abundance and richness of

  3. Impact of plant invasions on local arthropod communities: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive plants can have a major impact on local plant and animal communities. However, effects of plant invasions on arthropod communities and the potential drivers have rarely been studied. 2. We present a meta-analysis of 56 studies on the impact of plant invasions on abundance and richness of

  4. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  5. An impact source localization technique for a nuclear power plant by using sensors of different types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Chul; Park, Jin-Ho; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, a loose part monitoring system (LPMS) provides information on the location and the mass of a loosened or detached metal impacted onto the inner surface of the primary pressure boundary. Typically, accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a reactor vessel to localize the impact location caused by the impact of metallic substances on the reactor system. However, in some cases, the number of accelerometers is not sufficient to estimate the impact location precisely. In such a case, one of useful methods is to utilize other types of sensor that can measure the vibration of the reactor structure. For example, acoustic emission (AE) sensors are installed on the reactor structure to detect leakage or cracks on the primary pressure boundary. However, accelerometers and AE sensors have a different frequency range. The frequency of interest of AE sensors is higher than that of accelerometers. In this paper, we propose a method of impact source localization by using both accelerometer signals and AE signals, simultaneously. The main concept of impact location estimation is based on the arrival time difference of the impact stress wave between different sensor locations. However, it is difficult to find the arrival time difference between sensors, because the primary frequency ranges of accelerometers and AE sensors are different. To overcome the problem, we used phase delays of an envelope of impact signals. This is because the impact signals from the accelerometer and the AE sensor are similar in the whole shape (envelope). To verify the proposed method, we have performed experiments for a reactor mock-up model and a real nuclear power plant. The experimental results demonstrate that we can enhance the reliability and precision of the impact source localization. Therefore, if the proposed method is applied to a nuclear power plant, we can obtain the effect of additional installed sensors.

  6. Impact of toxic chemicals on local wastewater treatment plant and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary F.

    1989-05-01

    Because toxic chemicals being discharged to sewers were simultaneously interfering with wastewater treatment processes of municipal, biological treatment plants and were passing through these plants to negatively impact the bodies of water to which these plants were discharging, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations governing industrial discharges to municipal sewers. These “Pretreatment Regulations” limit industrial discharges to municipal sewers of heavy metals, oil and grease, acids and bases, and toxic organic chemicals. This paper discusses the evolution of these regulations, the basis for them, the types of regulations (categorical and local), and the rationale for their promulgation based on the impacts of toxics chemicals on the treatment plant and receiving system. Finally, the expected results of these regulations in reducing industrial discharges of toxic chemicals is discussed.

  7. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  8. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  9. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  10. Impacts of invasive plants on carbon pools depend on both species' traits and local climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Bullock, James M

    2017-04-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem properties, leading to changes in the ecosystem services on which humans depend. However, generalizing about these effects is difficult because invasive plants represent a wide range of life forms, and invaded ecosystems differ in their plant communities and abiotic conditions. We hypothesize that differences in traits between the invader and native species can be used to predict impacts and so aid generalization. We further hypothesize that environmental conditions at invaded sites modify the effect of trait differences and so combine with traits to predict invasion impacts. To test these hypotheses, we used systematic review to compile data on changes in aboveground and soil carbon pools following non-native plant invasion from studies across the World. Maximum potential height (Hmax ) of each species was drawn from trait databases and other sources. We used meta-regression to assess which of invasive species' Hmax , differences in this height trait between native and invasive plants, and climatic water deficit, a measure of water stress, were good predictors of changes in carbon pools following invasion. We found that aboveground biomass in invaded ecosystems relative to uninvaded ones increased as the value of Hmax of invasive relative to native species increased, but that this effect was reduced in more water stressed ecosystems. Changes in soil carbon pools were also positively correlated with the relative Hmax of invasive species, but were not altered by water stress. This study is one of the first to show quantitatively that the impact of invasive species on an ecosystem may depend on differences in invasive and native species' traits, rather than solely the traits of invasive species. Our study is also the first to show that the influence of trait differences can be altered by climate. Further developing our understanding of the impacts of invasive species using this framework could help researchers to identify not only

  11. Distance matters. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic: Local perceptions and statistical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of geographical distance on the extent of socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic is assessed by combining two different research approaches. First, we survey how people living in municipalities in the vicinity of the power plant perceive impacts on their personal quality of life. Second, we explore the effects of the power plant on regional development by analysing long-term statistical data about the unemployment rate, the share of workers in the energy sector and overall job opportunities in the respective municipalities. The results indicate that the power plant has had significant positive impacts on surrounding communities both as perceived by residents and as evidenced by the statistical data. The level of impacts is, however, significantly influenced by the spatial and social distances of communities and individuals from the power plant. The perception of positive impacts correlates with geographical proximity to the power plant, while the hypothetical distance where positive effects on the quality of life are no longer perceived was estimated at about 15 km. Positive effects are also more likely to be reported by highly educated, young and middle-aged and economically active persons, whose work is connected to the power plant.

  12. Disseminating knowledge about 'Local Food Plants' and 'Local Plant Foods'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Heinrich, Michael; Obón, Concepción; Inocencio, Cristina; Nebel, Sabine; Verde, Alonso; Fajardo, José

    2006-01-01

    Ethnobotanical approaches to the study of Mediterranean food plants offer novel ways for analyzing and preserving traditional knowledge and agrobiodiversity in the Mediterranean area. This article highlights our strategy to increase the awareness within traditional knowledge systems and encourage the continuous evolution of it, avoiding the loss of substantial parts of the local cultural and biological diversity. The strategy is part of a broader stream of thought, which does attempt to disseminate information locally in a multitude of ways, e.g. through a range of publications in rural or urban zones, to people with or without formal education, to children or the elderly. This article is a very personal account of the experience of the authors, but there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such activities on a broader level, and, also, to reassess the impact researchers have on the communities. Our clear impression in all field sites has been that the simple fact that such traditional knowledge systems are the focus of scientific investigation are an essential element of giving renewed sociocultural value to such knowledge and that activities like the ones described here are of great interest to the communities we worked in.

  13. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are

  14. Children as ethnobotanists: methods and local impact of a participatory research project with children on wild plant gathering in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2016-10-10

    Ethically sound research in applied ethnobiology should benefit local communities by giving them full access to research processes and results. Participatory research may ensure such access, but there has been little discussion on methodological details of participatory approaches in ethnobiological research. This paper presents and discusses the research processes and methods developed in the course of a three-year research project on wild plant gathering, the involvement of children as co-researchers and the project's indications for local impact. Research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria, between 2008 and 2010 in four research phases. In phase 1, 36 freelist interviews with local people and participant observation was conducted. In phase 2 school workshops were held in 14 primary school classes and their 189 children interviewed 506 family members with structured questionnaires. In phase 3, 27 children and two researchers co-produced participatory videos. In phase 4 indications for the impact of the project were investigated with questionnaires from ten children and with participant observation. Children participated in various ways in the research process and the scientific output and local impact of the project was linked to the phases, degrees and methods of children's involvement. Children were increasingly involved in the project, from non-participation to decision-making. Scientific output was generated from participatory and non-participatory activities whereas local impact - on personal, familial, communal and institutional levels - was mainly generated through the participatory involvement of children as interviewers and as co-producers of videos. Creating scientific outputs from participatory video is little developed in ethnobiology, whereas bearing potential. As ethnobotanists and ethnobiologists, if we are truly concerned about the impact and benefits of our research processes and results to local communities, the

  15. Local impacts of coal mines and power plants across Canada. II. Metals, organics and toxicity in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V.; Reynoldson, T.; Garbai, G.; Rajkumar, J.; Milani, D. [Environment of Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Institute

    2000-07-01

    A Canada-wide survey was undertaken to study local impacts of coal mines and coal-fired electrical generating stations. The first part dealt with thallium in waters and sediments. This, Part II, deals with metals and organics in sediments as well as sediment toxicity to four different organisms. Several elevated metal and PAH concentrations as well as high toxicity (based on biological sediment guidelines) were observed compared to uncontaminated sites. Based on Ontario's sediment guidelines, most of the studied sediments fell in the 'marginally to significantly polluted' category of sediment quality, although two belonged to the 'grossly polluted' class due to the extremely high concentrations of some metals. The observed diversity of PAHs and near-unity carbon preference indices indicate non-biological origins of the studied sediments. In this initial study, four different organisms, Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Hexagenia spp. (Hexagenia limbata) and Tubifex tubifex were used to determine sediment toxicity, which showed 50% of the tested sites were highly stressed.

  16. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%).

  17. Windpower and grey seals: An impact assessment of potential effects by sea-based windpower plants in a local seal population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Soederman, Malin [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    2000-05-01

    The impact of five sea-based wind power plants on two haulout sites for grey seals on southwestern Gotland, in the Baltic Sea, was analysed. Data on seal numbers was collected on a regular basis during the initial stages of the project from summer 1996, continuing during the building (autumn 1997) and running of the wind power plants (from spring 1998) until the end of June 1999. Additional observational data from earlier years was also available. Indications of lower occurrence and reduced number of seals in the area was found during periods of time in 1997 and 1998, times of construction and active running of the plants. However, no evidence on the wind power plants, per se, affecting the grey seals was found. Instead, several weather factors were found to affect the number of seals in the area, and periods of low occurrence and number of seals were more likely explained by i.e. unfavourable water levels and hard wind from certain directions. One important, short term, impact factor was however found. Human induced disturbances such as boat and helicopter traffic, some which were directly related to maintenance of the wind power plants, temporarily reduced number of seals and made them more restless. Disturbance thus constitutes a potential threat to seals. A shift from one to the other of the two haulout sites was also noted, a shift which likely is due to disturbances. Future guidelines are given, including some restrictions in movements near the haulout sites. Continued observations and studies are suggested if more off-shore wind power plants will be raised in the area. A call for more stringent use of environmental impact assessments is thus made. Also, suggestions on measures to be taken in order to reduce the effect of human related disturbances are made. In order to create sustainable conditions for a continued population of seals in the area and in order to create opportunities for a reestablishment of the grey seal in the southern Baltic region

  18. The local impact of a coal-fired power plant on inorganic mercury and methyl-mercury distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohang; Meng, Bo; Zhang, Chao; Feng, Xinbin; Gu, Chunhao; Guo, Jianyang; Bishop, Kevin; Xu, Zhidong; Zhang, Sensen; Qiu, Guangle

    2017-04-01

    Emission from coal-fired power plants is one of the major anthropogenic sources of mercury (Hg) in the environment, because emitted Hg can be quickly deposited nearby the source, attention is paid to the effects of coal-burning facilities on levels of toxic methyl-mercury (MeHg) in biota near such sources. Since rice is an agricultural crop that can bio-accumulate MeHg, the potential effects of a large Hg-emitting coal-fired power plant in Hunan Province, China on both inorganic Hg (Hg(II)) and MeHg distributions in rice was investigated. Relatively high MeHg (up to 3.8 μg kg(-1)) and Hg(II) (up to 22 μg kg(-1)) concentrations were observed in rice samples collected adjacent to the plant, suggesting a potential impact of Hg emission from the coal fired power plant on the accumulation of Hg in rice in the area. Concentrations of MeHg in rice were positively correlated with soil MeHg, soil S, and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) in ambient air. Soil MeHg was the most important factor controlling MeHg concentrations in rice. The methylation of Hg in soils may be controlled by factors such as the chemical speciation of inorganic Hg, soil S, and ambient GEM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A meta-analysis of local adaptation in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosa Leimu

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is of fundamental importance in evolutionary, population, conservation, and global-change biology. The generality of local adaptation in plants and whether and how it is influenced by specific species, population and habitat characteristics have, however, not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, we examined published data on the outcomes of reciprocal transplant experiments using two approaches. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the performance of local and foreign plants at all transplant sites. In addition, we analysed frequencies of pairs of plant origin to examine whether local plants perform better than foreign plants at both compared transplant sites. In both approaches, we also examined the effects of population size, and of the habitat and species characteristics that are predicted to affect local adaptation. We show that, overall, local plants performed significantly better than foreign plants at their site of origin: this was found to be the case in 71.0% of the studied sites. However, local plants performed better than foreign plants at both sites of a pair-wise comparison (strict definition of local adaption only in 45.3% of the 1032 compared population pairs. Furthermore, we found local adaptation much more common for large plant populations (>1000 flowering individuals than for small populations (<1000 flowering individuals for which local adaptation was very rare. The degree of local adaptation was independent of plant life history, spatial or temporal habitat heterogeneity, and geographic scale. Our results suggest that local adaptation is less common in plant populations than generally assumed. Moreover, our findings reinforce the fundamental importance of population size for evolutionary theory. The clear role of population size for the ability to evolve local adaptation raises considerable doubt on the ability of small plant populations to cope with changing environments.

  20. Plant biodiversity impacts on soil stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Iain; Quinton, John; Bardgett, Richard

    2014-05-01

    In recent times, growing threats to global biodiversity have raised awareness from the scientific community, with particular interest on how plant diversity impacts on ecosystem functioning. In the field of plant-soil interactions, much work has been done to research the implications of species loss, primarily focussing on biological processes such as plant productivity, microbial activity and carbon cycling. Consequently, virtually nothing is known about how plant diversity might impact on soil physical properties, and what mechanisms might be involved. This represents a serious gap in knowledge, given that maintaining soils with good structural integrity can reduce soil erosion and water pollution, and can lead to improved plant yield. Therefore, there is a need for a greater understanding of how plant communities and ecological interactions between plant roots and soils can play a role in regulating soil physical structure. Soil aggregation is an important process in determining soil stability by regulating soil water infiltration and having consequences for erodibility. This is influenced by both soil physical constituents and biological activity; including soil organic carbon content, microbial growth, and increased plant rooting. As previously mentioned, plant diversity influences carbon dynamics, microbial activity and plant growth, therefore could have substantial consequences for soil aggregate stability. Here, we present results from a series of plant manipulation experiments, on a range of scales, to understand more about how plant diversity could impact on soil aggregate stability. Soils from both a plant manipulation mesocosm experiment, and a long term biodiversity field study, were analysed using the Le Bissonnais method of aggregate stability breakdown. Increasing plant species richness was found to have a significant positive impact on soil aggregate stability at both scales. In addition to this, the influence of species identity, functional group

  1. Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Barry; Berry, Peter; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Land plants have adapted to survive under a range of wind climates and this involve changes in chemical composition, physical structure and morphology at all scales from the cell to the whole plant. Under strong winds plants can re-orientate themselves, reconfigure their canopies, or shed needles, leaves and branches in order to reduce the drag. If the wind is too strong the plants oscillate until the roots or stem fail. The mechanisms of root and stem failure are very similar in different plants although the exact details of the failure may be different. Cereals and other herbaceous crops can often recover after wind damage and even woody plants can partially recovery if there is sufficient access to water and nutrients. Wind damage can have major economic impacts on crops, forests and urban trees. This can be reduced by management that is sensitive to the local site and climatic conditions and accounts for the ability of plants to acclimate to their local wind climate. Wind is also a major disturbance in many plant ecosystems and can play a crucial role in plant regeneration and the change of successional stage.

  2. Impact of invasive plants on food webs and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikai Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In natural ecosystems, energy mainly flows along food chains in food webs. Numerous studies have shown that plant invasions influence ecosystem functions through altering food webs. In recent decades, more attention has been paid to the effects of alien plants on local food webs. In this review, we analyze the influence of exotic plants on food webs and pathways, and explore the impacts of local food web characteristics on community invasibility. Invasive plants alter food webs mainly by changing basal resources and environment conditions in different ways. First, they are consumed by native herbivores due to their high availability, and are therefore incorporated into the native food web. Second, if they show low availability to native herbivores, a new food web is generated through introduction of new consumers or by changing the energy pathway. Third, environmental changes induced by plant invasions may alter population density and feeding behavior of various species at different trophic levels, thus alien plants will affect the communities and food web structures along non-trophic pathways. The influence of the local food web on plant invasions depends on web size and trophic connections. Issues that deserve attention in future studies are raised and discussed. Future research should extend from short-term experiments to long-term monitoring. More quantitative researches to define the responses of food web parameters are needed. In addition, recovering of food web structure and species interaction in restored habitats is an important issue requiring future research.

  3. Climate change: potential impact on plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S; Tiedemann, A V; Teng, P S

    2000-06-01

    Global climate has changed since pre-industrial times. Atmospheric CO(2), a major greenhouse gas, has increased by nearly 30% and temperature has risen by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. The intergovernmental panel on climate change predicts that with the current emission scenario, global mean temperature would rise between 0.9 and 3.5 degrees C by the year 2100. There are, however, many uncertainties that influence these predictions. Despite the significance of weather on plant diseases, comprehensive analysis of how climate change will influence plant diseases that impact primary production in agricultural systems is presently unavailable. Evaluation of the limited literature in this area suggests that the most likely impact of climate change will be felt in three areas: in losses from plant diseases, in the efficacy of disease management strategies and in the geographical distribution of plant diseases. Climate change could have positive, negative or no impact on individual plant diseases. More research is needed to obtain base-line information on different disease systems. Most plant disease models use different climatic variables and operate at a different spatial and temporal scale than do the global climate models. Improvements in methodology are necessary to realistically assess disease impacts at a global scale.

  4. Plant Leaf Recognition through Local Discriminative Tangent Space Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifold learning based dimensionality reduction algorithms have been payed much attention in plant leaf recognition as the algorithms can select a subset of effective and efficient discriminative features in the leaf images. In this paper, a dimensionality reduction method based on local discriminative tangent space alignment (LDTSA is introduced for plant leaf recognition based on leaf images. The proposed method can embrace part optimization and whole alignment and encapsulate the geometric and discriminative information into a local patch. The experiments on two plant leaf databases, ICL and Swedish plant leaf datasets, demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  5. PlantLoc: an accurate web server for predicting plant protein subcellular localization by substantiality motif

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shengnan; Li, Tonghua; Cong, Peisheng; Xiong, Wenwei; Wang, Zhiheng; Sun, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of subcellular localizations (SCLs) of plant proteins relates to their functions and aids in understanding the regulation of biological processes at the cellular level. We present PlantLoc, a highly accurate and fast webserver for predicting the multi-label SCLs of plant proteins. The PlantLoc server has two innovative characters: building localization motif libraries by a recursive method without alignment and Gene Ontology information; and establishing simple architecture for rapi...

  6. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    that are expected to be in force in Denmark during 2005, where a large part of the local CHP plants will change from being paid for electricity production according to a feed-in tariff, to a situation where the electricity is to be sold on market conditions. The results will highlight the CHP plant as the link...

  7. Invasive plant erodes local song diversity in a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Yvette K; Benson, Aubree; Greene, Erick

    2014-02-01

    Exotic plant invasions threaten ecosystems globally, but we still know little about the specific consequences for animals. Invasive plants can alter the quality of breeding habitat for songbirds, thereby impacting important demographic traits such as dispersal, philopatry, and age structure. These demographic effects may in turn alter song-learning conditions to affect song structure and diversity. We studied Chipping Sparrows (Spizella passerina) breeding in six savannas that were either dominated by native vegetation or invaded by spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe), an exotic forb known to diminish food resources and reproductive success. Here, we report that the prevalence of older birds was relatively low in knapweed-invaded habitat, where recruitment of yearlings compensated for diminished site fidelity to sustain territory abundance. In both habitat types, yearling males tended to adopt songs similar to their neighbors and match the songs of older birds rather than introducing new song types, a pattern seen in many songbird species. As a consequence, in invaded habitat where age structure was skewed away from older birds serving as potential song models, yearlings converged on fewer song types. Similarity of songs among individuals was significantly higher and the overall number of song types averaged nearly 20% lower in invaded relative to native habitat. Degradation of habitat quality generally impacts site fidelity and age ratios in migratory songbirds and hence may commonly alter song-learning conditions. Associated shifts in song attributes known to influence reproductive success could in turn enforce demographic declines driven by habitat degradation. Local song structure may serve as an important indicator of habitat quality and population status for songbirds.

  8. Nuclear power plants. Site choice; Usinas nucleoeletricas. Escolha de local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This book establishes the standards for selection and development of criteria for evaluation of new nuclear sites in Brazil. The places where the new nuclear power plants will be installed must be adequate for construction and operation of the power plants will be submitted to Brazilian environmental and nuclear legislation of the Union, states and the local governments, besides to accomplish the world good practices of this activity.

  9. Impact of climate extremes on wildlife plant flowering over Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation extremes in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how extremes specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological extremes and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.

  10. Phase transition for Local Search on planted SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Andrei A

    2008-01-01

    The Local Search algorithm (or Hill Climbing, or Iterative Improvement) is one of the simplest heuristics to solve the Satisfiability and Max-Satisfiability problems. It is a part of many satisfiability and max-satisfiability solvers, where it is used to find a good starting point for a more sophisticated heuristics, and to improve a candidate solution. In this paper we give an analysis of Local Search on random planted 3-CNF formulas. We show that if there is k7/6 such that the clause-to-variable ratio is greater than k ln(n)$ then the local search whp finds a satisfying assignment. As a byproduct we also show that for any constant r there is g such that Local Search applied to a random (not necessarily planted) 3-CNF with clause-to-variable ratio r produces an assignment that satisfies at least gn clauses less than the maximal number of satisfiable clauses.

  11. Recognition of bacterial plant pathogens: local, systemic and transgenerational immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Elizabeth; Yadeta, Koste A; Coaker, Gitta

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial pathogens can cause multiple plant diseases and plants rely on their innate immune system to recognize and actively respond to these microbes. The plant innate immune system comprises extracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial patterns and intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize specific bacterial effectors delivered into host cells. Plants lack the adaptive immune branch present in animals, but still afford flexibility to pathogen attack through systemic and transgenerational resistance. Here, we focus on current research in plant immune responses against bacterial pathogens. Recent studies shed light onto the activation and inactivation of pattern recognition receptors and systemic acquired resistance. New research has also uncovered additional layers of complexity surrounding NLR immune receptor activation, cooperation and sub-cellular localizations. Taken together, these recent advances bring us closer to understanding the web of molecular interactions responsible for coordinating defense responses and ultimately resistance.

  12. Plant performance across latitude: the role of plasticity and local adaptation in a clonal aquatic plant

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaria, L.; Figuerola, J; Pilon, J.; Mjelde, M.; Green, A. J.; T. De Boer; King, R H M; Gornall, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Geographic variation can lead to the evolution of different local varieties within a given species, therefore influencing its distribution and genetic structure. We investigated the contribution of plasticity and local adaptation to the performance of a common aquatic plant (Potamogeton pectinatus) in contrasting climates, using reciprocal transplants at three experimental sites across a latitudinal cline in Europe. Plants from 54 genets, originally collected from 14 populations situated with...

  13. Plant species coexistence at local scale in temperate swamp forest: test of habitat heterogeneity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douda, Jan; Doudová-Kochánková, Jana; Boublík, Karel; Drašnarová, Alena

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that a heterogeneous environment enhances species richness and allows for the coexistence of species. However, there is increasing evidence that environmental heterogeneity can have no effect or even a negative effect on plant species richness and plant coexistence at a local scale. We examined whether plant species richness increases with local heterogeneity in the water table depth, microtopography, pH and light availability in a swamp forest community at three local spatial scales (grain: 0.6, 1.2 and 11.4 m). We also used the variance partitioning approach to assess the relative contributions of niche-based and other spatial processes to species occurrence. We found that heterogeneity in microtopography and light availability positively correlated with species richness, in accordance with the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. However, we recorded different heterogeneity-diversity relationships for particular functional species groups. An increase in the richness of bryophytes and woody plant species was generally related to habitat heterogeneity at all measured spatial scales, whereas a low impact on herbaceous species richness was recorded only at the 11.4 m scale. The distribution of herbaceous plants was primarily explained by other spatial processes, such as dispersal, in contrast to the occurrence of bryophytes, which was better explained by environmental factors. Our results suggest that both niche-based and other spatial processes are important determinants of the plant composition and species turnover at local spatial scales in swamp forests.

  14. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper...... presents a stochastic unit commitment model for a single local CHP plant (consisting of CHP unit, boiler, and heat storage facility) which takes into account varying spot prices. Further, additional technology is implemented in the model in the form of an immersion heater. Simulations are conducted using...

  15. Localization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in plant guard cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), as an important neurotransmitter in animals, also plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. But relatively little is known about its receptors in plants. A green fluorescence BODIPY FL-labeled ABT, which is a high affinity ligand of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), was used to localize mAChR in plant guard cells. In Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L., mAChR was found both on the plasma membrane of guard cells. mAChR may also be distributed on guard cell chloroplast membrane of Vicia faba L. The evidence that mAChR localizes in the guard cells provides a new possible signal transduction pathway in ACh mediated stomata movement.

  16. Plant performance across latitude: the role of plasticity and local adaptation in a clonal aquatic plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaria, L.; Figuerola, J.; Pilon, J.; Mjelde, M.; Green, A.J.; De Boer, T.; King, R.H.M.; Gornall, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Geographic variation can lead to the evolution of different local varieties within a given species, therefore influencing its distribution and genetic structure. We investigated the contribution of plasticity and local adaptation to the performance of a common aquatic plant (Potamogeton pectinatus)

  17. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities...... impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site...

  18. Local biotic adaptation of trees and shrubs to plant neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Kevin C.; Wood, Troy E.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Hersch-Green, Erika; Shuster, Stephen M.; Gehring, Catherine A.; Hart, Stephen C.; Allan, Gerard J.; Whitham, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection as a result of plant–plant interactions can lead to local biotic adaptation. This may occur where species frequently interact and compete intensely for resources limiting growth, survival, and reproduction. Selection is demonstrated by comparing a genotype interacting with con- or hetero-specific sympatric neighbor genotypes with a shared site-level history (derived from the same source location), to the same genotype interacting with foreign neighbor genotypes (from different sources). Better genotype performance in sympatric than allopatric neighborhoods provides evidence of local biotic adaptation. This pattern might be explained by selection to avoid competition by shifting resource niches (differentiation) or by interactions benefitting one or more members (facilitation). We tested for local biotic adaptation among two riparian trees, Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii, and the shrub Salix exigua by transplanting replicated genotypes from multiple source locations to a 17 000 tree common garden with sympatric and allopatric treatments along the Colorado River in California. Three major patterns were observed: 1) across species, 62 of 88 genotypes grew faster with sympatric neighbors than allopatric neighbors; 2) these growth rates, on an individual tree basis, were 44, 15 and 33% higher in sympatric than allopatric treatments for P. fremontii, S. exigua and S. gooddingii, respectively, and; 3) survivorship was higher in sympatric treatments for P. fremontiiand S. exigua. These results support the view that fitness of foundation species supporting diverse communities and dominating ecosystem processes is determined by adaptive interactions among multiple plant species with the outcome that performance depends on the genetic identity of plant neighbors. The occurrence of evolution in a plant-community context for trees and shrubs builds on ecological evolutionary research that has demonstrated co-evolution among herbaceous taxa, and

  19. Impact load mitigation in sandwich beams using local resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, B

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic response of sandwich beams with resonators embedded in the cores subjected to impact loads is studied. Using finite element models the effectiveness of various local resonator frequencies under a given impact load is compared to the behavior of an equivalent mass beam. It is shown that addition of appropriately chosen local resonators into the sandwich beam is an effective method of improving its flexural bending behavior under impact loads. The effect of a given local resonance frequency under different impact load durations is also studied. It is demonstrated that the choice of appropriate local resonance frequency depends on the impact duration. Further, by performing transverse impact experiments, the finite element models are verified and the advantage of using internal resonators under impact loading conditions is demonstrated.

  20. Secondary Metabolite Localization by Autofluorescence in Living Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Talamond

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autofluorescent molecules are abundant in plant cells and spectral images offer means for analyzing their spectra, yielding information on their accumulation and function. Based on their fluorescence characteristics, an imaging approach using multiphoton microscopy was designed to assess localization of the endogenous fluorophores in living plant cells. This method, which requires no previous treatment, provides an effective experimental tool for discriminating between multiple naturally-occurring fluorophores in living-tissues. Combined with advanced Linear Unmixing, the spectral analysis extends the possibilities and enables the simultaneous detection of fluorescent molecules reliably separating overlapping emission spectra. However, as with any technology, the possibility for artifactual results does exist. This methodological article presents an overview of the applications of tissular and intra-cellular localization of these intrinsic fluorophores in leaves and fruits (here for coffee and vanilla. This method will provide new opportunities for studying cellular environments and the behavior of endogenous fluorophores in the intracellular environment.

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  2. Local slamming impact of sandwich composite hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Z; Batra, R.C

    2009-01-01

    We develop a hydroelastic model based on a {3,2}-order sandwich composite panel theory and Wagner's water impact theory for investigating the fluid-structure interaction during the slamming process...

  3. Woody plants and woody plant management: ecology, safety, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Wise and effective woody plant management is an increasing necessity for many land uses and conservation practices, especially on forests and rangelands where native or exotic plants are affecting productivity, access, or critical habitat. Tools and approaches for managing woody plants have been under concerted development for the past 50 years, integrating mechanical...

  4. The impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, T.; Fleming, Z. L.; Hughes, K. A.; Ainley, D. G.; Convey, P.; Moreno, C. A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Scott, J.; Snape, I.

    2009-04-01

    An overview of a recently published review of the scientific literature from the past decade on the impacts of human activities on the Antarctic environment is presented. An assessment of the cumulative effects of scientists and accompanying base construction, tourists and fishery activities in Antarctica is timely given a decade since the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1998 and the increasing attention given to and human presence in Antarctica during this 2007-2009 IPY. A range of impacts has been identified at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Chemical contamination and sewage disposal on the continent have been found to be long-lived, with contemporary sewage management practices at many coastal stations insufficient to prevent local contamination. Human activities, particularly construction and transport, have affected Antarctic flora and fauna and a small number of non-indigenous plant and animal species has become established on some of the Antarctic Peninsula and sub Antarctic islands. There is little indication of recovery of overexploited fish stocks, and ramifications of fishing activity on bycatch species and the ecosystem could also be far-reaching. The Antarctic Treaty System and its instruments, in particular the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and the Environmental Protocol, provide a framework within which management of human activities take place. In order to ensure comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment, including its intrinsic, wilderness and scientific values in the face of the continuing expansion of human activities in Antarctica, a more effective implementation of a wide range of measures is essential. These include effective environmental impact assessments, long-term monitoring, mitigation measures for non-indigenous species, ecosystem-based management of living resources, and increased regulation of National Antarctic

  5. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Jacob N; Tekiela, Daniel R; Barrios-Garcia, Maria Noelia; Dimarco, Romina D; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Leipzig-Scott, Peter; Nuñez, Martin A; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Maxwell, Bruce D

    2015-07-01

    framework is to create a standard yet flexible platform for understanding the ecological impacts of invasive plants, allowing both individual and synthetic analyses across a range of taxa and ecosystems. If broadly adopted, this standard approach will offer unique insight into the ecological impacts of invasive plants at local, regional, and global scales.

  6. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear power plant siting: a case study of two New England communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    An examination is presented of the social, economic and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. The work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy-generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing.

  7. Landscape connectivity strengthens local-regional richness relationships in successional plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, Ellen I; Brudvig, Lars A

    2012-04-01

    Local species diversity is maintained over ecological time by a balance between dispersal and species interactions. Local-regional species richness relationships are often used to investigate the relative importance of these two processes and the scales at which they operate. For communities undergoing succession, theory predicts a temporal progression in local-regional species richness relationships: from no relationship to positive linear to saturating. However, observational tests have been mixed, and experiments have been rare. Using a replicated large-scale experiment, we evaluate the impact of two dispersal-governing processes at the regional scale, connectivity and shape of the region (i.e., patches), on the progression of local-regional species richness relationships for plant communities undergoing succession. Regional connectivity accelerates the transition from no relationship to a positive linear relationship, while the shape of the region has no consistent effect nine years post-disturbance. Our results experimentally demonstrate the importance of dispersal in structuring local-regional species richness relationships over time and suggest that conservation corridors among regions can increase local diversity through regional enrichment of plant communities undergoing reassembly.

  8. LOCAL COMMUNITY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON PROSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos MONTERRUBIO; Anallely BELLO

    2011-01-01

    Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores th...

  9. Social and economic impacts of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant: a confirmatory technology assessment. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenk, E. Jr.; Bereano, P.L.; Douglass, J.; Watson, R.H.; Zemansky, G.M.

    1979-10-01

    The Trojan nuclear plant located 32 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon was chosen for a case study. A background of the physical, demographic, economic, and political context of the communities is provided. This is followed by an evaluation of the impacts of plant construction and operation including local taxation, employment, business activity and income, demography, public utilities and transportation, land use, housing, recreation, culture and lifestyle, public safety, education, health care, and politics and institutions.

  10. Impact of chemical plant start-up emissions on ambient ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sijie; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Flare emissions, especially start-up flare emissions, during chemical plant operations generate large amounts of ozone precursors that may cause highly localized and transient ground-level ozone increment. Such an adverse ozone impact could be aggravated by the synergies of multiple plant start-ups in an industrial zone. In this paper, a systematic study on ozone increment superposition due to chemical plant start-up emissions has been performed. It employs dynamic flaring profiles of two olefin plants' start-ups to investigate the superposition of the regional 1-hr ozone increment. It also summaries the superposition trend by manipulating the starting time (00:00-10:00) of plant start-up operations and the plant distance (4-32 km). The study indicates that the ozone increment induced by simultaneous start-up emissions from multiple chemical plants generally does not follow the linear superposition of the ozone increment induced by individual plant start-ups. Meanwhile, the trend of such nonlinear superposition related to the temporal (starting time and operating hours of plant start-ups) and spatial (plant distance) factors is also disclosed. This paper couples dynamic simulations of chemical plant start-up operations with air-quality modeling and statistical methods to examine the regional ozone impact. It could be helpful for technical decision support for cost-effective air-quality and industrial flare emission controls.

  11. LOCAL COMMUNITY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON PROSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos MONTERRUBIO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores the ‘responsibility' of tourism on the increase of prostitution in an urban destination as perceived by local residents. It was found that while local community residents do not perceive tourism as the only causing factor, the tourist involvement in commercial sex does exist, but it is commonly an incidental rather than a purposive experience.

  12. LOCAL COMMUNITY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON PROSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anallely BELLO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores the ‘responsibility' of tourism on the increase of prostitution in an urban destination as perceived by local residents. It was found that while local community residents do not perceive tourism as the only causing factor, the tourist involvement in commercial sex does exist, but it is commonly an incidental rather than a purposive experience.

  13. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  14. Study on the Analytical Behaviour of Concrete Structure Against Local Impact of Hard Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is basic construction material used for almost all kind of structure. However, in the majority essential structures such as nuclear plants, Power plants, Weapon Industries, weapons storage places, water retaining structures like dams, highways barriers, bridges, & etc., concrete structures have to be designed as self-protective structure which can afford any disaster or consciously engendered unpleasant incidents such as incident occurs in nuclear plants, incident in any essential industry, terrorist attack, Natural disasters like tsunami and etc missile attack, and local impact damage generated by kinetic missiles dynamic loading (steel rods, steel pipes, turbine blades, etc.. This paper inquisitively is paying attention on verdict of the recent development in formulating analytical behavior of concrete and reinforced concrete structures against local impact effect generated by hard missile with and without the influence of dimensional analysis based on dominant non-dimensional parameters, various nose shape factors at normal and certain inclined oblique angles. The paper comprises the analytical models and methods for predicting penetration, and perforation of concrete and reinforced concrete. The fallout conquer from this study can be used for making design counsel and design procedures for seminal the dynamic retort of the concrete targets to foil local impact damage.

  15. Innovative approach to ash radioactivitiy and health impacts of lignite power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T.; Pop-Jordanova, N. [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia)

    1998-12-31

    In Macedonia nearly 90% of the present electricity production utilizes domestic low-calorie lignite, and this is likely to continue for the next few decades. Local and global environmental impacts of fossil fuel utilization are considered. Some innovative extensions to standard methodologies of environmental risk assessment and management are considered. They involve ash radioactivity and psychosomatic health impacts from lignite power plants. Two extensions are proposed: one comprising complete radioactive chains when determining committed effective dose from lignite ash; the other by including the psychosomatic diseases, such as peptic ulcer and arterial hypertension, due to chronic stress induced by power plants during normal operation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Impact of the tsunami response on local and national capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna Parakrama

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The largest ever evaluation of an international humanitarian response found that most lives were saved by affected and neighbouring communities in the immediate aftermath of the December 2004 tsunami. When the international community bypassed or appropriated local and national response, the impact was inefficient in terms of cost, effort and time.

  17. Local atmospheric decoupling in complex topography alters climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Daly; David R. Conklin; Michael H. Unsworth

    2009-01-01

    Cold air drainage and pooling occur in many mountain valleys, especially at night and during winter. Local climate regimes associated with frequent cold air pooling have substantial impacts on species phenology, distribution, and diversity. However, little is known about how the degree and frequency of cold air drainage and pooling will respond to a changing climate....

  18. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  19. Quantifying the impact of energy traffic on local unpaved roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan K.

    Converse, Goshen, Laramie, and Platte counties were selected in accordance with a legislative directive as part of a project to determine the impact of the oil and gas industry on county infrastructure. This thesis takes into account the impact of county gravel roads and strategies used to help develop methods to assess and mitigate this impact. With a lacking road and bridge budget, these counties are only just keeping up with the current impact. In order to receive additional funding from the state legislature, actual impact needs to be assessed. The different distresses and ride quality of all the county gravel roads showed that, on average, the roads were in good condition, no matter the level of impact. However, the cost to keep the impacted roads in this condition came at a much greater price. By modeling the data gathered in this study and comparing the differences between impacted and non-impacted roads, a better understanding of the degradation taking place and the main causes were examined and valuable information was attained. A priority ranking for impacted roads was also assessed to determine the severity of the impact for each county and to supply maintenance recommendations and costs for each road. This was done in hopes that the information from this model will then be used for more efficient maintenance strategies and a more cost effective use of the county's budget so that the counties may continue to keep up with the energy impacts. The process developed in this study could be very useful for other local agencies impacted by energy development.

  20. The Impact of Domestic Gastronomic Festivals on the Local Accomodations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Bottyán

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food festivals are a mainstay of the festival sector and some surveys show that they currently account for 30 percent. Despite this, we know very little about this important part of event tourism, and its economic and social impacts. This study tries to show, by econometric methods, the impacts on the local economy made by food festivals – and, at the same time, fhe effects -of the multiplicator and spillover factors. This paper looks for some correlation between the local index-number of tourism and gastronomic festivals, using data from more than 200 events and festivals and 123 settlements. The first step in the survey was to determine two tourism factors, and this was followed by our methodological studies of these factors. Although the summarized conclusions may not support the general opinion as can be found in the relevant literature – that is, a positive correlation between gastronomic festivals and local tourism, new research directions are revealed.

  1. Climate vs. soil factors in local adaptation of two common plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; Lawson, C.S.; Mortimer, S.R.; Smilauerova, M.; Bischoff, A.; Crémieux, L.; Dolezal, J.; Edwards, A.R.; Lanta, V.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.; Igual, J.M.; Rodriguez-Barrueco, C.; Müller-Schärer, H.; Steinger, T.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary theory suggests that divergent natural selection in heterogeneous environments can result in locally adapted plant genotypes. To understand local adaptation it is important to study the ecological factors responsible for divergent selection. At a continental scale, variation in climate

  2. The Impact of Metagovernance on Local Governance Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Torfing, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the impact of metagovernance on the functioning of local governance networks. It does so by comparing the functioning of four local governance networks in the field of local employment policy in Denmark. Between 2007 and 2009, two of these networks were linked to jobcentres...... in which the municipality and a state agency shared responsibility for employment policy, while the other two were linked to jobcentres in which the municipality had full responsibility. We explore two types of metagovernance that the local governance networks were subject to: general, hands......-off metagovernance consisting of the assignment of full responsibility to the municipality alone, or of shared responsibility to the municipality and the state jointly; and tailored and fine-tuned metagovernance directed towards only one or a few networks and their corresponding jobcentre(s). Our findings suggest...

  3. Interlibrary Loan Requests for Locally Available Materials: WorldCat Local's Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have researched the reasons and patterns for academic library users' interlibrary loan requests for materials already available at their college or university library. This study examines interlibrary loan statistics at the University of Delaware for four academic years to determine whether WorldCat Local impacts requests for…

  4. On the applicability of the visual impact assessment OAI{sub SPP} tool to photovoltaic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiabrando, Roberto; Fabrizio, Enrico; Garnero, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria, Forestale e Ambientale (DEIAFA), Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO) (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Among the technologies of exploitation of renewable energy sources, solar photovoltaic plants and wind power plants are the ones who had the highest growth rate and in the future may contribute substantially to meeting energy demand and requests for production of carbon-free energy. However, it was also shown that even though there is a considerable support for policies promoting renewable energy at a general level, local communities often perceive the installation of systems powered by renewable sources such as limiting the quality of life, or impacting on the natural and built landscape. Consequently, the studies concerning the procedures for assessing the territorial and landscape impacts of this type of systems have recently seen a remarkable development. If an extensive scientific literature is now available regarding the assessment of visual impact of wind turbines, with applications in several countries, there are few studies, theoretical or applied, dealing with the visual impact of photovoltaic plants, which represent, also for their physical size, an important form of transformation of the agricultural and forestry land. As part of studies conducted by the authors regarding the territorial impacts of photovoltaic plant, in this paper, a procedure to evaluate the visual impact of a PV plant based on a quantitative indicator and that was published in the same journal (vol. 13, no. 5, p. 986-99) is adopted and discussed with reference to the application on some case studies. As a result, some modifications to the procedure are presented and a discussion on how this procedure may be used and integrated into the administrative requirements of large and small scale PV plants developments is carried out. From the results, it can be derived that such a procedure can be effectively used provided that a regulatory framework is set by the local authority that carries out the authorizaion procedures. (author)

  5. Impact of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and functions are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have impacted rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a "back to the roots" framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication.

  6. Coastal Hazards and Integration of Impacts in Local Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P.; Sorensen, C.; Molgaard, M. R.; Broge, N. H.; Andersen, O. B.

    2016-12-01

    Data on sea and groundwater levels, precipitation, land subsidence, geology, and geotechnical soil properties are combined with information on flood and erosion protection measures to analyze water-related impacts from climate change at an exposed coastal location. Future sea extremes will have a large impact but several coupled effects in the hydrological system need to be considered as well to provide for optimal protection and mitigation efforts. For instance, the investment and maintenance costs of securing functional water and wastewater pipes are significantly reduced by incorporating knowledge about climate change. The translation of regional sea level rise evidence and projections to concrete impact measures should take into account the potentially affected stakeholders who must collaborate on common and shared adaptation solutions. Here, knowledge integration across levels of governance and between research, private and public institutions, and the local communities provides: understanding of the immediate and potential future challenges; appreciation of different stakeholder motives, business agendas, legislative constraints etc., and a common focus on how to cost-efficiently adapt to and manage impacts of climate change. By construction of a common working platform that is updated with additional data and knowledge, e.g. from future regional models or extreme events, advances in sea level research can more readily be translated into concrete and local impact measures in a way that handles uncertainties in the future climate and urban development as well as suiting the varying stakeholder needs.

  7. Local and Regional Impacts of Large Scale Wind Energy Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakes, J.; Hammond, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P.; Robinson, M.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. is currently on a path to produce 20% of its electricity from wind energy by 2030, almost a 10-fold increase over present levels of electricity generated from wind. Such high-penetration wind energy deployment will entail extracting elevated energy levels from the planetary boundary layer and preliminary studies indicate that this will have significant but uncertain impacts on the local and regional environment. State and federal regulators have raised serious concerns regarding potential agricultural impacts from large farms deployed throughout the Midwest where agriculture is the basis of the local economy. The effects of large wind farms have been proposed to be both beneficial (drying crops to reduce occurrences of fungal diseases, avoiding late spring freezes, enhancing pollen viability, reducing dew duration) and detrimental (accelerating moisture loss during drought) with no conclusive investigations thus far. As both wind and solar technologies are deployed at scales required to replace conventional technologies, there must be reasonable certainty that the potential environmental impacts at the micro, macro, regional and global scale do not exceed those anticipated from carbon emissions. Largely because of computational limits, the role of large wind farms in affecting regional-scale weather patterns has only been investigated in coarse simulations and modeling tools do not yet exist which are capable of assessing the downwind affects of large wind farms may have on microclimatology. In this presentation, we will outline the vision for and discuss technical and scientific challenges in developing a multi-model high-performance simulation capability covering the range of mesoscale to sub-millimeter scales appropriate for assessing local, regional, and ultimately global environmental impacts and quantifying uncertainties of large scale wind energy deployment scenarios. Such a system will allow continuous downscaling of atmospheric processes on wind

  8. Local and national impact of aerospace research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of work at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of aeronautics space, and energy is presented. Local and national impact of the work is discussed. Some aspects of the U.S. research and technology base, the aerospace industry, and foreign competition are discussed. In conclusion, U.S. research and technology programs are cited as vital to U.S. economic health.

  9. Hurricanes and Climate Change: Global Systems and Local Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, J.

    2011-12-01

    With funding from NOAA, the Miami Science Museum has been working with exhibit software developer Ideum to create an interactive exhibit exploring the global dimensions and local impacts of climate change. A particular focus is on climate-related impacts on coastal communities, including the potential effects on South Florida of ocean acidification, rising sea level, and the possibility of more intense hurricanes. The exhibit is using a 4-foot spherical display system in conjunction with a series of touchscreen kiosks and accompanying flat screens to create a user-controlled, multi-user interface that lets visitors control the sphere and choose from a range of global and local content they wish to explore. The exhibit has been designed to promote engagement of diverse, multigenerational audiences through development of a fully bilingual user interface that promotes social interaction and conversation among visitors as they trade off control of global content on the sphere and related local content on the flat screens. The open-source learning module will be adaptable by other museums, to explore climate impacts specific to their region.

  10. Ozone biomonitoring in a local network around an automotive plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R. [Biologisch Ueberwachen und Bewerten, Echterdingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Effects of ambient air pollution by organic solvents, emitted from coating processes, are monitored by sensitive bioindicator plants since 1992 in and around a large automotive plant. In order to distinguish specific injury symptoms caused by these solvents, typical leaf injury symptoms by oxidant air pollution are also recorded. (orig.)

  11. The impact of transition metals on bacterial plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Preston, Gail M

    2013-07-01

    Metals play essential roles in many biological processes but are toxic when present in excess. This makes their transport and homoeostatic control of particular importance to living organisms. Within the context of plant-pathogen interactions the availability and toxicity of transition metals can have a substantial impact on disease development. Metals are essential for defensive generation of reactive oxygen species and other plant defences and can be used directly to limit pathogen growth. Metal-based antimicrobials are used in agriculture to control plant disease, and there is increasing evidence that metal hyperaccumulating plants use accumulated metal to limit pathogen growth. Pathogens and hosts compete for available metals, with plants possessing mechanisms to withhold essential metals from invading microbes. Pathogens, meanwhile, use low-metal conditions as a signal to recognise and respond to the host environment. Consequently, metal-sensing systems such as fur (iron) and zur (zinc) regulate the expression of pathogenicity and virulence genes; and pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to acquire metal during growth in plant tissues, including the production of multiple siderophores. This review explores the impact of transition metals on the processes that determine the outcome of bacterial infection in plants, with a particular emphasis on zinc, iron and copper. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Organelle-localized potassium transport systems in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shin; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-15

    Some intracellular organelles found in eukaryotes such as plants have arisen through the endocytotic engulfment of prokaryotic cells. This accounts for the presence of plant membrane intrinsic proteins that have homologs in prokaryotic cells. Other organelles, such as those of the endomembrane system, are thought to have evolved through infolding of the plasma membrane. Acquisition of intracellular components (organelles) in the cells supplied additional functions for survival in various natural environments. The organelles are surrounded by biological membranes, which contain membrane-embedded K(+) transport systems allowing K(+) to move across the membrane. K(+) transport systems in plant organelles act coordinately with the plasma membrane intrinsic K(+) transport systems to maintain cytosolic K(+) concentrations. Since it is sometimes difficult to perform direct studies of organellar membrane proteins in plant cells, heterologous expression in yeast and Escherichia coli has been used to elucidate the function of plant vacuole K(+) channels and other membrane transporters. The vacuole is the largest organelle in plant cells; it has an important task in the K(+) homeostasis of the cytoplasm. The initial electrophysiological measurements of K(+) transport have categorized three classes of plant vacuolar cation channels, and since then molecular cloning approaches have led to the isolation of genes for a number of K(+) transport systems. Plants contain chloroplasts, derived from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. A novel K(+) transport system has been isolated from cyanobacteria, which may add to our understanding of K(+) flux across the thylakoid membrane and the inner membrane of the chloroplast. This chapter will provide an overview of recent findings regarding plant organellar K(+) transport proteins.

  13. Institutional Impacts of the Local Government Reform Program on Good Local Governance in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface E.S. Mgonja

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the early 1990s, Tanzania’s government has embarked upon ambitious and far-reaching reform programs to improve the socioeconomic condition of the country. Among them was the development of anti-corruption strategies and the local government reform program. Overall, these reform programs were expected to improve good governance through reformed and autonomous local institutions. As such, this paper provides a detailed analysis of two reform initiatives, namely, anti-corruption strategies and LGRP based on their main policy goals as well as impacts on the overall institutional performance of local institutions in Tanzania. Drawing upon review of some empirical studies, the paper discusses what is seen as major structural concerns in the workings of these reforms in their entirety. This paper builds on the proposition that, unless someone addresses “institutional shortfalls” within the greater system of governance, any policy or reform initiative aimed at improving good governance will ultimately fail to deliver.

  14. Impacts of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone impacts associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with regional air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone impact (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.

  15. Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... in humans in the presence of population structure. For outbred species, the ..... plants are immotile, distant gene dispersal is largely uniparental (through .... Linkage disequilibrium among modern sugarcane cultivars. Theor.

  16. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Barney, Jacob N.; Tekiela, Daniel R.; Barrios-Garcia, Maria Noelia; Dimarco, Romina D.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Leipzig-Scott, Peter; Nuñez, Martin A.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial invasive plants are a global problem and are becoming ubiquitous components of most ecosystems. They are implicated in altering disturbance regimes, reducing biodiversity, and changing ecosystem function, sometimes in profound and irreversible ways. However, the ecological impacts of most invasive plants have not been studied experimentally, and most research to date focuses on few types of impacts, which can vary greatly among studies. Thus, our knowledge of existing ecological i...

  17. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens using panoramic and periapical radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon; Han, Jin Woo; Park, In Woo; Baik, Jee Seon; Seo, Hyun Woo; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Ho Won [College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new technique for localizing impacted mesiodens using its horizontal magnification ratio on panoramic radiographs. Location-magnification equation of a panoramic equipment was obtained from horizontal magnification ratio of a metal ball which was located variable positions from the center of image layer at interval of 2 mm. Panoramic radiographs were obtained from a skull phantom with a metal ball which was a substitute for impacted mesiodens and was embedded 10 mm (Group 1), 15 mm (Group 2), and 20 mm (Group 3) posterior to the central incisor. Each group obtained 7 panoramic radiographs at variable positions and one periapical radiograph. Three methods were used to estimate the actual width of the incisors and the balls which were used to calculate the magnification ratio. The methods included using the actual incisor width and the calculated ball width (Method 1), using the actual incisor width and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 2), and using the incisor and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 3). The location of the metal ball was calculated by using the location-magnification equation. The smallest difference between the calculated and the actual distance was 0.1{+-}0.7 mm in Group 1/Method 3. The largest difference was -4.2{+-}1.6 mm in Group 3/Method 2. In all groups, method 3 was the most accurate. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens is possible by using panoramic radiograph.

  18. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens using panoramic and periapical radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hang-Moon; Han, Jin-Woo; Park, In-Woo; Baik, Jee-Seon; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Park, Ho-Won

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new technique for localizing impacted mesiodens using its horizontal magnification ratio on panoramic radiographs. Location-magnification equation of a panoramic equipment was obtained from horizontal magnification ratio of a metal ball which was located variable positions from the center of image layer at interval of 2 mm. Panoramic radiographs were obtained from a skull phantom with a metal ball which was a substitute for impacted mesiodens and was embedded 10mm(Group 1), 15mm(Group 2), and 20mm(Group 3) posterior to the central incisor. Each group obtained 7 panoramic radiographs at variable positions and one periapical radiograph. Three methods were used to estimate the actual width of the incisors and the balls which were used to calculate the magnification ratio. The methods included using the actual incisor width and the calculated ball width (Method 1), using the actual incisor width and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 2), and using the incisor and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 3). The location of the metal ball was calculated by using the location-magnification equation. The smallest difference between the calculated and the actual distance was 0.1±0.7 mm in Group 1/Method 3. The largest difference was -4.2±1.6 mm in Group 3/Method 2. In all groups, method 3 was the most accurate. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens is possible by using panoramic radiograph.

  19. Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya N. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment.

  20. Quantitative assessment of aquatic impacts of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Arnold, E.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Baker, K.S.

    1979-08-01

    Progress is reported in a continuing study of the design and analysis of aquatic environmental monitoring programs for assessing the impacts of nuclear power plants. Analysis of data from Calvert Cliffs, Pilgrim, and San Onofre nuclear power plants confirmed the generic applicability of the control-treatment pairing design suggested by McKenzie et al. (1977). Substantial progress was made on the simulation model evaluation task. A process notebook was compiled in which each model equation was translated into a standardized notation. Individual model testing and evaluating was started. The Aquatic Generalized Environmental Impact Simulator (AGEIS) was developed and will be tested using data from Lake Keowee, South Carolina. Further work is required to test the various models and perfect AGEIS for impact analyses at actual power plant sites. Efforts on the hydrologic modeling task resulted in a compendium of models commonly applied to nuclear power plants and the application of two well-received hydrodynamic models to data from the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia. Conclusions from the study of these models indicate that slight inaccuracies of boundary data have little influence on mass conservation and accurate bathymetry data are necessary for conservation of mass through the model calculations. The hydrologic modeling task provides valuable reference information for model users and monitoring program designers.

  1. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converter...

  2. Characterization of Three Lamiaceae Plants from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times plants have constituted a very important raw material for many human activities. The increasing interest in the powerful biological activity of plants emphasized the importance of determining phenolics’ and flavonoids’ content in medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation of three selected herbs (lemon balm, mint and sage, commercially available in Cluj-Napoca’s market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. The amount of total phenolic compounds from the investigated medicinal plant was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while for determination of the total flavonoids, colorimetric assay with aluminum chloride was performed. Antioxidant activity of selected herbs was determined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content was between 2583.93 and 3662.26 mg GAE/100g, while the flavonoids concentration ranged between 1207.12 and 1423.4 mg QE/100g dry plant. It was found that the lemon balm and mint extracts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity, while sage is less active, these results being positively correlated with the concentration of phenolic compounds.

  3. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  4. Recent patents in plant biotechnology: impact on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural biotechnology offers a robust series of tools by which to address global concerns such as food security, crop protection, and fuel/energy requirements. A number of advances made recently in plant molecular biology also have resulted in applications which largely focus on improving global human health. This review describes some of the recent innovations in plant biotechnology that have come to the forefront over the past year. Included are novel techniques by which plants can be improved as platforms for biopharmaceutical protein production, a growing field also referred to as 'molecular pharming'. The metabolic engineering of plants to produce compounds which have additional nutritional benefits is also outlined. The review concludes with a discussion of the future impact that these innovations may have both on global health and on the development of our future intellectual property landscape.

  5. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  6. Herbivory in a Mediterranean forest: browsing impact and plant compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Stefano; Tinelli, Aleandro

    2005-11-01

    The compensatory response of plants to defoliation is likely to have important effects on plant-ungulate equilibria in forested ecosystems. We investigated the responses of six species of Mediterranean bushes to defoliation by wild ungulates, comparing an index of browsing impact with the productivity of plants in both open and exclusion plots. The data revealed a great diversity of plant responses to herbivory: Rubus ulmifolius was able to over-compensate and replace the lost tissues. Phillyrea latifolia exhibited a similar, albeit less evident, pattern, while Cistus salvifolius was severely damaged by browsing. Other species, such as Quercus ilex, Juncus acutus and Erica arborea, were not attacked to a large extent and suffered little or no harm. The results strongly suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems may tolerate large stocking rates of ungulates. However, the reduction of plant biomass due to browsing was very different in the six studied species, suggesting that when herbivory becomes severe the structure of the ecosystem will change with the more tolerant plants becoming more abundant. We can apply these results to improve management and conservation of relict coastal forests in the Mediterranean basin which are usually of small size and where decision-makers have to compromise between the conservation of plants and that of large mammals.

  7. Motivations for Local Climate Adaptation in Dutch Municipalities: Climate Change Impacts and the Role of Local-Level Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2009-01-01

    The local government level is considered to be crucial in preparing society for climate change impact. Yet little is known about why local authorities do or do not take action to adapt their community for climate change impacts. In order to implement effective adaptation policy, the motivations for

  8. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of aging and material structure on CANDU plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, E.; Ballyk, J.; Ghalavand, N. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In-service behaviour of pressure tubes is a key factor in the assessment of safety margins during plant operation. Pressure tube deformation (diametral expansion) affects fuel bundle dry out characteristics resulting in reduced margin to trip for some events. Pressure tube aging mechanisms also erode design margins on fuel channels or interfacing reactor components. The degradation mechanisms of interest are primarily deformation, loss of fracture resistance and hydrogen ingress. CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium, a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used under exclusive licence by Candu Energy Inc.) owners and operators need to maximize plant capacity factor and meet or exceed the reactor design life targets while maintaining safety margins. The degradation of pressure tube material and geometry are characterized through a program of inspection, material surveillance and assessment and need to be managed to optimize plant performance. Candu is improving pressure tubes installed in new build and life extension projects. Improvements include changes designed to reduce or mitigate the impact of pressure tube elongation and diametral expansion rates, improvement of pressure tube fracture properties, and reduction of the implications of hydrogen ingress. In addition, Candu provides an extensive array of engineering services designed to assess the condition of pressure tubes and address the impact of pressure tube degradation on safety margins and plant performance. These services include periodic and in-service inspection and material surveillance of pressure tubes and deterministic and probabilistic assessment of pressure tube fitness for service to applicable standards. Activities designed to mitigate the impact of pressure tube deformation on safety margins include steam generator cleaning, which improves trip margins, and trip design assessment to optimize reactor trip set points restoring safety and operating margins. This paper provides an

  10. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored.

  11. Reaching out and Impacting Local Communities at Professional Science Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnes, Emilie

    Multiple times a year scientists around the world gather to discuss and share current scientific research and results. Thousands of scientists, education specialists and others descend on a city selected by their organization's meeting planners for three to seven days only to leave again, their presence largely unfelt by the local population. Yet these varying meeting locations can provide an opportunity to involve scientists in local-scale education and outreach programs. Scientists and exhibitors can interact with the each local community, allowing them to share their excitement in science, and leave an imprint on every city visited. Taking inspiration from the American Meteorological Society's "WeatherFest", the Solar Dynamics Observatory Education and Public Outreach Team and the Rochester Institute of Technology Insight Lab have implemented a set of model programs held in conjunction with the semi-annual meetings of the American Astronomical Society. Our "Educator Reception" allows teachers to build a more concrete and personal connection with scientists and current science content which they can then impart on their students. "AstroZone" opens the conference doors to the general public and makes science accessible, exciting and fun for families, teachers, and kids - while changing their perceptions of what science is and what scientists are like. As we continue to develop our models, we are looking at ways to generalize and expand these programs to other professional organizations, providing a means for growing numbers of scientists to impact the communities that host them for their meetings.

  12. Motivations for Local Climate Adaptation in Dutch Municipalities: Climate Change Impacts and the Role of Local-Level Government

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2009-01-01

    The local government level is considered to be crucial in preparing society for climate change impact. Yet little is known about why local authorities do or do not take action to adapt their community for climate change impacts. In order to implement effective adaptation policy, the motivations for local climate adaptation need to be examined. This paper explores these motivations in Dutch communities by comparing nine urban and rural cases. To be able to draw general conclusions, cases are s...

  13. Evaluating the landscape impact of renewable energy plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Romanos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-04-01

    Different types of renewable energy have been on an ongoing competition with each other. There has been a lot of research comparing the most common types of renewable energy plants in relation with their efficiency, cost and environmental impact. However, few papers so far have attempted to analyse their impact on landscape and there has never been in depth research on which type of renewable energy causes the least impact on the natural, cultural and aesthetic characteristics of a landscape. This seems to be a significant omission given the vast areas of land already covered with renewable energy plants and the worldwide plans for many more renewable energy projects in the future. Meanwhile, the low aesthetic quality of renewable energy plants has already been an obstacle to their further development, with several relevant examples from countries such as Spain and the Netherlands. There have even been cases where aesthetic degradation is the primary or even the single argument of the opposition to proposed plants. In any case, the aesthetic design and the integration of renewable energy plants into the landscape should really be important design parameters if we plan those projects to truly be sustainable and to be considered complete works of engineering. To initiate dialogue over those aspects of renewable energy, we provide a first comparison on hydro, solar and wind energy. To materialize this comparison, we use data from existing dams, photovoltaic and wind farms. Initially, the average area per MW covered by each type of energy plant is calculated and then evaluated qualitatively from a landscape-impact perspective. Although the area affected is comparable in these three cases, the analysis of the data suggests that dams offer a considerable amount of advantages compared to the other two types of plants. This conclusion arises from the fact that dams, whose basic impact to the landscape is the creation of an artificial lake, contribute much less to the

  14. How much is too little to detect impacts? A case study of a nuclear power plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mayer-Pinto

    Full Text Available Several approaches have been proposed to assess impacts on natural assemblages. Ideally, the potentially impacted site and multiple reference sites are sampled through time, before and after the impact. Often, however, the lack of information regarding the potential overall impact, the lack of knowledge about the environment in many regions worldwide, budgets constraints and the increasing dimensions of human activities compromise the reliability of the impact assessment. We evaluated the impact, if any, and its extent of a nuclear power plant effluent on sessile epibiota assemblages using a suitable and feasible sampling design with no 'before' data and budget and logistic constraints. Assemblages were sampled at multiple times and at increasing distances from the point of the discharge of the effluent. There was a clear and localized effect of the power plant effluent (up to 100 m from the point of the discharge. However, depending on the time of the year, the impact reaches up to 600 m. We found a significantly lower richness of taxa in the Effluent site when compared to other sites. Furthermore, at all times, the variability of assemblages near the discharge was also smaller than in other sites. Although the sampling design used here (in particular the number of replicates did not allow an unambiguously evaluation of the full extent of the impact in relation to its intensity and temporal variability, the multiple temporal and spatial scales used allowed the detection of some differences in the intensity of the impact, depending on the time of sampling. Our findings greatly contribute to increase the knowledge on the effects of multiple stressors caused by the effluent of a power plant and also have important implications for management strategies and conservation ecology, in general.

  15. New Insights into Fe Localization in Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannetz eRoschzttardtz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering cellular iron (Fe homeostasis requires having access to both quantitative and qualitative information on the subcellular pools of Fe in tissues and their dynamics within the cells. We have taken advantage of the Perls/DAB Fe staining procedure to perform a systematic analysis of Fe distribution in roots, leaves and reproductive organs of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, using wild-type and mutant genotypes affected in iron transport and storage. Roots of soil-grown plants accumulate iron in the apoplast of the central cylinder, a pattern that is strongly intensified when the citrate effluxer FRD3 is not functional, thus stressing the importance of citrate in the apoplastic movement of Fe. In leaves, Fe level is low and only detected in and around vascular tissues. In contrast, Fe staining in leaves of iron-treated plants extends in the surrounding mesophyll cells where Fe deposits, likely corresponding to Fe-ferritin complexes, accumulate in the chloroplasts. The loss of ferritins in the fer1,3,4 triple mutant provoked a massive accumulation of Fe in the apoplastic space, suggesting that in the absence of iron buffering in the chloroplast, cells activate iron efflux and/or repress iron influx to limit the amount of iron in the cell. In flowers, Perls/DAB staining has revealed a major sink for Fe in the anthers. In particular, developing pollen grains accumulate detectable amounts of Fe in small-size intracellular bodies that aggregate around the vegetative nucleus at the binuclear stage and that were identified as amyloplasts. In conclusion, using the Perls/DAB procedure combined to selected mutant genotypes, this study has established a reliable atlas of Fe distribution in the main Arabidopsis organs, proving and refining long-assumed intracellular locations and uncovering new ones. This iron map of Arabidopsis will serve as a basis for future studies of possible actors of iron movement in plant tissues and cell compartments.

  16. Localization of equipment for digital plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K. and others

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this project lies on the development of design requirements, establishment of structure and manufacture procedures, development of the software verification and validation(V and V) techniques of the digital plant protection system. The functional requirements based on the analog protection system and digital design requirements are introduced, the processor and system bus for safety grade equipment are selected and the interface requirements and the design specification have been developed in order to manufacture the quick prototype of the digital plant protection system. The selection guidelines of parts, software development and coding and testing for digital plant protection system have been performed through manufacturing the quick prototype based on the developed design specification. For the software verification and validation, the software review plan and techniques of verification and validation have been researched. The digital validation system is developed in order to verify the quick prototype. The digital design requirements are reviewed by the software safety plan and V and V plans. The formal methods for verifying the safety-grade software are researched, then the methodology of formal analysis and testing have been developed.

  17. Local knowledge about fodder plants in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Alissandra Trajano; Paivade Lucena, Reinaldo Farias; Ferreira dos Santos, Mércia Virgínia; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated local knowledge of the fodder plants of the Caatinga in northeast Brazil (seasonal dry forest). Specifically, the goal was to catalog local knowledge regarding the use of native and exotic forage plants in two rural communities located in the state of Paraíba (northeast Brazil), to provide information for nutritional investigations and to verify how the knowledge of these resources is distributed. Methods The communities were followed for three consecutive year...

  18. Analysis of local grid stability by Hydrokinetic Turbines around a Hydropower Plant in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Udit; Sachau, Jürgen; Norta, David Peter Benjamin; Kolmsee, Karl Reinhard; Weckel, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Indian proverb, “the utmost darkness is under the oil lamp”, is indeed true in relation to present scenario in places under local distribution grids in India, situated around the Hydropower plants. These conventional hydropower plants use hydrostatic energy for power generation with a conversion efficiency of 85-95%, whereas the energy possessed by available body of moving water around the plant, known as “Hydrokinetic energy”, is difficult to extract due to low flow rates. This poster, p...

  19. Snake venom induced local toxicities: plant secondary metabolites as an auxiliary therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, M Sebastin; Hemshekhar, M; Sunitha, K; Thushara, R M; Jnaneshwari, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite is a serious medical and socio-economic problem affecting the rural and agricultural laborers of tropical and sub-tropical region across the world leading to high morbidity and mortality. In most of the snakebite incidences, victims usually end up with permanent tissue damage and sequelae with high socioeconomic and psychological impacts. Although, mortality has been reduced markedly due to anti-venom regimen, it is associated with several limitations. Snake venom metalloprotease, hyaluronidase and myotoxic phospholipase A2 are the kingpins of tissue necrosis and extracellular matrix degradation. Thus, inhibition of these enzymes is considered to be the rate limiting step in the management of snakebite. Unfortunately, tissue necrosis and extracellular matrix degradation persists even after the administration of anti-venom. At present, inhibitors from snake serum and plasma, several synthetic compounds and their analogs have been demonstrated to possess anti-snake venom activities, but the use of plant metabolites for this purpose has an added advantage of traditional knowledge and will make the treatment cheaper and more accessible to the affected population. Therefore, the clinical and research forums are highly oriented towards plant metabolites and interestingly, certain phytochemicals are implicated as the antibody elicitors against venom toxicity that can be exploited in designing effective anti-venoms. Based on these facts, we have made an effort to enlist plant based secondary metabolites with antiophidian abilities and their mechanism of action against locally acting enzymes/toxins in particular. The review also describes their functional groups responsible for therapeutic beneficial and certainly oblige in designing potent inhibitors against venom toxins.

  20. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  1. Investigation of the radiological impact on the coastal environment surrounding a fertilizer plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Samad, O; Aoun, M; Nsouli, B; Khalaf, G; Hamze, M

    2014-07-01

    This investigation was carried out in order to assess the marine environmental radioactive pollution and the radiological impact caused by a large production plant of phosphate fertilizer, located in the Lebanese coastal zone. Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K) and anthropogenic (137)Cs were measured by alpha and gamma spectrometry in seawater, sediment, biota and coastal soil samples collected from the area impacted by this industry. The limited environmental monitoring program within 2 km of the plant indicates localized contamination with radionuclides of the uranium decay chain mainly due to the transport, the storage of raw materials and the free release of phosphogypsum waste.

  2. Impact of the reservoir of Paraibuna Hydroelectric Power Plant, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Franco Siqueira Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reservoirs for hydroelectric power plants cause significant environment and social changes. This paper describes the construction of a geospatial database with information on the impacts caused by the Paraibuna hydroelectric power plant since its construction. CBERS-2 and Landsat 5 and 7 images were included in the database, and then, analyzed to provide information on land cover and land use for a period of 31 years. Information provided by São Paulo Energy Company (CESP and the Paraíba do Sul Water Basin Management Association (AGEVAP was integrated into this database. Interactive database queries allow the assessment of changes in the local economy around the reservoir, changes in land cover, loss of historical and environmental assets and also the actions of the energy company to minimize the plant and reservoir impacts. This database provides information that helps analyzing the potential and limits of Paraibuna Power Plant and addresses the impacts to the natural landscape and to the social and economic resources of the affected region.

  3. Stem localization of sweet-pepper plants using the support wire as a visual cue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Hemming, J.; Henten, van E.

    2014-01-01

    A robot arm should avoid collisions with the plant stem when it approaches a candidate sweet-pepper for harvesting. This study therefore aims at stem localization, a topic so far only studied under controlled lighting conditions. Objectives were to develop an algorithm capable of stem localization,

  4. NCLB: Local implementation and impact in southwest Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Mabry

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here is from the first two years of an ongoing and largely qualitative study to examine the impact of the No Child Left Behind federal education policy on educational practice and climate in elementary schools in two districts in southwest Washington. Based on systematic drop-in observations in classrooms and interviews with teachers and school and district administrators, data indicated that the policy had partially yielded the intended standards-based reforms but at considerable local cost. While most participating administrators described efforts to use NCLB to leverage needed change, most teachers described struggles to sustain best practice and to avoid some negative consequences to their students and schools. Administrators anticipated that resistant teachers would be nudged from the profession, and the greatest attrition among participating teachers was from the fourth-grade level at which the state’s standards-based test was administered. Fourth-grade teachers particularly expressed concern about test-related stress and test-driven curricula interfering with children’s individual needs and with their own ability to provide developmentally appropriate instruction adapted for their particular students. The validity and utility of test results was a local issue.

  5. Impact Localization Using Lamb Wave and Spiral FSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, Nischal

    Wear and tear exists in almost every physical infrastructure. Modern day science has something in its pocket to early detect such wear and tear known as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). SHM features a key role in tracking a structural failure and could prevent loss of human lives and money. The size and prices of presently available defect detection devices make them not suitable for on-site SHM. The exploitation of directional transducers and Lamb wave propagation for SHM has been proposed. The basis of the project was to develop an accurate localization algorithm and implementation of Lamb waves to detect the crack present in the plate like structures. In regards, the use of Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducer (FSAT) was studied. The theory governing the propagation of Lamb wave was reviewed. The derivation of the equations and dispersion curve of Lamb waves are included. FSAT was studied from both theoretical and application view of point. The experiments carried out give us better understanding of the FSAT excitation and Lamb wave generation and detection. The Lamb wave generation and crack localization algorithm was constructed and with the proposed algorithm, simulated impacts are detected.

  6. Hemiparasitic plant impacts animal and plant communities across four trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, S E; Green, P; Massey, F P; Press, M C P; Stewart, J A; John, E A

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the impact of species on community structure is a fundamental question in ecology. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that both subdominant species and parasites can have disproportionately large effects on other organisms. Here we report those impacts for a species that is both subdominant and parasitic, the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor. While the impact of parasitic angiosperms on their hosts and, to a lesser degree, coexisting plant species, has been well characterized, much less is known about their effects on higher trophic levels: We experimentally manipulated field densities of the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor in a species-rich grassland, comparing the plant and invertebrate communities in plots where it was removed, present at natural densities, or present at enhanced densities. Plots with natural and enhanced densities of R. minor had lower plant biomass than plots without the hemiparasite, but enhanced densities almost doubled the abundance of invertebrates within the plots across all trophic levels, with effects evident in herbivores, predators, and detritivores. The hemiparasite R. minor, despite being a subdominant and transient component within plant communities that it inhabits, has profound effects on four different trophic levels. These effects persist beyond the life of the hemiparasite, emphasizing its role as a keystone species in grassland communities.

  7. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    warmer conditions as far as competition is low However, in subalpine grasslands, competition of already present species is probably important and limit establishment of newly arrived species. Results from future simulations also showed that heavy extinctions of alpine plants may start already in 2040, but the latest in 2080. Our study also highlighted the importance of fine scale and regional assessments of climate change impact on mountain vegetation, using more direct predictor variables. Indeed, predictions at the continental scale may fail to predict local refugees or local extinctions, as well as loss of connectivity between local populations. On the other hand, migrations of low-elevation species to higher altitude may be difficult to predict at the local scale.

  8. A global assessment of the local impacts of land cover changes on the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescatti, A.; Duveiller, G.; Hooker, J.

    2016-12-01

    Biophysical effects of land use and land cover change (LULCC) on climate have received less attention than biogeochemical effects. Yet, their impact is potentially more perceptible because the effect is almost immediate at local scales. Biophysical effects depend on the specific LULCC transition, and can change in sign and magnitude across space and time. Spatially explicit assessments are therefore required to describe these phenomena. Whilst accurately characterising these local biophysical effects using Land Surface Models (LSMs) can be problematic given the strong modelling assumptions that must be made, satellite remote sensing instruments operationally measure several of the key energy fluxes at high temporal and spatial resolution across the entire planet. We leverage this synoptic property of remote sensing to develop a methodology capable of isolating the biophysical signal of potential vegetation transitions at local scale. Because mapping LULCC accurately at global scale is notoriously challenging, and because many potential transitions may not yet have occurred in various places, the approach relies on trading space for time over a moving window as a surrogate for monitoring real change. The result is a global dataset with a spatial resolution of 1° indicating the potential change in all terms of the surface energy balance (excepting the soil heat flux) for all transitions amongst 7 different plant functional types that are widely used by the land surface modelling community. This dataset will serve three main purposes: (1) to derive a data-driven diagnostic of the local biophysical effects of LULCC on the surface energy budget and local climate; (2) to provide a benchmark to assess model performances; and (3) to develop guidelines for the monitoring, reporting and verification of climate mitigation and adaptation plans that account for land biophysical impacts on climate.

  9. Glyoxylate Reductase Isoform 1 is Localized in the Cytosol and Not Peroxisomes in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven L. K. Ching; Satinder K. Gidda; Amanda Rochon; Owen R. van Cauwenberghe; Barry J. Shelp; Robert T. Mullen

    2012-01-01

    Glyoxylate reductase (GLYR) is a key enzyme in plant metabolism which catalyzes the detoxification of both photorespiratory glyoxylate and succinic semialdehdye,an intermediate of the γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) pathway.Two isoforms of GLYR exist in plants,GLYR1 and GLYR2,and while GLYR2 is known to be localized in plastids,GLYR1 has been reported to be localized in either peroxisomes or the cytosol.Here,we reappraised the intracellular localization of GLYR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana L.Heynh (ecotype Lansberg erecta) using both transiently-transformed suspension cells and stably-transformed plants,in combination with fluorescence microscopy.The results indicate that GLYR1 is localized exclusively to the cytosol regardless of the species,tissue and/or cell type,or exposure of plants to environmental stresses that would increase flux through the GABA pathway.Moreover,the C-terminal tripeptide sequence of GLYR1,-SRE,despite its resemblance to a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal,is not sufficient for targeting to peroxisomes.Collectively,these results define the cytosol as the intracellular location of GLYR1 and provide not only important insight to the metabolic roles of GLYR1 and the compartmentation of the GABA and photorespiratory pathways in plant cells,but also serve as a useful reference for future studies of proteins proposed to be localized to peroxisomes and/or the cytosol.

  10. Wounding induces local resistance but systemic susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Tania; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Veloso, Javier; Gago-Fuentes, Raquel; Díaz, José

    2015-03-15

    Cotyledon wounding in pepper caused the early generation of hydrogen peroxide both locally (cotyledons) and systemically (upper true leaves). However, 72 h later there is a different wound response between local and systemic organs, as shown by resistance to the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea, that increased locally and decreased systemically. Signaling by ethylene and jasmonic acid was assessed by using two inhibitors: 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP, inhibitor of ethylene receptors) and ibuprofen (inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis). MCP did not affect the modulation of resistance levels to Botrytis by wounding, ruling out the involvement of ethylene signaling. Ibuprofen did not inhibit wound-induced resistance at the local level, but inhibited wound-induced systemic susceptibility. Moreover, changes of biochemical and structural defenses in response to wounding were studied. Peroxidase activity and the expression of a peroxidase gene (CAPO1) increased locally as a response to wounding, but no changes were observed systemically. Lignin deposition was induced in wounded cotyledons, but was repressed in systemic leaves of wounded plants, whereas soluble phenolics did not change locally and decreased systemically. The expression of two other genes involved in plant defense (CABPR1 and CASC1) was also differentially regulated locally and systemically, pointing to a generalized increase in plant defenses at the local level and a systemic decrease as a response to wounding. Wound-induced defenses at the local level coincided with resistance to the necrotroph fungus B. cinerea, whereas depleted defenses in systemic leaves of wounded plants correlated to induced susceptibility against this pathogen. It may be that the local response acts as a sink of energy resources to mount a defense against pathogens, whereas in systemic organs the resources for defense are lower.

  11. Impacts of elevated CO2 on plant-microbial interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, S.; Herman, D.; Nuccio, E. E.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Brodie, E.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.; Firestone, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to alter C cycling and terrestrial ecosystem functions through effects on plant-microbial interactions. Under elevated CO2, plants transfer more C belowground. However, the fate, transformation and consequence of this extra C in soil are not well understood. We examined the influence of eCO2 on the belowground C cycling using Avena fatua, a common Mediterranean annual grass, with its root associated microbial community across multiple plant growth stages over one-growing season. Avena grown under eCO2 (700 ppm) 13CO2 increased both total C allocated belowground and the amount of root-derived 13C in the mineral-associated fraction. Although eCO2 did not show any significant impact on the abundance (quantified by qPCR) and composition (assessed by MiSeq 16S and ITS sequencing) of rhizosphere microbial community at any sampling time point, small but significant shifts on rhizosphere microbial functional potential were detected using GeoChip 5.0. In addition, the rhizosphere effect (i.e., impact of roots on rhizosphere community versus bulk soil) was much stronger in plants grown under eCO2 than these under ambient CO2 (aCO2). The rhizosphere enriched genes included key functional genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling as well as stress response. The signal intensities of a number of C cycling genes shifted significantly in rhizosphere communities associated with plants grown under eCO2, and many of these genes are involved in the decomposition of low molecular weight C compounds. When plants became senescent, the abundance of some genes encoding enzymes capable of decomposing macromolecular C compounds (e.g., xylanase, endopolygalacturonase) were significant higher in the rhizosphere of Avena grown in eCO2 than aCO2 condition, which may be due to the higher amount of Avena root debris detected at the end of season. Understanding modulations of plant-microbial interactions due to changing climate may allow improved

  12. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  13. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  14. Illuminating plant biology: using fluorescent proteins for high-throughput analysis of protein localization and function in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Sylvester, Anne W; Jackson, David

    2010-03-01

    First discovered in jellyfish, fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been successfully optimized for use as effective biomarkers within living plant cells. When exposed to light, FPs fused to a protein or regulatory element will fluoresce, and non-invasively mark expression and protein localization, which allows for the in vivo monitoring of diverse cellular processes. In this review, we discuss how FP technology has evolved from small-scale analysis of individual genes to more high-throughput techniques for global expression and functional profiling in plants.

  15. Local Impact Simulation of SC Wall Structures using Aircraft Engine Projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Lee, Jungwhee; Lee, Hanjoo [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Raeyoung; Hyun, Changhun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    SC wall structure developed for nuclear power plant buildings consists of plain concrete and two steel plates on both surface of the concrete, while RC structure consists of re bar and concrete. SC structure has higher scabbing resistance than RC structure due to the action of steel plate on the rear side of impact. Therefore SC structure is known as more effective structure from the viewpoint of aircraft crash than RC structure. However, most of the recent researches and experiments about local impact damage deal with RC structures, and the effect of re bar and steel plate is not considered reasonably. Although Walter et al. and Make-work et al. suggested a formula for evaluating perforation depth of steel plate covered RC walls, most of the previous researches about SC structure are focused on perforation and scabbing due to the impact of hard projectile, rather than soft projectile such as an aircraft. In this research a soft projectile, i. e. aircraft engine, is utilized for impact simulation of RC and SC walls. To evaluate local damage of SC wall structures, parametric study with the variables of wall thickness and steel ratio of the cover plate is performed, and the results are compared with those of RC structures. Since scabbing was prevented by the steel plates, penetration mode of damage was observed in SC walls while scabbing damage was occurred in RC walls. It is confirmed that the rear steel plate not only contains concrete debris, but also reduces the internal damage of the concrete walls. Penetration depth of SC walls did not largely vary due to the increasing steel ratio, and similar results to RC walls were observed when the wall thickness is larger than a certain value since the impact resistance of SC wall is mainly governed by the thickness of concrete part. Therefore, it is expected that similar level of impact resistance to RC structure can be produced with the minimum thickness of steel plates of SC structure. According to these results, SC

  16. Climate change impact on wetland forest plants of SNR Zasavica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavlović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Very complex forest ecosystems are also parts of wetlands. Research and analysis of forest vegetation elements, leads to a conclusion about ecological conditions of wetlands. The aim of the paper is detail forest vegetation study, and analyzing the impact of climate changes on wetland forest vegetations of the strict protection area at the SNR Zasavica Ramsar site. Field research was carried out by using Braun-Blanquet’s Zurich-Montpelier school method. Phytogeographical elements and life forms of plants were determined subsequently, in order to get indicator values of wetland plants. Coupled Regional Climate Model (CRCM, EBU-POM was used for the climate simulations. Exact climatic variables for the site were determined by downscaling method. Climatic variables reference values were taken for the period of 1961-1990, and climate change simulations for the period 2071-2100 (A1B and A2. Indicator values of forest plants taken into consideration were humidity and temperature; therefore, ecological optimums were determined in scales of humidity and temperature. Regional Climate Model shows that there will be a long and intensive dry period in the future, with high temperatures from April till October. Continental winter will be more humid, with higher precipitation, especially in February. Based on the analysis of results it was concluded that wetlands are transitional habitats, also very variable and therefore vulnerable to changes. The changes may lead to the extinction of some plant species.

  17. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  18. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. Results We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1 derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27 with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47. The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1 and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related

  19. Oil Refineries Emissions Impact on Urban Localities Using AERMOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M.W. Abdelrasoul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The absolute necessity of compulsory fuel utilities, no matter small or big has resulted into substantial high hazards pollutants. Petroleum refineries are major industrial installations that are necessary for providing the best suited fuel for various necessary utilities, but are responsible of the emission of several hazardous pollutants into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons are among the most perilous air pollutants that are emitted from almost all refining processes in petroleum refineries. Approach: Every day leaks and gaseous discharge from relief valves and liquid discharge, which are often directed to knock-out drums, are flared to minimize the impact of hydrocarbons emissions. But these flares are not that efficient and result into partial discharge of pollutants that have severe impact on the industrial area and urban localities in the vicinity of industrial refining complex. Results: In the present study, a thorough investigation has been completed to estimate the total emissions of sulfur dioxide SO2 and non methane hydrocarbons NMHC (VOCs and to assess their impact on the air quality in industrial and suburban areas. The latest version AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD specially designed to support the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s was used to predict the ground level concentrations of SO2, VOCs from AL-Ahmadi and Al-Shuiba Refineries of total refining capacity of 646 thousand barrels/day. Conclusion/Recommendations: These concentrations are compared with EPA standards to indicate the ambient air quality. The dispersion model was corroborated with extensive one year hourly record of the surface and upper air meteorological data for year 2006 and emission rates of the specified pollutants, with detailed refinery stacks parameters, such as stack height, diameter, exit flue gas velocity and temperature to determine the fraction of total study area in the vicinity of refineries that had substantially high

  20. Evaluation of Some Local Egyptian Plants as a Source of Chlorophyll Pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; Ismail, S I; Hussiney, H. A.; A. A. Hussein

    1994-01-01

    Four plant materials viz. Spinacia oleracae Linn, (spinach), Beta vulgaris Limm (chard), Medicago sativa Linn, (alfalfa) and Petroselinum sativum Hoff. (parsely) were studied as local sources for the preparation of chlorophyll pigments as natural green colour additives. Processing of the plant materials were carried out under different conditions viz. blanching, non-blanching followed by drying in air or electrical oven or in solar dehydrating oven. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation...

  1. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Ya; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Pan; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Yewei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physio...

  2. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...... of full scale converter type wind turbines may be utilized to alter voltage imbalance at the point of connection and further into the grid, in turn changing the resultant negative sequence current flow in the grid. The effects of such control actions have been analyzed and discussed through theoretical...

  3. Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevřelová Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus. The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7% of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%.

  4. Behavior and impact of zirconium in the soil-plant system: plant uptake and phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Ferrand, Emmanuel; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille

    2013-01-01

    impact on the biosphere, we believe it deserves to be evaluated in supplementary studies that will enhance the understanding of its behavior in soil-plant systems.

  5. Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K T; Nagaraju, S; Nandini, S Usha; Kemparaju, K

    2009-08-01

    Antivenom therapy is the current best therapy available for the treatment of fatal snake envenomation. However, the antivenom offers less or no protection against local effects such as extensive edema, hemorrhage, dermo-, myonecrosis and inflammation at the envenomed region. Viperidae snakes are highly known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation Morus alba plant leaf extract has been studied against the Indian Vipera/Daboia russelii venom induced local and systemic effects. The extract completely abolished the in vitro proteolytic and hyaluronolytic activities of the venom. Edema, hemorrhage and myonecrotic activities were also neutralized efficiently. In addition, the extract partially inhibited the pro-coagulant activity and completely abolished the degradation of Aalpha chain of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract processes potent antisnake venom property, especially against the local and systemic effects of Daboia russelii venom.

  6. Local and regional smoke impacts from prescribed fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F.; Horsey, Bronwyn; Jiang, Ningbo

    2016-10-01

    Smoke from wildfires poses a significant threat to affected communities. Prescribed burning is conducted to reduce the extent and potential damage of wildfires, but produces its own smoke threat. Planners of prescribed fires model the likely dispersion of smoke to help manage the impacts on local communities. Significant uncertainty remains about the actual smoke impact from prescribed fires, especially near the fire, and the accuracy of smoke dispersal models. To address this uncertainty, a detailed study of smoke dispersal was conducted for one small (52 ha) and one large (700 ha) prescribed fire near Appin in New South Wales, Australia, through the use of stationary and handheld pollution monitors, visual observations and rain radar data, and by comparing observations to predictions from an atmospheric dispersion model. The 52 ha fire produced a smoke plume about 800 m high and 9 km long. Particle concentrations (PM2.5) reached very high peak values (> 400 µg m-3) and high 24 h average values (> 100 µg m-3) at several locations next to or within ˜ 500 m downwind from the fire, but low levels elsewhere. The 700 ha fire produced a much larger plume, peaking at ˜ 2000 m altitude and affecting downwind areas up to 14 km away. Both peak and 24 h average PM2.5 values near the fire were lower than for the 52 ha fire, but this may be because the monitoring locations were further away from the fire. Some lofted smoke spread north against the ground-level wind direction. Smoke from this fire collapsed to the ground during the night at different times in different locations. Although it is hard to attribute particle concentrations definitively to smoke, it seems that the collapsed plume affected a huge area including the towns of Wollongong, Bargo, Oakdale, Camden and Campbelltown (˜ 1200 km2). PM2.5 concentrations up to 169 µg m-3 were recorded on the morning following the fire. The atmospheric dispersion model accurately predicted the general

  7. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: Are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important...... conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions: The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between...... populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis...

  8. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  9. Will woody plant encroachment impact the visitor experience and economy of conservation areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Gray

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Woody plant encroachment into savannas is a globally prevalent phenomenon and impacts ecosystem goods and services such as biodiversity, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, grazing and hydrology. The direct ecological and economic consequences for rangelands have been fairly well studied, but, to our knowledge, the economic impact on conservation efforts has not been investigated. African savannas are important as conservation areas because they support large numbers of the world’s remaining megafauna. This study used visitor surveys and long-term mammal distribution data to investigate how an increase in tree density might affect the visibility of animals in a conservation area, which could reduce the satisfaction of visitors to the area. We found that apparent herd sizes and density of animals were much reduced in woody areas, suggesting that visibility is negatively impacted. Visitor surveys determined that a large fraction (almost half of potential future visitors to the park may be lost if animals became more difficult to see and that the majority of these would be the higher-spending visitors. Responses differed depending on the origin of visitors, with international visitors being more interested in seeing animals, whilst local visitors were more content with just being away from the city. The results suggest that woody plant encroachment may have significant impacts on visitor numbers to savanna conservation areas, whilst animal numbers and densities may also be significantly impacted.Conservation implications: The results pointed to potentially significant economic consequences for conservation efforts as visitors become less satisfied with their experience. Perceptions of visitors are important for management decisions as park fees contribute significantly to conservation efforts. This could ultimately result in a reduced capacity for African conservation areas to conserve their biodiversity effectively. The results suggest that

  10. Impact of Locality on Location Aware Unit Disk Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kranakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance for studies oi wireless networks, recent years have seen a surge of activity on the design of local algorithms for the solution of a variety of network tasks. We study the behaviour of algorithms with very low localities. Despite of this restriction we propose local constant ratio approximation algorithms for solving minimum dominating and connected dominating set, maximum independent set and minimum vertex cover in location aware Unit Disk Graphs. We also prove the first ever lower bounds for local algorithms for these problems with a given locality in the location aware setting.

  11. Bioimaging techniques for subcellular localization of plant hemoglobins and measurement of hemoglobin-dependent nitric oxide scavenging in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Østergaard-Jensen, Erik; Hill, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins are ubiquitous in all plant families. They are expressed at low levels in specific tissues. Several studies have established that plant hemoglobins are scavengers of nitric oxide (NO) and that varying the endogenous level of hemoglobin in plant cells negatively modulates bioactivity of NO generated under hypoxic conditions or during cellular signaling. Earlier methods for determination of hemoglobin-dependent scavenging in planta were based on measuring activity in whole plants or organs. Plant hemoglobins do not contain specific organelle localization signals; however, earlier reports on plant hemoglobin have demonstrated either cytosolic or nuclear localization, depending on the method or cell type investigated. We have developed two bioimaging techniques: one for visualization of hemoglobin-catalyzed scavenging of NO in specific cells and another for visualization of subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged plant hemoglobins in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  12. Unidentifiable by morphology: DNA barcoding of plant material in local markets in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Saeedi, Yousef; de Boer, Hugo J

    2017-01-01

    Local markets provide a rapid insight into the medicinal plants growing in a region as well as local traditional health concerns. Identification of market plant material can be challenging as plants are often sold in dried or processed forms. In this study, three approaches of DNA barcoding-based molecular identification of market samples are evaluated, two objective sequence matching approaches and an integrative approach that coalesces sequence matching with a priori and a posteriori data from other markers, morphology, ethnoclassification and species distribution. Plant samples from markets and herbal shops were identified using morphology, descriptions of local use, and vernacular names with relevant floras and pharmacopoeias. DNA barcoding was used for identification of samples that could not be identified to species level using morphology. Two methods based on BLAST similarity-based identification, were compared with an integrative identification approach. Integrative identification combining the optimized similarity-based approach with a priori and a posteriori information resulted in a 1.67, 1.95 and 2.00 fold increase for ITS, trnL-F spacer, and both combined, respectively. DNA barcoding of traded plant material requires objective strategies to include data from multiple markers, morphology, and traditional knowledge to optimize species level identification success.

  13. Comparing Local Descriptors and Bags of Visual Words to Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Plant Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The use of machine learning and computer vision methods for recognizing different plants from images has attracted lots of attention from the community. This paper aims at comparing local feature descriptors and bags of visual words with different classifiers to deep convolutional neural networks (C

  14. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  15. Dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins as gene expression regulators in plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eGiegé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria heavily depend on the coordinated expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes because some of their most significant activities are held by multi-subunit complexes composed of both mitochondrial and nuclear encoded proteins. Thus, precise communication and signaling pathways are believed to exist between the two compartments. Proteins dual localized to both mitochondria and the nucleus make excellent candidates for a potential involvement in the envisaged communication. Here, we review the identified instances of dual localized nucleo-mitochondrial proteins with an emphasis on plant proteins and discuss their functions, which are seemingly mostly related to gene expression regulation. We discuss whether dual localization could be achieved by dual targeting and / or by re-localization and try to apprehend the signals required for the respective processes. Finally, we propose that in some instances, dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins might act as retrograde signaling molecules for mitochondrial biogenesis.

  16. Socio-economic impact of biofuel feedstock production on local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Biofuel feedstock plantations; Jatropha curcas; land grabbing; local livelihoods; ... Consequently, many European and American governments, international ...... Biofuel biomass crop farm/plantation initiatives in the Northern Region.

  17. Ethnobotanical Study of Anti-diabetic medicinal plants used by the local people in Javadhu hills Tamilnadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TThirumalai; Beverly C David; KSathiyaraj; BSenthilkumar; E David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an ethnobotanical survey and to collect information from local people of Javadhu hills about the use of traditional medicinal plants diabetes treatment. Methods:Javadhu hills were surveyed through interviewing randomly selected 312 local participants using semi-structured questionnaire and regular field visits. Results: The investigations revealed that about 40 traditional plant species and their local names with parts used for the treatment were recorded by the local people of Javadhu hills. Conclusions: The study led to the abundant knowledge of wealth of traditional medicinal plants that are being used for the diabetes treatment by the local people of Javadhu hills.

  18. The scope of environmental impact statements for biofuelled energy plants in Sweden and its environmental relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn-Tysk, S.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate how the Swedish environmental impact assessment (EIA) system works in practice and to analyse the environmental relevance of the scoping process during the ElA process. As a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for bio fuelled energy plants have been reviewed in order to illustrate the scope of the statements and hence evaluate how the ElA system works and analyses what environmental aspects that are prioritised by ElA actors. Based on the review results, the scope of the EISs indicates that the Swedish ElA system did not work as intended during the studied period since not even the legal requirements were fulfilled in many of the EISs. In addition, international EIA practice does not seem to have influenced the Swedish practice of ElA at that time. The EISs also show that EIA actors apply narrow system boundaries, i.e. they focus only on the activities of the energy plant that are explicitly linked to the energy plant location and its immediate vicinity. Moreover, these narrow system boundaries exclude important aspects of an energy plant, like resource extraction and global and long-term effects. Many of the energy plants have been planned and developed partly due to a Government Bill, in which a development of the Swedish energy system was proposed in order to achieve a sustainable development of Sweden. However, a sustainable development requires that effects on present as well as future generations are focused on as well. Therefore, an ElA process and a decision-making process, which prioritises local and short-term effects, often do not promote the societal goals of sustainable development. In order to promote the goals of sustainable development, the perspectives of ElA actors have to widen to include global and future, long-term effects.

  19. Antiviral Potential of Medicinal Plants of Balochistan: Studies Based on the Local Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1F. A. Sattar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been extensively used contrary to various infectious and non-infectious maladies world wide. A plethora of medicinal plants of Balochistan region have exhibited potential antiviral activity against a number of infections. Among numerous other ailments, viral infections have denounced the humankind survival, distressing millions of people every year, causing disability and death. A plausible remedy for the viral infections from medicinal plants could be inferred through ethnopharmacological approach. The purpose of current study is an ethnopharmacological screening for antiviral medicinal plants that are being used traditionally by the local population for different types of viral infections in Pishin and Loralai areas of Balochistan. The study resulted 30 medicinal being used against viral infections in the region.

  20. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  2. A novel procedure for the localization of viral RNAs in protoplasts and whole plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengli; Simon, Anne E

    2003-09-01

    Analysis of virus spread using co-expressed reporter proteins has provided important details on cell-to-cell and long-distance movement of viruses in plants. However, most viruses cannot tolerate insertion of large non-viral segments or loss of any open-reading frames, procedures required to detect viruses non-evasively. A technique used to localize mRNAs intracellularly in yeast has been modified for detection of viral RNAs in whole plants. The technique makes use of the binding of the coat protein of MS2 bacteriophage (CPMS2) to a 19 base hairpin (hp). A fusion protein, consisting of the CPMS2, green fluorescent protein (GFP), and a nuclear localization signal (NLS), was nuclear-localized upon transient expression in protoplasts. However, addition of the hp to the 3' untranslated region of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV-hp) and co-transfection of the virus and fusion protein construct into protoplasts resulted in the re-location of GFP to the cytoplasm. Neither the insertion of the hp nor the interaction with the fusion protein impaired any viral functions. Transgenic plants expressing the GFP-NLS-CPMS2 fusion protein were generated, and GFP was detected in nuclei of young plant cells. Foci of GFP cytoplasmic fluorescence were detected in TCV-hp-inoculated leaves at 2 days post-inoculation. Later, GFP was detected in young leaves near the midvein and in the base (support) cells of trichomes in the vicinity of secondary and tertiary veins. In older leaves, cytoplasmic GFP could be visualized throughout many of the leaves. This technique should be amenable for detection of any virus with a transformable plant (or animal) host and may also prove useful for localizing properly engineered host RNAs.

  3. Finding a nitrogen niche: a systems integration of local and systemic nitrogen signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Krouk, Gabriel; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Ruffel, Sandrine

    2014-10-01

    The ability of plants to sense their nitrogen (N) microenvironment in the soil and deploy strategic root growth in N-rich patches requires exquisite systems integration. Remarkably, this new paradigm for systems biology research has intrigued plant biologists for more than a century, when a split-root framework was first used to study how plants sense and respond to heterogeneous soil nutrient environments. This systemic N-signalling mechanism, allowing plants to sense and forage for mineral nutrients in resource-rich patches, has important implications for agriculture. In this review, we will focus on how advances in the post-genomic era have uncovered the gene regulatory networks underlying systemic N-signalling. After defining how local and systemic N-signalling can be experimentally distinguished for molecular study using a split-root system, the genetic factors that have been shown to mediate local and/or systemic N-signalling are reviewed. Second, the genetic mechanism of this regulatory system is broadened to the whole genome level. To do this, publicly available N-related transcriptomic datasets are compared with genes that have previously been identified as local and systemic N responders in a split-root transcriptome dataset. Specifically, (i) it was found that transcriptional reprogramming triggered by homogeneous N-treatments is composed of both local and systemic responses, (ii) the spatio-temporal signature of local versus systemic responsive genes is defined, and (iii) the conservation of systemic N-signalling between Arabidopsis and Medicago is assessed. Finally, the potential mediators, i.e. metabolites and phytohormones, of the N-related long-distance signals, are discussed.

  4. Impacts of the Fukushima nuclear power plants on marine radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, Ken; Aoyama, Michio; Fukasawa, Masao

    2011-12-01

    The impacts on the ocean of releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants remain unclear. However, information has been made public regarding the concentrations of radioactive isotopes of iodine and cesium in ocean water near the discharge point. These data allow us to draw some basic conclusions about the relative levels of radionuclides released which can be compared to prior ocean studies and be used to address dose consequences as discussed by Garnier-Laplace et al. in this journal. The data show peak ocean discharges in early April, one month after the earthquake and a factor of 1000 decrease in the month following. Interestingly, the concentrations through the end of July remain higher than expected implying continued releases from the reactors or other contaminated sources, such as groundwater or coastal sediments. By July, levels of (137)Cs are still more than 10,000 times higher than levels measured in 2010 in the coastal waters off Japan. Although some radionuclides are significantly elevated, dose calculations suggest minimal impact on marine biota or humans due to direct exposure in surrounding ocean waters, though considerations for biological uptake and consumption of seafood are discussed and further study is warranted.

  5. Local above-ground persistence of vascular plants : Life-history trade-offs and environmental constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, Wim A.; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Schaminee, Joop H. J.; Smits, Nina A. C.; Bekker, Renee M.; Roemermann, Christine; Klimes, Leos; Bakker, Jan P.; van Groenendael, Jan M.

    2007-01-01

    Questions: 1. Which plant traits and habitat characteristics best explain local above-ground persistence of vascular plant species and 2. Is there a trade-off between local above-ground persistence and the ability for seed dispersal and below-ground persistence in the soil seed bank? Locations: 845

  6. Local above-ground persistence of vascular plants: life-history trade-offs and environmental constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, W.A.; Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Smits, N.A.C.; Bekker, R.M.; Römermann, C.; Bakker, J.P.; Groenendael, van J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Questions: 1. Which plant traits and habitat characteristics best explain local above-ground persistence of vascular plant species and 2. Is there a trade-off between local above-ground persistence and the ability for seed dispersal and below-ground persistence in the soil seed bank? Locations: 845

  7. The Impact of Military Exercises and Operations on Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    notable positive contributions, the negative impact of military exercises and operations in the .... credibly sourced in whole or in part to the conflicts and the associated war ... The ordnances have also maimed children and adults in the.

  8. The Ongoing Impact of Modular Localization on Particle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Bert

    2014-08-01

    Modular localization is the concise conceptual formulation of causal localization in the setting of local quantum physics. Unlike QM it does not refer to individual operators but rather to ensembles of observables which share the same localization region, as a result it explains the probabilistic aspects of QFT in terms of the impure KMS nature arising from the local restriction of the pure vacuum. Whereas it played no important role in the perturbation theory of low spin particles, it becomes indispensible for interactions which involve higher spin s≥1 fields, where is leads to the replacement of the operator (BRST) gauge theory setting in Krein space by a new formulation in terms of stringlocal fields in Hilbert space. The main purpose of this paper is to present new results which lead to a rethinking of important issues of the Standard Model concerning massive gauge theories and the Higgs mechanism. We place these new findings into the broader context of ongoing conceptual changes within QFT which already led to new nonperturbative constructions of models of integrable QFTs. It is also pointed out that modular localization does not support ideas coming from string theory, as extra dimensions and Kaluza-Klein dimensional reductions outside quasiclassical approximations. Apart from hologarphic projections on null-surfaces, holograhic relations between QFT in different spacetime dimensions violate the causal completeness property, this includes in particular the Maldacena conjecture. Last not least, modular localization sheds light onto unsolved problems from QFT's distant past since it reveals that the Einstein-Jordan conundrum is really an early harbinger of the Unruh effect.

  9. Diet breadth influences how the impact of invasive plants is propagated through food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheiro, Luisa G; Buckley, Yvonne M; Memmott, Jane

    2010-04-01

    Invasive plants are considered a major cause of ecosystem degradation worldwide. While their impacts on native plants have been widely reported, there is little information on how these impacts propagate through food webs and affect species at higher trophic levels. Using a quantitative food web approach we evaluated the impacts of an invasive plant on plant-herbivore-parasitoid communities, asking specifically how diet breadth influences the propagation of such impacts. Measuring the impact of the alien plant at the plant level seriously underestimated the community-level effect of this weed as it also caused changes in the abundance of native herbivores and parasitoids, along with a decrease in parasitoid species richness. The invading plant affected specialist and generalist subsets of communities differently, having significant and strong negative impacts on the abundance of all specialists with no negative effect on generalist consumers. Specialist consumer decline led to further disruptions of top-down regulatory mechanisms, releasing generalist species from competition via shared natural enemies. Plant invasion also significantly increased the evenness of species abundance of all trophic levels in the food webs, as well as the evenness of species interaction frequency. Extending impact evaluation to higher trophic levels and considering changes in trophic diversity within levels is hence essential for a full evaluation of the consequences of invasion by alien plants. Moreover, information on diet breadth of species in the invaded community should be taken into account when evaluating/predicting the impacts on any introduced species.

  10. The assembly of local communities: Plants and birds in non-reclaimed mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandle, M.; Durka, W.; Krug, H.; Brandl, R. [University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    2003-10-01

    We correlated percentage of occurrence (local occupancy) of 1069 plant species and 155 bird species across 16 non-reclaimed mining sites in a brown coal district of eastern Germany to regional range size and life history traits. To control for possible confounding effects of phylogeny we used a cross-species as well as a phylogenetically controlled approach. Although life history traits showed significant correlations to local occupancy in univariate analyses, hierarchical partitioning suggested that these variables were only of minor importance to explain local occupancy across non-reclaimed mining sites. The most robust and consistent relationship, however, was found between local occupancy and regional range size. A greater proportion of bird species than plant species from the available species pool colonized the mining sites, possibly due to the active search for suitable habitats by birds. Thus, although the two groups have different ways of colonizing a habitat, the general importance of regional distribution is the same. Overall, the results of our study underline the importance of regional patterns to understand local community composition.

  11. A high-resolution method for the localization of proanthocyanidins in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Stephen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histochemical staining of plant tissues with 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA or vanillin-HCl is widely used to characterize spatial patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in plant tissues. These methods are limited in their ability to allow high-resolution imaging of proanthocyanidin deposits. Results Tissue embedding techniques were used in combination with DMACA staining to analyze the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in Lotus corniculatus (L. and Trifolium repens (L. tissues. Embedding of plant tissues in LR White or paraffin matrices, with or without DMACA staining, preserved the physical integrity of the plant tissues, allowing high-resolution imaging that facilitated cell-specific localization of proanthocyanidins. A brown coloration was seen in proanthocyanidin-producing cells when plant tissues were embedded without DMACA staining and this was likely to have been due to non-enzymatic oxidation of proanthocyanidins and the formation of colored semiquinones and quinones. Conclusions This paper presents a simple, high-resolution method for analysis of proanthocyanidin accumulation in organs, tissues and cells of two plant species with different patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation, namely Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and Trifolium repens (white clover. This technique was used to characterize cell type-specific patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in white clover flowers at different stages of development.

  12. The ongoing impact of modular localization on particle theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schroer, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Modular localization is the concise conceptual formulation of causal localization in the setting of local quantum physics. Unlike QM it does not refer to individual operators but rather to ensembles of observables which share the same localization region, as a result it explains the probabilistic aspects of QFT in terms of the impure KMS nature arising from the local restriction of the pure vacuum. Whereas it played no important role in the perturbation theory of low spin particles, it becomes indispensible for interactions which involve higher spin s fields, where is leads to the replacement of the operator (BRST) gauge theory setting in Krein space by a new formulation in terms of stringlocal fields in Hilbert space. The main purpose of this paper is to present new results which lead to a rethinking of important issues of the Standard Model concerning massive gauge theories and the Higgs mechanism. We place these new findings into the broader context of ongoing conceptual changes within QFT which already le...

  13. Ethnobotanical study of antifertility medicinal plants used by the local people in Kathiyavadi village, Vellore District, Tamilnadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Sathiyaraj; A Sivaraj; T Thirumalai; B Senthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An ethnobotanical study was undertaken to collect information from local people about the use of contraceptive medicinal plants in Kathiyavadi Village. Methods: Kathiyavadi Village was surveyed through interviewing of randomly selected 321 participants using semi-structured questionnaire and regular field visits. Results: The investigations revealed that there are about 25 species of medicinal plants which were used by local peoples. Conclusions:The study revealed that the local peoples are using folklore medicinal plants for contraceptive purpose. This survey is mostly useful for rural area of local people.

  14. The Cognitive Transition in Mexico: Economic Geography and Local Governance Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    David Mayer-Foulkes

    2008-01-01

    This article shows that cognitive ability determinants include both individual and local indicators of regional macroeconomic wellbeing, publicly provided goods and private goods, through 141 localities in Mexico. The inequity impact of these various goods is quantified using a concentration index decomposition. Individual characteristics such as paternal and maternal cognitive ability, whether mother works, father’s schooling and household wealth, and local characteristics including local ec...

  15. Local fracture properties and dissimilar weld integrity in nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guozhen; Wang, Haitao; Xuan, Fuzhen; Tu, Shantung; Liu, Changjun

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the local fracture properties in a Alloy52M dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ) between A508 ferritic steel and 316 L stainless steel in nuclear power plants were investigated by using the single-edge notched bend (SENB) specimens, and their use in integrity assessment of DMWJ structures was analyzed. The results show that the local fracture resistance in the DMWJ is determined by local fracture mechanism, and which is mainly related to the microstructures and local strength mismatches of materials at the crack locations. The initial cracks always grow towards the materials with lower strength, and the crack path deviation is mainly controlled by the local strength mismatch. If the local fracture properties could not be used for cracks in the heat affected zones (HAZs), interface and near interface zones, the use of the fracture properties ( J-resistance curves) of base metals or weld metals following present codes will unavoidably produce non-conservative (unsafe) or excessive conservative assessment results. In most cases, the assessment results will be potentially unsafe. Therefore, it is recommended to obtain and use local mechanical and fracture properties in the integrity assessment of DMWJs.

  16. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria; Abdullah-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Md.; Toy, Mahmudul Mannan; Sunderland, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ ...

  17. In situ localization of proteinase inhibitor mRNA in rice plant challenged by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in tissue sections of root, stem and leaf of the resistant rice (B5) plant fed by brown planthopper nymphs. In the rice material without BPH feeding, PI gene was expressed in the root, stem and leaf, while the abundance of PI mRNA was low. In the rice material fed by BPH, PI gene was expressed substantially in the parenchyma of rice stem and leaf, but weakly in the root. The results indicated that the PI gene was up-regulated in the rice plant challenged by brown planthopper. For the first time, we reported the expression changes of proteinase inhibitor gene in plant which was infested by a piercing/sucking insect.

  18. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World.

  19. Teaching change to local youth: Plant phenology, climate change and citizen science at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, C. M.; Laursen, S. C.; Phifer, C.; Giardina, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    Plant phenology is a powerful indicator of how climate change affects native ecosystems, and also provides an experiential outdoor learning opportunity for promoting youth conservation education and awareness. We developed a youth conservation education curriculum, including both classroom and field components, for local middle and high school students from Hawaii. The curriculum is focused on linking plant phenology and climate change, with emphasis on ecologically and culturally important native trees and birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), on the Island of Hawaii. In this curriculum, students: (i) visit Hakalau Forest NWR to learn about the ecology of native ecosystems, including natural disturbance regimes and the general concept of change in forest ecosystems; (ii) learn about human-induced climate change and its potential impact on native species; and (iii) collect plant phenology measurements and publish these data on the USA National Phenology Network website. This youth conservation education curriculum represents a close collaboration between Hakalau Forest NWR; the Friends of Hakalau Forest NWR; the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; the USDA Forest Service; and Imi Pono no Ka Aina, an environmental education and outreach program for the Three Mountain Alliance Watershed Partnership. In the Winter and Spring of 2011-2012, we developed classroom and field portions of the curriculum. In the Spring and Summer of 2012, we recruited four groups of participants, with a total of ~40 students, who visited the refuge to participate in the curriculum. Preliminary phenology observations based upon ~4 months of measurements show low to medium levels of flowering, fruiting and leaf flush. However, the real science value of this program will come over years to decades of accumulated student activity. From this, we anticipate the emergence of a unique tropical montane forest dataset on plant

  20. Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellend, Mark; Baeten, Lander; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Beauséjour, Robin; Brown, Carissa D; De Frenne, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris; Wipf, Sonja

    2013-11-26

    Global biodiversity is in decline. This is of concern for aesthetic and ethical reasons, but possibly also for practical reasons, as suggested by experimental studies, mostly with plants, showing that biodiversity reductions in small study plots can lead to compromised ecosystem function. However, inferring that ecosystem functions will decline due to biodiversity loss in the real world rests on the untested assumption that such loss is actually occurring at these small scales in nature. Using a global database of 168 published studies and >16,000 nonexperimental, local-scale vegetation plots, we show that mean temporal change in species diversity over periods of 5-261 y is not different from zero, with increases at least as likely as declines over time. Sites influenced primarily by plant species' invasions showed a tendency for declines in species richness, whereas sites undergoing postdisturbance succession showed increases in richness over time. Other distinctions among studies had little influence on temporal richness trends. Although maximizing diversity is likely important for maintaining ecosystem function in intensely managed systems such as restored grasslands or tree plantations, the clear lack of any general tendency for plant biodiversity to decline at small scales in nature directly contradicts the key assumption linking experimental results to ecosystem function as a motivation for biodiversity conservation in nature. How often real world changes in the diversity and composition of plant communities at the local scale cause ecosystem function to deteriorate, or actually to improve, remains unknown and is in critical need of further study.

  1. How habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant assemblages in isolated closed depressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herault, Bruno; Thoen, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Classifying species by shared life-history traits is important if common ecological response groups are to be identified among different species. We investigated how habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant communities in small isolated closed depressions, and how the species richness is related to the interplay between environmental factors and specific life-history trait combinations. In Central-Western Europe, 169 closed depressions were completely surveyed for plant presence in two highly contrasted landscapes (forested and open landscapes). All species were clustered into 9 Emergent Groups based on 10 life-history traits related to plant dispersal, establishment and persistence. Habitat areas were related to species presence using logistic regressions. Most Emergent Groups were more area-dependent in open than in forested landscapes, owing to heterogeneous light levels in forest weakening the species-area relationship. In open landscapes, Floating Hydrophytes were severely underrepresented in very small depressions, owing to the absence of waterfowl population. Local environmental and regional factors were related to species richness using Generalized Linear Models. In open landscapes, local environmental factors such as water conductivity or soil productivity are respectively the main predictors. In forested landscapes, the abundance of most Emergent Groups was better predicted by regional factors, i.e., habitat connectivity and distance to the forest edge. Forested landscapes strongly impeded the closed depressions' colonization by the less mobile Emergent Groups such as Large-seeded Perennials.

  2. Is Chloroplast Movement in Tobacco Plants Influenced Systemically after Local Illumination or Burning Stress?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Naus; Monika Rolencova; Vladimira Hlavackova

    2008-01-01

    Chloroplast movement has been studied In many plants mainly in relation to the local light, mechanical or stress effects. Here we investigated possible systemic responses of chloroplast movement to local light or burning stress in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun). Chloroplast movement was measured using two independent methods: one with a SPAD 502 Chlorophyll meter and another by collimated transmittance at a selected wavelength (676 nm). A sensitive pedodic movement of chloroplasts was used in high or low (2 000 or 50 μmol/m2 per s photosynthetically active radiation, respectively) cold white light with periods of 50 or 130 min. Measurements were carried out in the irradiated area, in the non-irradiated area of the same leaf or in the leaf located on the stem below the irradiated or burned one. No significant changes in systemic chloroplast movement in non-irradiated parts of the leaf and in the non-treated leaf were detected. Our data indicate that chloroplast movement in tobacco is dependent dominantly on the intensity and spectral composition of the incident light and on the local stimulation and state of the target tissue. No systemic signal was strong enough tovoke a detectable systemic response in chloroplast movement in distant untreated tissues of tobacco plants.

  3. Is chloroplast movement in tobacco plants influenced systemically after local illumination or burning stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Jan; Rolencová, Monika; Hlavácková, Vladimíra

    2008-10-01

    Chloroplast movement has been studied in many plants mainly in relation to the local light, mechanical or stress effects. Here we investigated possible systemic responses of chloroplast movement to local light or burning stress in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun). Chloroplast movement was measured using two independent methods: one with a SPAD 502 Chlorophyll meter and another by collimated transmittance at a selected wavelength (676 nm). A sensitive periodic movement of chloroplasts was used in high or low (2 000 or 50 micromol/m(2) per s photosynthetically active radiation, respectively) cold white light with periods of 50 or 130 min. Measurements were carried out in the irradiated area, in the non-irradiated area of the same leaf or in the leaf located on the stem below the irradiated or burned one. No significant changes in systemic chloroplast movement in non-irradiated parts of the leaf and in the non-treated leaf were detected. Our data indicate that chloroplast movement in tobacco is dependent dominantly on the intensity and spectral composition of the incident light and on the local stimulation and state of the target tissue. No systemic signal was strong enough to evoke a detectable systemic response in chloroplast movement in distant untreated tissues of tobacco plants.

  4. Techno-economic analysis of a local district heating plant under fuel flexibility and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Brovst is a small district in Denmark. This paper analyses the use of local renewable resources in the district heating systems of Brovst. The present use of fossil fuels in the Brovst district heating plant (DHP) represents an increasing environmental and climate-related load. Therefore, an inve......Brovst is a small district in Denmark. This paper analyses the use of local renewable resources in the district heating systems of Brovst. The present use of fossil fuels in the Brovst district heating plant (DHP) represents an increasing environmental and climate-related load. Therefore......, an investigation has been made to reduce the use of fossil fuels for district heating system and make use of the local renewable resources (biogas, solar, and heat pump) for district heating purposes. In this article, the techno-economic assessment is achieved through the development of a suite of models......PRO, which has been used to analyze the integration of a large-scale energy system into the domestic district heating system. A model of the current work on the basis of information from the Brovst plant (using fossil fuel) is established and named as a reference option. Then, four other options...

  5. Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts?Case Studies from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Daldeniz, Bilge; Hampton, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and dif...

  6. FBG sensor array-based-low speed impact localization system on composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Yaozhang; Jiang, Mingshun; Sui, Qingmei; Lu, Shizeng; Jia, Lei

    2016-03-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors-based impact localization system on composite structure and a novel localization algorithm independent of wave velocity were proposed. Six FBG sensors constitute two isosceles right triangle FBG arrays. Impact signals were detected by a high-speed FBG interrogation system. Morlet wavelet transform was employed to extract time differences of impact signals. The straight lines equations, which are through impact source and FBG sensors of right-angled vertices of FBG arrays, can be obtained by the time differences. The coordinate of impact source is the intersection of straight lines. Testing experiments were carried out on composite plate within 400 mm × 400 mm monitor area. The experimental results showed that the maximum and average errors were 20.92 and 8.67 mm, respectively. This article provides a simple and stable impact source localization system independent of wave velocity.

  7. Reducing the local environmental impacts of passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentynen, J.; Kalenoja, H.; Maekelae, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Transportation Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The local injurious effects of traffic appear mostly in densely populated areas, where the demand for transport is high. The local environmental effects of transportation can be reduced by measures of urban planning, traffic planning, vehicle technology and economical restrictions. Land use planning, concentration of urban structure and promoting distance working are examples of expedients of urban planning. The methods of urban planning usually affect very slowly on transport structure, but they also have a significant and continuous influence on travel demand. The methods of traffic planning generally tend to increase the fluency of traffic flow or reduce private car traffic with diverse restrictions by supporting environmentally more favourable vehicles or modes of travel. The improvements in vehicle technology can be significant in the short run. By economical regulations it is possible to guide the demand for traffic to a desirable direction. The local injurious effects of traffic vary by the size of urban areas. Local conditions, such as urban structure, population density, structure of employment, and composition of transport structure, influence on travel pattern and modal split. In Tampere University of Technology several measures to reduce environmental effects and energy consumption of transportation has been evaluated. This article presents three types of categories. As technological measures the introduction of electric vehicles and the alternative bus fuels have been studied. In addition, the effects of introducing midibuses, the car pool system and the increasing of vehicle occupancy have been evaluated as measures, which generally increase transportation system efficiency. (author)

  8. The Fiscal Impact of State Aid to Local Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Charles F., Jr.; Crampton, Faith E.

    1983-01-01

    With reference to the case of Ohio, this paper considers whether various types of state grants affect school districts by increasing total spending or by providing tax relief. Regression equations are used to estimate the effects of categorical and general purpose assistance on local tax revenue and on outlays for teacher salaries. (MJL)

  9. Coastal Hazards and Integration of Impacts in Local Adaptation Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Knudsen, Per; Robenhagen Mølgaard, Mads

    Data on sea and groundwater levels, precipitation, land subsidence, geology, and geotechnical soil properties are combined with information on flood and erosion protection measures to analyze water-related impacts from climate change at an exposed coastal location. Future sea extremes will have...

  10. Assessing the Impacts of Herbivory on Plant Silica Accumulation across a Global Network of Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, K.

    2015-12-01

    Plants, especially grasses, have a profound impact on the biogeochemical cycling of silicon. Silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in soil water is absorbed by plant roots, transported via the transpiration stream, and deposited as solid silica (SiO2) phytoliths in leaf tissue. Evidence indicates that plant phytolith accumulation may have evolved as an anti-herbivore strategy, and modern studies reveal that these silica particles are abrasive to animal mouthparts and can interfere with digestion. Furthermore, several studies have shown that grasses have the ability to respond to insect and mammal herbivory by modifying the amount of silicon they absorb from soil, a property known as inducible defense. However, herbivory studies remain largely limited to a laboratory setting, and research in natural systems has only been conducted at a regional spatial scale. To address whether these localized patterns persist at the global scale, we utilized data from a network of 40 grassland sites occurring on six continents. Vegetation samples including grasses, forbs, and litter, were collected in and out of 6m x 6m herbivore exclosures by a team of collaborating scientists for an on-going research effort known as the Nutrient Network (NutNet). We utilized near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to create a calibration for plant silica which allowed for the rapid analysis of more than 1000 samples. Preliminary analyses indicate that silica content of grasses was higher outside of exclosures, where herbivores had access to vegetation. Our data reveal that herbivores play a significant role in modifying plant silicon uptake, and hence, the rates of silicon cycling in grasslands across the globe.

  11. Urban heat island impacts on plant phenology: intra-urban variability and response to land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Samuel C.; Schatz, Jason; Singh, Aditya; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Townsend, Philip A.; Loheide, Steven P., II

    2016-05-01

    Despite documented intra-urban heterogeneity in the urban heat island (UHI) effect, little is known about spatial or temporal variability in plant response to the UHI. Using an automated temperature sensor network in conjunction with Landsat-derived remotely sensed estimates of start/end of the growing season, we investigate the impacts of the UHI on plant phenology in the city of Madison WI (USA) for the 2012-2014 growing seasons. Median urban growing season length (GSL) estimated from temperature sensors is ˜5 d longer than surrounding rural areas, and UHI impacts on GSL are relatively consistent from year-to-year. Parks within urban areas experience a subdued expression of GSL lengthening resulting from interactions between the UHI and a park cool island effect. Across all growing seasons, impervious cover in the area surrounding each temperature sensor explains >50% of observed variability in phenology. Comparisons between long-term estimates of annual mean phenological timing, derived from remote sensing, and temperature-based estimates of individual growing seasons show no relationship at the individual sensor level. The magnitude of disagreement between temperature-based and remotely sensed phenology is a function of impervious and grass cover surrounding the sensor, suggesting that realized GSL is controlled by both local land cover and micrometeorological conditions.

  12. Evidence of local adaptation in plant virus effects on host-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, K E; De Moraes, C M; Mescher, M C

    2014-07-01

    host and apparently maladaptive with respect to virus transmission (e.g., host plant quality for aphids was significantly improved in this instance, and aphid dispersal was reduced). Taken together, these findings provide evidence of adaption by CMV to local hosts (including reduced infectivity and replication in novel versus native hosts) and further suggest that such adaptation may extend to effects on host-plant traits mediating interactions with aphid vectors. Thus, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that virus effects on host-vector interactions can be adaptive, and they suggest that multi-host pathogens may exhibit adaptation with respect to these and other effects on host phenotypes, perhaps especially in homogeneous monocultures.

  13. 76 FR 36896 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental... impact statement. SUMMARY: Invasive plants have been identified as a major threat to the biological diversity and ecological integrity within and outside the Salmon-Challis National Forest. Invasive plants...

  14. A review of impacts by invasive exotic plants on forest ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Devine; Songlin. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Many of our forest ecosystems are at risk due to the invasion of exotic invasive plant species. Invasive plant species pose numerous threats to ecosystems by decreasing biodiversity, deteriorating ecosystem processes, and degrading ecosystem services. Literature on Kentucky's most invasive exotic plant species was examined to understand their potential impacts on...

  15. Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based Impact Region Imaging and Localization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Qian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line impact monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs is developed to record the impact region of impacts on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the impact alarm region localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the impact alarm region localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of impact alarm region is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an impact alarm region imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of impact response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of impact response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal impact imaging method is adopted to obtain the impact region image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final impact alarm region. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of impact alarm region localization is approximately 100%. The area of impact alarm region can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same impact monitoring region is reduced by more than a half.

  16. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem.

  17. The impact of local political applications on voter choices

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Akbiyik; Ahmet Husrev Eroglu

    2014-01-01

    Voters are under the influence of several factors when they vote at the local elections, so they determine the color of their vote and realize the act of voting considering these factors. Undoubtedly, the most important of these factors is the practice of political marketing. The concept of political marketing is a conceptual and factual matter entering into life of people and gaining importance with ever increasing competition in globalizing world, personal differences, diversify of expectat...

  18. Assessment of steam explosion impact on KNGR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Park, Soo Yong; Park, Ik Kyu

    1999-03-01

    In present day light water reactors, if complete and prolonged failure of normal and emergency coolant flow occurs, fission product decay heat could cause melting of the reactor fuel. If the molten fuel mass accumulates it may relocate into reactor lower plenum and if the lower head fails it may eventually be brought into the reactor cavity. In such course of core melt relocation, the opportunity for fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) arises as the core melt relocates into water pool in reactor vessel as well as in reactor cavity and also, as a consequence of implementing accident management strategies involving water addition to a degraded or molten core. This report presents the methodologies and their results for assessment of steam explosion impact on KNGR plant integrity. Both in-vessel and ex-vessel phenomena are addressed. For in-vessel steam explosion, TRACER-II code is used for assessment of pressure load, while bounding calculations are applied for ex-vessel analysis. Analysis shows that the integrity of reactor pressure vessel lower head is preserved during the in-vessel event and the probability that the containment integrity is challenged is very low, even when ex-vessel steam explosion is allowed due to reactor vessel failure. (Author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Altered sucrose metabolism impacts plant biomass production and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather D; Beamish, Leigh; Reid, Anya; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-04-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) was transformed with three genes involved in sucrose metabolism, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase, EC 2.7.7.9), sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14). Plants harbouring the single transgenes were subsequently crossed to produce double and triple transgenic lines, including: 2 x 35S::UGPase x SPS, 4CL::UGPase x SPS, 2 x 35S::SuSy x SPS, 4CL::SuSy x SPS, 2 x 35S::UGPase x SuSy x SPS, and 4CL::UGPase x SuSy x SPS. The ultimate aim of the study was to examine whether it is possible to alter cellulose production through the manipulation of sucrose metabolism genes. While altering sucrose metabolism using UGPase, SuSy and SPS does not have an end effect on cellulose production, their simultaneous overexpression resulted in enhanced primary growth as seen in an increase in height growth, in some cases over 50%. Furthermore, the pyramiding strategy of simultaneously altering the expression of multiple genes in combination resulted in increased time to reproductive bud formation as well as altered flower morphology and foliar stipule formation in 4CL lines. Upregulation of these sucrose metabolism genes appears to directly impact primary growth and therefore biomass production in tobacco.

  20. 49 CFR Attachment 4 - State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 4 Attachment 4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL..., Attach. 4 Attachment 4—State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements 1. OBM Revised Circular No. A... have been requested, as specified in Attachment 1....

  1. Impact of Metals on Secondary Metabolites Production and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Morphological changes associated with metal-induced stress were also examined with a scanning electron ... transfers and other essential metabolic processes in plants;3 ... affect the development and health of plants by inhibiting vital.

  2. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ethnobotanical relevance Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. Methods A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant’s categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The

  3. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-12-24

    Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant's categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The three categories were divided in 27

  4. Impact of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Jaramillo, Juan Esteban; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the und

  5. Impact of gaseous nitrogen deposition on plant functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulen, I.; Perez-Soba, M; De Kok, LJ; Van der Eerden, L

    1998-01-01

    Dry deposition of NH3 and NOx (NO and NO2) can affect plant metabolism at the cellular and whole-plant level. Gaseous pollutants enter the plant mainly through the stomata, and once in the apoplast NH3 dissolves to form NH4+, whereas NO2 dissolves to form NO3- and NO2-. The latter compound can also

  6. Impact of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E.; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos

    2015-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the und

  7. Impact vibration reduction for flexible manipulators via controllable local degrees of freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Yushu; Gao Zhihui; Deng Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    When performing operation tasks, the interaction between a flexible manipulator and a grasped object usually results in an impact. In this paper, a new way is suggested to alleviate impact vibration of a flexible manipulator via its structural characteristic when capturing a moving object. Controllable local degrees of freedom are introduced to the topological structure of the flexible manipulator, and used as an effective tool to combat impact vibration through dynamic coupling. A corresponding method is put forward to reduce impact vibration responses of the flexible manip-ulator via the controllable local degrees of freedom. By planning motion of the controllable local degrees of freedom, appropriate control force can be constructed to increase the modal damping and stiffness and eliminate the exciting force simultaneously, thereby reducing impact vibration responses of the flexible manipulator. Simulations are conducted and results are shown to prove the presented method.

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Liparini Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Plant samples were collected, herborised and then identified using traditional techniques and specialised literature. We sampled 107 medicinal plant species belonging to 86 genera and 39 families, predominantly Asteraceae with 16 species. Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw, M. pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Ruta graveolens L. were found to have Consensus of Main Use corrected (CMUc values above 50%, which were in agreement with the traditional uses described by the informants. However, species with CMUc values equal to or above 20%, combined with the scientific information survey, were also used to select medicinal plants for the phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. The selection of medicinal plants based on the CMUc index from this particular community, in combination with the scientific survey, appears to be an effective strategy for the implementation of phytotherapy programs.Estudos etnofarmacológicos são importantes no registro e na preservação de conhecimentos de uma cultura tradicional associada ao uso medicinal da biodiversidade. No presente trabalho, foi realizado o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas por conhecedores populares na comunidade de Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, como ferramenta para auxiliar na seleção de espécies vegetais visando à implantação de um programa de fitoterapia local na comunidade estudada. Participaram 11 conhecedores escolhidos por amostragem Bola de Neve e submetidos a

  9. Measuring Feedforward Inhibition and Its Impact on Local Circuit Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Court

    2017-05-01

    This protocol describes a series of approaches to measure feedforward inhibition in acute brain slices from the cerebellar cortex. Using whole-cell voltage and current clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in conjunction with electrical stimulation of the parallel fibers, these methods demonstrate how to measure the relationship between excitation and inhibition in a feedforward circuit. This protocol also describes how to measure the impact of feedforward inhibition on Purkinje cell excitability, with an emphasis on spike timing. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Overview: Global and Local Impact of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Richard R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    The rapid and ongoing spread of antibiotic resistance poses a serious threat to global public health. The indiscriminant use of antibiotics in agriculture and human medicine along with increasingly connected societies has fueled the distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These factors together have led to rising numbers of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant bacteria, with increases in morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the trends in antibiotic resistance, discusses the impact of antibiotic resistance on society, and reviews the use of antibiotics in agriculture. Feasible ways to tackle antibiotic resistance to avert a post-antibiotic era are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident: Atmospheric and oceanic impacts over the five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in huge environmental and socioeconomic impacts to Japan. To document the actual environmental and socioeconomic effects of the FDNPP accident, we describe here atmospheric and marine contamination due to radionuclides released from the FDNPP accident using papers published during past five years, in which temporal and spatial variations of FDNPP-derived radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater and their mapping are recorded by local, regional and global monitoring activities. High radioactivity-contaminated area in land were formed by the dispersion of the radioactive cloud and precipitation, depending on land topography and local meteorological conditions, whereas extremely high concentrations of (131)I and radiocesium in seawater occurred due to direct release of radioactivity-contaminated stagnant water in addition to atmospheric deposition. For both of atmosphere and ocean, numerical model simulations, including local, regional and global-scale modeling, were extensively employed to evaluate source terms of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides from the monitoring data. These models also provided predictions of the dispersion and high deposition areas of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, there are significant differences between the observed and simulated values. Then, the monitoring data would give a good opportunity to improve numerical modeling.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of aircraft impact on a near term nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frano, R. Lo, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of military/civilian airplanes crash in a NPP were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We adequately simulated the global response and safety margin of an SMR reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analyses allowed to represent the progressive failure/damaging processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outer containment seemed to suffer some localized penetration and spalling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results highlighted the plant integrity is ensured despite the impact damages. - Abstract: For the assessment of the safety and durability of a nuclear power plant (NPP), the containment building behaviour shall be evaluated, under various service and extreme conditions, both natural or produced by natural accident or vicious man activities, like September 2001 jet aircraft crashes. The aim of this paper is to preliminary evaluate the effects and consequences of the energy transmitted to the outer containment walls (according to the international safety and design code guidelines, as NRC or IAEA ones) due to a military or civil aircraft impact into a nuclear plant, considered as a 'beyond design basis' event. To perform reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and determine the structural effects of the propagation of this types of impulsive loads (response of containment structure), a realistic but still feasible numerical model with suitable materials characteristics were used by means of which relevant physical phenomena are reflected. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out considering the effects of different containment wall thickness and reinforced/prestressed concrete features. The obtained results were analysed to check the NPP containment strength margins.

  13. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenger, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs.

  14. Expanded impact of protein N-myristoylation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, José A; Giglione, Carmela

    2008-01-01

    N-MYR controls the function of the plant protein complex SnRK1, described as one of the most important plant regulatory protein in stress and energy signalling. In plant cells, N-MYR is involved in a significantly higher number of metabolic pathways than in yeast or human. Some N-myristoylated protein families are solely encountered in plant cells. This lipid modification could be involved in the control of the redox imbalances originating from different stresses in plants. This prevalence of N-MYR in such proteins is unique to the plant kingdom. We hypothesize that this expansion of the mechanism in plants improves the control of the damages induced by environmental changes. PMID:19704499

  15. Impacts of altimeter corrections on local linear sea level trends around Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    .e. the inverted barometer correction, wet tropospheric correction, and sea state bias correction, have significant impacts on the determination of local LSLT. The trend of default corrections contribute more than 1.4 mm year-1 along the coastline of China mainland and 2.1 mm year-1 to local LSLT in the Taiwan...

  16. Medicinal Plant Recognition of Leaf Shape using Localized Arc Pattern Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Ayu Wirdiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are plants that have benefit in order to supply the needs of families traditionally medicine. Medicinal plants have diverse types that causing modern society have difficulty in recognizing these crops. Medicinal plants generally can be identified by the leaves, stems and fruit. One of the leaves characteristics can be distinguished based on vein structure and shape of its. Based on these problem, plant recognition based on vein and shape are made by using Localized Arc Pattern Method. There are two important processes in Plant Recognition Applications. First process is Enrollment and the second is Recognition process. In the Enrolment process, the leaves image filed as many as 6 images for each leaves type. This image then calculated based on the 42 special model pattern obtained and the feature is stored as a reference image. Leaves images that used as test image are 200 images. On the Recognition process, the test image will be process which as same as at Enrollment process, however feature from the test image will be comparing with reference image in database, then it calculate the difference value. This process uses a threshold value to determine whether the test images leaves are recognized or not. When dissimilarity value is smaller than the threshold is known as the same leaves, when instead then it known as a different leaves or not known at all. Experiment result shows in this application can recognize 77% of total leaves and False Accepted Ratio (FAR equal to 4.5% and False Rejection Ratio (FRR equal to 18.5%. This result was influenced by the shiny surface of leaf and shape of the leaves are small.

  17. Aminopropyltransferases involved in polyamine biosynthesis localize preferentially in the nucleus of plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Belda-Palazón

    Full Text Available Plant aminopropyltransferases consist of a group of enzymes that transfer aminopropyl groups derived from decarboxylated S-adenosyl-methionine (dcAdoMet or dcSAM to propylamine acceptors to produce polyamines, ubiquitous metabolites with positive charge at physiological pH. Spermidine synthase (SPDS uses putrescine as amino acceptor to form spermidine, whereas spermine synthase (SPMS and thermospermine synthase (TSPMS use spermidine as acceptor to synthesize the isomers spermine and thermospermine respectively. In previous work it was shown that both SPDS1 and SPDS2 can physically interact with SPMS although no data concerning the subcellular localization was reported. Here we study the subcellular localization of these enzymes and their protein dimer complexes with gateway-based Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC binary vectors. In addition, we have characterized the molecular weight of the enzyme complexes by gel filtration chromatography with in vitro assembled recombinant enzymes and with endogenous plant protein extracts. Our data suggest that aminopropyltransferases display a dual subcellular localization both in the cytosol and nuclear enriched fractions, and they assemble preferably as dimers. The BiFC transient expression data suggest that aminopropyltransferase heterodimer complexes take place preferentially inside the nucleus.

  18. Analysing the economy-wide impact of the supply chains activated by a new biomass power plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact on the economy of Sardinia (Italy generated by a new biomass power plant fed by locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon also serves the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using two multiregional closed Input-Output models, which allow us to take into account the entire supply chain activated and the supra-local effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are computed under alternative scenarios simulating different levels of substitution of existing agricultural activities with the new activity (cardoon. Results show positive and locally significant impacts in terms of value added and employment. However, these impacts are substantially influenced by the degree of substitution. Results also suggest that there are specific territorial areas that are more sensitive to negative effects induced by substitution.

  19. The Impact of Masker Fringe and Masker Sparial Uncertainty on Sound Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    spatial uncertainty on sound localization and to examine how such effects might be related to binaural detection and informational masking. 2 Methods...AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2012-0037 THE IMPACT OF MASKER FRINGE AND MASKER SPARIAL UNCERTAINTY ON SOUND LOCALIZATION Brian D. Simpson¹, Robert H...MASKER FRINGE AND MASKER SPARIAL UNCERTAINTY ON SOUND LOCALIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  20. Immunogold localization of acyl carrier protein in plants and Escherichia coli: Evidence for membrane association in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabas, A R; Smith, C G

    1988-08-01

    Immunogold labelling was used to study the distribution of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in Escherichia coli and a variety of plant tissues. In E. coli, ACP is distributed throughout the cytoplasm, confirming the observation of S. Jackowski et al. (1985, J. Bacteriol., 162, 5-8_. In the mesocarp of Avocado (Persea americana) and maturing seeds of oil-seed rape (Brassica napus cv. Jet Neuf), over 95% of the ACP is localised to plastids. The protein is almost exclusively located in the chloroplasts of leaf material from oil-seed rape. Approximately 80% of the gold particles associated with the ACP were further localized to the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase has been reported to be localized to the thylakoid membrane (C.G. Kannangara and C.J. Jensen, 1975, Eur. J. Biochem., 54, 25-30), these results are consistent with the view that the two sequential enzymes in fatty-acid synthesis are in close spacial proximity.

  1. The local impacts of climate change in the Ferlo, Western Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Metzger, M.J.; Leemans, R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent increases in the accuracy of climate models have enhanced the possibilities for analyzing the impacts of climate change on society. This paper explores how the local, economic impacts of climate change can be modeled for a specific eco-region, the Western Sahel. The people in the Sahel are hi

  2. Resource for Evaluating the Economic Impact of Local Food System Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Becca B. R.; O'Hara, Jeffrey K.; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Tropp, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Local food system stakeholders are confronted with challenges when attempting to ascertain the economic impacts of food system investments. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service commissioned a team of economists to develop a resource to provide support to stakeholders interested in understanding the economic impacts of…

  3. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition...... commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ were selected as the primary study area. Data were collected by (1) rapid rural appraisal, (2) direct...... observation, (3) informal and structured interviews with a purposive sample of 90 households. A total of 53 plant species under 32 families were identified from the study area and it was found that the relative density were highest for Areca catechu (areca palm), Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit...

  4. Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente Jessen; Aarrestad, Per Arild

    2013-01-01

    data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within T). We...... then assessed: (1) CiT range (thermal variability) within 1-km(2) units; (2) the relationship between CiT range and topographically and geographically derived predictors at 1-km resolution; and (3) whether spatial turnover in CiT is greater than spatial turnover in GiT within 100-km(2) units. Ellenberg...... temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0...

  5. Response of pest control by generalist predators to local-scale plant diversity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassou, Anicet Gbèblonoudo; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Disentangling the effects of plant diversity on the control of herbivores is important for understanding agricultural sustainability. Recent studies have investigated the relationships between plant diversity and arthropod communities at the landscape scale, but few have done so at the local scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 papers containing 175 independent measures of the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod communities. We found that generalist predators had a strong positive response to plant diversity, that is, their abundance increased as plant diversity increased. Herbivores, in contrast, had an overall weak and negative response to plant diversity. However, specialist and generalist herbivores differed in their response to plant diversity, that is, the response was negative for specialists and not significant for generalists. While the effects of scale remain unclear, the response to plant diversity tended to increase for specialist herbivores, but decrease for generalist herbivores as the scale increased. There was no clear effect of scale on the response of generalist predators to plant diversity. Our results suggest that the response of herbivores to plant diversity at the local scale is a balance between habitat and trophic effects that vary according to arthropod specialization and habitat type. Synthesis and applications. Positive effects of plant diversity on generalist predators confirm that, at the local scale, plant diversification of agroecosystems is a credible and promising option for increasing pest regulation. Results from our meta-analysis suggest that natural control in plant-diversified systems is more likely to occur for specialist than for generalist herbivores. In terms of pest management, our results indicate that small-scale plant diversification (via the planting of cover crops or intercrops and reduced weed management) is likely to increase the control of specialist herbivores by generalist predators.

  6. 75 FR 52967 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Palm Beach, Florida. A Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for South... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic... environmental impact statement for the South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant Management Plan....

  7. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and measurement system. Data was collected by using Questionnaire tool. The Questionnaire is of closed ended questions. It consists of three parts, the first part is demographic information about the study sample, the second part about implementation of the total quality management and the third part is to measure productivity. A sample of three poultry processing plants that effectively implemented total quality management were purposively chosen out of eight plants in Saudi Arabia Central Region. The study respondents are purposively chosen which consists quality team, production supervisors, Total quality management and production managers. 73 respondents out 75 participated in the survey. The finding indicated that the TQM practices have positive impact on poultry processing plants' productivity.

  8. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  9. Why Would Plant Species Become Extinct Locally If Growing Conditions Improve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Kramer, Rienk-Jan Bijlsma, Thomas Hickler, Wilfried Thuiller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two assumptions underlie current models of the geographical ranges of perennial plant species: 1. current ranges are in equilibrium with the prevailing climate, and 2. changes are attributable to changes in macroclimatic factors, including tolerance of winter cold, the duration of the growing season, and water stress during the growing season, rather than to biotic interactions. These assumptions allow model parameters to be estimated from current species ranges. Deterioration of growing conditions due to climate change, e.g. more severe drought, will cause local extinction. However, for many plant species, the predicted climate change of higher minimum temperatures and longer growing seasons means, improved growing conditions. Biogeographical models may under some circumstances predict that a species will become locally extinct, despite improved growing conditions, because they are based on an assumption of equilibrium and this forces the species range to match the species-specific macroclimatic thresholds. We argue that such model predictions should be rejected unless there is evidence either that competition influences the position of the range margins or that a certain physiological mechanism associated with the apparent improvement in growing conditions negatively affects the species performance. We illustrate how a process-based vegetation model can be used to ascertain whether such a physiological cause exists. To avoid potential modelling errors of this type, we propose a method that constrains the scenario predictions of the envelope models by changing the geographical distribution of the dominant plant functional type. Consistent modelling results are very important for evaluating how changes in species areas affect local functional trait diversity and hence ecosystem functioning and resilience, and for inferring the implications for conservation management in the face of climate change.

  10. Why would plant species become extinct locally if growing conditions improve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Koen; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan; Hickler, Thomas; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Two assumptions underlie current models of the geographical ranges of perennial plant species: 1. current ranges are in equilibrium with the prevailing climate, and 2. changes are attributable to changes in macroclimatic factors, including tolerance of winter cold, the duration of the growing season, and water stress during the growing season, rather than to biotic interactions. These assumptions allow model parameters to be estimated from current species ranges. Deterioration of growing conditions due to climate change, e.g. more severe drought, will cause local extinction. However, for many plant species, the predicted climate change of higher minimum temperatures and longer growing seasons means, improved growing conditions. Biogeographical models may under some circumstances predict that a species will become locally extinct, despite improved growing conditions, because they are based on an assumption of equilibrium and this forces the species range to match the species-specific macroclimatic thresholds. We argue that such model predictions should be rejected unless there is evidence either that competition influences the position of the range margins or that a certain physiological mechanism associated with the apparent improvement in growing conditions negatively affects the species performance. We illustrate how a process-based vegetation model can be used to ascertain whether such a physiological cause exists. To avoid potential modelling errors of this type, we propose a method that constrains the scenario predictions of the envelope models by changing the geographical distribution of the dominant plant functional type. Consistent modelling results are very important for evaluating how changes in species areas affect local functional trait diversity and hence ecosystem functioning and resilience, and for inferring the implications for conservation management in the face of climate change.

  11. Impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONGBI; DONG-MEILIN; KEH-SHENLII; NICKC.TOSCANO

    2005-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) is a widely distributed pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the population levels may be affected by rates of nitrogen fertilization and planting date. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly population dynamics. Cotton was planted on 26 April and 8 June, for the early and late plantings, respectively. Nitrogen treatments consisted of soil applications of 0, 112, 168 and 224 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The population levels of adult whiteflies were much higher on early-planted cotton than on late planting. Also, increased numbers of adult whiteflies on both early and late plantings occurred with increasing amounts of applied nitrogen.Applied nitrogen increased seed cotton yields of early plantings but had no effect on the yields of late plantings.

  12. Impacts of diversification of cytochrome P450 on plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions in primary and secondary metabolism in plants. The share of P450 genes in each plant genome is estimated to be up to 1%. This implies that the diversification of P450 has made a significant contribution to the ability to acquire the emergence of new metabolic pathways during land plant evolution. The P450 families conserved universally in land plants contribute to their chemical defense mechanisms. Several P450s are involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of plant hormones. Species-specific P450 families are essential for the biosynthetic pathways of phytochemicals such as terpenoids and alkaloids. Genome wide analysis of the gene clusters including P450 genes will provide a clue to defining the metabolic roles of orphan P450s. Metabolic engineering with plant P450s is an important technology for large-scale production of valuable phytochemicals such as medicines.

  13. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  14. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild edible plant resources in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild edible plants (WEP provide staple and supplement foods, as well as cash income to local communities, thus favouring food security. However, WEP are largely ignored in land use planning and implementation, economic development, and biodiversity conservation. Moreover, WEP-related traditional knowledge is rapidly eroding. Therefore, we designed this study to fulfill a part of the knowledge gap by providing data on diversity, traditional knowledge, economic potential, and conservation value of WEP from Nepal. Methods The information was collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Percentage of general utility of the plants among the study communities was evaluated using the Chi-square (χ2 test of homogeneity. High priority species were identified after consultation with the local stakeholders followed by scoring based on defined criteria. Pairwise ranking was used to assess ethnoecological knowledge to identify the threats to WEP. Results We documented 81 species belonging to Angiosperms (74, Pteridophytes (5, and Fungi (2. Most of the species were used as fruits (44 species followed by vegetables (36. Almost half of the species (47% were also used for purposes other than food. From the species with market value (37% of the total, 10 were identified as high priority species. Pairwise ranking revealed that WEP are threatened mostly by habitat destruction, land-use change and over-harvesting. Some of these plants are crop wild relatives and could thus be used for crop improvement. Interestingly, our study also revealed that young people who spend most of the time in the forest as herdsmen are particularly knowledgeable of wild fruit plants. Conclusion We provide empirical evidence from a relatively large area of Nepal about diversity and status of WEP, as well as methodological insights about the proper knowledge holders to consult. Regarding the unique and important knowledge they have on WEP

  15. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  16. Impact of genomics approaches on plant genetics and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Satoshi

    2002-08-01

    Comprehensive analysis of genetic information in higher plants is under way for several plants of biological and agronomical importance. Among them, Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of Brassica family, and Oryza sativa(rice) have been chosen as model plants most suitable for genome analysis. Sequencing of the genome of A. thaliana was completed in December 2000, and rice genome sequencing is in progress. The accumulated genome sequences, together with the hundreds of thousands of ESTs from several tens of plant species, have drastically changed the strategy of plant genetics. By utilizing the information on the genome and gene structures, comprehensive approaches for genome-wide functional analysis of the genes, including transcriptome analysis using microarray systems and a comprehensive analysis of a large number of insertion mutant lines, have been widely adopted. As a consequence, a large quantity of information on both the structure and function of genes in these model plants has been accumulated. However, other plant species may have their own characteristics and advantages to study individual phenomena. Application of knowledge from the model plants to other plant species and vice versa through the common language, namely the genome information, should facilitate understanding of the genetic systems underlying a variety of biological phenomena. Introduction of this common language may not be very simple, especially in the case of complex pathways such as a process of cell-covering formation. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that genomics approaches are the most promising way to understand these processes.

  17. Impact localization on composite structures using time difference and MUSIC approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongteng; Xiang, Jiawei

    2017-05-01

    1-D uniform linear array (ULA) has the shortcoming of the half-plane mirror effect, which does not allow discriminating between a target placed above the array and a target placed below the array. This paper presents time difference (TD) and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) based omni-directional impact localization on a large stiffened composite structure using improved linear array, which is able to perform omni-directional 360° localization. This array contains 2M+3 PZT sensors, where 2M+1 PZT sensors are arranged as a uniform linear array, and the other two PZT sensors are placed above and below the array. Firstly, the arrival times of impact signals observed by the other two sensors are determined using the wavelet transform. Compared with each other, the direction range of impact source can be decided in general, 0°to 180° or 180°to 360°. And then, two dimensional multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) based spatial spectrum formula using the uniform linear array is applied for impact localization by the general direction range. When the arrival times of impact signals observed by upper PZT is equal to that of lower PZT, the direction can be located in x axis (0°or 180°). And time difference based MUSIC method is present to locate impact position. To verify the proposed approach, the proposed approach is applied to a composite structure. The localization results are in good agreement with the actual impact occurring positions.

  18. Cloning, localization and expression analysis of vacuolar sugar transporters in the CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Edna; Taybi, Tahar; Courbot, Mikaël; Mugford, Sam T; Smith, J Andrew C; Borland, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    In photosynthetic tissues of the CAM plant pineapple (Ananas comosus), storage of soluble sugars in the central vacuole during the daytime and their remobilization at night is required to provide carbon skeletons for nocturnal CO(2) fixation. However, soluble sugars produced photosynthetically must also be exported to support growth processes in heterotrophic tissues. To begin to address how vacuolar sugar storage and assimilate partitioning are regulated in A. comosus, degenerate PCR and cDNA library screening were used to clone three candidate sugar transporters from the leaves of this species. Subcellular localization of the three transporters was investigated via expression of YFP-fusion proteins in tobacco epidermal cells and their co-localization with subcellular markers by confocal microscopy. Using this strategy, a putative hexose transporter (AcMST1) and a putative inositol transporter (AcINT1) were identified that both localized to the tonoplast, whereas a putative sucrose transporter (AcSUT1) was found to localize to prevacuolar compartments. A cDNA (AcMST2) with high similarity to a recently characterized tonoplast hexose transporter in Arabidopsis was also identified from an A. comosus fruit EST database. Analyses of transcript abundance indicated that AcMST1 was more highly expressed in fruits compared to leaves of A. comosus, whilst transcripts of AcINT1, AcSUT1, and AcMST2 were more abundant in leaves. Transcript abundance of AcINT1, the putative inositol transporter, showed day-night changes comparable to those of other CAM-related transcripts described in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The results are discussed in terms of the role of vacuolar sugar transporters in regulating carbon flow during the diel cycle in CAM plants.

  19. Effect of Hypergravity on Localization Calcium Ions in Plant Cells Grown in Vivo and in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, Olena

    Using plant callus tissues and Arabidopsis thaliana plants as model systems we have been investigated the effect of hypergravity on the localization and relative content of calcium ions in photosynthesizing cells. The tobacco callus cells in log stage of growth and mesophyll cells from developed A. thaliana leaves were used in the experiments. Plant samples were exposed to hypergravity at 6.5 g, 10g and 14 g for 15-60 min. After centrifugation, dye Fluo-4 was loaded in the control leaves and the centrifuged samples by the standard cytochemical method. Observation of calcium fluorescence was carried out with a laser confocal microscope LSM 5 Pascal at the excitation wave 488 nm (by the argon laser), at emission wavelength 516 nm. The data of the calcium ion distribution and quantification in cells were obtained using software "Pascal" (Carl Zeiss). The effect of hypergravity on redistribution of calcium ions in plant cells has been established. This effect is depended from exposure time and from the value of hypergravity. The cells cultivated in vitro is showed fast response to hypergravity influence. Plasmolysis cells and calcium domains formation have been observed in most of callus cells. This influence was like to that, which was wrote in Funaria hygrometrica protonema cells after 8.5 g influence (Sytnik et al., 1984). Leaf cells of A. thaliana were of less responsively to hypergravity than callus cells. Sytnik K, Kordyum E, Nedukha O. et al. 1984. Plant Cell Under Change of Geophysical Factors. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1-134 p.

  20. A native plant competitor mediates the impact of above- and belowground damage on an invasive tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juli; Siemann, Evan

    2016-10-01

    Plant competition may mediate the impacts of herbivory on invasive plant species through effects on plant growth and defense. This may predictably depend on whether herbivory occurs above or below ground and on relative plant competitive ability. We simulated the potential impact of above- or belowground damage by biocontrol agents on the growth of a woody invader (Chinese tallow tree, Triadica sebifera) through artificial herbivory, with or without competition with a native grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium). We measured two defense responses of Triadica through quantifying constitutive and induced extrafloral nectar production and tolerance of above- and belowground damage (root and shoot biomass regrowth). We examined genetic variation in plant growth and defense across native (China) and invasive (United States) Triadica populations. Without competition, aboveground damage had a greater impact than belowground damage on Triadica performance, whereas with competition and above- and belowground damage impacted Triadica similarly. Whole plant tolerance to damage below ground was negatively associated with tolerance to grass competitors indicating tradeoffs in the ability to tolerate herbivory vs. compete. Competition reduced investment in defensive extrafloral nectar (EFN) production. Aboveground damage inhibited rather than induced EFN production while belowground plant damage did not impact aboveground nectar production. We found some support for the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis for invasive plants as United States plants were larger than native China plants and were more plastic in their response to biotic stressors than China plants (they altered their root to shoot ratios dependent on herbivory and competition treatments). Our results indicate that habitat type and the presence of competitors may be a larger determinant of herbivory impact than feeding mode and suggest that integrated pest management strategies including

  1. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-09-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted).

  2. Culinary plants and their potential impact on metabolic overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary human behavior has led a large proportion of the population to metabolic overload and obesity. Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia evoke redox imbalance in the short term and lead to complex chronic disease in the long term with repeated occurrence. Complex diseases are best prevented with complex components of plants; thus, current nutrition research has begun to focus on the development of plant-based functional foods and dietary supplements for health and well-being. Furthermore, given the wide range of species, parts, and secondary metabolites, culinary plants can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. Although understanding the health benefits of culinary plants has been one of the great challenges in nutritional science due to their inherent complexity, it is an advantageous pursuit. This review will address the challenges and opportunities relating to studies of the health benefits of culinary plants, with an emphasis on obesity attributed to metabolic overload. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechiel Longe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

  4. The impact of beneficial plant-associated microbes on plant phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chooi-Hua; Veliz Vallejos, Debora F; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2013-07-01

    Plants show phenotypic plasticity in response to changing or extreme abiotic environments; but over millions of years they also have co-evolved to respond to the presence of soil microbes. Studies on phenotypic plasticity in plants have focused mainly on the effects of the changing environments on plants' growth and survival. Evidence is now accumulating that the presence of microbes can alter plant phenotypic plasticity in a broad range of traits in response to a changing environment. In this review, we discuss the effects of microbes on plant phenotypic plasticity in response to changing environmental conditions, and how this may affect plant fitness. By using a range of specific plant-microbe interactions as examples, we demonstrate that one way that microbes can alleviate the effect of environmental stress on plants and thus increase plant fitness is to remove the stress, e.g., nutrient limitation, directly. Furthermore, microbes indirectly affect plant phenotypic plasticity and fitness through modulation of plant development and defense responses. In doing so, microbes affect fitness by both increasing or decreasing the degree of phenotypic plasticity, depending on the phenotype and the environmental stress studied, with no clear difference between the effect of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in general. Additionally, plants have the ability to modulate microbial behaviors, suggesting that they manipulate bacteria, enhancing interactions that help them cope with stressful environments. Future challenges remain in the identification of the many microbial signals that modulate phenotypic plasticity, the characterization of plant genes, e.g. receptors, that mediate the microbial effects on plasticity, and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that link phenotypic plasticity with fitness. The characterization of plant and microbial mutants defective in signal synthesis or perception, together with carefully designed glasshouse or field experiments that

  5. The health impact of tourism on local and indigenous populations in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2008-09-01

    In the vast Travel Health literature there is still a considerable dearth on tourism's impact on local communities. This review attempts to remedy the situation. Its focus is on potential health impacts on populations living at tourist destinations outside the industrialised world. To facilitate a better understanding of how health is linked to tourism today, a brief overview of the historical and theoretical evolution of tourism is presented. Ecotourism is given special attention as it is perceived as a version of the industry that is more benign on environment and people. After discussing Indigenous Tourism, a variety of potential health implications is outlined. These follow a previously suggested classification of indirect and direct impacts, with the indirect impacts being based on economic, environmental, socio-cultural and, more recently, political impacts, and the direct impacts originating from immediate encounters between tourism and people. Finally, the urgent need for more research is highlighted, and some solutions to minimize health impact are suggested.

  6. Plant regeneration from seeds responds to phylogenetic relatedness and local adaptation in Mediterranean Romulea (Iridaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Angelino; Hanson, Sarah; Müller, Jonas V

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is the most important transitional event between early stages in the life cycle of spermatophytes and understanding it is crucial to understand plant adaptation and evolution. However, so far seed germination of phylogenetically closely related species has been poorly investigated. To test the hypothises that phylogenetically related plant species have similar seed ecophysiological traits thereby reflecting certain habitat conditions as a result of local adaptation, we studied seed dormancy and germination in seven Mediterranean species in the genus Romulea (Iridaceae). Both the across-species model and the model accounting for shared evolutionary history showed that cool temperatures (≤ 15°C) were the main factor that promoted seed germination. The absence of embryo growth before radicle emergence is consistent with a prompt germination response at cool temperatures. The range of temperature conditions for germination became wider after a period of warm stratification, denoting a weak primary dormancy. Altogether these results indicate that the studied species exhibit a Mediterranean germination syndrome, but with species-specific germination requirements clustered in a way that follows the phylogenetic relatedness among those species. In addition, species with heavier seeds from humid habitats showed a wider range of conditions for germination at dispersal time than species from dry habitats possessing lighter seeds. We conclude that while phylogenetically related species showed very similar germination requirements, there are subtle ecologically meaningful differences, confirming the onset of adaptation to local ecological factors mediated by species relatedness.

  7. Fungi and bacteria inventory on soybean (Glycine max (L.) merill) planting media applied by local microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhsan, Ni'matuljannah; Vionita

    2017-02-01

    An experiment aimed to determine the effect of application of several types of local microorganisms (MOL) and the number of doses to the development of fungi and bacteria on soybean planting media, have been conducted in Samarinda for 3 (three) months. Factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design and repeated three times, was used in this experiment. The first factor was the type of MOL consisted of cow dung (m1), snails (m2), banana peel (m3) and bamboo roots (m4), and the second factor was the dose MOL zero mL (d0), 100 mL (d1), 200 mL (d2), 300 mL (d3), 400 mL (d4) analyzed with Anova and Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5%. Fungi and bacteria contained in the local microorganisms (cow dung, snails, banana peel and bamboo root) are: fungus Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., cellulotic and lignolitic bacteria. An increase in the type and amount of fungus is happened for some genus. The dominant bacteria in the planting medium is a gram-negative bacteria. Cow dung seemed the best source at the dosages level of 400 ml.

  8. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  9. Advances in cables and outside plant for cable television and optical fibre local networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle, Peter

    1986-11-01

    During 1985 Bristish Telecom commenced the installation of a number of cable television systems in the United Kingdom. One of these systems, in Westminster, London, is of the Switched Star type, developed by the British Telecom Research Laboratories. The network comprises optical fiber cable between the head-end and the cabinet-mounted switch, and coaxial cable between the switch and the customer. A number of new outside plant products have been developed to meet the special requirements of the Westminister installation. This earlier work, together with the experience gained from the installation of optical fibers in the British Telecom trunk and junction networks, formed an ideal basis for evolving the line plant necessary to enable BT to introduce singlemode optical fiber into the local network. A range of cables is being developed by UK companies, suitable for installing in the harsh environment of the local network. Joint organizers and flexibility nodes are being introduced, both for underground application and for within the exchange and customer's premises. In addition blown-fiber techniques are being used to introduce fiber into these networks.

  10. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  11. Regional data refine local predictions: modeling the distribution of plant species abundance on a portion of the central plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicholas E; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Evangelista, Paul H; Kumar, Sunil; Graham, Jim; Newman, Greg

    2012-09-01

    Species distribution models are frequently used to predict species occurrences in novel conditions, yet few studies have examined the consequences of extrapolating locally collected data to regional landscapes. Similarly, the process of using regional data to inform local prediction for species distribution models has not been adequately evaluated. Using boosted regression trees, we examined errors associated with extrapolating models developed with locally collected abundance data to regional-scale spatial extents and associated with using regional data for predictions at a local extent for a native and non-native plant species across the northeastern central plains of Colorado. Our objectives were to compare model results and accuracy between those developed locally and extrapolated regionally, those developed regionally and extrapolated locally, and to evaluate extending species distribution modeling from predicting the probability of presence to predicting abundance. We developed models to predict the spatial distribution of plant species abundance using topographic, remotely sensed, land cover and soil taxonomic predictor variables. We compared model predicted mean and range abundance values to observed values between local and regional. We also evaluated model prediction performance based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. We show that: (1) extrapolating local models to regional extents may restrict predictions, (2) regional data can help refine and improve local predictions, and (3) boosted regression trees can be useful to model and predict plant species abundance. Regional sampling designed in concert with large sampling frameworks such as the National Ecological Observatory Network may improve our ability to monitor changes in local species abundance.

  12. The impact of plant biotechnology on food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-04-01

    Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could mitigate the allergic response. Modified low-IgE binding variants of allergens could be used as a vaccine to build immunotolerance in sensitive individuals. The potential to introduce new allergens into the food supply by biotechnology products is a regulatory concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a

  14. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  15. Natural plant sugar sources of Anopheles mosquitoes strongly impact malaria transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available An improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. To determine how the sugar availability impacts Anopheles sergentii populations, mark-release-recapture studies were conducted in two oases in Israel with either absence or presence of the local primary sugar source, flowering Acacia raddiana trees. Compared with population estimates from the sugar-rich oasis, An. sergentii in the sugar-poor oasis showed smaller population size (37,494 vs. 85,595, lower survival rates (0.72 vs. 0.93, and prolonged gonotrophic cycles (3.33 vs. 2.36 days. The estimated number of females older than the extrinsic incubation period of malaria (10 days in the sugar rich site was 4 times greater than in the sugar poor site. Sugar feeding detected in mosquito guts in the sugar-rich site was significantly higher (73% than in the sugar-poor site (48%. In contrast, plant tissue feeding (poor quality sugar source in the sugar-rich habitat was much less (0.3% than in the sugar-poor site (30%. More important, the estimated vectorial capacity, a standard measure of malaria transmission potential, was more than 250-fold higher in the sugar-rich oasis than that in the sugar-poor site. Our results convincingly show that the availability of sugar sources in the local environment is a major determinant regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations and their vector potential, suggesting that control interventions targeting sugar-feeding mosquitoes pose a promising tactic for combating transmission of malaria parasites and other pathogens.

  16. High methylmercury production under ferruginous conditions in sediments impacted by sewage treatment plant discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Bouchet, Sylvain; Guédron, Stéphane; Amouroux, David; Dominik, Janusz; Zopfi, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are important point sources of mercury (Hg) to the environment. STPs are also significant sources of iron when hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) is used as a dephosphatation agent during water purification. In this study, we combined geochemical and microbiological characterization with Hg speciation and sediment amendments to evaluate the impact of STP's effluents on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production. The highest in-situ Hg methylation was found close to the discharge pipe in subsurface sediments enriched with Hg, organic matter, and iron. There, ferruginous conditions were prevailing with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(2+) and virtually no free sulfide in the porewater. Sediment incubations demonstrated that the high MMHg production close to the discharge was controlled by low demethylation yields. Inhibition of dissimilatory sulfate reduction with molybdate led to increased iron reduction rates and Hg-methylation, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may not have been the main Hg methylators under these conditions. However, Hg methylation in sediments amended with amorphous Fe(III)-oxides was only slightly higher than control conditions. Thus, in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, other non-SRB most likely contributed to Hg methylation. Overall, this study highlights that sediments impacted by STP discharges can become local hot-spots for Hg methylation due to the combined inputs of i) Hg, ii) organic matter, which fuels bacterial activities and iii) iron, which keeps porewater sulfide concentration low and hence Hg bioavailable.

  17. Impact of Aqueous Plant Extracts on Trigona spinipes (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The stingless bees are an important component of the insect biomass in many tropical areas, due to their collection of nectar and pollen. Trigona spinipes is a widely distributed species in South America, and described as a pollinator of many crops that can be used in a commercial pollinating system. The effects of plant extracts on insects are studied because of the demand for organic food and their selectivity to natural enemies. Plant insecticides are reported as a potential agent for the ...

  18. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R. [Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States); Collins, W. [Dept. of the Army, Fort Ord, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  19. Impacts of climate change on plant diseases – opinions and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pautasso, Marco; Döring, Thomas F.; Garbelotto, M.; Pellis, L; Jeger, MJ

    2012-01-01

    There has been a remarkable scientific output on the topic of how climate change is likely to affect plant diseases in the coming decades. This review addresses the need for review of this burgeoning literature by summarizing opinions of previous reviews and trends in recent studies on the impacts of climate change on plant health. Sudden Oak Death is used as an introductory case study: Californian forests could become even more susceptible to this emerging plant disease, if spring precipitat...

  20. Understanding the impact of plant competition on the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere.

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, M.P.; Dekker, S.C.; Anten, Niels; Rietkerk, M.G.; de Arellano, Jordi Vila-Guerau

    2015-01-01

    Competition between plants for resources is an important selective force. As a result competition through natural selection determines vegetation functioning and associated atmospheric interactions. Our aim was to investigate how the coupling between vegetation and atmosphere is influenced by plant competition. Though included in some coupled vegetation-atmosphere models, little attention has been paid to systematically study the impact of plant competition in determining the evolution of sur...

  1. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.;

    2014-01-01

    . By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant...

  2. Distribution, density and impact of invasive plants in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngweno, C.C.; Mwasi, S.M.; Kairu, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants have invaded swathes of grasslands in Lake Nakuru National Park thus necessitating the Park management to institute measures to control them. Despite this, information on the status and impact of invasive plants in these grasslands is lacking. Six grassland types were identified and

  3. Photochemical model evaluation of the surface ozone impact of a power plant in a heavily industrialized area of southwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, N; Mantilla, E; Salvador, R; Stein, A F; Millán, M

    2010-01-01

    The characterization and evaluation of the impact that an industry is likely to have on the surrounding ozone levels is one of many problems confronting air quality managers and should be taken into consideration when authorizing its installation. The correct management of an environment, in terms of monitoring existing industries and planning new activities, requires adequate knowledge of the processes sustained by the industrial emissions therein. This paper explores the improvements in air quality management arising from taking into account the uncertainties involved in the photochemical modeling of the impact of an industry on surface ozone levels. For this, we evaluate the impact on ozone levels of a power plant located in an industrial area of southwestern Spain (Huelva). The evaluation takes into account the effects of both emissions' uncertainty and the non-linear chemistry between ozone and its precursors, thus providing a probable range of increase over the normative values (hourly and 8-hourly maximums) defined in the European Directive. The proposed methodology is easily applicable by air quality managers. Advanced modeling techniques were used for the power plant assessment, MM5 atmospheric modeling system, and air quality model CAMx. The results from meteorology and ozone forecasts have shown acceptable agreement with the observations. The spatial distribution of the impact is found to be strongly determined by mesoscale meteorological processes, which are reinforced by the local orography; there is also a marked temporal evolution. The industrial plume is observed to induce a decrease (or maintenance) of the ozone levels near the emission source (0-10km), and an increase in the ozone concentrations farther away (with maximums between 10 and 50km). In fact, in the meteorological episodes with a predominance of local breeze circulations, impacts have been detected at distances of more than 100km from the emission source. Sensitivity of the power plant

  4. The impact of whole-plant instruction of preservice teachers' understanding of plant science principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypolite, Christine Collins

    The purpose of this research was to determine how an inquiry-based, whole-plant instructional strategy would affect preservice elementary teachers' understanding of plant science principles. This study probed: what preservice teachers know about plant biology concepts before and after instruction, their views of the interrelatedness of plant parts and the environment, how growing a plant affects preservice teachers' understanding, and which types of activity-rich plant themes studies, if any, affect preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The participants in the study were enrolled in two elementary science methods class sections at a state university. Each group was administered a preinstructional test at the beginning of the study. The treatment group participated in inquiry-based activities related to the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001), while the comparison group studied those same concepts through traditional instructional methods. A focus group was formed from the treatment group to participate in co-concept mapping sessions. The participants' understandings were assessed through artifacts from activities, a comparison of pre- and postinstructional tests, and the concept maps generated by the focus group. Results of the research indicated that the whole-plant, inquiry-based instructional strategy can be applied to teach preservice elementary teachers plant biology while modeling the human constructivist approach. The results further indicated that this approach enhanced their understanding of plant science content knowledge, as well as pedagogical knowledge. The results also showed that a whole-plant approach to teaching plant science concepts is an instructional strategy that is feasible for the elementary school. The theoretical framework for this study was Human Constructivist learning theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998). The content knowledge and instructional strategy was informed by the Principles of Plant

  5. Impact localization for a composite plate using the spatial focusing properties of advanced signal processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A structural health monitoring technique for locating impact position in a composite plate is presented in this paper. The method employs a single sensor and spatial focusing properties of time reversal(TR) and inverse filtering(IF). We first examine the spatial focusing efficiency of both approaches at the impact position and its surroundings through impact experiments. The imaging results of impact localization show that the impact location can be accurately estimated in any position of the plate. Compared to existing techniques for locating impact or acoustic emission source, the proposed method has the benefits of using a single sensor and not requiring knowledge of anisotropic material properties and geometry of structures. Furthermore, it does not depend on a particular mode of dispersive Lamb waves that is frequently used in other ultrasonic testing of plate like structures.

  6. Influence of measurement noise on the PSO based localization of an impact occurring on elastic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Bakari A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of particle swarm optimization algorithm to reconstruct the characteristics of impacts occurring on homogeneous and isotropic elastic plates and which cannot be reduced to a concentrated force. Solution of this inverse problem was achieved through minimizing a fitness function defined in terms of the root mean square error between the measured and the calculated responses. This included information provided by numerous sensors. The impacting force was assumed to result from uniformly distributed pressure acting over a rectangular patch. Use was made of the reciprocity theorem to decouple the localization problem from the deconvolution part intended to reconstruct the pressure time signal. The particle swarm optimization based model was found to be highly efficient in finding the impact zone location. Focus was done on the robustness aspect of force impact localization when an additive white noise is assumed to perturb response measurements.

  7. Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Plant Sitings and Distributed Solar Panels on Meteorology and Air Quality in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, L. A.; Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    California's electric utility companies are required to use renewable energy to produce 20% of their power by 2010 and 33% by 2020. A main source of the power will be solar energy because photovoltaic technologies have advanced so much that large scale installations are being built and will be built in the future with even greater capacity. Rather than being a large emission source, these plants affect the ambient environment through albedo changes and by emission reductions associated with not burning fossil fuels to generate the same amount of electricity. Like conventional power plants, their impact on local meteorology and air quality depends on the specific technology, ambient atmospheric conditions, and the spatial location of the plant. Also, as solar panels on commercial and residential rooftops become even more common, the effect of distributed photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality is likely to become significant. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at high resolution of 4 km x 4 km over several 5-day high-ozone episodes of the summer 2000 to assess the impact of photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality in Central California. We investigate the effect of locating a 1.0 Giga watt solar plant in different locations and the effect of distributed rooftop photovoltaic panels in major Californian cities, with a focus on peak and 8-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5.

  8. Impact Localization Method for Composite Plate Based on Low Sampling Rate Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors have been increasingly used in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM in recent years. In this paper, we proposed an impact localization algorithm based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Particle Swarm Optimization-Support Vector Machine (PSO-SVM to achieve better localization accuracy for the FBG-embedded plate. In our method, EMD is used to extract the features of FBG signals, and PSO-SVM is then applied to automatically train a classification model for the impact localization. Meanwhile, an impact monitoring system for the FBG-embedded composites has been established to actually validate our algorithm. Moreover, the relationship between the localization accuracy and the distance from impact to the nearest sensor has also been studied. Results suggest that the localization accuracy keeps increasing and is satisfactory, ranging from 93.89% to 97.14%, on our experimental conditions with the decrease of the distance. This article reports an effective and easy-implementing method for FBG signal processing on SHM systems of the composites.

  9. No evidence for local adaptation in an invasive alien plant: field and greenhouse experiments tracing a colonization sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Anna T; Kollmann, Johannes; Mayer, Andreas; Haider, Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Local adaptation enables plant species to persist under different environmental conditions. Evolutionary change can occur rapidly in invasive annual species and has been shown to lead to local adaptation. However, the patterns and mechanisms of local adaptation in invasive species along colonization sequences are not yet understood. Thus, in this study the alien annual Impatiens glandulifera was used to investigate local adaptation to distinct habitats that have been consecutively invaded in central Europe. A reciprocal transplant experiment was performed using 15 populations from alluvial deciduous forests, fallow meadows and coniferous upland forests, and a greenhouse experiment was performed in which plants from these habitats were grown under treatments reflecting the main habitat differentiators (shade, soil acidity, competition). Biomass production, specific leaf area, plant height and relative growth rate differed between habitats in the field experiment and between treatments in the greenhouse, but not between seed origins. Overall, there was no indication of local adaptation in either experiment. Since I. glandulifera is a successful invader in many habitats without showing local adaptation, it is suggested that the species is coping with environmental variation by means of high phenotypic plasticity. The species seems to follow a 'jack-and-master' strategy, i.e. it is able to maintain high fitness under a wide range of environmental conditions, but performs particularly well in favourable habitats. Therefore, the proposed colonization sequence is likely to be based primarily on changes in propagule pressure. It is concluded that invasive alien plants can become dominant in distinct habitats without local adaptation.

  10. Assessing Regional Climate and Local Landcover Impacts on Vegetation with Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel Brunsell; Pei-Ling Lin

    2013-01-01

    Landcover change alters not only the surface landscape but also regional carbon and water cycling. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impacts of landcover change across the Kansas River Basin (KRB) by comparing local microclimatic impacts and regional scale climate influences. This was done using a 25-year time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and precipitation (PPT) data analyzed using multi-resolution information theory metrics. Results showed bot...

  11. How to Measure the Local Economic Impact of the Universities' Third Mission Activities?

    OpenAIRE

    Zuti, Bence; Lukovics, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is more and more important to know that how certain units of regional economy (enterprises, higher education institutions, other units) affect local economy. The economic impact analysis of higher education institutions is more complex than the impact analysis of enterprises, since the complexity of multiple direct and indirect transmissions and effects. The economic effects of higher education institutions (HEIs) are easy to access and easy to systematize using the classification...

  12. Impact of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wen Z.; Zhao, Wen J.; Luo, Na N.

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and atmospheric particles can diffuse and absorb solar radiation, and directly affect plant photosynthesis and related protein expression. In this study, for the first time, we performed an extensive investigation of the effects of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins by combining Geographic Information System and proteomic approaches. Data on particles with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm (PM1) from different locations across the city of Beijing and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the past 6 years (2007-2012) were collected. In order to make the study more reliable, we segregated the influence of soil pollution by measuring the heavy metal content. On the basis of AOD and PM1, two regions corresponding to strong and weak diffuse solar radiations were selected for analyzing the changes in the expression of plant proteins. Our results demonstrated that in areas with strong diffuse solar radiations, plant ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was expressed at higher levels, but oxygen evolved in enhancer protein and light-harvesting complex II protein were expressed at lower levels. The expression of ATP synthase subunit beta and chlorophyll a-b binding protein were similar in both regions. By analyzing the changes in the expression of these leaf proteins and their functions, we conclude that aerosols and atmospheric particles stimulate plant photosynthesis facilitated by diffuse solar radiations.

  13. Environmental impact of trace element emissions from geothermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R; Cateni, D; Nelli, L; Olmastroni, S; Zagarese, B

    1997-08-01

    Concentrations of several trace elements were determined in mosses, higher plants and organs of small mammals from a geothermal area in Tuscany (central Italy). Increased deposition of Hg, As, B, and Sb was detected in biological samples collected within a few hundred meters of geothermal power plants. Among the species considered, the moss Hypnum cupressiforme was the most efficient accumulator of trace elements. Contamination levels in a fodder-plant (Hedysarum coronarium) and vegetables grown in the geothermal field did not seem to pose health risks for consumers. However, a statistically significant increase in Hg, B, and As concentrations was found in the kidney and muscle of small mammals living close to geothermal installations. Biological effects of B pollution were detected in two sensitive plant species. In view of plans to increase the exploitation of geothermal resources in the area, adequate measures to monitor the environment should be taken. Mosses are the most suitable accumulative biomonitors for a surveillance network, and studies on small mammal populations should be intensified. Available technologies should be used to diminish atmospheric emissions from geothermal power plants.

  14. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Almanza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s−1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 41.7%, at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23% and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb and rural T2 (5 ppb supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels

  15. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  16. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry.

  17. IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PLANTS, FRUITS AND GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTHYAN ALEXANDRE CARCIA DE CARVALHO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the increased use of fossil fuels as well as the unsustainable use of land, through the reduction of native forests has increased the greenhouse gas emissions, contributing defini- tively to the rise in temperature on earth. In this scenario, two environmental factors, directly related to the physiology of crop production, are constantly being changed. The first change is the increase in the partial pres- sure of carbon dioxide (CO2, which directly affects photosynthetic efficiency and the associated metabolic processes. The other change is the temperature increase which affects all the physiological and metabolic proc- esses mediated by enzymes, especially photosynthesis and respiration. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the main effects caused by increased CO2 pressure and the temperature rise in the physiology, productivity and post-harvest quality of plants with photosynthetic metabolism C3, C4 and CAM. Based on physiological evi- dence, the increased atmospheric CO2 concentration will benefit net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and the transpiration of C3 plants, however in hot, dry and saline environments, the C4 and CAM species present an advantage by having low photorespiration. Studies show controversial conclusions about the productivity of C3 and C4 plants, and the quality of their fruits or grains under different CO2 concentrations or high tempera- tures. Thus, there is a need for more testing with C3 and C4 plants, besides of more researches with CAM plants, in view of the low number of experiments carried out in this type of plants.

  18. Analyzing the Economy-wide Impact of the Supply Chains Activated by a new Biomass Power Plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Esposti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on the economy of the Italian region of the Sardinia generated by a new biomass power plant that will be fed with locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon will also serve the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using a multiregional mixed-variable closed I-O model that allows taking into account the whole supply chain activated and the cross-regional effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are com...

  19. Geothermal power plants principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    DiPippo, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, is a world-regarded geothermal expert. This single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation from fundamental scientific and engineering principles. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book and readers are clearly guided on the process of designing and analysing the key types of geothermal energy conversion systems. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader'

  20. Assessing the Impact of Heat Rejection Technology on CSP Plant Revenue: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of cooling technology on revenue for hybrid-cooled plants with varying wet cooling penetration for four representative locations in the American Southwest. The impact of ACC design-point initial temperature difference (ITD - the difference between the condensing steam temperature and ambient dry-bulb) is also included in the analysis.

  1. TOURISM IMPACTS ON LOCAL LIFE: SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN CRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Terkenli, Theano; BELLAS, Marcia L.; JENKINS, Laura Dudley

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to address the ongoing need to assess the impact of tourism on local societies, in the context of contemporary tourism studies and social sciences. It seeks to contribute to an understanding of local perceptions of socio-spatial transformation through processes of a “new cultural economy of space”—in cases where tourism constitutes the major agent of change. The case study in Crete explores the imprint of this new cultural economy of space on local societies, ...

  2. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  3. Subtle Gardeners: Inland Predators Enrich Local Topsoils and Enhance Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, José M.; Garrote, Pedro José; Delgado, María del Mar; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Inland vertebrate predators could enrich of nutrients the local top soils in the area surrounding their nests and dens by depositing faeces, urine, and prey remains and, thus, alter the dynamics of plant populations. Surprisingly, and in contrast with convincing evidence from coastal habitats, whether and how this phenomenon occurs in inland habitats is largely uncertain even though these habitats represent a major fraction of the earth's surface. We investigated during two consecutive breeding seasons the potential enrichment of the top-soils associated with inland ground-nesting eagle owls Bubo bubo, as well as its possible consequences in the growth of two common annual grasses in southern Spain. Top-soils associated with owl nests differed strongly and significantly from control top-soils in chemical parameters, mainly fertility-related properties. Specifically, levels of available phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic matter, and available potassium were 49.1, 5.6, 3.1, and 2.7 times higher, respectively, in top-soils associated with owl nests as compared to control top-soils. Germination experiments in chambers indicated that nutrient enrichment by nesting owls enhanced seedling growth in both annual grasses (Phalaris canariensis and Avena sativa), with seedling size being 1.4–1.3 times higher in owl nest top-soils than in control top-soils. Our experimental study revealed that pervasive inland, predatory birds can profoundly enrich the topsoil around their nests and, thus, potentially enhance local vegetation growth. Because diverse inland vertebrate predators are widespread in most habitats they have a strong potential to enhance spatial heterogeneity, impinge on plant communities, and exert an overlooked effect on primary productivity worldwide. PMID:26383647

  4. Locals' perceptions towards the impacts of tourism and the importance of local engagement: A comparative study of two islands in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nejati, Mehran; Badaruddin MOHAMED; Omar, Shida Irwana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the perception of locals residing on two touristic islands in Malaysia about the economic, social, environmental and cultural impacts of tourism development. Additionally, the importance of local engagement in tourism development was also investigated from the perspective of residents. A total of 371 responses were collected (183 local residents on Perhentian island and 188 local residents on Redang island). Results of the study reveal that while residents on both isla...

  5. The Brazilian Seed Law and its impacts on agrobiodiversity and on local and traditional agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santilli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a critical analysis of the impacts of the Brazilian Seed Law (10.711/2003 on agricultural biodiversity and on traditional and local agriculture. The above-mentioned law caters to the needs and interests of 'formal' seed systems, and does not consider the important role played by local and traditional seed systems (frequently called 'informal', in which the production, exchange, breeding and conservation of seeds are carried out by the farmers themselves, through their social networks and according to local rules. 'Formal' seed systems tend to focus mainly on crops of commercial value, and widely used in homogeneous environments. Therefore, they are not interested in producing seeds that are adapted to specific local conditions and uses, nor in attending the needs of local and traditional farmers, which have limited resources and live in regions that are culturally and environmentally heterogeneous.

  6. Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy

    2007-12-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the impact of recreation and tourism in protected areas on plant biodiversity and vegetation communities in Australia. Despite the international significance of the Australian flora and increasing visitation to protected areas there has been limited research on recreational and tourism impacts in Australia. As overseas, there are obvious direct impacts of recreation and tourism such as clearing of vegetation for infrastructure or damage from trampling, horse riding, mountain biking and off road vehicles. As well, there are less obvious but potentially more severe indirect impacts. This includes self-propagating impacts associated with the spread of some weeds from trails and roads. It also includes the severe impact on native vegetation, including many rare and threatened plants, from spread of the root rot fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi. This review highlights the need for more recreational ecology research in Australia.

  7. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of Ethiopian local plant Phytolacca dodecandra extract for its toxicity effectiveness against aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity effectiveness of berries crude extract of Endod [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Phytolacca dodecandra] against aquatic macroinvertebrates Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant, berries of Phytolacca dodecandra are being commonly used for washing clothes and to control fresh water snails. Macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of change in the aquatic ecosystems. The present study clearly revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for berries crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra against Baetidae were 181.94 and 525.78 mg/l and lethal doses (LC50 and LC90) required for Hydropsychidae were 1060.69 and 4120.4 mg/l respectively. The present investigation demonstrated that Baetidae was more susceptible than Hydropsychidae, even at shorter exposure period of 2 h. From our preliminary investigation the toxicity effectiveness of crude extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra has been clearly shown. In addition, it requires further explorations which address both the toxicity activity and the active principles that are responsible for its toxicity effectiveness. Ultimately, the release/introduction of Phytolacca dodecandra plant berries extracts into the river/streams leads to disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, at this moment preserving the aquatic ecosystem is extremely essential and inevitable.

  9. Subcellular localization of copper in tolerant and non-tolerant plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Cai-ying; CHEN Ying-xv; LIN Qi; TIAN Guang-ming

    2005-01-01

    The ability of Elsholtzia splendens Naki( E. splendens) to accumulate copper appears to be governed by its high degree of copper tolerance. However, the tolerance mechanism on the physiological basis is unknown. Using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays(EDX), the likely location of copper within the cells of the tolerant and non-tolerant was determined. Here the role of vacuolar and cell wall compartmentalization in this copper tolerant plant were investigated. A direct comparison of copper locations of E. splendens and the non-tolerant Astragalus sinicus L. ( A. sinicus) showed that the majority of copper in the tolerant was localized primarily in the vacuolar, cell wall, on the plasmamembrane, beside lipid grains induced by copper pollution, in the chloroplasts and amyloids; but in the non-tolerant, copper precipitates only be observed on the plasmamembrane, in the chloroplasts and cytoplasm under copper exposure conditions that were toxic to both species. This revealed that the tolerant accumulates more copper in the vacuole and cell wall than the non-tolerant, where was regarded as the storage compartment of tolerant plant or hyperaccumulator for heavy metals.

  10. Strong genetic differentiation but not local adaptation toward the range limit of a coastal dune plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samis, Karen E; López-Villalobos, Adriana; Eckert, Christopher G

    2016-11-01

    All species have limited geographic distributions; but the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms causing range limits are largely unknown. That many species' geographic range limits are coincident with niche limits suggests limited evolutionary potential of marginal populations to adapt to conditions experienced beyond the range. We provide a test of range limit theory by combining population genetic analysis of microsatellite polymorphisms with a transplant experiment within, at the edge of, and 60 km beyond the northern range of a coastal dune plant. Contrary to expectations, lifetime fitness increased toward the range limit with highest fitness achieved by most populations at and beyond the range edge. Genetic differentiation among populations was strong, with very low, nondirectional gene flow suggesting range limitation via constraints to dispersal. In contrast, however, local adaptation was negligible, and a distance-dependent decline in fitness only occurred for those populations furthest from home when planted beyond the range limit. These results challenge a commonly held assumption that stable range limits match niche limits, but also raise questions about the unique value of peripheral populations in expanding species' geographical ranges.

  11. Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B L; Sarafis, V; Beattie, G A C; White, R; Darley, E M; Spooner-Hart, R

    2005-10-01

    Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and localization of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory experiment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and opposing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange [Citrus x aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae)] trees, oil penetrated steadily into treated leaves and, subsequently, moved to untreated petioles of the leaves and adjacent untreated stems. In another experiment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the penetration into, and the subsequent cellular distribution of, an nC24 agricultural mineral oil in C. trifoliata L. seedlings. Oil droplets penetrated or diffused into plants via both stomata and the cuticle of leaves and stems, and then moved within intercellular spaces and into various cells including phloem and xylem. Oil accumulated in droplets in intercellular spaces and within cells near the cell membrane. Oil entered cells without visibly damaging membranes or causing cell death. In a field experiment with mature orange trees, droplets of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil were observed, by fluorescence microscopy, in phloem sieve elements in spring flush growth produced 4-5 months and 16-17 months after the trees were sprayed with oil. These results suggest that movement of mineral oil in plants is both apoplastic via intercellular spaces and symplastic via plasmodesmata. The putative pattern of the translocation of mineral oil in plants and its relevance to oil-induced chronic phytotoxicity are discussed.

  12. Insulating wool production plant of reduced environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, A.

    1990-11-09

    A plant for producing insulating wool, such as glass wool and/or rock wool, comprises at least one forming machine, at least one polymerization oven, and first and second air treatment means. The total air load of the forming machine and the total air load of the polymerization oven are fed to the first air treament means, from the buffer vessel of which a recycle air load is drawn off. Both the forming machine and the polymerization oven introduce infiltration air loads, which result in the need for a bleed air load to be discharged into the atmosphere through the second air treatment means. In addition, in plants of sufficiently high capacity, it is economically attractive to feed the total air load of the forming machine and polymerization oven separately to the first air treatment means so that the temperature of the forming machine air load undergoes temperature control while the oven air load not only retains its entire heat content, but if possible increases it by heat exchange with other points of the plant at higher temperature. For example, it is possible to increase the temperature of the oven air load with heat recovery downstream of the incinerator furnace so as to recycle it to the oven and reduce or eliminate fuel consumption there. An example of the air load and energy savings possible at a typical plant is included. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The identity of belowground herbivores, not herbivore diversity, mediates impacts on plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Ivan; Esser, Aaron D.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Crowder, David W.

    2016-12-01

    Across many ecosystems, increases in species biodiversity generally results in greater resource acquisition by consumers. Few studies examining the impacts of consumer diversity on resource capture have focused on terrestrial herbivores, however, especially taxa that feed belowground. Here we conducted field mesocosm experiments to examine the effects of variation in species richness and composition within a community of wireworm herbivores on wheat plant productivity. Our experiments involved wireworm communities consisting of between one and three species, with all possible combinations of species represented. We found that the presence of wireworms reduced plant biomass and seed viability, but wireworm species richness did not impact these plant metrics. Species identity effects were strong, as two species, Limonius californicus and Selatosomus pruininus, had significantly stronger impacts on plants compared to L. infuscatus. Communities with either of the two most impactful species consistently had the greatest impact on wheat plants. The effects of wireworms were thus strongly dependent on the particular species present rather than the overall diversity of the wireworm community. More broadly, our study supports the general finding that the identity of particular consumer species within communities often has greater impacts on ecosystem functioning than species richness.

  14. Assessment of local management practices on the population ecology of some medicinal plants in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Elyemeni, Mohammad; Khan, Abdur Rehman; Sabir, Amjad

    2011-04-01

    A study on the assessment of local management practices on the population of three medicinal plants viz.: Persicaria amplexicaule. D. Don., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted during 2002-2004 in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to know the impact of current management practices on the population size of targeted plants. The study showed that the involvement of locals in the gathering of targeted plants varied with the change in elevation. Among the targeted plants V. serpens was collected by large majorities of people (83.3%) at 2700 m followed by 72% at 2300 m and 37% at 1900 m. V. jatamansi was harvested by a small number of people (18.1%) at 1900 and 2300 m each, followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. While P. amplexicaule was harvested by a few collectors (9.1%) at 1900 m and 9.6% at 2300 m followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. The study concluded that these species have been extracted so heavily in the past that they are found now sparsely in some sites of the study area. Secondly, due to loss of its habitat by deforestation and encroachment of land for cultivation its population is on the decline towards extinction. Therefore, the current study recommends the conservation of the remaining populations of targeted plants through active participation of local communities.

  15. Impact of Local Item Dependence on True-Score Equating. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.

    This study investigated the practical effects of local item dependence (LID) on item response theory (IRT) true-score equating. A scenario was defined that emulated the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) preequating model, and data were generated to assess the impact of different degrees of LID on final equating outcomes. An extreme amount of LID…

  16. The Economic Impact of a Technical College on Its Local Economy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, L. Rayburn; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper examines the economic impact of Walker Technical Institute (WTI) in Georgia on its local economy. In 1994, the annual report by Georgia's Department of Technical and Adult Education found a 77% increase from 1985 in the number of students participating in classes. State financial support for the Department of Technical and Adult…

  17. The financial impact of hospitals on the local economy--2 new factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This research effort presents a descriptive analysis of the financial impact that several hospitals have on their local economy. An earlier study published by the authors included 3 distinct, yet overlapping components of financial impact: (1) the hospital system as a major health care provider, (2) the hospital system as a large employer, and (3) the hospital system as an entity whose employees contribute greatly to their local community. This new study added additional financial impact factors: (4) the hospital system as an organization committed to major construction projects in pursuit of its health services mission, and (5) the hospital system as an entity that pays taxes to government agencies. The inextricable relationship of these 5 categories both increases and enhances the impact of the hospital system on the local region. The results of this updated and expanded analysis suggest strongly that the hospital system represents 1 of the primary contributors to the economy of the region. The hospital system adds $3 billion to the $28 billion local economy, which means that the hospital system and its employees are responsible for 10.7% of the total economic prowess of the region.

  18. The Importance of Biotic vs. Abiotic Drivers of Local Plant Community Composition Along Regional Bioclimatic Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Klanderud

    Full Text Available We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.

  19. The Importance of Biotic vs. Abiotic Drivers of Local Plant Community Composition Along Regional Bioclimatic Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanderud, Kari; Vandvik, Vigdis; Goldberg, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.

  20. Study on the Similarity Laws for Local Damage Effects in a Concrete Target under the Impact of Projectiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Mingyang; Liu, Zheng; Qiu, Yanyu; Shi, Cuncheng

    2015-01-01

      The local destruction and deformation characteristics of a concrete target impacted by a rigid projectile were analyzed, and the similarity laws for local damage effects in the concrete target were...

  1. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2017-09-06

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm(-2). Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm(-2)) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  2. Predicting habitat suitability for rare plants at local spatial scales using a species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol-Prokurat, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    If species distribution models (SDMs) can rank habitat suitability at a local scale, they may be a valuable conservation planning tool for rare, patchily distributed species. This study assessed the ability of Maxent, an SDM reported to be appropriate for modeling rare species, to rank habitat suitability at a local scale for four edaphic endemic rare plants of gabbroic soils in El Dorado County, California, and examined the effects of grain size, spatial extent, and fine-grain environmental predictors on local-scale model accuracy. Models were developed using species occurrence data mapped on public lands and were evaluated using an independent data set of presence and absence locations on surrounding lands, mimicking a typical conservation-planning scenario that prioritizes potential habitat on unsurveyed lands surrounding known occurrences. Maxent produced models that were successful at discriminating between suitable and unsuitable habitat at the local scale for all four species, and predicted habitat suitability values were proportional to likelihood of occurrence or population abundance for three of four species. Unfortunately, models with the best discrimination (i.e., AUC) were not always the most useful for ranking habitat suitability. The use of independent test data showed metrics that were valuable for evaluating which variables and model choices (e.g., grain, extent) to use in guiding habitat prioritization for conservation of these species. A goodness-of-fit test was used to determine whether habitat suitability values ranked habitat suitability on a continuous scale. If they did not, a minimum acceptable error predicted area criterion was used to determine the threshold for classifying habitat as suitable or unsuitable. I found a trade-off between model extent and the use of fine-grain environmental variables: goodness of fit was improved at larger extents, and fine-grain environmental variables improved local-scale accuracy, but fine-grain variables

  3. Impacts of invasive plants on resident animals across ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types: a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Bundschuh, Mirco; Entling, Martin H; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    As drivers of global change, biological invasions have fundamental ecological consequences. However, it remains unclear how invasive plant effects on resident animals vary across ecosystems, animal classes, and functional groups. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis covering 198 field and laboratory studies reporting a total of 3624 observations of invasive plant effects on animals. Invasive plants had reducing (56%) or neutral (44%) effects on animal abundance, diversity, fitness, and ecosystem function across different ecosystems, animal classes, and feeding types while we could not find any increasing effect. Most importantly, we found that invasive plants reduced overall animal abundance, diversity and fitness. However, this significant overall effect was contingent on ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types of animals. Decreasing effects of invasive plants were most evident in riparian ecosystems, possibly because frequent disturbance facilitates more intense plant invasions compared to other ecosystem types. In accordance with their immediate reliance on plants for food, invasive plant effects were strongest on herbivores. Regarding taxonomic groups, birds and insects were most strongly affected. In insects, this may be explained by their high frequency of herbivory, while birds demonstrate that invasive plant effects can also cascade up to secondary consumers. Since data on impacts of invasive plants are rather limited for many animal groups in most ecosystems, we argue for overcoming gaps in knowledge and for a more differentiated discussion on effects of invasive plant on native fauna. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Globalization impacts on local commons: multiscale strategies for socioeconomic and ecological resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy O. Randhir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization can have substantial impact on local commons byreducing sustainability of ecosystems and their vital services. Without effectivelocal institutions, these resources are at high risk of exploitation, especially tofeed global markets. This study proposes a multiscale ecosystem framework(MEF that incorporates information on ecosystem components, socioeconomicprocesses, and their interactions. This includes inter and intra commoninteractions and multi-scale processes to evaluate inter and intra scale changesin socioeconomic and ecological processes of commons. Local participationand multi-disciplinary information are critical in achieving sustainability. Usinga global dataset of selected indicators, a general decline is observable in localcommons that face globalization. The need for increasing resilience of commonsthrough multi-scale adaptation strategies can inform decisions at the national,state and local levels. Increased resilience through ecosystem-based approach canminimize impacts of globalization using information on multiattribute processes,equity considerations, development of robust institutions, and effective strategiesfor adaptation.

  5. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  6. Influence of biological aerosol from wastewater treatment plants on workers and the local residents health – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Michalak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosol forms microbes, their toxins and fragments of microorganisms suspended as small droplets or solid particles. The group particularly exposed are workers of sewage treatment plants and local residents. Literature reports stress the role of the fecal bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and yeasts, which create a real risk of air pollution near the waste water treatment plants Emission of pathogenic microbes prevails in the neighbourhood of of sedimentation tanks, sludge drying beds. Research shows that the extent of bioaerosol influence reaches the distance of 3 km away from any waster water treatment plant.. The most frequent symptoms reported by workers from waste water treatment plants and local residents are respiratory disorders. There are also gastrointestinal and skin problems and general disorders, that can be explained by exposure to endotoxins in bioaerosol.

  7. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  8. Four-trophic level food webs reveal the cascading impacts of an invasive plant targeted for biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Núñez, Francisco A; Heleno, Ruben H; Ribeiro, Sérgio; Marchante, Hélia; Marchante, Elizabete

    2017-03-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity and as such understanding their impacts is a research priority. Ecological networks provide a valuable tool to explore such impacts at the community level, and can be particularly insightful for planning and monitoring biocontrol programmes, including the potential for their seldom evaluated indirect non-target effects. Acacia longifolia is among the worst invasive species in Portugal, and has been recently targeted for biocontrol by a highly specific gall-wasp. Here we use an ambitious replicated network approach to: (1) identify the mechanisms by which direct and indirect impacts of A. longifolia can cascade from plants to higher trophic levels, including gallers, their parasitoids and inquilines; (2) reveal the structure of the interaction networks between plants, gallers, parasitoids and inquilines before the biocontrol; and (3) explore the potential for indirect interactions among gallers, including those established with the biocontrol agent, via apparent competition. Over a 15-month period, we collected 31,737 galls from native plants and identified all emerging insects, quantifying the interactions between 219 plant-, 49 galler-, 65 parasitoid- and 87 inquiline-species-one of the largest ecological networks to date. No galls were found on any of the 16 alien plant species. Invasion by A. longifolia caused an alarming simplification of plant communities, with cascading effects to higher trophic levels, namely: a decline of overall gall biomass, and on the richness, abundance and biomass of galler insects, their parasitoids, and inquilines. Correspondingly, we detected a significant decline in the richness of interactions between plants and galls. The invasion tended to increase overall interaction evenness by promoting the local extinction of the native plants that sustained more gall species. However, highly idiosyncratic responses hindered the detection of further consistent changes in network

  9. ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE AMBIGUITY ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT INTERNAL AUDITORS: THE DETERMINANT AND IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Novriansa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bureaucratic reform at the local government level in Indonesia that was instituted in 2012 has turned local government internal auditors into an important part of government governance systems. The role of local government internal auditors has been expanded to include not only the area of audit oversight, but also the areas of anti-corruption-related and consulting activities. These fundamental changes may potentially induce role conflict and role ambiguity among internal auditors. The objective of this study is to examine empirically the determinants and consequences of role conflict and role ambiguity among local government internal auditors. More specifically, this study attempts to examine the extent to which formalization determines role conflict and role ambiguity; it further tests the impact of role conflict and role ambiguity on commitment to independence and job performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 248 local government internal auditors from 12 Regional Inspectorates in the provinces of Yogyakarta, South Sumatra, and East Java. A total of 176 responses were received, and 124 useable responses from the 176 responses were analysed to test the hypotheses. Using Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square the results show that: formalization is negatively related to role conflict and role ambiguity; role ambiguity has a negative impact on commitment to independence; role conflict has a positive impact on job performance; and role ambiguity has a negative impact on job performance. These findings serve as important external validity evidence on the phenomena associated with role conflict and role ambiguity that occur in the public sector, especially among internal auditors at local government institutions.

  10. Monitoring potential ecological impacts of a utility-scale photovoltaic panel facility on a creosote-bursage plant community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.; Devitt, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    High energy demands and greater financial viability have propelled recent growth in the solar energy market. Southern Nevada is poised to become a major contributor of green energy through the commissioning of public and private lands for solar development, but there exists a pressing need to better understand the ecological consequences of these facilities as documentation of the impacts of large-scale solar operations on surrounding environments is severely lacking. The Copper Mountain 2 (CM2) solar facility in Eldorado Valley, Nevada, USA utilizes nearly 1.8 square kilometers of photovoltaic panels to generate enough energy to power about 50,000 homes and is situated within a predominately creosote (Larrea tridentata) and white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) habitat. Currently, the potential impacts on the local environment related to this massive development are being studied from two perspectives: microclimate effects and alteration of surface hydrology. A series of meteorological towers and ibuttons are being used to monitor microclimate changes in the area of CM2 and the adjacent natural habitat as localized climate within the facility may be altering growing conditions in nearby desert plant communities. Because the placement of CM2 represents a major obstacle to established surface water flow, a transect of soil moisture probe access tubes have been placed in association with creosote plants along a downslope gradient from the facility to observe changes to soil water storage. Individual creosote and bursage plant physiologies are also being monitored to study any potential increase in plant stress influenced by the CM2 solar facility. Most measurements have been ongoing for at least one year. Greater details on the research infrastructure will be presented along with the latest observational data.

  11. Big impacts by small RNAs in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck, George; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah

    2009-02-01

    The identification and study of small RNAs, including microRNAs and trans-acting small interfering RNAs, have added a layer of complexity to the many pathways that regulate plant development. These molecules, which function as negative regulators of gene expression, are now known to have greatly expanded roles in a variety of developmental processes affecting all major plant structures, including meristems, leaves, roots, and inflorescences. Mutants with specific developmental phenotypes have also advanced our knowledge of the biogenesis and mode of action of these diverse small RNAs. In addition, previous models on the cell autonomy of microRNAs may have to be revised as more data accumulate supporting their long distance transport. As many of these small RNAs appear to be conserved across different species, knowledge gained from one species is expected to have general application. However, a few surprising differences in small RNA function seem to exist between monocots and dicots regarding meristem initiation and sex determination. Integrating these unique functions into the overall scheme for plant growth will give a more complete picture of how they have evolved as unique developmental systems.

  12. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  13. Environmental impacts of large-scale CSP plants in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyong; Hou, Anping; Chang, Chun; Huang, Xiang; Shi, Duoqi; Wang, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Several concentrated solar power demonstration plants are being constructed, and a few commercial plants have been announced in northwestern China. However, the mutual impacts between the concentrated solar power plants and their surrounding environments have not yet been addressed comprehensively in literature by the parties involved in these projects. In China, these projects are especially important as an increasing amount of low carbon electricity needs to be generated in order to maintain the current economic growth while simultaneously lessening pollution. In this study, the authors assess the potential environmental impacts of large-scale concentrated solar power plants. Specifically, the water use intensity, soil erosion and soil temperature are quantitatively examined. It was found that some of the impacts are favorable, while some impacts are negative in relation to traditional power generation techniques and some need further research before they can be reasonably appraised. In quantitative terms, concentrated solar power plants consume about 4000 L MW(-1) h(-1) of water if wet cooling technology is used, and the collectors lead to the soil temperature changes of between 0.5 and 4 °C; however, it was found that the soil erosion is dramatically alleviated. The results of this study are helpful to decision-makers in concentrated solar power site selection and regional planning. Some conclusions of this study are also valid for large-scale photovoltaic plants.

  14. Exploring local perceptions and attributions of 'extreme' wildfire impacts in Rural Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M.; Paveglio, T.; Kallman, D.

    2013-12-01

    To date there have been few systematic efforts to uncover the criteria that local stakeholders use to perceive of and make judgments about the severity of wildfire impacts to the social-ecological systems they are a part of. The study presented here sought to uncover expanded understandings of perceived social and ecological impacts from a wildfire in rural Montana and the underlying causes for those perceived impacts. Such efforts could lead to more comprehensive social impact assessment concerning wildfires or other hazards and help better understand how local perceptions might influence residents' ongoing attitudes toward fire risk or mitigation efforts. The study presented here explored local perceptions of impact from the 2012 Dahl fire near Roundup, MT. The Dahl Fire burned 73 permanent structures, 150 outbuilding and 22,000 acres of predominantly private lands in the rural Bull Mountains. Members of the project team interviewed approximately 50 stakeholders impacted by or involved in the management for the Dahl Fire. Interviews took place in the summer of 2013 and included a variety of residents, emergency personnel, firefighters, local community officials and land management professionals. Results suggest that residents considered the Dahl fire especially impactful given the number of private residences and structures that were burned and the number of people displaced or disrupted by the event (either directly, through efforts to help those affected, or through indirect impacts to community function). The extremity of the firefighting conditions (e.g. wind, relative humidity, terrain), the rapidity of fire spread through populated areas and the damages sustained given previous fires in the area all surprised stakeholders and contributed to their perceptions of impact severity. Conflicts over access to properties during and immediately following the fire, and the variable perception that personal wildfire mitigations did little to reduce damages from the

  15. What are the Historical and Future Impacts of Temperature Variability on Thermoelectric Power Plant Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C.; Pratson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Current literature hypothesize that climate change-driven temperature increases will negatively affect the power production capacity of thermoelectric power plants, which currently produce ~88% of electricity used in the United States. This impact can occur through 1) warm cooling water that reduces the quantity of heat removed from the once-through (open-loop) steam system, 2) increased air temperature and/or humidity that decrease the amount of heat absorption in cooling towers/ponds of wet-recirculating (closed-loop) plants, and 3) environmental protection regulations that impose restrictions on both cooling water withdrawal volume and temperature of discharge. However, despite the widespread consensus that temperature and power generation are negatively related, different models yield a range of results and the magnitude of effects is uncertain. In this study, we test current literature's model predictions using historical data by assembling and analyzing a database of relevant parameters from distinct sources. We examine how daily and seasonal changes in cooling water, ambient air, and wet bulb temperatures have historically impacted coal and natural gas power plants in the U.S., focusing on 39 plants over a period up to 14 years. This allows us to assess how future changes in temperatures may affect generation. Our results suggest that water and ambient air temperatures have a lower impact on thermoelectric plant performance than previously predicted. Moreover, we find that recirculating power plants are more resilient to temperature variability than are once-through plants.

  16. Aesthetic impact assessment of solar power plants. An objective and a subjective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Sibille, Ana del Carmen; Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Artacho Ramirez, Miguel Angel [Dpto. Proyectos de Ingenieria, Valencia University of Technology, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Solar energy for the production of electric energy is one source of renewable energy which is experiencing most development in recent years. In countries with high solar radiation indices, as is the case of Spain, expectations of installation of large solar power plants are increasing. Most solar power plants are located in rural environments, where the landscape has remained practically unaltered ever since extensive agriculture was introduced. Because of this, one of the most significant environmental impacts of this type of installation is the visual impact derived from the alteration of the landscape. In this work, an indicator is proposed for the quantification of the objective aesthetic impact, based on four criteria: visibility, colour, fractality and concurrence between fixed and mobile panels. The relative importance of each variable and the corresponding value functions are calculated using expert contribution. A study of the subjective aesthetic impact is then carried out using the semantic differential method, to obtain the perception of a sample of individuals of the initial landscapes and of the landscapes altered through the installation of a solar power plant. The indicator and the study of public perception are applied to five real solar power plants, to test their reliability. Subsequently, a different group of individuals is used to determine preferences between the five solar power plants. The study proves that the combined use of objective indicator and subjective study, faithfully explains user preferences corresponding to the combined comparisons of the five cases. It is concluded that the tools proposed for the evaluation of the aesthetic impact of solar power plants are useful for the selection of optimal plant location and most adequate use of panel technology, to minimise aesthetic impact. (author)

  17. Regional diversity reverses the negative impacts of an alien predator on local species-poor communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Charlie J G; Vinebrooke, Rolf D

    2016-10-01

    Species diversity is often an implicit source of biological insurance for communities against the impacts of novel perturbations, such as the introduction of an invasive species. High environmental heterogeneity (e.g., a mountainous gradient) is expected to beget greater regional species diversity and variation in functional traits related to environmental tolerances. Thus, heterogeneous metacommunities are expected to provide more tolerant colonists that buffer stressed local communities in the absence of dispersal limitation. We tested the hypothesis that importation of a regional zooplankton pool assembled from a diverse array of lakes and ponds lessens the impacts of a novel predator on local species-poor alpine communities by increasing response diversity (i.e., diversity of tolerances to environmental change) as mediated by variation in functional traits related to predator evasion. We also tested whether impacts varied with temperature, as warming may modify (e.g., dampen or amplify) invasion effects. An eight-week factorial experiment ([fishless vs. introduced Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)] × [ambient temperature vs. heated] × [local vs. local + regional species pool]) was conducted using 32 1,000-L mesocosms. Associations between experimental treatments and species functional traits were tested by R-mode linked to Q-mode (RLQ) and fourth-corner analyses. Although the introduced predator suppressed local species richness and community biomass, colonization by several montane zooplankters reversed these negative effects, resulting in increased species diversity and production. Invasion resistance was unaffected by higher temperatures, which failed to elicit any significance impacts on the community. We discovered that the smaller body sizes of imported species drove functional overcompensation (i.e., increased production) in invaded communities. The observed ecological surprise showed how regionally sourced biodiversity from a highly

  18. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStrasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asparagine (N-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of beta1,2-xylose, core alpha1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signalling events. By contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology.

  19. Climate change at the coast: from global to local; Impact du changement climatique sur la cote: de global a local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkinson, A.R. [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom); East Anglia Univ., School of East Science, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The IPCC has recently documented substantial changes in the global heat content of the oceans, salinity, sea level, thermal expansion and biogeochemistry. Over the 21. century anticipated climate related changes include: a rise in sea level of up to 0.6 m or more; increases in sea surface temperatures up to 3 deg. C; an intensification of tropical and extra tropical cyclones; larger extreme waves and storm surges; altered precipitation/ run-off; and ocean acidification. The Tyndall Centre has been exploring how to down-scale the global analysis to the local level within the framework of a coastal simulator. The simulator provides information on possible future states of the coast through the 21. Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links models within a nested framework, recognizing three scales: (1) global, (2) regional, and (3) local. The linked models describe a range of processes, including marine climate (waves, surges and mean sea level), sand bank morpho-dynamics, wave transformation, shoreline morpho-dynamics, built environment scenarios, ecosystem change, and erosion and flood risk. Analyses from the simulator reinforce conclusions from IPCC WG2: coasts will be exposed to increasing risks over coming decades due to many compounding climate-change factors; the impact of climate change on coasts will be exacerbated by increasing human induced pressures; the unavoidability of sea-level rise even in the longer-term frequently conflicts with present day human development patterns and trends. (author)

  20. Research of Mechanism on the Impact of Local Governmental Competition on Farmland Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of local governmental competition, the impact of local governmental competition on farmland conversion is analyzed in terms of political competition, factors competition and products competition, and the empirical analysis is conducted according to the provincial data from 2002 to 2007. The results show that the endowment of land resources correlates negatively with the scale of farmland conversion, and the population, the tendency of exceeding capital investment and the competition of research and development input correlate positively with the scale of farmland conversion. According to these research results, corresponding policies and countermeasures are put forward: we should overhaul the system of performance evaluation of local governmental officials; we should normalize the local governmental competitive behavior.

  1. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  2. Protein ligand-tethered synthetic calcium indicator for localization control and spatiotemporal calcium imaging in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Yousuke; Shigenaga, Miyuki; Imai, Masaki; Nukadzuka, Yuuki; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Saito, Kei; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    In plant biology, calcium ions are involved in a variety of intriguing biological phenomena as a secondary messenger. However, most conventional calcium indicators are not applicable for plant cells because of the difficulty with their localization control in plant cells. We here introduce a method to monitor spatiotemporal Ca(2+) dynamics in living plant cells based on linking the synthetic calcium indicator Calcium Green-1 to a natural product-based protein ligand. In a proof-of-concept study using cultured BY-2 cells overexpressing the target protein for the ligand, the ligand-tethered probe accumulated in the cytosol and nucleus, and enabled real-time monitoring of the cytosolic and nucleus Ca(2+) dynamics under the physiological condition. The present strategy using ligand-tethered fluorescent sensors may be successfully applied to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium ions in living plant cells.

  3. Impact of plant development on the rhizobacterial population of Arachis hypogaea: a multifactorial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-07-01

    Present study investigates the impact of plant development on the structure and composition of root-associated bacterial community of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plant, an economically important oilseed legume. Relative abundance of total and active bacteria were studied in bulk soil and rhizosphere samples collected from different growth stages of groundnut plant by sequencing PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from soil genomic DNA and reverse-transcribed soil community RNA. Plant growth promoting potential of cultivable rhizobacteria was evaluated using assays for inorganic phosphate solubilization and production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, biofilm, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, laccase, and anti-fungal chemicals. Our study demonstrates that groundnut plant rhizosphere harbors a core microbiome populated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria. A distinct bacterial assemblage at nodulation stage due to predominance of Flavobacteria and Actinobacteria in DNA and RNA derived libraries respectively was also observed. Majority of cultivable isolates exhibiting plant growth promoting activities belonged to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Of them, Pseudomonas indica and Bacillus megaterium were detected in the rhizosphere samples from all the developmental stages of groundnut plant. This polyphasic study establishes the impact of plant development on rhizobacterial population of groundnut and underscores the applicability of soil isolates as a reliable component in sustainable agriculture.

  4. Geothermal power plants principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    DiPippo, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 3e, this single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation using fundamental scientific and engineering principles. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader's understanding of geothermal energy conversion and provide a unique compilation of hard-to-obtain data and experience. Important new chapters cover Hot Dry Rock, Enhanced Geothermal Systems, and Deep Hydrothermal Systems. New, international case studies provide practical, hands-on knowledge.

  5. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, H N; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A; Smith, J A C; Preston, G M

    2016-05-11

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant-pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Modelling the Health Impact of an English Sugary Drinks Duty at National and Local Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Collins

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence associates excess refined sugar intakes with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Worryingly, the estimated volume of sugary drinks purchased in the UK has more than doubled between 1975 and 2007, from 510 ml to 1140 ml per person per week. We aimed to estimate the potential impact of a duty on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs at a local level in England, hypothesising that a duty could reduce obesity and related diseases.We modelled the potential impact of a 20% sugary drinks duty on local authorities in England between 2010 and 2030. We synthesised data obtained from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, drinks manufacturers, Office for National Statistics, and from previous studies. This produced a modelled population of 41 million adults in 326 lower tier local authorities in England. This analysis suggests that a 20% SSB duty could result in approximately 2,400 fewer diabetes cases, 1,700 fewer stroke and coronary heart disease cases, 400 fewer cancer cases, and gain some 41,000 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs per year across England. The duty might have the biggest impact in urban areas with young populations.This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting health benefits for a duty on sugary drinks. It might also usefully provide results at an area level to inform local price interventions in England.

  7. Assessing Regional Climate and Local Landcover Impacts on Vegetation with Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Brunsell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Landcover change alters not only the surface landscape but also regional carbon and water cycling. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impacts of landcover change across the Kansas River Basin (KRB by comparing local microclimatic impacts and regional scale climate influences. This was done using a 25-year time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and precipitation (PPT data analyzed using multi-resolution information theory metrics. Results showed both entropy of PPT and NDVI varied along a pronounced PPT gradient. The scalewise relative entropy of NDVI was the most informative at the annual scale, while for PPT the scalewise relative entropy varied temporally and by landcover type. The relative entropy of NDVI and PPT as a function of landcover showed the most information at the 512-day scale for all landcover types, implying different landcover types had the same response across the entire KRB. This implies that land use decisions may dramatically alter the local time scales of responses to global climate change. Additionally, altering land cover (e.g., for biofuel production may impact ecosystem functioning at local to regional scales and these impacts must be considered for accurately assessing future implications of climate change.

  8. Exploring the impacts of protected area tourism on local communities using a resilience approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Strickland-Munro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community members. Guided by a conceptual framework grounded in resilience thinking, interactions amongst the parks, tourism and local communities were revealed as complex, contested and multi-scalar. Underlying drivers included cultural norms and values based on nature, entrenched poverty, poor Western education and economic opportunities associated with tourism. Park tourism offered intrinsic opportunities and benefits from nature conservation and associated intangible cultural values. More tangible benefits arose through employment. Damage-causing animals and visitation difficulties were negative impacts. Interaction with tourists was limited, with a sense of disconnect evident. Findings indicated the need for multifaceted, carefully considered policy responses if social equity and benefits for local communities are to be achieved. Framing the impacts of protected area tourism through the resilience framework provided a useful way to access local community perceptions whilst retaining awareness of the broader multi-scalar context in which interactions occur. Conservation implications: Perceptions of separation and lack of education to engage in economic opportunities are major issues. Intrinsic appreciation of parks is an important platform for building future opportunities. Accrual of future benefits for local communities from park tourism depends on developing diverse economic opportunities, building community capacity and managing expectations and addressing

  9. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose....... By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant...... pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial...

  10. Attitudes of Local Population of Tourism Impacts on Destination Sustainability – Case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidora Marković

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Space as a resource is intensively used both by the tourism and the local community. Therefore the state of the tourism development must be measured trough time, along with attitudes of local population, to determine the impacts and the pressure that can continues tourism development cause. In the 1990s, tourism becomes the motor of the development of Croatia, which has resulted in continues increase of the number of tourist beds. On the other hand population of the Croatia is experiencing the demographic extinction. To explain pressures of the tourism development on the decreasing community, tourism function index was used in comparison with the research of the attitudes of local population considering tourism impacts. The main objective of this paper is to determine the correlation between the increase in the number of tourists and changes in the life of local population, which arises from the tourism activities in destinations, as well as from the ratio of the number of residents and tourists. The attitudes analysis has shown high level of the negative impacts of tourism in seven Adriatic counties, while in continental parts of Croatia tourism is seen as an activity with mostly positive effects. Still tourism has generally positive impact on the destination and is seen as desirable activity, even in areas with relatively high tourism function index. Accordingly, to enhance the positive impacts it is essential to diminish extremely big differences in tourism development between too developed coastal areas and mainly neglected continental part of the country and to reduce seasonality of tourism, trough sustainable management and diversification of tourism offer in accordance with spatial disparities.

  11. Water Quality Impacts of Pure Chlorine Dioxide Pretreatment at the Roanoke County (Virginia) Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenberger, Christine Spada

    1999-01-01

    WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF PURE CHLORINE DIOXIDE PRETREATMENT AT THE ROANOKE COUNTY (VIRGINIA) WATER TREATMENT PLANT by Christine S. Ellenberger Dr. Robert C. Hoehn, Chairman (ABSTRACT) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was included in the Spring Hollow Water Treatment Plant (Roanoke County, Virginia) to oxidize manganese and iron, prevent tastes and odors, and avoid the formation of excessive halogenated disinfection by-products. A state-of-the-art, gas:solid ClO2 generation system ...

  12. Plant extracts applications to the vineyard and their impact on wine aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Gil, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    It is known that certain foliar applications to the grapevine or volatile compounds present in the environment, where grapes are grown, may modify the wine aroma. The fact that the vineyards assimilate volatile compounds and transmit them to its grapes and respective wines supposes an innovative research, which might have a huge impact on the wine sector when seeking the differentiation. There are plant extracts from the oak or aromatic plants (hydrolats) that have volatile compounds in their...

  13. The assessment of health impacts and external costs of natural gas-fired power plant of Qom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Fard, Reza; Naddafi, Kazem; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-10-01

    The external health damage costs of the combined cycle natural gas-fired power plant of Qom were investigated via the simplified impact pathway approach. Emitted particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous pollutants (NO x , CO, and SO2) from the power plant stack were measured The health effects and related costs were estimated by QUERI model from AirPacts according to the emissions, source and stack parameters, pollutant depletion velocities, exposure-response functions, local and regional population density, and detailed meteorological data. The results showed that the main health effect was assigned to the nitrate as restricted activity days (RAD) with 25,240 days/year. For all pollutants, the maximum health damage costs were related to the long-term mortality (49 %), restricted activity days (27 %), and chronic bronchitis (21 %). The annual health damage costs were approximately 4.76 million US$, with the cost being 0.096 US per kWh of generating electricity. Although the health damage costs of gas-fired power plant were lower than those of other heavy fuels, it seems essential to consider the health and environmental damages and focus on the emission control strategies, particularly in site selection for the new power plants and expanding the current ones.

  14. IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.

  15. Impact of a local host on the intercultural competence of expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Intercultural competence is an essential asset for those who live abroad or who work with people from different cultural backgrounds. This longitudinal study examines the impact of contact with a local host on five attitudinal and behavioural aspects of intercultural competence. Sixty-five Western...... buffered a decrease in both attitudinal (Open-mindedness) and behavioural (Social Initiative) aspects of intercultural competence; although, in the case of Open-mindedness, this decrease was only buffered for expatriates with a partner. No effect was found for Cultural Empathy, Flexibility or Emotional...... Stability. The article concludes by discussing the various merits of contact with a local host as compared with cross-cultural training....

  16. Global-Local Visual Processing Impacts Risk Taking Behaviours, but Only at First

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of early visual processing on decision-making during unpredictable, risky situations. Participants undertook Navon’s (1977 task and attended to either global letters or local letters only, following which they completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART. It was observed that global-focused individuals made more balloon pumps during the BART (i.e., took more risk, whereas local-focused individuals took less risk, albeit only initially. The theory of predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS provides an excellent account of the data. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  17. Exergo-Economic Fuel-Impact Analysis for Steam Turbines Sections in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Royo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper exergoeconomic fuel-impact models for steam turbines in power plants are proposed. They are applied to calculate the impact on the steam cycle when malfunctions are occurring during the operation of steam turbine sections. Concepts such as the exergetic consumption and the dissipation temperature are used to understand the proposed fuel-impact analysis. In order to validate these fuel-impact methods, well-known procedures, to simulate on- and off-design conditions of a steam power cycle, are used as references. Three different methods a ASME PTC-6, b existing fuel-impact formula, and c proposed exergoeconomic Fuel–Impact formulation, are compared with respect to the simulator results. The proposed models allow evaluating fuel-impact cost with more accurate results than conventional procedures. An example of a 158 MW conventional power plant is presented herein. The malfunction costs occurring in the steam turbines are inferred from the results. One perspective of this analysis is to establish an on-line monitoring system into power plants that permits to opportunely detect steam turbine malfunctions, without simulators.

  18. State and local fiscal impacts associated with nuclear energy centers: some initial considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1976-04-01

    The concept of the nuclear energy center is designed to consolidate a number of electrical power reactors and/or related fuel cycle activities on a single site. Such a siting strategy would concentrate a great deal of economic activity in one area and, as a consequence, generate significant impacts on state and local governments by increasing tax bases and public service demands and by altering intergovernmental fiscal relations. This study was designed to place rough empirical measures on relevant impact variables and to highlight areas for which a need for further research was indicated.

  19. Chromium Resistant Bacteria: Impact on Plant Growth in Soil Microcosm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayel Hanane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three chromium resistant bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens PF28, Enterobacter amnigenus EA31 and Enterococcus gallinarum S34 isolated from tannery waste contaminated soil were used in this study. All strains could resist a high concentration of K2Cr2O7 that is up to 300 mg/L. The effect of these strains on clover plants (Trifolium campestre in the presence of two chromium salts CrCl3 and K2Cr2O7 was studied in soil microcosm. Application of chromium salts adversely affected seed germination, root and shoot length. Bacterial inoculation improved the growth parameters under chromate stress when compared with non inoculated respective controls. There was observed more than 50% reduction of Cr(VI in inoculated soil microcosms, as compared to the uninoculated soil under the same conditions. The results obtained in this study are significant for the bioremediation of chromate pollution.

  20. No evidence for local adaptation in an invasive alien plant: field and greenhouse experiments tracing a colonization sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Anna T.; Kollmann, Johannes; Mayer, Andreas; Haider, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Local adaptation enables plant species to persist under different environmental conditions. Evolutionary change can occur rapidly in invasive annual species and has been shown to lead to local adaptation. However, the patterns and mechanisms of local adaptation in invasive species along colonization sequences are not yet understood. Thus, in this study the alien annual Impatiens glandulifera was used to investigate local adaptation to distinct habitats that have been consecutively invaded in central Europe. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment was performed using 15 populations from alluvial deciduous forests, fallow meadows and coniferous upland forests, and a greenhouse experiment was performed in which plants from these habitats were grown under treatments reflecting the main habitat differentiators (shade, soil acidity, competition). Key Results Biomass production, specific leaf area, plant height and relative growth rate differed between habitats in the field experiment and between treatments in the greenhouse, but not between seed origins. Overall, there was no indication of local adaptation in either experiment. Conclusions Since I. glandulifera is a successful invader in many habitats without showing local adaptation, it is suggested that the species is coping with environmental variation by means of high phenotypic plasticity. The species seems to follow a ‘jack-and-master’ strategy, i.e. it is able to maintain high fitness under a wide range of environmental conditions, but performs particularly well in favourable habitats. Therefore, the proposed colonization sequence is likely to be based primarily on changes in propagule pressure. It is concluded that invasive alien plants can become dominant in distinct habitats without local adaptation. PMID:24214934

  1. Uses of Local Plant Biodiversity among the Tribal Communities of Pangi Valley of District Chamba in Cold Desert Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pangi Valley is the interior most tribal area in Himachal Pradesh of Northwest Himalaya. An ethnobotanical investigation is attempted to highlight the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribes of Pangi Valley. Various localities visited in the valley 2-3 times in a year and ethnobotanical information was collected through interviews with elderly people, women, shepherds, and local vaids during May 2009 to September 2013. This paper documented 67 plant species from 59 genera and 36 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage, including the use of 35 plants with new ethnomedicinal and other use from the study area for the first time. Wild plants represent an important part of their medicinal, dietary, handicraft, fuel wood, veterinary, and fodder components. These tribal inhabitants and migrants depend on the wild plant resources for food, medicines, fuel, fibre, timber, and household articles for their livelihood security. The present study documents and contributes significant ethnobotanical information from the remote high altitude and difficult region of the world, which remains cut off from rest of the world for 6-7 months due to heavy snowfall.

  2. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and

  3. Soil to plant transfer of alpha activity in potato plants: impact of phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rishi Pal; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclides in the phosphate fertilizers belonging to (232)Th and (238)U and (40) K are the major contributors to the outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. These radionuclides are transferred from fertilizer to food through soil. Present work deals with the alpha activity in the different parts of the potato (Solanum Tuberosum) plants grown under controlled pots experiment using different amounts of phosphate fertilizers and urea. Alpha activities have been measured by track etch technique using the solid-state nuclear track detectors (LR-115). Translocation factor for the fruit (edible Part) varied from 0.13 (for DAP) to 0.73 (for PF) with an average of 0.40 ± 0.26 for the plant grown with 20 g of fertilizers. Translocation factors increased with the increase in amount of fertilizers having value 0.51 ± 0.31 for the plant grown with 50 g of fertilizers. The translocation factor for the lower and the upper part of leaves varied from 0.44 to 0.67 and 0.22 to 0.83 with an average value 0.55 ± 0.15 and 0.45 ± 0.23 respectively. The transfer factor (TF's) for the potato plants varied from 1.5 × 10(-2) to 1.03 × 10(-1) for root, from 1.3 × 10(-2) to 1.23 × 10(-1) for stem, from 2.1 × 10(-3) to 4.5 × 10(-2) for fruit and from 5.4 × 10(-3) to 5.8 × 10(-3) for lower part of the leaves after 105 days of the plantation. The results revealed that the alpha activity in the potato plants was higher in case of the plants grown with the use of phosphate fertilizers than with other fertilizers.

  4. An immunocytochemical procedure for protein localization in various nematode life stages combined with plant tissues using methylacrylate-embedded specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Paulo; Banora, Mohamed Youssef; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2012-10-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes possess a large number of proteins that are secreted in planta, allowing them to be successful parasites of plants. The majority of these proteins are synthesized mainly in the nematode subventral and dorsal glands as well as in other organs. To improve the immunovisualization of these proteins, we adapted a methacrylate embedding method for the localization of proteins inside nematode tissues, and extracellularly when secreted in planta or within plant cells. An important advantage is that the method is applicable for all nematode stages: preparasitic as well as parasitic stages, including large mature females. Herein, the method has been successfully applied for the localization of four nematode secreted proteins, such as Mi-MAP-1, Mi-CBM2-bearing proteins, Mi-PEL3, and Mi-6D4. In addition, we could also localize 14-3-3 proteins, as well as two cytoskeletal proteins, by double-immunolabeling on preparasitic juveniles. Superior preservation of nematode and plant morphology, allowed more accurate protein localization as compared with other methods. Besides excellent epitope preservation, dissolution of methacrylate from tissue sections unmasks target proteins and thereby drastically increases antibody access.

  5. The Increasing Impact of Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Plant Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kyoko; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-03-01

    The active proteome dictates plant physiology. Yet, active proteins are difficult to predict based on transcript or protein levels, because protein activities are regulated post-translationally in their microenvironments. Over the past 10 years, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is increasingly used in plant science. ABPP monitors the activities of hundreds of plant proteins using tagged chemical probes that react with the active site of proteins in a mechanism-dependent manner. Since labeling is covalent and irreversible, labeled proteins can be detected and identified on protein gels and by mass spectrometry using tagged fluorophores and/or biotin. Here, we discuss general concepts, approaches and practical considerations of ABPP, before we summarize the discoveries made using 40 validated probes representing 14 chemotypes that can monitor the active state of >4,500 plant proteins. These discoveries and new opportunities indicate that this emerging functional proteomic technology is a powerful discovery tool that will have an increasing impact on plant science.

  6. Disentangling facilitation along the life cycle: impacts of plant-plant interactions at vegetative and reproductive stages in a Mediterranean forb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. García-Cervigón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant-plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant-plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant-plant interactions.

  7. Disentangling Facilitation Along the Life Cycle: Impacts of Plant-Plant Interactions at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages in a Mediterranean Forb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cervigón, Ana I; Iriondo, José M; Linares, Juan C; Olano, José M

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant-plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels, and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant-plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower, and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant-plant interactions.

  8. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  9. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, H. N.; McCurrach, H.; Mithani, A.; Smith, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant–pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. PMID:27170725

  10. Down, Set, Hike: The Economic Impact of College Football Games on Local Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baade; Robert Baumann; Victor Matheson

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical examination of the economic impact of spectator sports on local economies. Confirming the results of other ex post analyses of sports in general, this paper finds no statistically significant evidence that college football games in particular contribute positively to a host’s economy. Our analysis from 1970-2004 of 63 metropolitan areas that play host to big-time college football programs finds that neither the number of home games played, the winning percenta...

  11. Impact of mask CDU and local CD variation on intra-field CDU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Junji; Mouraille, Orion; Finders, Jo; Higuchi, Masaru; Kojima, Yosuke; Sato, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    The control of critical dimension uniformity (CDU), especially intra-field CDU, is an important aspect for advanced lithography, and this property must be controlled very tightly since it affects all of the exposure fields. It is well known that the influence of the mask CDU on the wafer intra-field CDU is becoming dominant because the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) is quite high for low-k1 lithography. Additionally, the abovementioned factors impact the CDU through global (field-level) and local (grating-level) variations. In this paper, we analyze in detail CDU budgets by clarifying the impact of local CD variation. The 50-nm staggered hole features using Att-PSM showed a mask global CDU of 1.64 nm (3sigma at the mask level) and a wafer intra-field CDU of 2.30 nm, indicating that the mask global CDU was a major part of the intra-field CDU. By compensating for the contribution of the mask CD, the wafer intra-field CDU can be reduced to 0.986 nm. We analyzed the budgets of wafer intra-field CDU, which is caused by local CD variation (mask and process) and measurement noise. We determined that a primary cause of the wafer intra-field CDU after applying a mask CD correction was these local CD variations, which might disturb the proper use of dose correction for the mask CD. We demonstrated that the impact of mask local CD variation on the correction flow can be greatly reduced by averaging multiple point measurements within a small area, and therefore discuss the optimum conditions allowing for an accurate intra-field CDU determination. We also consider optimization of the CD sampling scheme in order to apply a dose correction on an exposure system to compensate for the mask CDU.

  12. Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    GHINI, R.; Hamada,E.; F. Angelotti; Costa,L.B.; BETTIOL, W.

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographi...

  13. Contrasts between whole-plant and local nutrient levels determine root growth and death in Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fengqin; Mou, Paul P; Weiner, Jacob; Li, Shuo

    2014-05-01

    • There is an ongoing debate about the importance of whole-plant control vs. local modular mechanisms for root growth. We conducted a split-root experiment with different patch/background levels of nitrogen to examine whether local root growth and death are controlled by local resource levels or at the whole-plant level.• Three microrhizotrons with 0, 10, and 100 µg N/g growth medium levels (74 g growth medium each) were attached to pots of high or low soil N in which one Ailanthus altissima individual was growing. One fine root was guided into each of the microrhizotrons and photographed every 4 d. Plants were harvested after 28 d; root growth and mortality in the microrhizotrons were recorded. Changes in root length, number of laterals, and interlateral length were determined from the photos and analyzed.• While overall plant growth was influenced by background N level, both patch and background N levels influenced root growth and mortality in patches. Local roots proliferated most when the patch N level was high and background level low, and they proliferated least and showed highest mortality when patch N was low and the background level high.• The fate of roots growing in a patch is influenced by the resource environment of the plant's other roots as well as the resource levels in the patch itself. Thus, the growth and death of roots in patches is determined by both modular and whole-plant mechanisms. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Ubiquitin chain topology and its impact on plant cell signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Kirsten Walsh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin is a peptide modifier able to form polymers of varying length and linkage as part of a powerful signalling system. Perhaps the best-known aspect of this protein’s function is as the driver of targeted protein degradation through the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS. Through the formation of lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chains, it is able to direct the degradation of tagged proteins by the 26S proteasome, indirectly controlling many processes within the cell. However, recent research has indicated that ubiquitin performs a multitude of other roles within the cell beyond protein degradation. It is able to form 6 other ‘atypical’ linkages though lysine residues at positions 6, 11, 27, 29, 33 and 63. These atypical chains perform a range of diverse functions, including the regulation of iron uptake in response to perceived deficiency, repair of double stranded breaks in the DNA, and regulation of the auxin response through the non-proteasomal degradation of auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1. This review explores the role ubiquitin chain topology plays in plant cellular function. We aim to highlight the importance of these varying functions and the future challenges to be encountered within this field.

  15. Better prepared but spread too thin: the impact of emergency preparedness funding on local public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Justeen; Kim, Basil; Martinez, Linda Sprague; Clark, Mary; Hacker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Local public health authorities (LPHAs) are recognized as playing critical roles in response to biological, chemical, and other health emergencies. An influx of emergency preparedness funding has created new and expanding responsibilities for LPHAs. Concern that funding for emergency response is diverting attention and resources away from other core public health responsibilities is increasing. In order to determine the impact of emergency preparedness funding on public health infrastructure, qualitative interviews with 27 LPHAs in the metro-Boston area were conducted as part of an on-going evaluation of preparedness planning in Massachusetts. Feedback on the benefits and challenges of recent emergency preparedness planning mandates was obtained. Benefits include opportunities to develop relationships within and across public health departments and increases in communication between local and state authorities. Challenges include budget constraints, staffing shortages, and competing public responsibilities. Policy recommendations for improving planning for emergency response at the local level are provided.

  16. A local freshwater impact – proposing a groundwater indicator AGWaRe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Ryle Nørskov; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rasmussen, Jens

    Currently there are several world maps showing the water stress in regions or nations. They give a good indication of water stress on a larger scale, but do not have information on a local scale that may assist a water utility in their prioritization of well fields to lower the overall pressure...... on the water resource. Furthermore a local water stress indicator is necessary for benchmarking regional water supplies against each other. AWaRe is the freshwater impact recommended by the Lifecycle Initiative (developed by WULCA). It is defined as the inverse function of Availability Minus Demand (AMD) which...... is compared to the world average AMD. The AMD represents the water remaining after human consumption and environmental requirements. This is done for a grid of 50x50km worldwide, but it does not give sufficient information on a local scale. Therefore we modified the AWaRe indicator so that it can account...

  17. Assessing the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability: Towards a theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Rio, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Alcala, Pza. de la Victoria 3, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development (SD) of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, the existing literature has put much emphasis on the environmental benefits (including the reduction of global and local pollutants), while socioeconomic impacts have not received a comparable attention. These include diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. With the exception of the diversification and security of energy supply, these benefits have usually been mentioned, but their analysis has been too general (i.e., mostly at the national level) and a focus on the regional and, even more so, the local level, has been lacking. At most, studies provide scattered evidence of some of those regional and local benefits, but without an integrated conceptual framework to analyse them. This paper tries to make a contribution in this regard by developing an integrated theoretical framework which allows a comprehensive analysis of the impact of renewable energy on local sustainability and which can be empirically applied to identify these benefits in different territories. (author)

  18. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    The impact of product information and repeated exposure of local apple juice on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations was studied. Findings showed that consumers had high expectations towards the studied local apples juices. Consequently, the liking for the local apple juic...

  19. Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

  20. Shatter cones at the Keurusselkä impact structure and their relation to local jointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasch, Maximilian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Raschke, Ulli; Zaag, Patrice Tristan

    2016-08-01

    Shatter cones are the only distinct meso- to macroscopic recognition criterion for impact structures, yet not all is known about their formation. The Keurusselkä impact structure, Finland, is interesting in that it presents a multitude of well-exposed shatter cones in medium- to coarse-grained granitoids. The allegedly 27 km wide Keurusselkä impact structure was formed about 1150 Ma ago in rocks of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. Special attention was paid in this work to possible relationships between shatter cones and local, as well as regionally occurring, fracture or joint systems. A possible shatter cone find outside the previously suggested edge of the structure could mean that the Keurusselkä impact structure is larger than previously thought. The spacing between joints/fractures from regional joint systems was influenced by the impact, but impact-induced fractures strongly follow the regional joint orientation trends. There is a distinct relationship between shatter cones and joints: shatter cones occur on and against joint surfaces of varied orientations and belonging to the regional orientation trends. Planar fractures (PF) and planar deformation features (PDF) were found in three shatter cone samples from the central-most part of the impact structure, whereas other country rock samples from the same level of exposure but further from the assumed center lack shock deformation features. PDF occurrence is enhanced within 5 mm of shatter cone surfaces, which is interpreted to suggest that shock wave reverberation at preimpact joints could be responsible for this local enhancement of shock deformation. Some shatter cone surfaces are coated with a quasi-opaque material which is also found in conspicuous veinlets that branch off from shatter cone surfaces and resemble pseudotachylitic breccia veins. The vein-filling is composed of two mineral phases, one of which could be identified as a montmorillonitic phyllosilicate. The second phase could not be

  1. Regional studies program. Forecasting the local economic impacts of energy resource development: a methodological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.

    1975-12-01

    Emphasis is placed on the nature and magnitude of socio-economic impacts of fossil-fuel development. A model is described that identifies and estimates the magnitude of the economic impacts of anticipated energy resource development in site-specific areas and geographically contiguous areas of unspecified size. The modeling methodology was designed to assist industries and government agencies complying with recent federal and state legislation requiring subregional impact analyses for individual facilities. The model was designed in light of the requirements for accuracy, expandability, and exportability. The methodology forecasts absolute increments in local and regional growth on an annual or biennial basis and transforms these parameters into estimates of the affected area's ability to accommodate growth-induced demands, especially demands for public services. (HLW)

  2. Local dissipation limits the dynamics of impacting droplets on smooth and rough substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuli; Carlson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A droplet that impacts onto a solid substrate deforms in a complex dynamics. To extract the principal mechanisms that dominate this dynamics we deploy numerical simulations based on the phase field method. Direct comparison with experiments suggests that a dissipation local to the contact line limits the droplet spreading dynamics and its scaled maximum spreading radius $\\beta_\\mathrm{max}$. By assuming linear response through a drag force at the contact line, our simulations rationalize experimental observations for droplet impact on both smooth and rough substrates, measured through a single contact line friction parameter $\\mu_f$. Moreover, our analysis shows that at low and intermediate impact speeds dissipation at the contact line limits the dynamics and we describe $\\beta_\\mathrm{max}$ by the scaling law $\\beta_\\mathrm{max} \\sim (Re \\mu_\\mathrm{l}/\\mu_f)^{1/2}$ that is a function of the droplet viscosity ($\\mu_\\mathrm{l}$) and its Reynolds number ($Re$).

  3. Spatiotemporal variation in local adaptation of a specialist insect herbivore to its long-lived host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalske, Aino; Leimu, Roosa; Scheepens, J F; Mutikainen, Pia

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation of interacting species to one another indicates geographically variable reciprocal selection. This process of adaptation is central in the organization and maintenance of genetic variation across populations. Given that the strength of selection and responses to it often vary in time and space, the strength of local adaptation should in theory vary between generations and among populations. However, such spatiotemporal variation has rarely been explicitly demonstrated in nature and local adaptation is commonly considered to be relatively static. We report persistent local adaptation of the short-lived herbivore Abrostola asclepiadis to its long-lived host plant Vincetoxicum hirundinaria over three successive generations in two studied populations and considerable temporal variation in local adaptation in six populations supporting the geographic mosaic theory. The observed variation in local adaptation among populations was best explained by geographic distance and population isolation, suggesting that gene flow reduces local adaptation. Changes in herbivore population size did not conclusively explain temporal variation in local adaptation. Our results also imply that short-term studies are likely to capture only a part of the existing variation in local adaptation.

  4. Multifarious roles of intrinsic disorder in proteins illustrate its broad impact on plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolin; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Jones, William T; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in eukaryotic proteomes. Plant IDPs play critical roles in plant biology and often act as integrators of signals from multiple plant regulatory and environmental inputs. Binding promiscuity and plasticity allow IDPs to interact with multiple partners in protein interaction networks and provide important functional advantages in molecular recognition through transient protein-protein interactions. Short interaction-prone segments within IDPs, termed molecular recognition features, represent potential binding sites that can undergo disorder-to-order transition upon binding to their partners. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the importance of IDPs in plant biology and evaluate the functions associated with intrinsic disorder in five different types of plant protein families experimentally confirmed as IDPs. Functional studies of these proteins illustrate the broad impact of disorder on many areas of plant biology, including abiotic stress, transcriptional regulation, light perception, and development. Based on the roles of disorder in the protein-protein interactions, we propose various modes of action for plant IDPs that may provide insight for future experimental approaches aimed at understanding the molecular basis of protein function within important plant pathways.

  5. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  6. The palaeogeographic setting and the local environmental impact of the 130 ka Falconiera tuff-cone eruption (Ustica island, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, Sandro; Foresta Martin, Franco

    2017-04-01

    This research focuses on the effects of the last eruption at Ustica (Suthern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), which formed the Falconiera tuff-cone at around 130 ka BP in the north-eastern tip of the island. This eruption was mainly explosive and phreatomagmatic, and emplaced a series of pyroclastic surge beds that formed an asymmetric tuff cone. This is the most easily recognizable volcanic edifice on Ustica, although its north-eastern sector has been partially eroded. A section of the feeding conduit is exposed northward, and is composed of lavas that fed the last stages of the eruption characterized by an intracrateric lava lake and a Strombolian scoria-fallout deposit. The eruption occurred during Upper Pleistocene Marine Isotopic Substage 5.5, a warm period characterized by a high sea-level stand (6±3 m above the present sea level in stable areas) and the diffusion of subtropical flora and fauna across the Mediterranean sea. This eruption slightly modified the morphology of Ustica, but impacted both marine and terrestrial environments, burying beach deposits rich in mollusk shells (i.e. Strombus bubonius, Conus testudinarius, Brachidontes puniceus), colonies of corals (Cladocora caespitosa) and subaerial plants (Chamaerops humilis). These organisms, found in some cases in their life position, along with other lines of evidence, provide information on the palaeogeography of this sector of the island at the time of the eruption, and on the local impact of this event on the environment.

  7. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  8. Technological Change in an Auto Assembly Plant: The Impact on Workers' Tasks and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Ruth; Pullman, Cydney

    1991-01-01

    Worker surveys and interviews with workers, managers, and unions explored the impact of technological change and reorganization at General Motors' plant in Linden, New Jersey. Skilled trades workers experienced skill upgrading and increased responsibility, whereas production workers underwent deskilling and were increasingly subordinated to the…

  9. Estimates of the impacts of invasive alien plants on water flows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    species and their invasion ecology also differs (Van Wilgen et al., ... as transformed (e.g. cultivated, urban) in the national land cover ... spatial data sets supplied with the vegetation map (Mucina and Rutherford, 2006), and the land types from the database ...... impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystem services in South.

  10. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  11. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  12. Implementing Case Studies in a Plant Pathology Course: Impact on Student Learning and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Aman; Beckerman, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    Case studies have been used in undergraduate science education as a way to develop students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills. However, little empirical evidence exists on whether this teaching method is having the desired impact on students in plant pathology courses. This study evaluated the influence of the case teaching method on…

  13. Impacts of Plant Water Use on Streamflow at Daily, Storm, and Event Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The science of runoff generation describes the processes by which catchments lose water by drainage during high flow periods. For many ecohydrological problems, however, we are more interested in how water is retained during low flow periods. For example, fish habitat in the relatively dry catchments of the semiarid mountain west depends on how low streamflow is metered through the summer. Additionally, upland plants survive by the soils ability to retain water in opposition to runoff generation. Here, I discuss the impacts of soil water retention and vegetation on low flow in seasonally dry, semiarid catchments. I present evidence showing 1) low flows are getting lower, 2) plants and streams receive water from different co-existing sources, and 3) transpiration perturbs streamflow at daily, storm and seasonal scales. The simultaneous occurrence of points 2 and 3 point to conflict emerging in recent hydrologic literature: How can plants use water that is seemingly disconnected from streams while simultaneously impacting streamflow?

  14. IMPACT OF ROW-PLANTING ADOPTION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE FARMING IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel DONKOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employed the endogenous switching regression and propensity score matching methods to analyse the impact of row-planting technology on rice productivity using 470 rice farms in Northern Ghana. The empirical findings showed that the adoption of row-planting technology exerted greater positive impact on rice yields of smallholder farmers. In addition, rice yields of adopters and non-adopters are driven by farm inputs, socioeconomic, institutional and technological factors. We suggest that achieving self-sufficiency in rice and rural economic transformation in sub-Saharan Africa requires promotion of agricultural technologies including row-planting. Different specific policy interventions are also required to promote rice yields for adopters and non-adopters.

  15. Cellular and Subcellular Localization of Endogenous Nitric Oxide in Young and Senescent Pea Plants12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.; Carreras, Alfonso; Quirós, Miguel; León, Ana M.; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Esteban, Francisco J.; Valderrama, Raquel; Palma, José M.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Gómez, Manuel; del Río, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of endogenous nitric oxide (NO˙) in leaves from young and senescent pea (Pisum sativum) plants was studied. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaf sections with the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate revealed that endogenous NO˙ was mainly present in vascular tissues (xylem and phloem). Green fluorescence spots were also detected in the epidermal cells, palisade and spongy mesophyll cells, and guard cells. In senescent leaves, NO˙ generation was clearly reduced in the vascular tissues. At the subcellular level, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with the spin trap Fe(MGD)2 and fluorometric analysis with 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, NO˙ was found to be an endogenous metabolite of peroxisomes. The characteristic three-line electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of NO˙, with g = 2.05 and aN = 12.8 G, was detected in peroxisomes. By fluorometry, NO˙ was also found in these organelles, and the level measured of NO˙ was linearly dependent on the amount of peroxisomal protein. The enzymatic production of NO˙ from l-Arg (nitric oxide synthase [NOS]-like activity) was measured by ozone chemiluminiscence. The specific activity of peroxisomal NOS was 4.9 nmol NO˙ mg−1 protein min−1; was strictly dependent on NADPH, calmodulin, and BH4; and required calcium. In senescent pea leaves, the NOS-like activity of peroxisomes was down-regulated by 72%. It is proposed that peroxisomal NO˙ could be involved in the process of senescence of pea leaves. PMID:15347796

  16. Tipburn in salt-affected lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants results from local oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassay, Luciano R; Bustos, Dolores A; Golberg, Alberto D; Taleisnik, Edith

    2012-02-15

    Tipburn in lettuce is a physiological disorder expressed as a necrosis in the margins of young developing leaves and is commonly observed under saline conditions. Tipburn is usually attributed to Ca(2+) deficiencies, and there has very limited research on other mechanisms that may contribute to tipburn development. This work examines whether symptoms are mediated by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Two butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties, Sunstar (Su) and Pontina (Po), with contrasting tipburn susceptibility were grown in hydroponics with low Ca(2+) (0.5 mM), and with or without 50 mM NaCl. Tipburn symptoms were observed only in Su, and only in the saline treatment. Tipburn incidence in response to topical treatments with Ca(2+) scavengers, Ca(2+) transport inhibitors, and antioxidants was assessed. All treatments were applied before symptom expression, and evaluated later, when symptoms were expected to occur. Superoxide presence in tissues was determined with nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and oxidative damage as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were assayed. Under control and saline conditions, tipburn could be induced in both varieties by topical treatments with a Ca(2+) scavenger (EGTA) and Ca(2+) transport inhibitors (verapamil, LaCl(3)) and reduced by supplying Ca(2+) along with a ionophore (A 23187). Tipburn symptoms were associated with locally produced ROS. O(2)(·-) and oxidative damage significantly increased in leaf margins before symptom expression, while topical antioxidant applications (Tiron, DPI) reduced symptoms in treated leaves, but not in the rest of the plant. Antioxidant enzyme activity was higher in Po, and increased more in response to EGTA treatments, and may contribute to mitigating oxidative damage and tipburn expression in this variety.

  17. Aristotle: A performance Impact Indicator for the OpenCL Kernels Using Local Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing complexity of multi/many-core architectures (with their mix of caches and scratch-pad memories and applications (with different memory access patterns, the performance of many workloads becomes increasingly variable. In this work, we address one of the main causes for this performance variability: the efficiency of the memory system. Specifically, based on an empirical evaluation driven by memory access patterns, we qualify and partially quantify the performance impact of using local memory in multi/many-core processors. To do so, we systematically describe memory access patterns (MAPs in an application-agnostic manner. Next, for each identified MAP, we use OpenCL (for portability reasons to generate two microbenchmarks: a “naive” version (without local memory and “an optimized” version (using local memory. We then evaluate both of them on typically used multi-core and many-core platforms, and we log their performance. What we eventually obtain is a local memory performance database, indexed by various MAPs and platforms. Further, we propose a set of composing rules for multiple MAPs. Thus, we can get an indicator of whether using local memory is beneficial in the presence of multiple memory access patterns. This indication can be used to either avoid the hassle of implementing optimizations with too little gain or, alternatively, give a rough prediction of the performance gain.

  18. Measuring the Economic Impact of Rural Tourism Membership on Local Economy: A Korean Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hio-Jung Shin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of rural tourism membership can aid in boosting economic growth in rural areas. This study examines households’ preferences for rural tourism experience in association with sales of local agricultural products. Using a choice experiment method developed by experimental designs, this paper examines households’ preferences to trade off purchasing costs of local agricultural products against various benefits provided by the rural tourism membership. The methods utilized in this paper represent an effective approach to evaluate the value of local tourism resources and the influence of these resources on the local economy. In empirical estimation we applied econometric approaches that allow for different preferences by incorporating income and residence effects into the models. Findings reveal that respondents place a premium on tourism attributes such as invitation seats and outdoor adventure tickets when choosing a tourism membership. We also find that the economic impacts associated with inducing higher-level tourism membership are substantial. This paper illustrates the potential for the development of a strategy associated with rural tourism management to enhance the local economy.

  19. Delivery and impact of household waste prevention intervention campaigns (at the local level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Veronica; Giorgi, Sara; Wilson, David C

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents one strand of the findings from a comprehensive synthesis review of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention. Understanding what is achievable in terms of local household waste prevention intervention campaigns enables policy makers, local authorities and practitioners to identify optimum approaches to deliver effective behaviour change. The results of the evidence have been assembled and are discussed in two contexts: (1) the delivery of intervention campaigns as a package of measures used to 'enable', 'engage' and 'encourage' householders to change their behaviour; and (2) the impact of local household waste prevention intervention campaigns in terms of tonnage data. Waste prevention measures adopted include home composting, reducing food waste, smart shopping, donating items for reuse, small changes in the home, reducing junk mail and using cloth/reusable nappies. In terms of diverting biodegradable municipal waste from landfill, the biggest impacts can be attributed to food waste prevention (1.5 kg household(- 1) week(-1)) and home composting (2.9 kg household( -1) week(-1)). Projects providing a package of other waste prevention interventions have shown a very wide range of impacts: a broad indication is that such a package could achieve around 0.5 to 1 kg household(-1) week(- 1) reduction at source. Disaggregating which waste prevention measures influenced uptake is generally not possible, but the evidence suggests that this does not matter: behaviour change has been supported by integrating a range of intervention tools and campaign promotions which have made a collective rather than isolated difference: it is a collection and an accumulation of measures that will have impact.

  20. Addressing the local aspects of global change impacts on stream metabolism using frequency analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Jonatan; Pino, Rosa; Navarro, Enrique; Chinarro, David

    2016-11-01

    Global change, as a combination of climate change, human activities on watersheds and the river flow regulation, causes intense changes in hydrological cycles and, consequently, threatens the good ecological status of freshwater biological communities. This study addresses how and whether the combination of climatic drivers and local human impacts may alter the metabolism of freshwater communities. We identified a few factors modulating the natural water flow and quality in 25 point spread within the Ebro river Basin: waste water spills, industrial spills, reservoir discharges, water withdrawals, agricultural use, and the presence of riparian forests. We assessed their impacts on the freshwater metabolism as changes in the annual cycle of both gross primary production-GPP - and ecosystem respiration-ER -. For this purpose, daily data series were analyzed by continuous wavelet transformation, allowing for the assessment of the metabolic ecosystem Frequency Spectrum Patterns (FSPs). Changes in the behavior of ecosystem metabolism were strongly associated with local characteristics at each sampling point, however in 20 out of 25 studied points, changes in metabolic ecosystem FSP were related to climatic change events (the driest period of the last 140years). The changes in FSP indicate that severe impacts on how biological communities use carbon sources occur as a result of the human water management - too much focus on human needs - during intense climatic events. Results show that local factors, and specially the flow regulation, may modulate the impact of global change. As example those points exposed to a more intense anthropization showed a clear disruption - and even disappearance - of the annual FSP. This information may help managers to understand the action mechanisms of non-climatic factors at ecosystem level, leading to better management policies based on the promotion of ecosystem resilience. The method here presented may help on improving the calculation

  1. Climate change impacts on coral reefs: synergies with local effects, possibilities for acclimation, and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Feary, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Chen, Allen; Schleyer, Michael H; Sheppard, Charles R C

    2013-09-30

    Most reviews concerning the impact of climate change on coral reefs discuss independent effects of warming or ocean acidification. However, the interactions between these, and between these and direct local stressors are less well addressed. This review underlines that coral bleaching, acidification, and diseases are expected to interact synergistically, and will negatively influence survival, growth, reproduction, larval development, settlement, and post-settlement development of corals. Interactions with local stress factors such as pollution, sedimentation, and overfishing are further expected to compound effects of climate change. Reduced coral cover and species composition following coral bleaching events affect coral reef fish community structure, with variable outcomes depending on their habitat dependence and trophic specialisation. Ocean acidification itself impacts fish mainly indirectly through disruption of predation- and habitat-associated behavior changes. Zooxanthellate octocorals on reefs are often overlooked but are substantial occupiers of space; these also are highly susceptible to bleaching but because they tend to be more heterotrophic, climate change impacts mainly manifest in terms of changes in species composition and population structure. Non-calcifying macroalgae are expected to respond positively to ocean acidification and promote microbe-induced coral mortality via the release of dissolved compounds, thus intensifying phase-shifts from coral to macroalgal domination. Adaptation of corals to these consequences of CO2 rise through increased tolerance of corals and successful mutualistic associations between corals and zooxanthellae is likely to be insufficient to match the rate and frequency of the projected changes. Impacts are interactive and magnified, and because there is a limited capacity for corals to adapt to climate change, global targets of carbon emission reductions are insufficient for coral reefs, so lower targets should be

  2. The Factors of Local Energy Transition in the Seoul Metropolitan Government: The Case of Mini-PV Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a way of enhancing urban sustainability, Seoul Special City, the capital of South Korea, has shown strong enthusiasm for urban energy transition by tackling climate change and expanding renewable energy. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG has adopted the “One Less Nuclear Power Plant (OLNPP” strategy since April 2012 and specific policy measures, including a mini-photovoltaic (PV plant program, were introduced to facilitate the energy transition. However, varying degrees of success were achieved by 25 district-level local governments (Gu with mini-PV plant programs. This study explored the reason why those local governments showed different levels of performance despite the strong will of municipal government (SMG to implement urban energy transitions through the mini-PV plant program. The tested hypotheses were based on capacity, political context, public awareness and geographical diffusion. The findings indicated that institutional capacity, financial dependence, political orientation and public perception had positively affected the performance of mini-PV plant installation at each district level. Especially, the political will of each district mayor played an important role in the implementation of the policy.

  3. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mario, E-mail: mgsantoss@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Freitas, Raul, E-mail: raulfreitas@portugalmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Crespi, Antonio L., E-mail: aluis.crespi@gmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Department of Forest and Landscape, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, Joao Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  4. Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

  5. Evaluation of Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant, environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Waton, D.G.

    1976-12-01

    A study was undertaken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the nonradiological environmental data obtained from three nuclear power plants operating for a period of one year or longer. The document presented reports the second of three nuclear power plants to be evaluated in detail by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant nonradiological monitoring data were assessed to determine their effectiveness in the measurement of environmental impacts. Efforts were made to determine if: (1) monitoring programs, as designed, can detect environmental impacts, (2) appropriate statistical analyses were performed and if they were sensitive enough to detect impacts, (3) predicted impacts could be verified by monitoring programs, and (4) monitoring programs satisfied the requirements of the Environmental Technical Specifications. Both preoperational and operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the methods used to measure ecological, chemical, and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data sets were available. From this type of analysis, deficiencies in both preoperational and operational monitoring programs may be identified and provide a basis for suggested improvement.

  6. Drought Impacts on Ancient Maya Maize Agriculture Inferred from Isotopic Analyses of Plant Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Maya lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax hydrogen and carbon analyses in two lake sediment cores from the Yucatan and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change and assess drought impacts on maize agriculture In the Maya lowlands plant-wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) are controlled by the isotopic composition of precipitation and evapotranspiration, and are highly sensitive to changes in aridity. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δD would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analyses of plant-wax δD and δ13C from two lake sediment cores in the Maya lowlands indicate co-evolving changes in hydroclimate and C4 plant coverage over the past 4000 years. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of plant-waxes provide independent chronologies for these plant-wax stable isotope records, and plant-wax δD records developed using these chronologies agree closely with other regional records of hydroclimate change. Trends in plant-wax δD and δ13C diverge following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend

  7. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  8. Modelling air quality impact of a biomass energy power plant in a mountain valley in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Gabriele; Cinque, Giovanni; Tuccella, Paolo; Visconti, Guido; Verdecchia, Marco; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenzo

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the potential impact on local air quality of a biomass power plant, which is planned for installation near L'Aquila, a city of 70,000 people located in a mountain valley in Central Italy. The assessment is carried out by applying a one year simulation with the CALPUFF model, following the recommendations of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Meteorological input is produced with CALMET model, fed with both MM5 meteorological fields at 3 km resolution and wind observations from a surface weather station. We estimate small (<0.5 μg m-3) annual average increments to SO2, NO2 and PM10 ambient levels over the domain of interest, but significant (up to 50% for NO2) enhancements and several violations (up to 141 for NO2) of hourly limits for human protection within 1.5 km from the source. These results anticipate a larger negative effect on local air quality than those published by the building firm of the plant. We also suggest that a minimum distance of 5 km from the nearest residential area would represent a significant decrease of population exposure.

  9. Emission enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by localized surface plasmon resonance for analyzing plant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Kotani, Takashi; Hattori, Takeaki

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate the monitoring of plant nutrients in leaves of Citrus unshiu and Rhododendron obtusum using low-energy (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The raw plant leaf was successfully ablated without desiccation before laser irradiation, by applying metallic colloidal particles to the leaf surface. The emission intensity with the metallic particles was larger than that without the particles. This result indicates an improvement of the sensitivity and the detection limit of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The emission enhancement was caused by localized surface plasmon resonance and was dependent on the size and material of metallic particles.

  10. Predicting the dynamic impact behaviour of spray droplets on flat plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delele, M A; Nuyttens, D; Duga, A T; Ambaw, A; Lebeau, F; Nicolai, B M; Verboven, P

    2016-09-14

    The dynamic impact behaviour of water droplets on plant surfaces was investigated based on a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The study was conducted using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) approach. The static contact angle of water droplets on leaf surfaces of different plants (apple, pear, leek and cabbage) was measured and found to vary between 54.9 and 138.2°. Impact experiments were conducted by monitoring the flow and impact characteristics of water droplets on leaves in still air with a high speed camera. Droplets were generated by an agricultural flat fan spray nozzle moving across the leaf at constant speed. The nozzle produced droplets with diameters ranging from 20.6 up to 550.8 μm, and droplet velocity values near the impact between 0.03 and 13.2 m s(-1). The CFD model was capable of predicting the observed dynamic impact behaviour of droplets on the plant surfaces. The fate of the droplets after the impact process for adhesion, bouncing or splashing was accurately predicted for Weber numbers (We) in the range of 0.007 to 1096 and droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) between 5 to 8000. The process was highly dependent on the surface and droplet flow characteristics during the impact. Combinations of We, Re and Ohnesorge (Oh) numbers defined the droplet maximum spread factor, the number of secondary droplets generated as a result of the splashing process and the transition between the different impact outcomes. These criteria can then be used in field scale spray deposition and drift models to better understand agricultural spray operations.

  11. Sugarcane straw harvest effects on soil quality and plant growth: preliminary data synthesis of a multi-local project running in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Feigl, Brigitte J.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2017-04-01

    Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer in the world, and consequently, it is one of major players in the bioenergy production sector. Despite that, growing demands for bioenergies have raised the interest of Brazilian sugarcane industry to harvest the sugarcane straw left on the field for cellulosic ethanol production and/or bioelectricity cogeneration. However, crop residues have a key role in the soil, affecting directly or indirectly multiple soil functions and related ecosystem services. Therefore, indiscriminate straw harvest could jeopardize soil quality, decreasing its capacity to sustain plant productivity over time. In order to evaluate the potential impacts of sugarcane straw harvest on soil quality and plant growth, we are conducting since 2014 a multi-local project across central-southern Brazil, the main core of sugarcane production in the world. A wide range of soil chemical, physical and biological parameters, as well as, plant biomass production has been quantified under increasing straw harvest intensities. Our preliminary findings have showed that short-term straw harvest management did not affect total organic C stocks; however, high straw harvest led to significant reduction in labile C forms (e.g., microbial biomass C and N), and abundance of microbial communities as well. Sugarcane straw harvest affects soil nutrient cycling, since significant amount of nutrients are removed annually by straw, especially in top (green) leaves. In addition, our data show that straw acts as a thermal insulator, decreasing soil temperature amplitude and keeping soil moisture for a longer time. Straw harvest management did not affect sugarcane yields in the first two crop seasons. Based on this first synthesis of the project, we conclude that short-term sugarcane straw harvest led to soil changes, especially in more sensitive and dynamic properties, which did not affect the plant yield. However, long-term impacts should be monitored towards a better

  12. Impact of urbanization on plant diversity: A case study in built-up areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yao-qin; LI Jing-wen; LI Jing; Sanna Katrina VALIMAKI

    2008-01-01

    Urbanization is developing rapidly in the world, which seriously changes the habitat of organisms and has clearly a negative effect on biodiversity. Preservation of biodlversity is crucial in urban planning and management, which is also an important symbol for the level of greening. Problems such as scarcity of urban green space and plant species have become obstacles to the establishment of ecological friendly cities. However, coexistence of nature and modernization, as well the coordination of economic development and biodiversity, are goals that people are seeking. We have taken the built-up areas of Beijing as a study case and discussed the impacts of urbanization on plant diversity, with the support of fieldwork and SPOT remote sensing data. The results are as follows: 1) in the process of urbanization, exotic plants have been widely introduced, which has affected species composition and the proportion of native plants; it is clear that artificial green spaces always will have a lower level of plant diversity than natural green spaces; 2) functional differences of green space types partially decide their species abundance, so that plant diversity in greenbelts and streets is generally lower than in parks; 3) the spatial variety of plant diversity contributes much to the imbalance of district development and the planning of different functional zones; this variation is embodied in different ring-belts and directions; 4) habitat fragmentation also affects plant diversity to a great extent; there is a significant positive correlation between high fragmentation and low plant diversity. According our results, some suggestions are proposed, which would be suitable for the preservation of plant diversity and ecological improvement during urbanization.

  13. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maitre, D. C.; Gush, M. B.; Dzikiti, S.

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand to catchment scales and covering a full annual cycle. Most of the research is South African so the emphasis is on South Africa's major invaders with data from commercial forest plantations where relevant. Catchment studies worldwide have shown that changes in vegetation structure and the physiology of the dominant plant species result in changes in surface runoff and groundwater discharge, whether they involve native or alien plant species. Where there is little change in vegetation structure [e.g. leaf area (index), height, rooting depth and seasonality] the effects of invasions generally are small or undetectable. In South Africa, the most important woody invaders typically are taller and deeper rooted than the native species. The impacts of changes in evaporation (and thus runoff) in dryland settings are constrained by water availability to the plants and, thus, by rainfall. Where the dryland invaders are evergreen and the native vegetation (grass) is seasonal, the increases can reach 300–400 mm/year. Where the native vegetation is evergreen (shrublands) the increases are ∼200–300 mm/year. Where water availability is greater (riparian settings or shallow water tables), invading tree water-use can reach 1.5–2.0 times that of the same species in a dryland setting. So, riparian invasions have a much greater impact per unit area invaded than dryland invasions. The available data are scattered and incomplete, and there are many gaps and issues that must be addressed before a thorough understanding of the impacts at the site scale can be gained and used in extrapolating to watershed scales, and in converting changes in flows to water supply system yields. PMID:25935861

  14. The impact of local stellar radiation on the HI column density distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmati, Alireza; Pawlik, Andreas H; Raičević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that local sources of ionizing radiation have little impact on the distribution of HI in the post-reionization Universe. While this is a good assumption for the IGM, analytic arguments suggest that local sources may typically be more important than the background radiation for high column density absorbers (N_HI > 10^17 /cm^2). We post-process cosmological simulations with accurate radiation transport to investigate the impact of local stellar sources on the HI distribution. We demonstrate that the limited numerical resolution and the simplified treatment of the ISM that are typical of current cosmological simulations provide significant challenges, but that many of the problems can be overcome by taking two steps. First, using ISM particles rather than stellar particles as sources results in a much better sampling of the source distribution. Second, by rescaling the source luminosities so that the amount of radiation escaping into the IGM agrees with that required to produce the observed ...

  15. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  16. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  17. KARO’S LOCAL WISDOM: THE USE OF WOODY PLANTS FOR TRADITIONAL DIABETIC MEDICINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rospita Odorlina Situmorang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the plant species used traditionally by Karo people in North Sumatra, to cure diabetes, analyses the cultural significance index of those plants for the Karo, and clarifies phytochemical contents of the plants. Data were collected using survey method from selected respondents (n=54 based on their knowledge and practices in utilising medicinal plants to cure diabetic disease. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS of plants was determined using the method proposed by Turner. Results showed that twelve woody plant species have been used to cure diabetes: loning leave (Psychotria sp., kacihe leave (Prunus accuminta Hook, umbrella tree leave (Maesopsis eminii Engl, mutamba leave (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, cepcepan leave (Villebrunea subescens Blume, pirdot/cepcepan lembu leave (Saurauia vulcani Korth, raru bark (Cotylelobium melanoxylo, breadfruit leave (Artocarpus altilis, salam leave (Syzygium polyanthum Wight, mahogany seed (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmani, and yellow bamboo rod (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Five of those plants: loning, umbrella tree, mutamba, raru and salam have the highest cultural significance level. These five plants are highly needed in large quatities by the Karo people, so their availability in the forest should be securely conserved and protected. The plants used contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids which can help to lower blood sugar level.

  18. Impact of rhizobial inoculation and nitrogen utilization in plant growth promotion of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMESH K. SINGH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Singh RK, Malik N, Singh S. 2013. Impact of rhizobial inoculation and nitrogen utilization in plant growth promotion of maize (Zea mays L.. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 8-14. During the course of growing population demands there has been an increasing interest in exploring the possibility of extending the beneficial interaction between cereals and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Endophytes are a group of microorganism that resides mostly in the intercellular space of various parts of plants including cereals. Assessment of plant growth promoting properties of the five-rhizobial strains belonging to α subclass i.e. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli RRE6 and R. undicola RRE36 and those belonging to β subclass i.e. Burkholderia cepacia (RRE3, RRE5, RRE25 was done by growing maize plants inoculated with these strains. Inoculated maize plants showed a significant increase in plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weight over uninoculated control. R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli RRE6 and B. cepacia RRE5 among the α and β-subclass representatives respectively, gave the best inoculation response. Effect of nitrate supplementation upon maize-RRE6 and RRE5 association was also studied and a significant increase in all the growth parameters and colonization ability was recorded when nitrate was present as a supplement over uninoculated control and maize-RRE6 and RRE5 in absence of external nitrate.

  19. RESPONSE OF SELECTED LOCAL PLANTAIN CULTIVARS TO PIBS (PLANTS ISSUS DE BOURGEONS SECONDAIRES TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloved Mensah DZOMEKU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One major constraint to plantain production has been inadequate healthy planting materials at the time of planting. Several technologies for multiplying healthy planting materials exist but could not meet farmers’ demand. A study was conducted to assess the performance of various landraces plantain to plants issus de bourgeons secondaires (PIBS technique. Five cultivars of Musa sapientum (Apantu (False Horn, Asamienu (True Horn, Oniaba (intermediate French plantain and FHIA-21 (tetraploid hybrid plantain were tested to determine their response to the PIBS technique. Sword suckers of each cultivar with weight of between 0.2-0.5 kg were prepared and buried in fine sawdust in a humidity chamber built using transparent polyethylene sheets. Results at harvest showed that removal of rooted sprouts started three weeks after planting and every week thereafter for eight weeks. The intermediate French plantain cultivar (Oniaba produced the least average number (about 20 of healthy planting. Apantu (False Horn produced an average of about 75 healthy planting materials. The hybrid FHIA-21 on the other hand generated an average of about 85 healthy planting materials. Asamienu (True Horn produced the highest healthy seedlings of about 90 healthy planting materials. The results revealed that the leaf scar carries a primary bud at the intersection of each leaf sheath and several eyes along the entire length of the leaf sheath which could not have developed into suckers. However, with this technique the eyes could be activated to sprout as healthy planting materials. The technique proved as an efficient method of multiplying healthy planting materials for plantain and could thus be recommended for adoption not only by peasant farmers but also to others who could become commercial seed producers. But there will be a need for certification guidelines for seed growing systems.

  20. Reduced-scale experimental investigation on ventilation performance of a local exhaust hood in an industrial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Local ventilation systems are widely used in industrial production processes to capture heat release and/or gaseous/particulate contaminants. The primary objective of this study was to determine important empirical factors on local pollutant capture efficiency and characteristics of thermal......:15 corresponding to a portion of the blast furnace workshop of a steel plant. The dependency of capture efficiency on Archimedes numbers was established. The results showed that confined airflow boundaries, flow rates of the exhaust hoods and source strengths were important empirical factors on pollutant capture...

  1. Impact of head modeling and sensor types in localizing human gamma-band oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mideksa, K G; Hoogenboom, N; Hellriegel, H; Krause, H; Schnitzler, A; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Heute, U; Muthuraman, M

    2014-01-01

    An effective mechanism in neuronal communication is oscillatory neuronal synchronization. The neuronal gamma-band (30-100 Hz) synchronization is associated with attention which is induced by a certain visual stimuli. Numerous studies have shown that the gamma-band activity is observed in the visual cortex. However, impact of different head modeling techniques and sensor types to localize gamma-band activity have not yet been reported. To do this, the brain activity was recorded using 306 magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensors, consisting of 102 magnetometers and 102 pairs of planar gradiometers (one measuring the derivative of the magnetic field along the latitude and the other along the longitude), and the data were analyzed with respect to time, frequency, and location of the strongest response. The spherical head models with a single-shell and overlapping spheres (local sphere) have been used as a forward model for calculating the external magnetic fields generated from the gamma-band activity. For each sensor type, the subject-specific frequency range of the gamma-band activity was obtained from the spectral analysis. The identified frequency range of interest with the highest gamma-band activity is then localized using a spatial-filtering technique known as dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS). The source analysis for all the subjects revealed that the gradiometer sensors which measure the derivative along the longitude, showed sources close to the visual cortex (cuneus) as compared to the other gradiometer sensors which measure the derivative along the latitude. However, using the magnetometer sensors, it was not possible to localize the sources in the region of interest. When comparing the two head models, the local-sphere model helps in localizing the source more focally as compared to the single-shell head model.

  2. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.; van ‘t Klooster, C. I. E. A.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; van den Berg, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407978208

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces

  3. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.; van ‘t Klooster, C. I. E. A.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; van den Berg, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces

  4. Localization of viral antigens in leaf protoplasts and plants by immunogold labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, van J.W.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of an immunocytochemical technique, immunogold labelling, new in the light and electron microscopic study of the plant viral infection. In Chapter 1 the present state of knowledge of the plant viral infection process, as revealed by in

  5. Localization of viral antigens in leaf protoplasts and plants by immunogold labelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, van J.W.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of an immunocytochemical technique, immunogold labelling, new in the light and electron microscopic study of the plant viral infection. In Chapter 1 the present state of knowledge of the plant viral infection process, as revealed by insitu studies

  6. Accumulation of local pathogens: a new hypothesis to explain exotic plant invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Dekker, S.C.; Ruiter, P.C. de; Putten, W.H. van der

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that release from native soil pathogens may explain invasion of exotic plant species. However, release from soil enemies does not explain all plant invasions. The invasion of Ammophila arenaria (marram grass or European beach grass) in California provides an illustrativ

  7. Localization of viral antigens in leaf protoplasts and plants by immunogold labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, van J.W.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of an immunocytochemical technique, immunogold labelling, new in the light and electron microscopic study of the plant viral infection. In Chapter 1 the present state of knowledge of the plant viral infection process, as revealed by

  8. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: an application in North Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mário; Freitas, Raul; Crespí, António L; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, João Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Postoperative radiotherapy for rectal and rectosigmoid cancer; The impact of total dose on local control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, B.M.P.; Lebesque, J.V.; Hart, A.A.M. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-11-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, 206 patients were treated with pelvic radiotherapy after macroscopically complete surgery for rectal or (recto)sigmoid cancer. Depending on an estimation of the amount of small bowel in the intended treatment volume a total dose was, in general, 45 or 50 Gy. An additional boost of 10 Gy was given to 6 patients because of microscopically involved surgical margins. For tumor stage B a statistically significant trend (p=0.017) for higher local control with higher total dose was observed comparing patients treated with a total dose of 45 Gy or less, with more than 45 Gy but less than 50 Gy or with a total dose of 50 Gy or more. This finding illustrates the impact of total dose on local control for postoperative radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma. (author). 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. The Impact of Electoral System Reform on Taiwan’s Local Factions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Göbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the single non-transferable vote (SNTV was abolished in Taiwan. The SNTV had long been seen as a major factor in the sustenance of county- and township-level clientelist networks (“local factions”. It was also associated with phenomena such as extremism, candidate-centred politics, vote-buying, clientelism and organized crime involvement in politics. More recent scholarship, however, has led to doubts that a single formal institution like an electoral system could have such a powerful influence on electoral mobilization. This article puts these positions to an initial test. It examines the impact of the electoral reform on the mobilization capacity of a local faction in a rural county notorious for its factionalism. By illuminating its intricate mobilization structures, it provides support for the second position: These structures are too resilient to be affected by even a radical electoral reform.

  11. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction.

  12. Local impact of humidification on degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel G.; Ruiu, Tiziana; Biswas, Indro; Schulze, Mathias; Helmly, Stefan; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The water level in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) affects the durability as is seen from the degradation processes during operation a PEMFC with fully- and nonhumidified gas streams as analyzed using an in-situ segmented cell for local current density measurements during a 300 h test operating under constant conditions and using ex situ SEM/EDX and XPS post-test analysis of specific regions. The impact of the RH on spatial distribution of the degradation process results from different water distribution giving different chemical environments. Under nonhumidified gas streams, the cathode inlet region exhibits increased degradation, whereas with fully humidified gases the bottom of the cell had the higher performance losses. The degradation and the degree of reversibility produced by Pt dissolution, PTFE defluorination, and contaminants such as silicon (Si) and nickel (Ni) were locally evaluated.

  13. A new support measure to quantify the impact of local optima in phylogenetic analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Brammer, Grant

    2011-09-29

    Phylogentic analyses are often incorrectly assumed to have stabilized to a single optimum. However, a set of trees from a phylogenetic analysis may contain multiple distinct local optima with each optimum providing different levels of support for each clade. For situations with multiple local optima, we propose p-support which is a clade support measure that shows the impact optima have on a final consensus tree. Our p-support measure is implemented in our PeakMapper software package. We study our approach on two published, large-scale biological tree collections. PeakMapper shows that each data set contains multiple local optima. p-support shows that both datasets contain clades in the majority consensus tree that are only supported by a subset of the local optima. Clades with low p-support are most likely to benefit from further investigation. These tools provide researchers with new information regarding phylogenetic analyses beyond what is provided by other support measures alone.

  14. ERP evidence of a meaningfulness impact on visual global/local processing: when meaning captures attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucousin, Virginie; Cassotti, Mathieu; Simon, Grégory; Pineau, Arlette; Kostova, Milena; Houdé, Olivier; Poirel, Nicolas

    2011-04-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to investigate whether the meaningfulness of experimental stimuli impacted performances during global/local visual tasks. Participants were presented with compound stimuli, based on either meaningful letters, meaningful objects, or meaningless non-objects. The ERP recordings displayed typical early components, P1 and N1, evoked by task-related processes that affected global and local processes differently according to the meaningfulness of the stimuli. The effect of meaningfulness of the stimuli during global processing showed that P1 amplitudes were larger in response to objects and non-objects compared to letters, while letters and objects elicited larger N1 amplitudes than non-objects. Second, during local processing, the mean amplitudes of the ERPs recorded for object and letter stimuli were systematically smaller than the amplitudes recorded for non-object stimuli for both P1 and N1 components. In addition, object and letter stimuli elicited comparable mean ERP responses during local processing. These results are discussed in terms of the influences of both attentional and top-down identification processes. Taken together, these findings suggested that looking for meaning is crucial in the perception of visual scenes and that the meaningfulness nature of the stimuli should be taken into account in future studies.

  15. Sum-capacity of Interference Channels with a Local View: Impact of Distributed Decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Vaneet; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the large size of wireless networks, it is often impractical for nodes to track changes in the complete network state. As a result, nodes have to make distributed decisions about their transmission and reception parameters based on their local view of the network. In this paper, we characterize the impact of distributed decisions on the global network performance in terms of achievable sum-rates. We first formalize the concept of local view by proposing a protocol abstraction using the concept of local message passing. In the proposed protocol, nodes forward information about the network state to other neighboring nodes, thereby allowing network state information to trickle to all the nodes. The protocol proceeds in rounds, where all transmitters send a message followed by a message by all receivers. The number of rounds then provides a natural metric to quantify the extent of local information at each node. We next study three network connectivities, Z-channel, a three-user double Z-channel and a redu...

  16. Predicting method of local damage in reinforced concrete plate with absorber sandwiched between two concrete panels under hard projectile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Tetsuo; Kambayashi, Atsushi; Ueda, Masatoshi [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ohno, Tomonori; Ishikawa, Nobutaka

    1995-07-01

    The predicting method of local damage in reinforced concrete plate with absorber sandwiched between two concrete panels (double-layered RC plate) under the impact of hard projectile is studied in this paper. The results of high-velocity impact tests to investigate the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates are reported. To evaluate quantitatively the extent of local damage, the existing formulae and the alternative predicting formulae with the multivariate analysis presented here are employed. The prediction of the proposed formulae can agree reasonably well with the actual observed damage, thus can be a useful method in impact resistant design. (author).

  17. Impact assessment and coastal climate change adaptation in a local transdisciplinary perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, N. H.; Knudsen, Per

    , private and public institutions, and the local communities provides: understanding of the immediate and potential future challenges; appreciation of different stakeholder motives, business agendas, legislative constraints etc., and common focus on how to cost-efficiently adapt to and manage impacts...... of climate change. The platform is dynamically updated with additional data and knowledge, e.g. from climate change evidence, or, by provision of updated regional models of future sea level rise. In order to integrate natural hazards and impact development over time, models on hydrology, geology...... to map vulnerability and risk, and strategies for community engagement and capacity-building are included. The initial bias towards the natural sciences, to a large extent dictated by technical stakeholder focus and data availability, is gradually balanced as especially economics and social sciences take...

  18. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of drought on C forms and fluxes in the soil - plant continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, Cornelia; Sanaullah, Muhammad; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Global change is likely to increase the drought periods, which may have significant consequences for the turnover of SOM, in particular through their effect on plants. The aim of the study was to assess different compartments of the soil - plant continuum for their response to drought stress by combining field and laboratory experiments. We focused on three common grassland species (Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) found to constitute grasslands of the temperate climate. We investigated drought impact on (1) plant biochemistry and potential mineralization of this material in soil, (2) decomposition of aboveground plant leaf litter of different quality, (3) plant-mediated soil C fluxes including (4) soil microbial biomass and their enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. Plant elemental and biochemical composition showed contrasting changes depending on the species in response to drought stress. The changes in elemental and biochemical composition of leaf litter, ultimately influenced its mineralization in soil. Drought stress highly modified the decomposition dynamics of litter from the three grassland species as a function of litter quality. Moreover, drought stress resulted in significant decrease in both shoot and root biomass in monocultures, while root biomass did not change when they were grown in mixture. Under drought stress, we observed higher belowground allocation of photosynthates and the drought had reduced root-derived respiration. This resulted in significant changes of soil enzyme activities. Our results suggested that plant species and community composition strongly influenced the drought effects in the rhizosphere. Thus, plant community composition and in particular the introduction of legumes might be used as a tool to attenuate drought stress not only because of different water use efficiency by plants, but also by their indirect effects on soil microbial activities affecting C and N cycles.

  20. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  1. Impacts of extreme precipitation and seasonal changes in precipitation on plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. B. Zeppel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological cycle is predicted to become more intense in future climates, with both larger precipitation events and longer times between events. Redistribution of precipitation may occur both within and across seasons, and the resulting wide fluctuations in soil water content may dramatically affect plants. Though these responses remain poorly understood, recent research in this emerging field suggests the effects of redistributed precipitation may differ from predictions based on previous drought studies. We review available studies on both extreme precipitation (redistribution within seasons and seasonal changes in precipitation (redistribution across seasons on grasslands and forests. Extreme precipitation differentially affected Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP, depending on whether extreme precipitation led to increased or decreased soil water content (SWC, which differed based on the current precipitation at the site. Specifically, studies to date reported that extreme precipitation decreased ANPP in mesic sites, but, conversely, increased ANPP in xeric sites, suggesting that plant available water is a key factor driving responses to extreme precipitation. Similarly, the effects of seasonal changes in precipitation on ANPP, phenology, and leaf and fruit development varied with the effect on SWC. Reductions in spring or summer generally had negative effects on plants, associated with reduced SWC, while subsequent reductions in autumn or winter had little effect on SWC or plants. Similarly, increased summer precipitation had a more dramatic impact on plants than winter increases in precipitation. The patterns of response suggest xeric biomes may respond positively to extreme precipitation, while comparatively mesic biomes may be more likely to be negatively affected. And, seasonal changes in precipitation during warm or dry seasons may have larger effects than changes during cool or wet seasons. Accordingly, responses to

  2. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashworth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 9 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1% of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1%. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA are substantial at the regional scale, with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. Over SE Asia, one region of oil palm planting, increases in annual mean surface ozone and bSOA concentrations reach over 3 ppbv (+11% and 0.4 μg m−3 (+10% respectively for parts of Borneo, with monthly mean increases of up to 6.5 ppbv (+25% and 0.5 μg m−3 (+12%. Under the SRC scenario, Europe experiences monthly mean changes of over 0.6 ppbv (+1% and 0.1 μg m−3 (+5% in June and July, with peak increases of over 2 ppbv (+3% and 0.5 μg m−3 (+8 %. That appreciable regional atmospheric impacts result from low level planting scenarios demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  3. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, K.; Folberth, G.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wild, O.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC) in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 9 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1% of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1%. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) are substantial at the regional scale, with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. Over SE Asia, one region of oil palm planting, increases in annual mean surface ozone and bSOA concentrations reach over 3 ppbv (+11%) and 0.4 μg m-3 (+10%) respectively for parts of Borneo, with monthly mean increases of up to 6.5 ppbv (+25%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+12%). Under the SRC scenario, Europe experiences monthly mean changes of over 0.6 ppbv (+1%) and 0.1 μg m-3 (+5%) in June and July, with peak increases of over 2 ppbv (+3%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+8 %). That appreciable regional atmospheric impacts result from low level planting scenarios demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  4. The impact of plant-pathogen studies on medicinal drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Christian; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Kaiser, Markus

    2012-04-21

    The pharmaceutical industry is reliant on a constant supply of new chemical entities and molecular targets for disease intervention. In this tutorial review, we want to illustrate that basic research studies on the biological function of natural products involved in plant-pathogen interactions can serve as an inspiring source for the identification of new bioactive entities as well as of strategies on how to achieve small molecule manipulation of biological systems. An application of findings from plant-pathogen interaction studies might therefore display a significant impact on drug discovery. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Educational impact of using smartphones for clinical communication on general medicine: more global, less local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Tzanetos, Katina; Morra, Dante; Quan, Sherman; Lo, Vivian; Wong, Brian M

    2013-07-01

    Medical trainees increasingly use smartphones in their clinical work. Similar to other information technology implementations, smartphone use can result in unintended consequences. This study aimed to examine the impact of smartphone use for clinical communication on medical trainees' educational experiences. Qualitative research methodology using interview data, ethnographic data, and analysis of e-mail messages. We analyzed the interview transcripts, ethnographic data, and e-mails by applying a conceptual framework consisting of 5 educational domains. Smartphone use increased connectedness and resulted in a high level of interruptions. These 2 factors impacted 3 discrete educational domains: supervision, teaching, and professionalism. Smartphone use increased connectedness to supervisors and may improve supervision, making it easier for supervisors to take over but can limit autonomy by reducing learner decision making. Teaching activities may be easier to coordinate, but smartphone use interrupted learners and reduced teaching effectiveness during these sessions. Finally, there may be professionalism issues in relation to how residents use smartphones during encounters with patients and health professionals and in teaching sessions. We summarized the impact of a rapidly emerging information technology-smartphones-on the educational experience of medical trainees. Smartphone use increase connectedness and allow trainees to be more globally available for patient care but creates interruptions that cause trainees to be less present in their local interactions with staff during teaching sessions. Educators should be aware of these findings and need to develop curriculum to address the negative impacts of smartphone use in the clinical training environment. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  6. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashworth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land-use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 92 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1 % of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1 %. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA are significant at the regional scale and are detectable even at a global scale with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. The oil palm plantations and processing plants result in global average annual mean increases in ozone and bSOA of 38 pptv and 2 ng m−3 respectively. Over SE Asia, one region of planting, increases reach over 2 ppbv and 300 ng m−3 for large parts of Borneo. Planting of SRC causes global annual mean changes of 46 pptv and 3 ng m−3. Europe experiences peak monthly mean changes of almost 0.6 ppbv and 90 ng m−3 in June and July. Large areas of Central and Eastern Europe see changes of over 1.5 ppbv and 200 ng m−3 in the summer. That such significant atmospheric impacts from low level planting scenarios are discernible globally clearly demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  7. Dissecting the contributions of plasticity and local adaptation to the phenology of a butterfly and its host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, Albert B; Stålhandske, Sandra; Smithers, Richard J; Bernard, Rodolphe

    2012-11-01

    Phenology affects the abiotic and biotic conditions that an organism encounters and, consequently, its fitness. For populations of high-latitude species, spring phenology often occurs earlier in warmer years and regions. Here we apply a novel approach, a comparison of slope of phenology on temperature over space versus over time, to identify the relative roles of plasticity and local adaptation in generating spatial phenological variation in three interacting species, a butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, and its two host plants, Cardamine pratensis and Alliaria petiolata. All three species overlap in the time window over which mean temperatures best predict variation in phenology, and we find little evidence that a day length requirement causes the sensitive time window to be delayed as latitude increases. The focal species all show pronounced temperature-mediated phenological plasticity of similar magnitude. While we find no evidence for local adaptation in the flowering times of the plants, geographic variation in the phenology of the butterfly is consistent with countergradient local adaptation. The butterfly's phenology appears to be better predicted by temperature than it is by the flowering times of either host plant, and we find no evidence that coevolution has generated geographic variation in adaptive phenological plasticity.

  8. Testing local host adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a herbivore when alternative related host plants occur sympatrically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Host race formation in phytophagous insects can be an early stage of adaptive speciation. However, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in host use is another possible outcome. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment we tested the hypothesis of local adaptation in the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Aphid genotypes derived from two sympatric host plants, Brassica oleracea and B. campestris, were assessed in order to measure the extent of phenotypic plasticity in morphological and life history traits in relation to the host plants. We obtained an index of phenotypic plasticity for each genotype. Morphological variation of aphids was summarized by principal components analysis. Significant effects of recipient host on morphological variation and life history traits (establishment, age at first reproduction, number of nymphs, and intrinsic growth rate) were detected. We did not detected genotype × host plant interaction; in general the genotypes developed better on B. campestris, independent of the host plant species from which they were collected. Therefore, there was no evidence to suggest local adaptation. Regarding plasticity, significant differences among genotypes in the index of plasticity were detected. Furthermore, significant selection on PC1 (general aphid body size) on B. campestris, and on PC1 and PC2 (body length relative to body size) on B. oleracea was detected. The elevation of the reaction norm of PC1 and the slope of the reaction norm for PC2 (i.e., plasticity) were under directional selection. Thus, host plant species constitute distinct selective environments for B. brassicae. Aphid genotypes expressed different phenotypes in response to the host plant with low or nil fitness costs. Phenotypic plasticity and gene flow limits natural selection for host specialization promoting the maintenance of genetic variation in host exploitation.

  9. Cellular phenotype impacts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrucci Adriano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr is a virion-associated regulatory protein that functions at several points within the viral life cycle and has been shown to accumulate primarily in the nucleus and at the nuclear envelope. However, most studies have investigated Vpr localization employing cell types irrelevant to HIV-1 pathogenesis. To gain a better understanding of how cellular phenotype might impact HIV-1 Vpr intracellular localization, Vpr localization was examined in several cell lines representing major cellular targets for HIV-1 infection within the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and central nervous system (CNS. Results Utilizing a green fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr, we detected Vpr mainly in foci inside the nucleus, at the nuclear envelope, and around the nucleoli, with dispersed accumulation in the cytoplasm of human endothelial kidney 293T cells. No differences were observed in Vpr localization pattern with respect to either the location of the tag (N- or C-terminus or the presence of other viral proteins. Subsequently, the Vpr localization pattern was explored in two primary HIV-1 target cells within the peripheral blood: the CD4+ T lymphocyte (represented by the Jurkat CD4+ T-cell line and the monocyte-macrophage (represented by the U-937 cell line. Vpr was found primarily in speckles within the cytoplasm of the Jurkat T cells, whereas it accumulated predominantly intranuclearly in U-937 monocytic cells. These patterns differ from that observed in a bone marrow progenitor cell line (TF-1, wherein Vpr localized mainly at the nuclear envelope with some intranuclear punctuate staining. Within the CNS, we examined two astroglioma cell lines and found that Vpr displayed a perinuclear and cytoplasmic distribution. Conclusions The results suggest that the pattern of Vpr localization depends on cellular phenotype, probably owing to interactions between Vpr and cell type-specific host

  10. Phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization, and expression patterns of RPD3/HDA1 family histone deacetylases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chun-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although histone deacetylases from model organisms have been previously identified, there is no clear basis for the classification of histone deacetylases under the RPD3/HDA1 superfamily, particularly on plants. Thus, this study aims to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree to determine evolutionary relationships between RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylases from six different plants representing dicots with Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Pinus taeda, monocots with Oryza sativa and Zea mays, and the lower plants with Physcomitrella patens. Results Sixty two histone deacetylases of RPD3/HDA1 family from the six plant species were phylogenetically analyzed to determine corresponding orthologues. Three clusters were formed separating Class I, Class II, and Class IV. We have confirmed lower and higher plant orthologues for AtHDA8 and AtHDA14, classifying both genes as Class II histone deacetylases in addition to AtHDA5, AtHDA15, and AtHDA18. Since Class II histone deacetylases in other eukaryotes have been known to undergo nucleocytoplasmic transport, it remains unknown whether such functional regulation also happens in plants. Thus, bioinformatics studies using different programs and databases were conducted to predict their corresponding localization sites, nuclear export signal, nuclear localization signal, as well as expression patterns. We also found new conserved domains in most of the RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylases which were similarly conserved in its corresponding orthologues. Assessing gene expression patterns using Genevestigator, it appears that RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylases are expressed all throughout the plant parts and developmental stages of the plant. Conclusion The RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylase family in plants is divided into three distinct groups namely, Class I, Class II, and Class IV suggesting functional diversification. Class II comprises not only AtHDA5, AtHDA15, and AtHDA18 but also includes AtHDA8

  11. Impact on the Quality of Life When Living Close to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantarakis, A; Paparrodopoulos, S; Kokkinos, P; Vantarakis, G; Fragou, K; Detorakis, I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact on the quality of life of people living close to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A case control study, including 235 inhabitants living within a 500 m radius by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (cases) and 97 inhabitants living in a different area (controls), was conducted. A standardized questionnaire was self-completed by the participants which examined the general health perception and the overall life satisfaction. Also, the concentration of airborne pathogenic microorganisms in aerosol samples collected around the wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Significant risk for symptoms such as headache, unusual tiredness, and concentration difficulties was recorded and an increased possibility for respiratory and skin diseases was reported. A high rate of the cases being irritable and moody was noticed. Significantly higher gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported among the cases in relation to the controls. The prevalence of pathogenic airborne microorganisms originating from the wastewater treatment plant was reported in high numbers in sampling points close to the wastewater treatment plant. More analytical epidemiological investigations are needed to determine the cause as well as the burden of the diseases to inhabitants living surrounding the wastewater treatment plant.

  12. A Comparison Study of Extreme Learning Machine and Least Squares Support Vector Machine for Structural Impact Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a learning algorithm for single-hidden layer feedforward neural network dedicated to an extremely fast learning. However, the performance of ELM in structural impact localization is unknown yet. In this paper, a comparison study of ELM with least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is presented for the application on impact localization of a plate structure with surface-mounted piezoelectric sensors. Both basic and kernel-based ELM regression models have b...

  13. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  14. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  15. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Mullane, Monica, E-mail: Monica.omullane@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work/Fakulta Zdravotnictva a Socialnej Prace, Trnavska univerzita, Univerzitne namestie 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Quinlivan, Aodh, E-mail: A.quinlivan@ucc.ie [Department of Government, College of Business and Law, 2nd Floor O' Rahilly Building, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  16. Combined effects of patch size and plant nutritional quality on local densities of insect herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.; Kamp, A.; Oliveira-Domingues, de F.; Hamback, P.A.; Jongema, Y.; Bezemer, T.M.; Dicke, M.; Dam, N.; Harvey, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions occur in spatially heterogeneous habitats. Understanding how such interactions shape density distributions of herbivores requires knowledge on how variation in plant traits (e.g. nutritional quality) affects herbivore abundance through, for example, affecting movement rates

  17. Evidence for health benefits of plant phenols: local or systemic effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Plant phenols are mostly products of the phenylpropanoid pathway and comprise a large variety of compounds: cinnamic acids, benzoic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, stilbenes, coumarins, lignans and lignins. They are strong antioxidants and might prevent oxidative damage to biomolecules such as

  18. Impacts of the Psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on Invasive French Broom in Relation to Plant Size and Psyllid Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Brian N; Moran, Patrick J; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-06-01

    The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana. We also examined whether the psyllid can consistently kill plants when its densities are sufficiently high. Survival of psyllids to adulthood and the timing of adult emergence did not differ between plant sizes, indicating that performance of nymphs was not influenced by plant size. However, adult psyllid survival was reduced on small plants, suggesting that nymphs and adults responded differently to ontogenetic changes in plant quality. Psyllids affected the growth of small and large plants similarly; all measured plant growth parameters were lower in the presence of psyllids regardless of plant size. In a separate experiment, effects on plant survival depended on psyllid density, as higher realized densities of ∼9 psyllids per cm stem length were necessary to consistently kill plants. Thus, results suggest that the psyllid would be equally effective on a range of plant sizes, particularly at high densities, and show the potential of the psyllid to help control French broom in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio-frequency sheath potentials on edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio frequency (RF) sheath potentials on the peeling-ballooning modes is studied non-linearly by employing a two-fluid three-field simulation model based on the BOUT++ framework. Additional shear flow and the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect due to the thermal and rectified RF sheath potential are induced. It is found that the shear flow increases the growth rate while the K-H effect decreases the growth rate slightly when there is a density gradient, but the energy loss of these cases is suppressed in the nonlinear phase. The stronger external electrostatic field due to the sheaths has a more significant effect on the energy loss suppression. From this study, it is found the growth rate in the linear phase mainly determines the onset of edge-localized modes, while the mode spectrum width in the nonlinear phase has an important impact on the turbulent transport. The wider mode spectrum leads to weaker turbulent transport and results in a smaller energy loss. Due to the thermal sheath and rectified RF sheath potential in the scrape-off-layer, the modified shear flow tears apart the peeling-ballooning filament and makes the mode spectrum wider, resulting in less energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region is also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition.

  20. From global framing to local action : translation of climate change impacts in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunseitan, O.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding policy and climate change mitigation in Africa. Its resolution will require integrating local knowledge and values into climate impact assessments. Africa's vulnerability to climate change can be traced to the frequency of socio-ecological devastation that comes from major climate variations on the continent. The incidence of famines, homelessness and disease epidemics that require international assistance are reflections of weak policies and institution action frames used to cope with climate and weather related emergencies. However, the valuation of climate change impacts has a subjective dimension that can be gained only through indigenous experience and an understanding of values associated with life-saving intervention programs. A recent study showed that discount rates applied to future life-saving programs by Africans are very different from the rates applied in developed countries, and that the difference should be reflected in national development programs and transnational initiatives for capacity building. The study suggests that if the boundary institutions responsible for public health security have not been too effective in resolving the policy controversy surrounding Africa's participation in climate change assessments, it is due partly to the limitations imposed by cross-scale issues in framing. It was concluded that efforts to reduce Africa's dependence on global emergency health response systems will necessitate the development of autonomous capacity to adapt to natural disasters. Appropriate frame reflection is needed at the local level. 56 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Impact of mechanical- and maintenance-induced failures of main reactor coolant pump seals on plant safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, M A; Boccio, J L; Mitra, S

    1985-12-01

    This document presents an investigation of the safety impact resulting from mechanical- and maintenance-induced reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal failures in nuclear power plants. A data survey of the pump seal failures for existing nuclear power plants in the US from several available sources was performed. The annual frequency of pump seal failures in a nuclear power plant was estimated based on the concept of hazard rate and dependency evaluation. The conditional probability of various sizes of leak rates given seal failures was then evaluated. The safety impact of RCP seal failures, in terms of contribution to plant core-melt frequency, was also evaluated for three nuclear power plants. For leak rates below the normal makeup capacity and the impact of plant safety were discussed qualitatively, whereas for leak rates beyond the normal make up capacity, formal PRA methodologies were applied. 22 refs., 17 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for the localization of viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms in insect and plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-04-01

    Methods for the localization of cellular components such as nucleic acids, proteins, cellular vesicles and more, and the localization of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria and fungi have become an important part of any research program in biological sciences that enable the visualization of these components in fixed and live tissues without the need for complex processing steps. The rapid development of microscopy tools and technologies as well as related fluorescent markers and fluorophores for many cellular components, and the ability to design DNA and RNA sequence-based molecular probes and antibodies which can be visualized fluorescently, have rapidly advanced this field. This review will focus on some of the localizations methods which have been used in plants and insect pests in agriculture, and other microorganisms, which are rapidly advancing the research in agriculture-related fields.

  3. The economic and environmental impacts of biofuel taxes on heating plants in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, R.; Kristroem, B.; Sisask, A.

    1998-12-31

    Sweden`s energy policy is currently based on a large-scale introduction of biofuels. Following a 1980 nuclear power referendum, the current plan is to phase out nuclear power, replacing nuclear energy with renewable energy sources. This policy is supported by various tax breaks for biofuels. There is an ongoing discussion about a restructuring of the energy tax system, which will have far-reaching impact on the markets for biofuels. This paper evaluates the impact of changes in current energy taxation by analyzing a panel of approximately 150 district heating plants in Sweden. We estimate plant-specific production functions and derive the economic repercussions of the tax. We also estimate the resulting changes of emissions of sulfur, NOX and particulates and assess the externality costs Arbetsrapport 258. 6 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  4. Plant and soil nematodes: societal impact and focus for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K R; Hussey, R S; Krusberg, L R; Bird, G W; Dunn, R A; Ferris, H; Ferris, V R; Freckman, D W; Gabriel, C J; Grewal, P S; Macguidwin, A E; Riddle, D L; Roberts, P A; Schmitt, D P

    1994-06-01

    Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research are briefly presented. Next, the opportunities facing nematology in the next decade are outlined, as well as the resources needed to address these priorities. The safety and sustainability of U.S. food and fiber production depends on public and administrative understanding of the importance of nematodes, the drastic effects of nematodes on many agricultural and horticultural crops, and the current research priorities of nematology.

  5. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  6. The local impact of climate change on the alpine mountains Zugspitze and Sonnblick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Severin; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2017-04-01

    In the past decades, the alpine region indicates a high sensitivity to the impact of climate change, as one can see in a higher increase in surface air temperature in the alps compared to the surrounding area. Beside the effect on temperature, a change on the components of the hydrological cycle may be expected, which can be critical for mankind in many areas, where the alpine region provides water security or ensures economical income due to, for example, winter tourism. Changes in certain meteorological variables will also have effects on the alpine ecosystem itself. In this study, some of these quantities and their development under changing climate boundary conditions are examined for the meteorological stations Zugspitze and Sonnblick. Temperature, precipitation, wind and humidity were evaluated at the Zugspitze station, which is located in the northern part of the alps, temperature and precipitation at the Sonnblick Observatory, which is located in the center of the Alps. For the impact analysis, a statistical downscaling (SD) approach was developed to find a link between the large scale atmosphere and the respective local effect. The SD framework is based on the artificial neural network (ANN) method. Models are calibrated for each season on a daily time scale using the 20th century reanalysis dataset as a substitute for atmospheric observational data. The developed ANN setups and configurations show promising results, e.g. up to 90% of explained variance (R2) for temperature and up to 60 % R2 for precipitation and relative humidity, while wind strength reaches with about 30% the lowest performance values. The identified ANN setups are afterwards driven with scenario data from five general circulation models (GCMs) from CMIP5 and additionally with two further realizations of one of the GCMs. As representative concentration pathways, two radiative forcings, 4.5 and 8.5 Watts, are selected. All future projections show a continuing increase in temperature

  7. Metabolic engineering of chloroplasts for artemisinic acid biosynthesis and impact on plant growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhawna Saxena; Mayavan Subramaniyan; Karan Malhotra; Neel Sarovar Bhavesh; Shobha Devi Potlakayala; Shashi Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Chloroplasts offer high-level transgene expression and transgene containment due to maternal inheritance, and are ideal hosts for biopharmaceutical biosynthesis via multigene engineering. To exploit these advantages, we have expressed 12 enzymes in chloroplasts for the biosynthesis of artemisinic acid (precursor of artemisinin, antimalarial drug) in an alternative plant system. Integration of transgenes into the tobacco chloroplast genome via homologous recombination was confirmed by molecular analysis, and biosynthesis of artemisinic acid in plant leaf tissues was detected with the help of 13C NMR and ESI-mass spectrometry. The excess metabolic flux of isopentenyl pyrophosphate generated by an engineered mevalonate pathway was diverted for the biosynthesis of artemisinic acid. However, expression of megatransgenes impacted the growth of the transplastomic plantlets. By combining two exogenous pathways, artemisinic acid was produced in transplastomic plants, which can be improved further using better metabolic engineering strategies for commercially viable yield of desirable isoprenoid products.

  8. Assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning nuclear power plant in Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Petraglia, A; De Cesare, M; De Cesare, N; Quinto, F; Terrasi, F; D'Onofrio, A; Steier, P; Fifield, L K; Esposito, A M; 10.1051/radiopro/2012010

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning Nuclear Power Plant is presented here through the results of an environmental monitoring survey carried out in the area surrounding the Garigliano Power Plant. The levels of radioactivity in soil, water, air and other environmental matrices are shown, in which {\\alpha}, {\\beta} and {\\gamma} activity and {\\gamma} equivalent dose rate are measured. Radioactivity levels of the samples from the Garigliano area are analyzed and then compared to those from a control zone situated more than 100 km away. Moreover, a comparison is made with a previous survey held in 2001. The analyses and comparisons show no significant alteration in the radiological characteristics of the area surroundings the plant, with an overall radioactivity depending mainly from the global fallout and natural sources.

  9. Current impact and future directions of high throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Sebastien; Olmos, Antonio; Jijakli, Haissam; Candresse, Thierry

    2014-08-08

    The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of high-throughput sequencing (also called Next Generation Sequencing - NGS) technologies and bioinformatics have drastically changed the research on viral pathogens. It is now raising a growing interest for virus diagnostics. This review provides a snapshot vision on the current use and impact of high throughput sequencing approaches in plant virus characterization. More specifically, this review highlights the potential of these new technologies and their interplay with current protocols in the future of molecular diagnostic of plant viruses. The current limitations that will need to be addressed for a wider adoption of high-throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics are thoroughly discussed.

  10. Some Analysis of Major Impact of Geothermal Fluid Components in Power Plant Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzăianu, A.; Csaki, I.; Moţoiu, P.; Leósson, K.; Serghiuţă, S.; Arnbjornsson, A.; Moţoiu, V.; Popescu, G.; Guðlaugsson, S.; Guðmundsson, D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results from a some analysis and major impact of geothermal fluid composition on the equipment in use in geothermal power plant. The structural analysis of material deposition improve the direct influenced of chemical composition of stem and waters included CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated in the molten phase and the deposits in the scales formed due to equipment. The steam turbine corrosion damage, particularly of blades, discs and pomps, has long been recognized as a leading causes of reduced availability in the geothermal power plant. The corrosion process depends on temperature, pressure, chemisty and vaporous carryover by diversity of impurity. The experimental analysis procedure involves characterization of the fluid geothermal composition. Detailed information about surfaces morphological modification of the power plant components are obtained by electron microprobe analysis EDX and SEM investigation. References selection are obtaining by X-ray diffractometer patterns of the specimen.

  11. Synthesis of recent advances in critical loads research on impacts from atmospheric nitrogen deposition on terrestrial plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C.; Horn, K. J.; Thomas, R. Q.; Simkin, S.; Pardo, L. H.; Blett, T.; Lawrence, G. B.; Belyazid, S.; Phelan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is one of the primary threats to plant biodiversity world-wide after habitat destruction and climate change. As a primary limiting nutrient and contributor to soil acidification, N inputs have the capacity to alter ecosystems through several mechanisms. Up until now, there was very little detailed information on the impacts from this stressor at the species level, or how climate and edaphic factors could alter ecosystem sensitivity. Here we summarize and synthesize four major efforts, funded by EPA, USGS, USFS, and the NPS, which greatly advance our understanding of this stressor. These include (1) a national analysis of sensitivity to N deposition for 114 tree species, (2) a national analysis of impacts from N deposition on herbaceous species and how climate and soil factors modify that sensitivity, (3) a regional dynamic modeling study of impacts and recovery from N and S deposition for a dominant northeastern forest type under a range of future climate and deposition scenarios, and (4) a large assessment of impacts to streams, soils, and vegetation along the 2000+ mile stretch of the Appalachian Trail. Here we show many responses to this stressor for all taxonomic groups, with some species decreasing, some increasing, and some unaffected by N deposition. However, dozens of tree and herb species are negatively affected and are of particular concern for conservation purposes, with vulnerability being greatly affected by regional climate and local edaphic factors. Dynamic modeling suggests that, at least in some northeastern forests, recovery across a broad range of climate change and management scenarios is unlikely by 2100. The study along the Appalachian Trail, a beloved national recreation trail, echoes these findings, with stream, soils, and vegetation impacted across large percentages of sites, and only moderate capacity for recovery by 2100. In total, this work highlights several recent advances in the area of critical loads research

  12. From local to central: a network analysis of who manages plant pest and disease outbreaks across scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key determinants of success in managing natural resources is "institutional fit," i.e., how well the suite of required actions collectively match the scale of the environmental problem. The effective management of pest and pathogen threats to plants is a natural resource problem of particular economic, social, and environmental importance. Responses to incursions are managed by a network of decision makers and managers acting at different spatial and temporal scales. We applied novel network theoretical methods to assess the propensity of growers, local industry, local state government, and state and national government head offices to foster either within- or across-scale coordination during the successful 2001 Australian response to the outbreak of the fungal pathogen black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis. We also reconstructed the response network to proxy what that network would look like today under the Australian government's revised response system. We illustrate a structural move in the plant biosecurity response system from one that was locally driven to the current top-down system, in which the national government leads coordination of a highly partitioned engagement process. For biological incursions that spread widely across regions, nationally rather than locally managed responses may improve coordination of diverse tasks. However, in dealing with such challenges of institutional fit, local engagement will always be critical in deploying flexible and adaptive local responses based on a national system. The methods we propose detect where and how network structures foster cross-scale interactions, which will contribute to stronger empirical studies of cross-scale environmental governance.

  13. Worst Case study method to assess the environmental impact of amine emissions from a CO{sub 2} capture plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, M.; Berglen, T.F.; Denby, B. (Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, Kjeller (Norway)); Wright, R.F. (Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-07-15

    Use of amines is one of the leading technologies for post-combustion carbon capture from gas and coal-fired power plants. A CO{sub 2} capture plant using amine technology will release amines (as gas and dissolved in droplets) to the air. These will undergo photo-oxidation and other reactions to form hundreds of different chemical compounds in the atmosphere after their release. The main aim of the current study is to estimate the potential adverse human health and environmental impacts given ''worst case'' assumptions on emission, dispersion and deposition of amines and their photo-oxidation products. We used a 40 x 40 km2 study area in the vicinity of a planned 1 Mg/yr CO{sub 2} capture facility at the gas-fired power plant at Mongstad, western Norway. We assumed that the plant would release 40 t/yr monoethanol amine (MEA) and 5 t/yr diethyl amine. With respect to inhalation exposure, the recommended risk threshold for N-nitrosodiethylamine (0.02 ng/m3 in air; US EPA) was exceeded in the 40 x 40 km2 study region. Drinking water standards for nitrosamines would be exceeded by about a factor of 3. MEA concentrations would exceed toxicity limits for aquatic organisms also by about a factor of 3. The ''worst case'' conditions may be different at other sites because the geographic location and the local meteorology have a large influence on both the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants and the local exposure of the population and the environment. Additional toxicity studies and field experiments are necessary to investigate biodegradation and retention of the compounds in soil and water before final conclusions can be drawn with respect to the maximum allowable emissions of amines and their oxidation products from CO{sub 2} capture plants. The ''worst case'' approach can be applied to other emitted air pollutants. (Author)

  14. Uncertainties in assessing the environmental impact of amine emissions from a CO2 capture plant

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, M.; Castell, N.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; J. Starrfelt; T. Svendby; Walker, S.-E.; Wright, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new model framework that couples the atmospheric chemistry transport model system Weather Research and Forecasting–European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (WRF-EMEP) and the multimedia fugacity level III model was used to assess the environmental impact of in-air amine emissions from post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. The modelling framework was applied to a typical carbon capture plant artificially placed at Mongstad, on the west coast of ...

  15. Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modified plants on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.;

    2014-01-01

    -funded research project AMIGA − Assessing and monitoring Impacts of Genetically modified plants on Agro-ecosystems − aims to address this issue, by providing a framework that establishes protection goals and baselines for European agro-ecosystems, improves knowledge on the potential long term environmental...... focuses on ecological studies in different EU regions, the sustainability of GM crops is estimated by analysing the functional components of the agro-ecosystems and specific experimental protocols are being developed for this scope....

  16. The Impacts of Total System Design Factors on Human Performance in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have an impact on the overall performance of the power plants in the context of total human engineering or macroergonomy. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant? To achieve the above objective the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The selected TSD factors are related to procedures, work assessment, teamwork, self-organization, information exchange and communication. The results of this study show that the TSD factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected TSD factors correlate to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system development cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. This is a challenging task for designers of power plants but is required if we are facing unforeseen and complex issues of such systems in twenty-first century. The methodology discussed here may be easily extended to all types of power plants.

  17. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared with acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS.

  18. Working the Night Shift: The Impact of Compensating Wages and Local Economic Conditions on Shift Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colene Trent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of compensating differentials asserts that night shift workers should receive compensating wage differentials due to undesirable work conditions. In weak local economies, workers may have difficulty finding jobs; thus, these workers might be more likely to accept night shift work and be less concerned with the size of the compensating differential for night shifts. Using CPS data from 2001, this paper employs maximum likelihood estimation of an endogenous switching regression model to analyze wages of day and night shift workers and shift choice. The findings indicate the presence of selection bias, thus emphasizing the importance of correcting for self-selection into night shifts. The average of the estimated wage differentials for night shift work is negative for the overall sample, with differentials varying by worker characteristics. The shift differential is found to be a statistically significant predictor of shift choice, indicating that shift premiums play an important role in motivating individuals to select night shift work. Using two measures of local economic conditions and a new method of analyzing interaction effects in the context of an endogenous switching regression model, this paper finds limited evidence that weak local economic conditions lessen the impact of compensating differentials on shift choice.

  19. Impact of 'stretch' targets for cardiovascular disease management within a local pay-for-performance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Utz J; Huckvale, Kit; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Pay-for-performance programs are often aimed to improve the management of chronic diseases. We evaluate the impact of a local pay for performance programme (QOF+), which rewarded financially more ambitious quality targets ('stretch targets') than those used nationally in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). We focus on targets for intermediate outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. A difference-in-difference approach is used to compare practice level achievements before and after the introduction of the local pay for performance program. In addition, we analysed patient-level data on exception reporting and intermediate outcomes utilizing an interrupted time series analysis. The local pay for performance program led to significantly higher target achievements (hypertension: p-value performance scheme was mainly attributed to increased exception reporting by practices with no discernable improvements in overall clinical quality. Hence, active monitoring of exception reporting should be considered when setting more ambitious quality targets. More generally, the study suggests a trade-off between additional incentive for better care and monitoring costs.

  20. The Impact Of Integrated Parameters In The Manga Local Mass-Metallicity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.

    2016-09-01

    We present the surface mass density - gas metallicity (Σ_*-Z) relation for more than 500,000 spatially-resolved star-forming regions from a sample of 617 disk galaxies included in the MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties with higher metallicities as the surface density increases, resembling a scaled-down version of the relation found previously for their integrated counterparts. This relation expands over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass and a factor of 8 in metallicity. Our large sample allows us to study the impact of global properties in this local relation. In particular, we find that for most disk galaxies the Σ_*-Z relation does not depend on the total stellar mass. Even more, for a large fraction of our sample (log(M_*/M_{⊙}) > 9.2) the observed metallicity gradients are well reproduced by the mass density gradients and the Σ_*-Z relation. We also find that this relation does not change significantly within the range of redshifts span by our sample. Our results suggest as the predominant scenario for metal enrichment as gas been recycled locally at shorter timescales in comparison to other global processes such as gas accretion or outflows.

  1. The Impacts of Macroergonomics on Environmental Protection and Human Performance in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Azadeh, J Nouri, I Mohammad Fam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and his performance is a vital factor in protection of asset including environmental properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total human engineering or macroergonomics. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant. To achieve the above objective, the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The results of this study show that the macroergonomic factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange, influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected macroergonomic factors are correlated to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system developmental cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. The main goal in such program is customer's satisfaction (Internal customers. However, more elaboration on the scientific tools for implementation of TDS factors in context of human performance is also under investigation.

  2. Plant species coexistence alleviates the impacts of lead on Zea mays L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruyi Yang; Ling Liu; Shuting Zan; Jianjun Tang; Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Whether plant coexistence can reduce the impacts of lead(Pb)on crops in agroecosystems has not been well understood.We conducted a factorial experiment to investigate the effects of weeds coexisting with maize(Zea mays L.)on Pb accumulation in maize and soil microbes at two Pb levels(ambient and 300 mg/kg).Elevated Pb tended to increase the Pb concentration in maize and decreased soil microbial activity(indicated by the average well color development,AWCD),functional group diversity,as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)colonization and vesicle number of maize.Compared to the monoculture,weeds coexisting with maize reduced the Pb concentrations in the root,leaf,sheath and stem of maize at both seedling and mature stages.In maize-weed mixtures,soil microbial activity and functional group diversity tended to increase for both Pb treatments relative to the monoculture.Furthermore,principal component analysis revealed that the soil microbial community structure changed with the introduction of weeds.The highest Pb accumulation in weeds occurred for the elevated Pb treatment in a three species mixture.The results suggest that multiple plant species coexistence could reduce lead accumulation in crop plants and alleviate the negative impacts on soil microbes in polluted land,thereby highlighting the significance of plant diversity in agroecosystems.

  3. Oxygen mass transfer and hydrodynamic behaviour in wastewater: determination of local impact of surfactants by visualization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Mélanie; Dietrich, Nicolas; Grace, John R; Hébrard, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Powerful techniques, based on the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, are deployed to locally visualize and quantify the impact of surfactants in wastewaters on hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer. Bubble diameter, aspect ratio, rise velocity, contamination angle, as well as flux, flux density, liquid side mass transfer and diffusion coefficients of transferred oxygen are determined based on these techniques applied in the wake of rising bubbles of diameter 1 mm and through planar gas/liquid interfaces. The initial experiments were performed in demineralized water containing small amounts of surfactant. Different concentrations of surfactant were added to finally reach the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). Bubbles have classically been found to be more spherical with a reduced rise velocity in the presence of surfactants up to the CMC. Above the CMC, these hydrodynamic characteristics were found to be almost constant, although the oxygen mass transfer decreased due to the presence of surfactants. Experimental results were markedly lower than predicted by the well-known Frössling equation with rigid surfaces. This is believed to be caused by a barrier of surfactants hindering the oxygen mass transfer at the interface. Similar hindrance of oxygen mass transfer applies to waters from sewage plants (filtered raw water and treated water), making accurate design of aeration tanks difficult.

  4. Regional and local species richness in an insular environment: Serpentine plants in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S.; Safford, H.D.; Grace, J.B.; Viers, J.H.; Davies, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    We asked how the richness of the specialized (endemic) flora of serpentine rock outcrops in California varies at both the regional and local scales. Our study had two goals: first, to test whether endemic richness is affected by spatial habitat structure (e.g., regional serpentine area, local serpentine outcrop area, regional and local measures of outcrop isolation), and second, to conduct this test in the context of a broader assessment of environmental influences (e.g., climate, soils, vegetation, disturbance) and historical influences (e.g., geologic age, geographic province) on local and regional species richness. We measured endemic and total richness and environmental variables in 109 serpentine sites (1000-m2 paired plots) in 78 serpentine-containing regions of the state. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to simultaneously relate regional richness to regionalscale predictors, and local richness to both local-scale and regional-scale predictors. Our model for serpentine endemics explained 66% of the variation in local endemic richness based on local environment (vegetation, soils, rock cover) and on regional endemic richness. It explained 73% of the variation in regional endemic richness based on regional environment (climate and productivity), historical factors (geologic age and geographic province), and spatial structure (regional total area of serpentine, the only significant spatial variable in our analysis). We did not find a strong influence of spatial structure on species richness. However, we were able to distinguish local vs. regional influences on species richness to a novel extent, despite the existence of correlations between local and regional conditions. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Impact of Production from Photovoltaic Power Plants on Increase of Ancillary Services in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smocek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources represent a noticeable part of the overall energetic concept development. New integration of renewable energy resources into power grids has a significant impact on the reliability and quality of power supply. The major problem of the photovoltaic and wind power plants is their dependency on weather conditions, since it has a direct effect on their immediate output produced that shows stochastic behaviour. These stochastic outputs result in very adverse impacts on the power grid. Further development of these resources could lead to exceeding of the control and absorption abilities of the power grid. The power grid must be set in balance with respect to the production and consumption of electric power at any time. The operation of photovoltaic power plants impair keeping this balance. That has an adverse impact on the very operation and maintenance of network parameters within the extent required. This survey deals with analysis focused on operation of the photovoltaic power plants with respect to the increase of reserve power in ancillary services in the Czech Republic.

  6. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity.

  7. Evaluation of Monticello Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact Prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-11-01

    This report evaluates quantitatively the nonradiological environmental monitoring programs at Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant. The general objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of monitoring programs in the measurement of environmental impacts. Specific objectives include the following: (1) Assess the validity of environmental impact predictions made in the Environmental Statement by analysis of nonradiological monitoring data; (2) evaluate the general adequacy of environmental monitoring programs for detecting impacts and their responsiveness to Technical Specifications objectives; (3) assess the adequacy of preoperational monitoring programs in providing a sufficient data base for evaluating operational impacts; (4) identify possible impacts that were not predicted in the environmental statement and identify monitoring activities that need to be added, modified or deleted; and (5) assist in identifying environmental impacts, monitoring methods, and measurement problems that need additional research before quantitative predictions can be attempted. Preoperational as well as operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the analytical methods used to measure ecological and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data were available.

  8. Traditional healers and laypeople: a qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Piero; Morganti, Michela; Mancini, Matteo; Signorini, Maria Adele

    2011-11-18

    profetas. Yet, even laypeople proved to hold quite a good knowledge about medicinal remedies; women in particular use several different plants to heal common diseases of the whole family, mostly for children and female health problems. The high number of plants and uses recorded demonstrates that in the study area ethnobotanical knowledge is still quite rich and alive. The finding of many medicinal plants and uses new for Mozambique or even Africa shows the importance of recording this knowledge before it vanishes, also as a basis for further investigations on possible pharmacological properties of local plants. The lack of health infrastructures in Muda results in the need for lay villagers of acquiring and developing a rather high degree of knowledge about plants remedies; in a different interaction between healers and lay villagers, compared to urban areas; ultimately, in a different distribution and wider spread of traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the

  10. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  11. Mixing plants from different origins to restore a declining population: ecological outcomes and local perceptions 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Anne-Claire; Abdelkrim, Jawad; Cisel, Matthieu; Zavodna, Monika; Bardin, Philippe; Matamoro, Alexis; Dumez, Richard; Machon, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Populations of the Large-flowered Sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora L.) in the Fontainebleau forest (France) have declined rapidly during the last century. Despite the initiation of a protection program in 1991, less than twenty individuals remained by the late 1990s. The low fitness of these last plants, which is likely associated with genetic disorders and inbreeding depression, highlighted the need for the introduction of non-local genetic material to increase genetic diversity and thus restore Fontainebleau populations. Consequently, A. grandiflora was introduced at three distant sites in the Fontainebleau forest in 1999. Each of these populations was composed of an identical mix of individuals of both local and non-local origin that were obtained through in vitro multiplication. After establishment, the population status (number of individuals, diameter of the plants, and number of flowers) of the introduced populations was monitored. At present, two populations (one of which is much larger than the other) persist, while the third one became extinct in 2004. Analyses of the ecological parameters of the introduction sites indicated that differences in soil pH and moisture might have contributed to the differences in population dynamics. This introduction plan and its outcome attracted interest of local community, with those who supported the plan and regarded its 10-year result as a biological success (i.e., persistent populations were created), but also those who expressed reservations or disapproval of the plan and its outcome. To understand this controversy, a sociological study involving 27 semi-structured interviews was carried out. From these interviews emerged three areas of controversy: alteration of the identity of the plant, alteration of the identity of its territory, and the biological and ethical consequences of the techniques used for the experimental conservation.

  12. Mixing plants from different origins to restore a declining population: ecological outcomes and local perceptions 10 years later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire Maurice

    Full Text Available Populations of the Large-flowered Sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora L. in the Fontainebleau forest (France have declined rapidly during the last century. Despite the initiation of a protection program in 1991, less than twenty individuals remained by the late 1990s. The low fitness of these last plants, which is likely associated with genetic disorders and inbreeding depression, highlighted the need for the introduction of non-local genetic material to increase genetic diversity and thus restore Fontainebleau populations. Consequently, A. grandiflora was introduced at three distant sites in the Fontainebleau forest in 1999. Each of these populations was composed of an identical mix of individuals of both local and non-local origin that were obtained through in vitro multiplication. After establishment, the population status (number of individuals, diameter of the plants, and number of flowers of the introduced populations was monitored. At present, two populations (one of which is much larger than the other persist, while the third one became extinct in 2004. Analyses of the ecological parameters of the introduction sites indicated that differences in soil pH and moisture might have contributed to the differences in population dynamics. This introduction plan and its outcome attracted interest of local community, with those who supported the plan and regarded its 10-year result as a biological success (i.e., persistent populations were created, but also those who expressed reservations or disapproval of the plan and its outcome. To understand this controversy, a sociological study involving 27 semi-structured interviews was carried out. From these interviews emerged three areas of controversy: alteration of the identity of the plant, alteration of the identity of its territory, and the biological and ethical consequences of the techniques used for the experimental conservation.

  13. Impacts of desalination plant discharges on the marine environment: A critical review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Johnston, Emma L; Knott, Nathan A

    2010-10-01

    Desalination of seawater is an increasingly common means by which nations satisfy demand for water. Desalination has a long history in the Middle East and Mediterranean, but expanding capacities can be found in the United States, Europe and Australia. There is therefore increasing global interest in understanding the environmental impacts of desalination plants and their discharges on the marine environment. Here we review environmental, ecological and toxicological research in this arena including monitoring and assessment of water quality and ecological attributes in receiving environments. The greatest environmental and ecological impacts have occurred around older multi-stage flash (MSF) plants discharging to water bodies with little flushing. These discharge scenarios can lead to substantial increases in salinity and temperature, and the accumulation of metals, hydrocarbons and toxic anti-fouling compounds in receiving waters. Experiments in the field and laboratory clearly demonstrate the potential for acute and chronic toxicity, and small-scale alterations to community structure following exposures to environmentally realistic concentrations of desalination brines. A clear consensus across many of the reviewed articles is that discharge site selection is the primary factor that determines the extent of ecological impacts of desalination plants. Ecological monitoring studies have found variable effects ranging from no significant impacts to benthic communities, through to widespread alterations to community structure in seagrass, coral reef and soft-sediment ecosystems when discharges are released to poorly flushed environments. In most other cases environmental effects appear to be limited to within 10s of meters of outfalls. It must be noted that a large proportion of the published work is descriptive and provides little quantitative data that we could assess independently. Many of the monitoring studies lacked sufficient detail with respect to study design

  14. Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UDNyBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickson Erick Otieno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95% of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5% exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts.

  15. Result of Six Local Upland Rice Cultivars of East Kalimantan at Different Plant Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rusdiansyah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of six upland rice cultivars from East Kalimantan over different plant spacing. The experiment was conducted at Kutai Kartanegara district in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The experimental design used was the factorial experiment in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCDB with three replications. The first factor was six upland rice cultivars of East Kalimantan, i.e.: v1 (Mayas Pancing, v2 (Gedagai, v3 (Bogor Putih, v4 (Mayas Putih, v5 (Serai and v6 (Kunyit. The second factor was plant spacing i.e.: j1 (20 x 20 cm and j2 (30 x 30 cm. The results showed that among the six cultivars, Gedagai, Bogor Putih and Kunyit produced higher yield than other varieties.  Gedagai and Bogor Putih cultivars produced higher yield of 2.99 ton ha-1 at plant spacing 20 x 20 cm, whereas Kunyit produced higher yield of 2.66 ton ha-1 at plant spacing 30 x 30 cm. The agronomic characters showed that plant height of the six cultivars differed significantly at harvest time. In addition, highly significant differences of harvest time were observed of the six cultivars.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.66-68

  16. Mercury localization and speciation in plants grown hydroponically or in a natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Siebner, Hagar; Leduc, Danika L; Webb, Samuel M; Millán, Rocío; Andrews, Joy C; Hernández, Luis E

    2013-04-01

    Better understanding of mercury (Hg) accumulation, distribution, and speciation in plants is required to evaluate potential risks for the environment and to optimize phytostabilization strategies for Hg-contaminated soils. The behavior of Hg in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants grown under controlled conditions in a hydroponic system (30 μM HgCl2) was compared with that of naturally occurring Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) plants collected from a mining soil polluted with Hg (Almadenejos, Spain) to characterize common mechanisms of tolerance. Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence microprobe (μ-SXRF) showed that Hg accumulated at the root apex of alfalfa and was distributed through the vascular system to the leaves. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) implied association of Hg with cell walls, accompanied by their structural changes, in alfalfa roots. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) determined that Hg was principally bound to biothiols and/or proteins in M. sativa roots, stems, and leaves. However, the major fraction of Hg detected in M. vulgare plants consisted of mineral species, possibly associated with soil components. Interestingly, the fraction of Hg bound to biothiols/proteins (i.e., metabolically processed Hg) in leaves of both plants (alfalfa and M. vulgare) was similar, in spite of the big difference in Hg accumulation in roots, suggesting that some tolerance mechanisms might be shared.

  17. A Study on Methodologies for Assessing Safety Critical Network's Risk Impact on Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Park, S. K.; Seo, S. J. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The objectives of this project is to establish methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant by developing reliability analysis models for the safety-critical network. It is essential to develop reliability analysis models for safety-critical network, and it is very important to adapt the model to the current methodologies for assessing risk impact on nuclear power plants. Major outputs of the first year study are preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks and those of the second year study are methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant.

  18. The Reviewing of Distributed Power Sources Impact on Fallout’s Localization in 22 kV Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bracinik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out some facts that will occur by fault localization in 22 kV networks after the implementation of distributed power sources, especially wind power plants. This paper describes possible connection of these sources into power system in regard to their rated output. It also presents short theoretical background for short circuit calculation in 22 kV network. Then several examples explaining how the point of wind power plant connection can influence network’s operation during short-circuits and consequential fault’s localization are described in the second part of this paper

  19. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: Before and after plant shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  20. Human impact on fluvial sediments: how to distinguish regional and local sources of heavy metals contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakova T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional contamination of southern Moravia (SE part of the Czech Republic by heavy metals and magnetic particles during the 20th century was quantified in fluvial sediments of the Morava River. The influence of local sources to the regional contamination of the river sediments and impact of sampling sites heterogeneity were studied in profiles with different sedimentology (facies and lithology. For this purpose, hundreds of samples were obtained from regulated channel banks and naturally inundated floodplains and proxy elementary analyses have been carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED XRF, further calibrated by ICP MS. Magnetic susceptibility as a proxy of industrial contamination was determined and the age model has been obtained by 210Pb dating method. After establishing the lithological background from floodplain profiles, assessment of heavy metal contamination was done by using enrichment factors (EFs of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and magnetic susceptibility. Floodplain sedimentary profiles were found to be realiable for assessment of contamination and reconstruction of large scale, i.e. a really averaged regional contamination, while regulated channel banks are suitable for obtaining of more or less qualitative information of influence of local point sources in the area because sediments from regulated river banks qualitatively reflect the actual local contamination of the river system. It allowed us to distinguish the influence of local sources of contamination by comparing with more spatially averaged contamination signal from more distal floodplain profiles. The study area is rather weakly contaminated (EF ∼ 1-2, while individual sediment strata from regulated channel banks contains several times larger concentrations of heavy metals.

  1. Impact of 'stretch' targets for cardiovascular disease management within a local pay-for-performance programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz J Pape

    Full Text Available Pay-for-performance programs are often aimed to improve the management of chronic diseases. We evaluate the impact of a local pay for performance programme (QOF+, which rewarded financially more ambitious quality targets ('stretch targets' than those used nationally in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF. We focus on targets for intermediate outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. A difference-in-difference approach is used to compare practice level achievements before and after the introduction of the local pay for performance program. In addition, we analysed patient-level data on exception reporting and intermediate outcomes utilizing an interrupted time series analysis. The local pay for performance program led to significantly higher target achievements (hypertension: p-value <0.001, coronary heart disease: p-values <0.001, diabetes: p-values <0.061, stroke: p-values <0.003. However, the increase was driven by higher rates of exception reporting (hypertension: p-value <0.001, coronary heart disease: p-values <0.03, diabetes: p-values <0.05 in patients with all conditions except for stroke. Exception reporting allows practitioners to exclude patients from target calculations if certain criteria are met, e.g. informed dissent of the patient for treatment. There were no statistically significant improvements in mean blood pressure, cholesterol or HbA1c levels. Thus, achievement of higher payment thresholds in the local pay for performance scheme was mainly attributed to increased exception reporting by practices with no discernable improvements in overall clinical quality. Hence, active monitoring of exception reporting should be considered when setting more ambitious quality targets. More generally, the study suggests a trade-off between additional incentive for better care and monitoring costs.

  2. Impact of lime, nitrogen and plant species on bacterial community structure in grassland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nabla; Brodie, Eoin; Connolly, John; Clipson, Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    A microcosm-based approach was used to study impacts of plant and chemical factors on the bacterial community structure of an upland acidic grassland soil. Seven perennial plant species typical of both natural, unimproved (Nardus stricta, Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina and F. rubra) and fertilized, improved (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens) grasslands were either left unamended or treated with lime, nitrogen, or lime plus nitrogen in a 75-day glasshouse experiment. Lime and nitrogen amendment were shown to have a greater effect on microbial activity, biomass and bacterial ribotype number than plant species. Liming increased soil pH, microbial activity and biomass, while decreasing ribotype number. Nitrogen addition decreased soil pH, microbial activity and ribotype number. Addition of lime plus nitrogen had intermediate effects, which appeared to be driven more by lime than nitrogen. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that lime and nitrogen addition altered soil bacterial community structure, while plant species had little effect. These results were further confirmed by multivariate redundancy analysis, and suggest that soil lime and nitrogen status are more important controllers of bacterial community structure than plant rhizosphere effects.

  3. Impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfaunal community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen are supplied by a variety of sources in the desert food web; both vascular and non-vascular plants and cyanobacteria supply carbon, and cyanobacteria and plant-associated rhizosphere bacteria are sources of biological nitrogen fixation. The objective of this study was to compare the relative influence of vascular plants and biological soil crusts on desert soil nematode and protozoan abundance and community composition. In the first experiment, biological soil crusts were removed by physical trampling. Treatments with crust removed had fewer nematodes and a greater relative ratio of bacterivores to microphytophages than treatments with intact crust. However, protozoa composition was similar with or without the presence of crusts. In a second experiment, nematode community composition was characterized along a spatial gradient away from stems of grasses or shrubs. Although nematodes generally occurred in increasing abundance nearer to plant stems, some genera (such as the enrichment-type Panagrolaimus) increased disproportionately more than others (such as the stress-tolerant Acromoldavicus). We propose that the impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfauna, as reflected in the community composition of microbivorous nematodes, is a combination of carbon input, microclimate amelioration, and altered soil hydrology. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

  4. Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large impact on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert region to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This regional-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.

  5. Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Plants on the Soil Mechanical Behaviour of Sandy Seafloors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Nina; Lambers-Huesmann, Maria; Zeiler, Manfred; Zoellner, Christian; Kopf, Achim

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, wind energy has become an important renewable energy source. Especially, the installation of offshore windfarms offers additional space and higher average wind speeds than the well-established windfarms onshore. Certainly, the construction of offshore wind turbines has an impact on the environment. In the framework of the Research at Alpha VEntus (RAVE) project in the German offshore wind energy farm Alpha Ventus (north of the island Borkum in water depths of about 30 m) a research plan to investigate the environmental impact had been put into place. An ongoing study focuses on the changes in soil mechanics of the seafloor close to the foundations and the development of scour. Here, we present results of the first geotechnical investigations after construction of the plants (ca. 1 - 6 months) compared to geotechnical measurements prior to construction. To study the soil mechanical behaviour of the sand, sediment samples from about thirty different positions were measured in the laboratory to deliver, e.g., grain size (0.063 - 0.3 mm), friction angles (~ 32°), unit weight (~ 19.9 kN/m³) and void ratios (~ 0.81). For acoustic visualisation, side-scan-sonar (towed and stationary) and multibeam-echosounders (hull mounted) were used. Data show a flat, homogenous seafloor prior to windmill erection, and scouring effects at and in the vicinity of the foundations afterwards. Geotechnical in-situ measurements were carried out using a standard dynamic Cone Penetration Testing lance covering the whole windfarm area excluding areas in a radius 50 %) occur above all close to the foundations. Furthermore, patterns of relatively soft zones (qsbc.: 50 - 80 kPa) and hard zones (qsbc. > 100 kPa) were mapped during the high-resolution surveys close to the foundation. Beside that, a very soft sediment layer (0.03 - 0.05 m) drapes most of the soft zones. This may be recently eroded and re-deposited sediment, whereas the hard zones may indicate areas of sediment

  6. The Role of Agritourism’s Impact on the Local Community in a Transitional Society: A Report From Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. PETROVIĆ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed local residents’ attitudesin Serbia toward the impact of agritourismin their surroundings, using a Tourism ImpactAttitude Scale (TIAS. Till now, analysis of theimpact of tourism on the attitudes of residentsin rural areas of Serbia and other Balkan transitionalcountries is insuffi ciently researched. Theanalyzed items of the TIAS were grouped intofour factors: personal and community benefi ts(grouped eight items; negative impacts (sevenitems; concern for the local tourism development(fi ve items; and general opinion abouttourism development (three items. The factorsexplain 47.47% of the variance. Furthermore,the results showed that residents consider thepossibility to have more money to spend as themost important impact of tourism development. Itis followed by the support of local authorities topromote tourism development. The third relevantissue for the residents is related with encouragementof tourism in the local community. Theseare the key propositions to start an initiative forthe local communities to actively participate inagritourism development. The results provideresidents, tourism organizers and local authoritieswith important community perceptions pertainingto the agritourism’s impact.

  7. medicinal utilization of roots of forest plants in lere local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLANIPEKUN

    Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Nigeria. 2. .... The study was conducted in Lere Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria .... Only 13.33% and 11.67% of the single respondents and divorced respondents.

  8. Variability of temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation from a regional-to-local impact scale perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Kirchengast, G.

    2016-12-01

    Relating precipitation intensity to temperature is a popular approach to assess potential changes of extreme events in a warming climate. Potential increases in extreme rainfall induced hazards, such as flash flooding, serve as motivation. It has not been addressed whether the temperature-precipitation scaling approach is meaningful on a regional to local level, where the risk of climate and weather impact is dealt with. Substantial variability of temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation has been found that results from differing methodological assumptions as well as from varying climatological settings of the study domains. Two aspects are consistently found: First, temperature sensitivities beyond the expected consistency with the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation are a feature of short-duration, convective, sub-daily to sub-hourly high-percentile rainfall intensities at mid-latitudes. Second, exponential growth ceases or reverts at threshold temperatures that vary from region to region, as moisture supply becomes limited. Analyses of pooled data, or of single or dispersed stations over large areas make it difficult to estimate the consequences in terms of local climate risk. In this study we test the meaningfulness of the scaling approach from an impact scale perspective. Temperature sensitivities are assessed using quantile regression on hourly and sub-hourly precipitation data from 189 stations in the Austrian south-eastern Alpine region. The observed scaling rates vary substantially, but distinct regional and seasonal patterns emerge. High sensitivity exceeding CC-scaling is seen on the 10-minute scale more than on the hourly scale, in storms shorter than 2 hours duration, and in shoulder seasons, but it is not necessarily a significant feature of the extremes. To be impact relevant, change rates need to be linked to absolute rainfall amounts. We show that high scaling rates occur in lower temperature conditions and thus have smaller effect on absolute

  9. A single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC algorithm for impact localization on complex composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Qiu, Lei; Zhong, Yongteng

    2015-10-01

    The growing use of composite materials on aircraft structures has attracted much attention for impact monitoring as a kind of structural health monitoring (SHM) method. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC)-based monitoring technology is a promising method because of its directional scanning ability and easy arrangement of the sensor array. However, for applications on real complex structures, some challenges still exist. The impact-induced elastic waves usually exhibit a wide-band performance, giving rise to the difficulty in obtaining the phase velocity directly. In addition, composite structures usually have obvious anisotropy, and the complex structural style of real aircrafts further enhances this performance, which greatly reduces the localization precision of the MUSIC-based method. To improve the MUSIC-based impact monitoring method, this paper first analyzes and demonstrates the influence of measurement precision of the phase velocity on the localization results of the MUSIC impact localization method. In order to improve the accuracy of the phase velocity measurement, a single frequency component extraction method is presented. Additionally, a single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC (SFCBR-MUSIC) algorithm is proposed to reduce the localization error caused by the anisotropy of the complex composite structure. The proposed method is verified on a real composite aircraft wing box, which has T-stiffeners and screw holes. Three typical categories of 41 impacts are monitored. Experimental results show that the SFCBR-MUSIC algorithm can localize impact on complex composite structures with an obviously improved accuracy.

  10. Modeling of Local BEAM Structure for Evaluation of MMOD Impacts to Support Development of a Health Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes initial modeling of the local response of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) to micrometeorite and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts using a structural, non-linear, transient dynamic finite element code. Complementary test results for a local BEAM structure are presented for both hammer and projectile impacts. Review of these data provided guidance for the transient dynamic model development. The local model is intended to support predictions using the global BEAM model, described in a companion report. Two types of local models were developed. One mimics the simplified Soft-Goods (fabric envelop) part of the BEAM NASTRAN model delivered by the project. The second investigates through-the-thickness modeling challenges for MMOD-type impacts. Both the testing and the analysis summaries contain lessons learned and areas for future efforts.

  11. Specialization and local adaptation of a fungal parasite on two host plant species as revealed by two fitness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Delphine; Pennings, Pleuni S; Grandclément, Catherine; Acosta, Jorge; Kaltz, Oliver; Shykoff, Jacqui A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geographic pattern of adaptation of a fungal parasite, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, on two host species, Phaseolus vulgaris and P. coccineus for two parasite fitness traits: infectivity (ability to attack a host individual) and aggressivity (degree of sporulation and leaf surface damage). Using a cross-inoculation experiment, we show specialization of the fungus on its host species of origin for both traits even when fungi, which originated from hosts growing in sympatry, were tested on sympatric host populations. Within the two host species, we compared infectivity and aggressivity on local versus allopatric plant-fungus combinations. We found evidence for local adaptation for the two traits on P. vulgaris but not on P. coccineus. There was no significant correlation between the degrees of local adaptation for infectivity and aggressivity, indicating that the genetic basis and the effect of selection may differ between these two traits. For the two fitness traits, a positive correlation between the degree of specialization and the degree of local adaptation was found, suggesting that specialization can be reinforced by local adaptation.

  12. Insights into the evolution and diversification of the AT-hook Motif Nuclear Localized gene family in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianfei; Favero, David S; Qiu, Jiwen; Roalson, Eric H; Neff, Michael M

    2014-10-14

    Members of the ancient land-plant-specific transcription factor AT-Hook Motif Nuclear Localized (AHL) gene family regulate various biological processes. However, the relationships among the AHL genes, as well as their evolutionary history, still remain unexplored. We analyzed over 500 AHL genes from 19 land plant species, ranging from the early diverging Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella to a variety of monocot and dicot flowering plants. We classified the AHL proteins into three types (Type-I/-II/-III) based on the number and composition of their functional domains, the AT-hook motif(s) and PPC domain. We further inferred their phylogenies via Bayesian inference analysis and predicted gene gain/loss events throughout their diversification. Our analyses suggested that the AHL gene family emerged in embryophytes and further evolved into two distinct clades, with Type-I AHLs forming one clade (Clade-A), and the other two types together diversifying in another (Clade-B). The two AHL clades likely diverged before the separation of Physcomitrella patens from the vascular plant lineage. In angiosperms, Clade-A AHLs expanded into 5 subfamilies; while, the ones in Clade-B expanded into 4 subfamilies. Examination of their expression patterns suggests that the AHLs within each clade share similar expression patterns with each other; however, AHLs in one monophyletic clade exhibit distinct expression patterns from the ones in the other clade. Over-expression of a Glycine max AHL PPC domain in Arabidopsis thaliana recapitulates the phenotype observed when over-expressing its Arabidopsis thaliana counterpart. This result suggests that the AHL genes from different land plant species may share conserved functions in regulating plant growth and development. Our study further suggests that such functional conservation may be due to conserved physical interactions among the PPC domains of AHL proteins. Our analyses reveal a possible evolutionary scenario for the AHL gene family

  13. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  14. Local anthropogenic impact on particulate elemental carbon concentrations at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. W. Hagler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Summit, Greenland is a remote Arctic research station allowing for field measurements at the highest point of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Due to the current reliance on diesel generators for electricity at Summit, unavoidable local emissions are a potential contamination threat to the measurement of combustion-related species in the air and snow. The effect of fossil-fuel combustion on particulate elemental carbon (EC is assessed by a combination of ambient measurements (~1 km from the main camp, a series of snow pits, and Gaussian plume modeling. Ambient measurements indicate that the air directly downwind of the research station generators experiences particulate absorption coefficient (closely related to EC values that are up to a factor of 200 higher than the summer 2006 non-camp-impacted ambient average. Local anthropogenic influence on snow EC content is also evident. The average EC concentration in 1-m snow pits in the "clean air" sector of Summit Camp are a factor of 1.8–2.4 higher than in snow pits located 10 km and 20 km to the north ("downwind" and south ("upwind" of the research site. Gaussian plume modeling performed using meteorological data from years 2003–2006 suggests a strong angular dependence of anthropogenic impact, with highest risk to the northwest of Summit Camp and lowest to the southeast. Along a transect to the southeast (5 degree angle bin, the modeled frequency of significant camp contribution to atmospheric EC (i.e. camp-produced EC>summer 2006 average EC at a distance of 0.5 km, 10 km, and 20 km is 1%, 0.2%, and 0.05%, respectively. According to both the snow pit and model results, a distance exceeding 10 km towards the southeast is expected to minimize risk of contamination. These results also suggest that other remote Arctic monitoring stations powered by local fuel combustion may need to account for local air and snow contamination in field sampling design and data interpretation.

  15. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact; Veillissement des centrales Impacts socio-economiques, sanitaires et environnementaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch. [Depute du nord (France); Denner, M. [EDF pour la Region Bourgogne (France); Vouilloux, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Foucher, L. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Serviere, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Vila d' Abadal Serra, M

    2005-07-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  16. Monitoring, modeling and mitigating impacts of wind farms on local meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin; Kelley, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Wind power is one of the fastest growing sources of energy. Most of the growth is in the industrial sector comprising of large utility-scale wind farms. Recent modeling studies have suggested that such wind farms can significantly affect local and regional weather and climate. In this work, we present observational evidence of the impact of wind farms on near-surface air temperatures. Data from perhaps the only meteorological field campaign in an operational wind farm shows that downwind temperatures are lower during the daytime and higher at night compared to the upwind environment. Corresponding radiosonde profiles at the nearby Edwards Air Force Base WMO meteorological station show that the diurnal environment is unstable while the nocturnal environment is stable during the field campaign. This behavior is consistent with the hypothesis proposed by Baidya Roy et al. (JGR 2004) that states that turbulence generated in the wake of rotors enhance vertical mixing leading to a warming/cooling under positive/negative potential temperature lapse rates. We conducted a set of 306 simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to test if regional climate models can capture the thermal effects of wind farms. We represented wind turbines with a subgrid parameterization that assumes rotors to be sinks of momentum and sources of turbulence. The simulated wind farms consistently generated a localized warming/cooling under positive/negative lapse rates as hypothesized. We found that these impacts are inversely correlated with background atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Thus, if the background turbulence is high due to natural processes, the effects of additional turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors are likely to be small. We propose the following strategies to minimize impacts of wind farms: • Engineering solution: design rotors that generate less turbulence in their wakes. Sensitivity simulations show that these turbines also increase the

  17. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  18. The impacts of reactive terpene emissions from plants on air quality in Las Vegas, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiez, Maria R.; Potosnak, Mark J.; Goliff, Wendy S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Stockwell, William R.

    A three-part study was conducted to quantify the impact of landscaped vegetation on air quality in a rapidly expanding urban area in the arid southeastern United States. The study combines in situ, plant-level measurements, a spatial emissions inventory, and a photochemical box model. Maximum plant-level basal emission rates were moderate: 18.1 μgC gdw -1 h -1 ( Washingtonia spp., palms) for isoprene and 9.56 μgC gdw -1 h -1 ( Fraxinus velutina, Arizona ash) for monoterpenes. Sesquiterpene emission rates were low for plant species selected in this study, with no measurement exceeding 0.1 μgC gdw -1 h -1. The high ambient temperatures combined with moderate plant-level emission factors resulted in landscape emission factors that were low (250-640 μgC m -2 h -1) compared to more mesic environments (e.g., the southeastern United States). The Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM) was modified to include a new reaction pathway for ocimene. Using measured concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and other reactive air pollutants (NO x, ozone), the box model employing the RACM mechanism revealed that these modest emissions could have a significant impact on air quality. For a suburban location that was downwind of the urban core (high NO x; low anthropogenic hydrocarbons), biogenic terpenes increased time-dependent ozone production rates by a factor of 50. Our study demonstrates that low-biomass density landscapes emit sufficient biogenic terpenes to have a significant impact on regional air quality.

  19. Why would plant species become extinct locally if growing conditions improve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Hickler, T.; Thuiller, W.

    2012-01-01

    Two assumptions underlie current models of the geographical ranges of perennial plant species: 1. current ranges are in equilibrium with the prevailing climate, and 2. changes are attributable to changes in macroclimatic factors, including tolerance of winter cold, the duration of the growing season

  20. Local and systemic responses induced by aphids in Solanum tuberosum plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugravot, S.; Brunissen, L.; Létocart, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Vincent, C.; Giordanengo, Ph.; Cherqui, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) are serious pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (Solanaceae), notably in transmitting several plant viruses. Heterospecific interactions may occur between these two species as they are often seen at the

  1. Local and systemic responses induced by aphids in Solanum tuberosum plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugravot, S.; Brunissen, L.; Létocart, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Vincent, C.; Giordanengo, Ph.; Cherqui, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) are serious pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (Solanaceae), notably in transmitting several plant viruses. Heterospecific interactions may occur between these two species as they are often seen at the

  2. Plant quality and local adaptation undermine relocation in a bog specialist butterfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turlure, C.; Radchuk, V.; Baguette, M.; Meijrink, M.; Burg, van den A.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Duinen, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The butterfly Boloria aquilonaris is a specialist of oligotrophic ecosystems. Population viability analysis predicted the species to be stable in Belgium and to collapse in the Netherlands with reduced host plant quality expected to drive species decline in the latter. We tested this hypothesis by r