WorldWideScience

Sample records for plants increasingly important

  1. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  2. Human factor - an important reserve in increasing efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simunek, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the relationship between man and technical equipment in a nuclear power plant should be studied using the systems analysis approach. The consistent use of ergonomic knowledge in nuclear power plants makes it possible with relatively small additional expenditure to achieve considerable economic effect. The establishment is therefore suggested of a workplace to coordinate the use of applied ergonomics in nuclear power plants. (Ha)

  3. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  4. Molybdenum (Mo) increases endogenous phenolics, proline and photosynthetic pigments and the phytoremediation potential of the industrially important plant Ricinus communis L. for removal of cadmium from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir; Fuller, Michael Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soil negatively affects crops yield and compromises food safety. Remediation of polluted soil is necessary for the re-establishment of sustainable agriculture and to prevent hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Phytoremediation is a promising technology for decontamination of polluted soil. The present study investigated the effect of molybdenum (Mo) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm) on endogenous production of total phenolics and free proline, plant biomass and photosynthetic pigments in Ricinus communis plants grown in Cd (25, 50 and 100 ppm) contaminated soils and the potential for Cd phytoextraction. Mo was applied via seed soaking, soil addition and foliar spray. Foliar sprays significantly increased plant biomass, Cd accumulation and bioconcentration. Phenolic concentrations showed significantly positive correlations with Cd accumulation in roots (R 2  = 0.793, 0.807 and 0.739) and leaves (R 2  = 0.707, 721 and 0.866). Similarly, proline was significantly positively correlated with Cd accumulation in roots (R 2  = 0.668, 0.694 and 0.673) and leaves (R 2  = 0.831, 0.964 and 0.930). Foliar application was found to be the most effective way to deliver Mo in terms of increase in plant growth, Cd accumulation and production of phenolics and proline.

  5. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...... the flows from public to private increase....

  6. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  7. The importance of energetic utilization is increasing; Energetische Verwertung waechst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk; Meyer, Christian [trend:research GmbH, Institut fuer Trend- und Marktforschung, Bremen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In spite of uniform standards and regulations, sewage treatment strategies of the European states differ dramatically. A current study shows that thermal treatment in monocombustion or cocombustion plants is increasingly important. Forecasts of the trend:research trend and marketing research institute, energetic utilization will become the dominant utilization strategy in Europe, with a share that will have increase by about 50 percent by 2020. (orig.)

  8. Importance of plants in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive substances from nuclear programme structures are one of the major toxicant causing serious health hazards. These manmade radiations include X-ray machines radioactive fall-outs, nuclear reactor waste, TV, computers etc. Effect of radiation may be somatic and genetic. Most genetic effects are brought by manmade radiations. Plants on one hand using the electromagnetic radiation from sun for one of the most important vital activity of earth called Photosynthesis and on the other hand protecting us from harmful radiations. There are however, many natural compounds with radio-protective activity. Such compounds include sulfhydryl-containing compounds and anti-oxidant nutrients such as vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, N-acetylcysteine and selenium, along with a range of phytochemicals found in plants such as Ginkgo biloba, Vitis vinifera (Grape), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi or holy basil). Some plants have capacity to absorb harmful radiation of computers like Aloe, Cactus, etc. Such study can be helpful in minimizing radiation pollution. Present review paper emphasizing Botanical, Ecological and Economic aspects of some plants. (author)

  9. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  10. LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.'s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports

  11. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  12. Some Nigerian plants of dermatologic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2007-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of the world's population uses medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases and, in African countries, this rate is much higher. In recent years, however, medicinal plants have represented a primary health source for the pharmaceutical industry. No less than 400 compounds derived from plants are currently used in the preparation of drugs, such as vincristine and vinblastine used in the treatment of cancer. Nigerians still depend largely on crude herbal remedies or traditional medicine. They also use wild plants for cosmetics and perfumery. Some of these herbal remedies have been observed to be effective in certain skin diseases. The data were obtained from history questionnaires completed by patients at the Dermatology Clinic, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, and from oral interviews with vendors and prescribers of herbal preparations at major markets at Lagos and Ijebu-Ode in south-west Nigeria, between July 2004 and July 2006. Photographs of plants were taken at private residences at Lagos, Ibadan, and Ijebu-Ode in south-west Nigeria. A literature search was conducted on 38 of the plants. The data are presented in tabular form. Sixty-five per cent of patients had applied some form of herbal remedy before attending our clinic. The reasons for consultation included relapses, unsustained relief, incomplete resolution, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Lesions for which herbs were successfully applied included infantile eczema and seborrhoiec dermatitis, atopic eczema, impetigo, impetiginized eczema, tinea capitis, scabies, erythema multiforme, leg ulcers, localized vitiligo, and sexually transmitted diseases. Partial relief was achieved in dermatophytoses, ichthyosis, leprosy, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Some forms of alopecia, onychomycosis, and vitiligo, as well as allergic dermatoses, were not improved by herbal medicines. The preparation of the

  13. Increase of hydroelectric power plant operation reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshumbaev, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The new design of the turbine of hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is executed in the form of a pipe with plates. Proposed solution allows increasing the hydroelectric power plant capacity at existing head and water flow. At that time the HPP turbine reliability is increase, its operation performances are improving. Design efficiency is effective mostly for small-scale and micro-HPP due to reliable operation, low-end technology, and harmless ecological application. (author)

  14. Import Penetration, Export Orientation and Plant Size in Indonesian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Sadayuki TAKII

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically examines differential impacts of globalisation on plant size among plants with different characteristics, including initial plant size, import and export status, and ownership. After accounting for other characteristics, results of this analysis suggest that both import penetration and export orientation do not have differential impacts on the size of larger and smaller plants. This is contrary to fears that only relatively large plants can benefit from globalisation wh...

  15. Epidermal structure of some important forest plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqui, P

    1981-10-01

    Eucalyptus species are a dominant feature of the vegetation of India, largely planted in forest areas for timber and oil. The wood is used on a large scale in the paper and pulp industries. According to one researcher, Eucalyptus is represented by 605 species in the world, of which over a hundred species are cultivated in India. As they look very similar to each other, with few exceptions, it is difficult to distinguish them when not in flower. The structure of the leaf epidermis in 8 species of Eucalyptus has been studied. It is found that such studies may be useful for demarcating the different species. A guideline to the species studied is provided. (Refs. 13).

  16. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  17. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified the economic importance of medicinal plants and evaluated with Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to develop spatial maps covering medicinal plants prevalent in Darkesh area, Northern Khorasan, Iran. Then provide the coordinates of the identified area as your results. 10 medicinal plants ...

  18. 78 FR 9851 - Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... address the presence of plum pox potyvirus in that country; and to provide for the importation of Dianthus... Dianthus spp. (carnation, sweet-william) from any country or locality except Canada. Only two countries... United States. In addition, with very limited exceptions, importations of Dianthus spp. require postentry...

  19. Increase in the import of the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2000-01-01

    Exceptionally large amounts of electric power were imported in Finland from Sweden during the spring and early summer. The reason for this was the good conditions for production of hydroelectric power. Because of the imports it has been possible to reduce the generation of the expensive domestic condensing power. The consumption of electric power increased, compared to May 1998, by 1.7%. The private consumption of electric power was 7-8% due to the lower average temperature of the year 1999. May 1999 has been about two deg C lower than the long-term average. About 6.1 TWh of power was consumed in Finland in May 1999, while the consumption in May 1998 was about 100 GWh lower. The power consumption of the past 12 months was 76.9 TWh, which is about 2.1% higher than the value of the previous 12 months. The long lasting increase in production of hydroelectric power started to cease. The hydroelectric power generated in May-June 1999 exceeded 1.2 TWh, the reduction, compared to the previous year, was only a little over 5%. The production of hydroelectric power during the past 12 months was 15.4 TWh. This corresponds to 20% of the total power demand in Finland. The corresponding value of the previous year was nearly 22%. The generation of wind power in May-June 1999 was about 5 GWh, the amount of the previous 12 months being 29 GWh. Both of these values are about twice higher than the figures of the 12 months before that. The power generation capacity of Finnish nuclear power plants in May-June 1999 less than 3.4 TWh, which are about 15% higher than the value of the previous year. The share of nuclear power during May-June 1999 of the total amount of power consumption was 30%. The amount of nuclear power generated during the first half of the year in Finland was more than 11 TWh. The nuclear power generation capacity of the previous 12 months was 21.8 TWh. Cogeneration of power and heat has been nearly the same both in 1998 and 1999, the growth being only 1.4%. The

  20. Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, M.M.; Teramura, A.H.; Tevini, M.; Bornman, J.F.; Björn, L.O.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1995-01-01

    Physiological and developmental processes of plants are affected by UV-B radiation, even by the amount of UV-B in present-day sunlight. Plants also have several mechanisms to ameliorate or repair these effects and may acclimate to a certain extent to increased levels of UV-B. Nevertheless, plant growth can be directly affected by UV-B radiation. Response to UV-B also varies considerably among species and also cultivars of the same species. In agriculture, this may necessitate using more UV-B-tolerant cultivars and breeding new ones. In forests and grasslands, this will likely result in changes in species composition; therefore there are implications for the biodiversity in different ecosystems. Indirect changes caused by UV-B-such as changes in plant form, biomass allocation to parts of the plant, timing of developmental phases and secondary metabolism-may be equally, or sometimes more important than damaging effects of UV-B. These changes can have important implications for plant competitive balance, herbivory, plant pathogens, and biogeochemical cycles. These ecosystem-level effects can be anticipated, but not easily predicted or evaluated. Research at the ecosystem level for solar UV-B is barely beginning. Other factors, including those involved in climate change such as increasing CO2, also interact with UV-B. Such reactions are not easily predicted, but are of obvious importance in both agriculture and in nonagricultural ecosystems

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  2. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.

  3. 78 FR 41866 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011] RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of...

  4. The Applications to Increase Drought Tolerance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Yavaş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal drought is a major threat that adversely affects crop growth and metabolism, and limits the yield. Water stress causes many morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in plants. Plant height, root length, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass are reduced under drought stress. Besides, water stress causes the reduction of relative water content, the closure of stomata and decrease in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, ascorbat peroxidase (ASC, glutatiton (GSH, catalase (CAT enzyme activities, the indicator of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA and proline levels also changes in drought conditions. Nutrient uptake by plants is prevented or restricted before grain development stage during drought conditions. Therefore the application of plant nutrients followed by micronutrient remobilization within plant is great importance. Osmoprotectants (cytokinin, mannitol, abscisic acid, proline, glycine betaine, polyamine etc. detoxify adverse effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS and alleviate drought stress. Exogenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR application encourage plant growth by colonizing the plant root and increase plants’ resistance to water stress. Besides, the farmers can use conservation tillage system in dry periods.

  5. The plant cytoskeleton controls regulatory volume increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Qiao, Fei; Ismail, Ahmed; Chang, Xiaoli; Nick, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The ability to adjust cell volume is required for the adaptation to osmotic stress. Plant protoplasts can swell within seconds in response to hypoosmotic shock suggesting that membrane material is released from internal stores. Since the stability of plant membranes depends on submembraneous actin, we asked, whether this regulatory volume control depends on the cytoskeleton. As system we used two cell lines from grapevine which differ in their osmotic tolerance and observed that the cytoskeleton responded differently in these two cell lines. To quantify the ability for regulatory volume control, we used hydraulic conductivity (Lp) as readout and demonstrated a role of the cytoskeleton in protoplast swelling. Chelation of calcium, inhibition of calcium channels, or manipulation of membrane fluidity, did not significantly alter Lp, whereas direct manipulation of the cytoskeleton via specific chemical reagents, or indirectly, through the bacterial elicitor Harpin or activation of phospholipase D, was effective. By optochemical engineering of actin using a caged form of the phytohormone auxin we can break the symmetry of actin organisation resulting in a localised deformation of cell shape indicative of a locally increased Lp. We interpret our findings in terms of a model, where the submembraneous cytoskeleton controls the release of intracellular membrane stores during regulatory volume change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flavonoids as Important Molecules of Plant Interactions with the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mierziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are small molecular secondary metabolites synthesized by plants with various biological activities. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they are capable of participating in plants’ interactions with other organisms (microorganisms, animals and other plants and their reactions to environmental stresses. The majority of their functions result from their strong antioxidative properties. Although an increasing number of studies focus on the application of flavonoids in medicine or the food industry, their relevance for the plants themselves also deserves extensive investigations. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions of flavonoids in the physiology of plants and their relations with the environment.

  7. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  8. The Increasing Importance and Imperative of the School Business Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Karen

    2013-01-01

    One important effect of increasing localized autonomy, authority, responsibility, and accountability has been a growing yet understated recognition that effective business management is an essential component of educational leadership. The education business is expanding and becoming more complex and requires propitious oversight. As a result,…

  9. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  10. Increasing labor productivity - an important target for miners. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The development of coal mining in the USSR from 1980 to 1983 is discussed. Factors which influence labor productivity increase are analyzed: use of equipment with increased productivity and reliability (e.g. the KM-103 and KD-80 face systems for thin coal seams, the ANShch integrated face systems for steep coal mines, the KMT and 2UKP systems for mining seams with roofs difficult to break down, the 4PP-2 and 4PP-2Shch heading machines), use of equipment replacing manual operations during underground mining, increasing role of surface coal mining which is characterized by labor productivity higher than in underground mining, use of more reliable mining systems in surface mining less influenced by low temperatures in winter (in Siberia), use of mining schemes optimized by means of computerized simulation and mathematical models both in underground and surface coal mining, reducing idletime of mining equipment, social and economic policy aimed at labor productivity increase and reducing absenteeism, improved training and refreshment courses for miners, use of automatic control systems in coal preparation plants, use of more productive equipment for coal preparation.

  11. The Importance of the Circadian Clock in Regulating Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for plant development. Plants synthesize sucrose in source organs and transport them to sink organs during plant growth. This metabolism is sensitive to environmental changes in light quantity, quality, and photoperiod. In the daytime, the synthesis of sucrose and starch accumulates, and starch is degraded at nighttime. The circadian clock genes provide plants with information on the daily environmental changes and directly control many developmental processes, which are related to the path of primary metabolites throughout the life cycle. The circadian clock mechanism and processes of metabolism controlled by the circadian rhythm were studied in the model plant Arabidopsis and in the crops potato and rice. However, the translation of molecular mechanisms obtained from studies of model plants to crop plants is still difficult. Crop plants have specific organs such as edible seed and tuber that increase the size or accumulate valuable metabolites by harvestable metabolic components. Human consumers are interested in the regulation and promotion of these agriculturally significant crops. Circadian clock manipulation may suggest various strategies for the increased productivity of food crops through using environmental signal or overcoming environmental stress.

  12. Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, E.; Pandey, V.; Pandey, A.K.; Keski-Saari, S.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Sharma, C.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region. -- Tropospheric ozone is an increasing threat to food production in India

  13. 78 FR 79636 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... in Washington, DC, this 20th day of December 2013. Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant Health... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011] RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for...

  14. Discussion of important safety requirements for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Jia Xiang; Yan Tianwen; Li Wenhong; Li Chun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of several important safety requirements and improvement direction. Technical view of security goals on site safety evaluation, internal and external events fortification, serious accident prevention and mitigation, as well as the core, containment system and instrument control system design and engineering optimization, and etc are indicated. It will be useful for new plant design, construction and safety improvement. (authors)

  15. Pharmaceutically important plants used in traditional system of Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the pharmaceutical importance of some medicinal pants used for the treatment of livestock ailments was conducted during summer 2010 in different parts of Saudi Arabia, where no such study has been conducted so far. The aim of the study was to identify and document the medicinal plants used for the treatment ...

  16. Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Zutta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.

  17. 76 FR 44572 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...] Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of... of taxa of plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. We... plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis (NAPPRA) in order to...

  18. Importance of Silicon and Mechanisms of Biosilica Formation in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nor Akmar, Abdullah; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Tengoua, F. F.; Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa, Jamaludin; Shabanimofrad, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation. PMID:25685787

  19. Importance of Silicon and Mechanisms of Biosilica Formation in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Sahebi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

  20. The importance of education in managing invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species can establish in diverse environments and with the increase in human mobility, they are no longer restricted to isolated pockets in remote parts of the world. Cheat grass (Bromus tectorum L.) in rangelands, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) in wet lands and Canada this...

  1. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Khatoon, Sayyada; Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Vivek; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2010-07-01

    The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  2. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  3. Surveillance of items important to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS Programme, for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. THe Guide supplements the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1). The operating organization has overall responsibility for the safe operation of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, it shall ensure that adequate surveillance activities are carried out in order to verify that the plant is operated within the prescribed operational limits and conditions, and to detect in time any deterioration of structures, systems and components as well as any adverse trend that could lead to an unsafe condition. These activities can be classified as: Monitoring plant parameters and system status; Checking and calibrating instrumentation; Testing and inspecting structures, systems and components. This Safety Guide provides guidance and recommendations on surveillance activities to ensure that structures, systems and components important to safety are available to perform their functions in accordance with design intent and assumptions

  4. Using wind plant data to increase reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ogilvie, Alistair B.; McKenney, Bridget L.

    2011-01-01

    Operators interested in improving reliability should begin with a focus on the performance of the wind plant as a whole. To then understand the factors which drive individual turbine performance, which together comprise the plant performance, it is necessary to track a number of key indicators. Analysis of these key indicators can reveal the type, frequency, and cause of failures and will also identify their contributions to overall plant performance. The ideal approach to using data to drive good decisions includes first determining which critical decisions can be based on data. When those required decisions are understood, then the analysis required to inform those decisions can be identified, and finally the data to be collected in support of those analyses can be determined. Once equipped with high-quality data and analysis capabilities, the key steps to data-based decision making for reliability improvements are to isolate possible improvements, select the improvements with largest return on investment (ROI), implement the selected improvements, and finally to track their impact.

  5. Breast cancer in Mongolia: an increasingly important health policy issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchig D

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Delgermaa Demchig, Claudia Mello-Thoms, Patrick C Brennan Medical Image Optimization and Perception Group (MIOPeG, Faculty of Health Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death for women in both developed and developing countries. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Mongolia, while low compared with other counties, has been increasing on an annual basis. In addition, in Mongolia, approximately 90% of the patients are diagnosed at a late stage, resulting in high mortality, with the majority of individuals diagnosed with breast cancer dying within 5 years of diagnosis. Breast cancer screening plays an important role in reducing mortality in Western countries and has been adopted by a number of Asian countries; however, no such approach exists in Mongolia. In a country of limited resources, implementation of expensive health strategies such as screening requires effective allocations of resources and the identification of the most effective imaging methods. This requirement relies on recent accurate data; however, at this time, there is a paucity of information around breast cancer in Mongolia. Until data around features of the disease are available, effective strategies to diagnose breast cancer that recognize the economic climate in Mongolia cannot be implemented and the impact of breast cancer is likely to increase. Keywords: incidence, mortality, breast screening, Mongolia

  6. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  7. Software important to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report provides guidance on current practices, documenting their strengths and weaknesses for dealing with the important issues of software engineering that nuclear power plant system designers, software producers and regulators are facing. The focus of the report is on safety critical applications of general purpose processors controlled by custom developed software; however, it should also have application in safety related applications and for other types of computers. In addition to system designers, software producers and regulators, the intended readership of this report includes users of software based systems, who should be aware of the relevant issues in specifying and obtaining software for systems important to safety. Refs, 1 fig., tabs

  8. Increasing importance of precipitation variability on global livestock grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Lindsey L.; Gerber, James S.; Samberg, Leah H.; Smith, William K.; Herrero, Mario; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Godde, Cécile M.; West, Paul C.

    2018-03-01

    Pastures and rangelands underpin global meat and milk production and are a critical resource for millions of people dependent on livestock for food security1,2. Forage growth, which is highly climate dependent3,4, is potentially vulnerable to climate change, although precisely where and to what extent remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we assess climate-based threats to global pastures, with a specific focus on changes in within- and between-year precipitation variability (precipitation concentration index (PCI) and coefficient of variation of precipitation (CVP), respectively). Relating global satellite measures of vegetation greenness (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to key climatic factors reveals that CVP is a significant, yet often overlooked, constraint on vegetation productivity across global pastures. Using independent stocking data, we found that areas with high CVP support lower livestock densities than less-variable regions. Globally, pastures experience about a 25% greater year-to-year precipitation variation (CVP = 0.27) than the average global land surface area (0.21). Over the past century, CVP has generally increased across pasture areas, although both positive (49% of pasture area) and negative (31% of pasture area) trends exist. We identify regions in which livestock grazing is important for local food access and economies, and discuss the potential for pasture intensification in the context of long-term regional trends in precipitation variability.

  9. Cephalopods are becoming increasingly important in world fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    the commercial importance of the cephalopod species exploited by Spanish and .... made in the Sicilian Channel by Jereb and Ragonese. (1990) and Ragonese and .... Preliminary data on the bathymetric distribution of cephalopods in the ...

  10. Phytochemical and biological assessment of medicinally important plant ochradenus arabicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, J.

    2014-01-01

    Jabal Al-Akhdar (Oman) is one of diverse floral region of Arabian Peninsula. Ochradenus arabicus, is an important medicinal plant to local people of the area. However, little is known about its potential role in biological activities against various emerging ailments. The collected plant samples were extracted with methanol and fractionated into n-hexane (JOAH), ethyl acetate (JOAE), chloroform (JOAC), n-butanol (JOAB) and water (JOAAQ). Various concentrations of these fractions were tested for their antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, phenolics, flavonoids, allopathic and nutrition quality properties. The results showed that fruits and leaves of O. arabicus have higher levels of carbohydrate, crude fats, fibres, proteins, moisture, ash and energy values. In phytotoxic activities, JOAAQ inhibited the lettuce seed germination and growth. The anticancer activities of fractions showed that JOAE, JOAB and JOAAQ are potent to reduce the cancer cell viability of HT29, HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 lines with a concentration of 1000 micro g/ml. JOAB showed a meagre activity of 12% in Glucosidase inhibition assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in JOAE, which also resulted in higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as compared to other fractions and control. JOAE also exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results of current findings suggest that O. arabicus is a potential medicinal plants, which could be subjected to advance column chromatography for lead compounds using a bioassay guided approach. (author)

  11. Important biological factors for utilizing native plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren E. Wiesner

    1999-01-01

    Native plant species are valuable resources for revegetation of disturbed ecosystems. The success of these plantings is dependent on the native species selected, quality of seed used, condition of the soil, environmental conditions before and after planting, planting equipment used, time of planting, and other factors. Most native species contain dormant seed. Dormancy...

  12. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  13. 78 FR 41908 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are... planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. This action will allow interested... our lists of plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis...

  14. Importance of wood from planted forests for manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Almeida De Araujo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The manufactured wood products are essential to modern society, since they are made from renewable and recyclable raw material, characterizing a sustainable input. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of wood from planted forests in forest products manufacture of higher added value, addressing forest and wood contexts of topics related to education, resources, products, industry, government incentives, public policies and markets. Different from Europe, it was verified that Brazil does not support positively this important industrial sector, nevertheless it still presents growth potential due to range of wooden-based products. Thus, wood could reach a prominent position in Brazilian economy, if strategies and incentives were defined by rules and public policies..

  15. Increasing Positive Perceptions of Counseling: The Importance of Repeated Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Scott A.; Vogel, David L.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of repeated exposures to a video intervention based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model. The video was designed to increase help-seeking attitudes and perceptions of peer norms and to decrease the stigma associated with seeking counseling. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a…

  16. The major importance of 'minor' resources: Women and plant biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding women’s influence on plant biodiversity is essential to our ability to conserve plant genetic resources, especially those plants that are useful to humans. Contrary to previous thinking, it is becoming clear that women know most about these plants because, throughout history, women’s

  17. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  18. Remote Sensing of plant functional types: Relative importance of biochemical and structural plant traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenborn, Teja; Schmidtlein, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring ecosystems is a key priority in order to understand vegetation patterns, underlying resource cycles and changes their off. Driven by biotic and abiotic factors, plant species within an ecosystem are likely to share similar structural, physiological or phenological traits and can therefore be grouped into plant functional types (PFT). It can be assumed that plants which share similar traits also share similar optical characteristics. Therefore optical remote sensing was identified as a valuable tool for differentiating PFT. Although several authors list structural and biochemical plant traits which are important for differentiating PFT using hyperspectral remote sensing, there is no quantitative or qualitative information on the relative importance of these traits. Thus, little is known about the explicit role of plant traits for an optical discrimination of PFT. One of the main reasons for this is that various optical traits affect the same wavelength regions and it is therefore difficult to isolate the discriminative power of a single trait. A way to determine the effect of single plant traits on the optical reflectance of plant canopies is given by radiative transfer models. The most established radiative transfer model is PROSAIL, which incorporates biochemical and structural plant traits, such as pigment contents or leaf area index. In the present study 25 grassland species of different PFT were cultivated and traits relevant for PROSAIL were measured for the entire vegetation season of 2016. The information content of each trait for differentiating PFTs was determined by applying a Multi-response Permutation Procedure on the actual traits, as well as on simulated canopy spectra derived from PROSAIL. According to our results some traits, especially biochemical traits, show a weaker separability of PFT on a spectral level than compared to the actual trait measurements. Overall structural traits (leaf angle and leaf area index) are more important for

  19. [Gnathostomosis, an exotic disease increasingly imported into Western countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément-Rigolet, Marina C; Danis, Martin; Caumes, Eric

    2004-12-04

    AN INCIDENTAL HELMITHIASIS IN MAN: Gnathostomiasis is an helminthic disease of animals due to a nematode belonging to the gender Gnathostoma. This gender includes many species, the most frequent being Gnathostoma spinigerum. Man is an incidental host. Human gnathostomiasis is endemic in some countries of South-East Asia, and Latin America. It is due to the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat or fish. Since the beginning of the eighties, there is an increasing number of cases of gnathostomiasis described in Western countries in travellers returning from endemic countries. IN THE SKIN OR THE VISCERA: Gnathostomiasis is a cause of cutaneous and/or visceral larva migrans syndrome. Some visceral involvement, more particularly neurological forms, may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is occasionally confirmed by the identification of the Gnathostoma larva in the skin or viscera. Most often the diagnosis relies on epidemiological, clinical and biological (hypereosinophilia, positive serologic test) grounds. ALBENDAZOLE AND IVERMECTINE: The first line treatment is albendazole, 400 mg once or twice a day during 21 days. The efficacy of ivermectin needs to be assessed more precisely. Relapses may occur up to 24 months after apparent cure.

  20. The importance of the reliability study for the safety operation of chemical plants. Application in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Maria; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Preda, Irina Aida; Stefanescu, Ioan

    1999-01-01

    Heavy water production in Romania is based on H 2 O-H 2 S isotopic exchange process followed by vacuum isotopic distillation. The heavy water plant are complex chemical systems, characterized by an ensemble of static and dynamic equipment, AMC components, enclosures. Such equipment must have a high degree of reliability, a maximum safety in technological operation and a high availability index. Safety, reliable and economical operation heavy water plants need to maintain the systems and the components at adequate levels of reliability. The paper is a synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative assessment reliability studies for heavy water plants. The operation analysis on subsystems, each subsystems being a well-defined unit, is required by the plant complexity. For each component the reliability indicators were estimated by parametric and non-parametric methods based on the plant operation data. Also, the reliability qualitative and quantitative assessment was done using the fault tree technique. For the dual temperature isotopic exchange plants the results indicate an increase of the MTBF after the first years of operation, illustrating both the operation experience increasing and maintenance improvement. Also a high degree of availability was illustrated by the reliability studies of the vacuum distillation plant. The establishment of the reliability characteristics for heavy water plant represents an important step, a guide for highlighting the elements and process liable to failure being at the same time a planning modality to correlate the control times with the maintenance operations. This is the way to minimise maintenance, control and costs. The main purpose of the reliability study was the safety increase of the plant operation and the support for decision making. (authors)

  1. 78 FR 24633 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...) capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen, a shrub, a vine, a... sterile cultures of orchid plants) from any country or locality except Canada may be imported into the... including Africa, Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Japan and adjacent islands, Korea, New Zealand, Oceania, the...

  2. Materials and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Matias

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  3. Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    G. Senthilmurugan Viji; B. Vasanthe; Kuru Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant s...

  4. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  5. A review on plant importance, biotechnological aspects, and cultivation challenges of jojoba plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; AlKhalifah, Nasser S; Asanar, Shanavaskhan; Al-Soqeer, Abdulrahman A; Attia, M F

    2017-08-24

    Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant. The development of efficient biotechnological platforms for better cultivation and an improved production cycle is a necessity for farmers cultivating the plant. In the last 20 years, many efforts have been made for in vitro cultivation of jojoba by applying different molecular biology techniques. However, there is a lot of work to be done in order to reach satisfactory results that help to overcome cultivation problems. This review presents a historical overview, the medical and industrial importance of the jojoba plant, agronomy aspects and nutrient requirements for the plant's cultivation, and the role of recent biotechnology and molecular biology findings in jojoba research.

  6. Plant diversity increases spatio?temporal niche complementarity in plant?pollinator interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Venjakob, Christine; Klein, Alexandra?Maria; Ebeling, Anne; Tscharntke, Teja; Scherber, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing biodiversity decline impairs ecosystem processes, including pollination. Flower visitation, an important indicator of pollination services, is influenced by plant species richness. However, the spatio-temporal responses of different pollinator groups to plant species richness have not yet been analyzed experimentally. Here, we used an experimental plant species richness gradient to analyze plant-pollinator interactions with an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. We observed four...

  7. A review on plant importance, biotechnological aspects, and cultivation challenges of jojoba plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel R. Al-Obaidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant. The development of efficient biotechnological platforms for better cultivation and an improved production cycle is a necessity for farmers cultivating the plant. In the last 20 years, many efforts have been made for in vitro cultivation of jojoba by applying different molecular biology techniques. However, there is a lot of work to be done in order to reach satisfactory results that help to overcome cultivation problems. This review presents a historical overview, the medical and industrial importance of the jojoba plant, agronomy aspects and nutrient requirements for the plant’s cultivation, and the role of recent biotechnology and molecular biology findings in jojoba research.

  8. CONTEXT MATTERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF MARKET CHARACTERISTICS IN THE VOLATILITY OF FEEDSTOCK COSTS FOR BIOGAS PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, A; Van Meensel, J; Mondelaers, K; Buysse, J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, biogas plant managers in Flanders face increased financial uncertainty. Between 2011 and 2012, 20% of the Flemish biogas plants went bankrupt. Difficulties in obtaining feedstock at stable and affordable prices is one reason why the biogas sector struggles. In literature, contracting is often proposed as a way to decrease the volatility of the feedstock costs. However, these studies generally do not consider the context in which the biogas plant manager needs to buy the feedstock. Yet, this context could be of specific importance when biogas plant managers are in competition with other users of the same biomass type. Silage maize is an example of such a feedstock, as it is both used by dairy farmers and biogas plant managers. Using a combination of qualitative research and agent-based modelling, we investigated the effect of specific characteristics of the silage maize market on the acquisition of local silage maize by biogas plant managers. This paper details the institutional arrangements of the silage maize market in Flanders and the results of a scenario analysis, simulating three different scenarios. As shown by the results, the time of entry into the market, as well as the different institutional arrangements used by the biogas plant managers as opposed to dairy farmers could explain the difficulties in obtaining a stable supply of local silage maize by biogas plants. Our findings can help to develop mitigation strategies addressing these difficulties.

  9. 76 FR 67379 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    .... Packing facilities would also have to be free of sand, soil, earth, and plants pests, and phytosanitary..., Quarantine, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Rice, Vegetables. Accordingly, we propose to amend 7..., soil, earth, and plant pests, and phytosanitary practices adequate to exclude pests must be employed...

  10. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  11. 76 FR 65165 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ..., this 14th day of October 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0092] Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative Monitoring and...

  12. 78 FR 23209 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... addition to the NAPPRA list of quarantine pest plants. Cordia curassavica. One commenter presented evidence... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0072] Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Addition of...

  13. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  14. 77 FR 37997 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... requirements, Rice, Vegetables. Accordingly, we amend 7 CFR part 319 as follows: PART 319--FOREIGN QUARANTINE... production to packing facilities for export. Packing facilities must be free of sand, soil, earth, and plant...

  15. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  16. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhorst, Casey P; Lennon, Jay T; Lau, Jennifer A

    2014-06-22

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant-microbe interactions.

  17. Seiridium (Sporocadaceae): an important genus of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthond, G.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    The genus Seiridium includes multiple plant pathogenic fungi well-known as causal organisms of cankers on Cupressaceae. Taxonomically, the status of several species has been a topic of debate, as the phylogeny of the genus remains unresolved and authentic ex-type cultures are mostly absent. In the

  18. Isoprenoid-derived plant signaling molecules: biosynthesis and biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 247, č. 5 (2018), s. 1051-1066 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Dimethylallyl diphosphate * Isopentenyl diphosphate * Isoprenoids * Phytoecdysteroids * Plant hormones * Terpenoids Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  19. An ethnobotanical survey of plants of veterinary importance in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the survey was to document and analyze information on the traditional use of medicinal plants by farmers in Ofla and Raya-Azebo woredas of South Tigray Zone for the treatment and prevention of livestock ailments. Data were collected mainly through interviews carried out with randomly selected farmers of ...

  20. Commercially important properties of plants of the genus Plantago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The centuries-old experience of folk medicine, nutritional traditions, and the results of numerous research studies show that plants of the genus Plantago can be used for medicinal, cosmetic, dietetic, and ritual purposes. In the phytochemical composition of Plantago, there is an abundance of biologically active substances (among others, glycosides, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and vitamins exhibiting beneficial effects and, simultaneously, there is a low content of compounds that may exert a toxic effect. Scientific research has confirmed that Plantago plants have antioxidative, apoptosis-inhibiting, protective, healing-enhancing, spasmolytic, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the development of some tumours, reduce the level of lipids in blood and inhibit tissue glycation. In phytotherapy, leaves, stems, and/or seeds of different plantain species are used. Plantago leaves and seeds are also used to manufacture creams, lotions, and face masks. Different parts of these plants (fresh plant material, extracts, or isolated substances are also used in human and animal nutrition. Plantain leaves can be eaten like lettuce or added to salads, fried in pastry, used to prepare a tea, juice, or wine. Its seeds are added to cakes, bread, breakfast cereals, ice cream, and drinks, or they are cooked like groats. Animals fed with plantain can live longer and are healthier, while meat derived from such animals is tastier and healthier to humans. Plantago seeds are readily eaten by cage birds. Plantain pollen, produced in large amounts (up to 20,000 pollen grains per 1 stamen of P. lancolata, can cause allergies in sensitive people. Due to a long flowering period of plants of the genus Plantago, the effect of the allergenic factor persists for many weeks. In Poland days with the maximum concentration of airborne plantain pollen most often occur in July.

  1. 76 FR 66033 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...] Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of... whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. The notice also made available to the... whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. The notice also made available to the...

  2. Important statistics on engineering and construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budwani, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    During the past seven years, a study was made of the engineering and craft manpower/manhour requirements, craft breakdowns by totals and peaks, material requirements, unit man-hours, rate of manhour/capital expenditures, and schedule requirements of representative nuclear power plants across the United States. The study is based on information received from electric utilities, engineer-constructors, site visits, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), personal contacts, and the exchange of information with knowledgeable people. Preliminary data in the form of tables and figures are presented. Factors which have and will influence manpower, manhours, material requirements, building volumes, and schedules are outlined, and a list of recommendations is presented. The objective of this study has been to show in a concise fashion what the trend has been and what may be anticipated for future nuclear power plants

  3. Phylogenomic detection and functional prediction of genes potentially important for plant meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoyan; Kong, Hongzhi; Ma, Hong; Yang, Ji

    2018-02-15

    Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. A better understanding of the cytological procedures of meiosis has been achieved by comprehensive cytogenetic studies in plants, while the genetic mechanisms regulating meiotic progression remain incompletely understood. The increasing accumulation of complete genome sequences and large-scale gene expression datasets has provided a powerful resource for phylogenomic inference and unsupervised identification of genes involved in plant meiosis. By integrating sequence homology and expression data, 164, 131, 124 and 162 genes potentially important for meiosis were identified in the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Selaginella moellendorffii and Pogonatum aloides, respectively. The predicted genes were assigned to 45 meiotic GO terms, and their functions were related to different processes occurring during meiosis in various organisms. Most of the predicted meiotic genes underwent lineage-specific duplication events during plant evolution, with about 30% of the predicted genes retaining only a single copy in higher plant genomes. The results of this study provided clues to design experiments for better functional characterization of meiotic genes in plants, promoting the phylogenomic approach to the evolutionary dynamics of the plant meiotic machineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Importance of water quality in container plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Ruter

    2013-01-01

    High substrate pH is a major problem for producers of container-grown plants and seedlings. The primary cause of high substrate pH is irrigation water with high alkalinity. Alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Some alkalinity in irrigation water is beneficial as it serves as a buffer to large swings in pH levels, but high alkalinity in...

  5. The challenge of increasing vitamin C content in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2012-09-01

    The term "vitamin" is used to define a number of organic compounds that have to be obtained from different foods because the organism itself cannot synthesize them in the quantities needed to sustain life. Vitamin C is the common name for L-ascorbic acid. In humans, the principal role of this molecule is to scavenge reactive oxygen species, due to its antioxidant capacity, and to serve as cofactor for many enzymes. A deficiency of L-ascorbic acid is traditionally linked to human diseases such as scurvy. Plant foods are the principal source of L-ascorbic acid for humans. There is a high variability of L-ascorbic acid content in the various plant organs that are used for human consumption. This diversity is related to the specific functions played by L-ascorbic acid in the different plant tissues. The net content of L-ascorbic acid in plants is determined through a balance of the activities of different biosynthetic, recycling, and catabolic pathways. Here we review the importance of L-ascorbic acid for human health, the current knowledge on its metabolism and function in plants, and the efforts that have already been made by genetic modification to improve its content in plant organs used for human food. We provide a current and forward looking perspective of how plant science can contribute to improving the L-ascorbic acid content in crop species using gene transformation, quantitative trait loci and association mapping-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The important of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosmann; Andrew Groover

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support...

  7. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  8. Antimicrobial screening of some plants of medicinal importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehjabeen, A.; Ahmad, M.; Zia-ul-Haq, M.; Wazir, A.; Jahan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum (leaves and seeds of both black and red varieties), Elettaria cardamomum Cuscuta reflexa and Cinnamomum camphora were tested in vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial study performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia aldovae indicated that investigated plants have potent activity against all microorganisms. The antifungal activity of these extracts was performed against six fungi, viz., Saccharomyces cereviciae, Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichophyton rubrum, Macrophomina, Fusarium solani and Candida albicans. The extracts showed moderate as well as significant activity against different fungal strains. (author)

  9. Export and import provisions for nuclear materials and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsch, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with 1) statutory requirements for export and import licensing of nuclear reactors and fuels; 2) regulations and procedures to issuance of exportlicenses; 3) environmental impact of export licensing; 4) licensing of reactor equipment; 5) recent restrictions on imports and exports of nuclear fuels. (RW) [de

  10. Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza V. Oliva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.Obtidas de sementes leguminosas, várias proteínas inibem proteinases de origem animal, incluindo humanas, e podem ser consideradas para o desenvolvimento de compostos com atividade biológica. Inibidores da família Bowman-Birk e da família Kunitz vegetal tem sido caracterizados em relação a especificidade para proteinase, estrutura primária e sitio reativo. O nosso grupo majoritariamente vem estudando o gênero Bauhinia, principalmente as espécies bauhinioides, rufa, ungulatae variegata. Em algumas espécies, mais de um inibidor com propriedades diferentes foi caracterizado. Embora tais proteínas apresentem alta similaridade estrutural, diferem quanto à inibição de proteinases, e foram exploradas em estudos utilizando diversos modelos biológicos.

  11. Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-12-01

    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.

  12. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  13. Site and plant species are important determinants of the Methylobacterium community composition in the plant phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Claudia; Ramette, Alban; Frances, Lisa; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Vorholt, Julia A

    2010-06-01

    The plant phyllosphere constitutes a habitat for numerous microorganisms; among them are members of the genus Methylobacterium. Owing to the ubiquitous occurrence of methylobacteria on plant leaves, they represent a suitable target for studying plant colonization patterns. The influence of the factor site, host plant species, time and the presence of other phyllosphere bacteria on Methylobacterium community composition and population size were evaluated in this study. Leaf samples were collected from Arabidopsis thaliana or Medicago truncatula plants and from the surrounding plant species at several sites. The abundance of cultivable Methylobacterium clearly correlated with the abundance of other phyllosphere bacteria, suggesting that methylobacteria constitute a considerable and rather stable fraction of the phyllosphere microbiota under varying environmental conditions. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was applied to characterize the Methylobacterium community composition and showed the presence of similar communities on A. thaliana plants at most sites in 2 consecutive years of sampling. A substantial part of the observed variation in the community composition was explained by site and plant species, especially in the case of the plants collected at the Arabidopsis sites (50%). The dominating ARISA peaks that were detected on A. thaliana plants were found on other plant species grown at the same site, whereas some different peaks were detected on A. thaliana plants from other sites. This indicates that site-specific factors had a stronger impact on the Methylobacterium community composition than did plant-specific factors and that the Methylobacterium-plant association is not highly host plant species specific.

  14. Gamma irradiation of medicinally important plants and the enhancement of secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, P Vivek; Shukla, Lata I

    2017-09-01

    The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites. A comparison of yield improvement with biotic and abiotic stresses was made. Phenolic compounds increase with γ-irradiation in whole plants/plant parts; psoralen content in the common herb babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) was increased as high as 32-fold with γ-irradiation of seeds at 20 kGy. The capsaicinoids, a phenolic compound increased about 10% with 10 kGy in paprika (Capsicum annum L.). The in vitro studies show all the three types of secondary metabolites are reported to increase with γ-irradiation. Stevioside, total phenolic and flavonoids content were slightly increased in 15 Gy-treated callus cultures of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.). In terpenoids, total saponin and ginsenosides content were increased 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, with 100 Gy for wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) hairy root cultures. In alkaloids, camptothecin yield increased as high as 20-fold with 20 Gy in callus cultures of ghanera (Nothapodytes foetida). Shikonins increased up to 4-fold with 16 Gy in suspension cultures of purple gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon S.). The enzymes associated with secondary metabolite production were increased with γ-irradiation of 20 Gy; namely, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) for phenolics, chalcone synthase (CHS) for flavonoids, squalene synthase (SS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) for ginsenosides and PHB (p-hydroxylbenzoic acid) geranyl transferase for shikonins. An increase in secondary

  15. Importance of Mediator complex in the regulation and integration of diverse signaling pathways in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis eSamanta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes is assisted by a number of cofactors, which either increase or decrease the rate of transcription. Mediator complex is one such cofactor, and recently has drawn a lot of interest because of its integrative power to converge different signaling pathways before channelling the transcription instructions to the RNA polymerase II machinery. Like yeast and metazoans, plants do possess the Mediator complex across the kingdom, and its isolation and subunit analyses have been reported from the model plant, Arabidopsis. Genetic and molecular analyses have unravelled important regulatory roles of Mediator subunits at every stage of plant life cycle starting from flowering to embryo and organ development, to even size determination. It also contributes immensely to the survival of plants against different environmental vagaries by the timely activation of its resistance mechanisms. Here, we have provided an overview of plant Mediator complex starting from its discovery to regulation of stoichiometry of its subunits. We have also reviewed involvement of different Mediator subunits in different processes and pathways including defense response pathways evoked by diverse biotic cues. Wherever possible, attempts have been made to provide mechanistic insight of Mediator’s involvement in these processes.

  16. Biosurfactants in plant-Pseudomonas interactions and their importance to biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aes, Jolien; De Maeyer, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Höfte, Monica

    2010-06-01

    Production of biosurfactants is a common feature in bacteria, and in particular in plant-associated species. These bacteria include many plant beneficial and plant pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., which produce primarily cyclic lipopeptide and rhamnolipid type biosurfactants. Pseudomonas-derived biosurfactants are involved in many important bacterial functions. By modifying surface properties, biosurfactants can influence common traits such as surface motility, biofilm formation and colonization. Biosurfactants can alter the bio-availability of exogenous compounds, such as nutrients, to promote their uptake, and of endogenous metabolites, including phenazine antibiotics, resulting in an enhanced biological activity. Antibiotic activity of biosurfactants towards microbes could play a role in intraspecific competition, self-defence and pathogenesis. In addition, bacterial surfactants can affect plants in different ways, either protecting them from disease, or acting as a toxin in a plant-pathogen interaction. Biosurfactants are involved in the biocontrol activity of an increasing number of Pseudomonas strains. Consequently, further insight into the roles and activities of surfactants produced by bacteria could provide means to optimize the use of biological control as an alternative crop protection strategy. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Importance of Mediator complex in the regulation and integration of diverse signaling pathways in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra K

    2015-01-01

    Basic transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes is assisted by a number of cofactors, which either increase or decrease the rate of transcription. Mediator complex is one such cofactor, and recently has drawn a lot of interest because of its integrative power to converge different signaling pathways before channeling the transcription instructions to the RNA polymerase II machinery. Like yeast and metazoans, plants do possess the Mediator complex across the kingdom, and its isolation and subunit analyses have been reported from the model plant, Arabidopsis. Genetic, and molecular analyses have unraveled important regulatory roles of Mediator subunits at every stage of plant life cycle starting from flowering to embryo and organ development, to even size determination. It also contributes immensely to the survival of plants against different environmental vagaries by the timely activation of its resistance mechanisms. Here, we have provided an overview of plant Mediator complex starting from its discovery to regulation of stoichiometry of its subunits. We have also reviewed involvement of different Mediator subunits in different processes and pathways including defense response pathways evoked by diverse biotic cues. Wherever possible, attempts have been made to provide mechanistic insight of Mediator's involvement in these processes.

  18. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, W.; Hofmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The question pursued within the Bavarian climate research programme (BayFORKLIM) in the present context was as follows: Does the fact that UV-B radiation increases with growing site elevation mean that the low sensitivity of predominantly alpine plants compared with that of lowland plants is attributable to their different genetic constitution, possibly as a result of selective pressure and/or de alpine species have a greater capacity to develop protective mechanisms? Pairs and triplets of species belonging to the same genus but occuring at different site elevations were grown from seeds in a greenhouse that is, without UV-B. In order to determine their capacity to adapt to UV-B radiation, some of the plants were additionally exposed to UV-B for 5-6 weeks prior to sensitivity testing. Sensitivity was tested by exposing the plants to additional UV-B of different intensities in test chambers. Visible damage, ranging from light bronzing or yellowing to withering, served as an assessment criterion. Levels of UV-B absorbing substances (phenylpropane species, usually flavonoids) were also measured in these plants. The results obtained permit the following conclusions: The greater UV-B resistance of alpine species compared with that of lowland species of the same genus is not attributable to their genetic constitution but rather to their superior adaptability. Superior resistance is in part due to a greater accumulation of UV-B absorbing substances. Distinct differences in sensitivity between different genera could lead to population shifts within ecosystems as a result of increased UV-B radiation. (orig./KW) [de

  19. Growth potential in gas plant ethane production and the impact on propane import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In varying degrees in most ethylene plants, ethane and propane are used interchangeably as feedstocks. During the next five years, several new ethylene plants will be built in the Gulf Coast area. Most of these plants will be based on LPG feedstocks and will have some flexibility to operate with ethane and propane feedstocks. The completion of new ethylene plants will increase feedstock demand for ethane by 65--90 Mbpd by 1998 and by an additional 50--80 Mbpd by 2000. Thus, the availability of ethane will have a significant impact on Gulf Coast waterborne propane import requirements. Sustained growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability will effectively minimize waterborne propane import requirements for the next five to ten years. Petral Worldwide's approach to feedstock supply analysis highlights investment opportunities in domestic supply sources. Projects of these types will also limit a growth dependence on NGL feedstock supplies from politically unstable supply sources in North Africa and the Middle East. This paper examines the potential for growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability and the impact on Gulf Coast feedstock markets

  20. Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2011-11-01

    Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider

  1. Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZymes present in the Phytophthora infestans, Ph. ramorum, Ph. sojae and Pythium ultimum genomes compared to growth of these species on a range of different carbon sources. Growth on these carbon sources indicates that the size of enzyme families involved in degradation of cell-wall related substrates like cellulose, xylan and pectin is not always a good predictor of growth on these substrates. While a capacity to degrade xylan and cellulose exists the products are not fully saccharified and used as a carbon source. The Phytophthora genomes encode larger CAZyme sets when compared to Py. ultimum, and encode putative cutinases, GH12 xyloglucanases and GH10 xylanases that are missing in the Py. ultimum genome. Phytophthora spp. also encode a larger number of enzyme families and genes involved in pectin degradation. No loss or gain of complete enzyme families was found between the Phytophthora genomes, but there are some marked differences in the size of some enzyme families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing operational efficiency in a radioactive waste processing plant - 16100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.W.; Watson, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    The solid waste plant at Harwell in Oxfordshire, contains a purpose built facility to input, assay, visually inspect and sort remote handled intermediate level radioactive waste (RHILW). The facility includes a suite of remote handling cells, known as the head-end cells (HEC), which waste must pass through in order to be repackaged. Some newly created waste from decommissioning works on site passes through the cells, but the vast majority of waste for processing is historical waste, stored in below ground tube stores. Existing containers are not suitable for long term storage, many are already badly corroded, so the waste must be efficiently processed and repackaged in order to achieve passive safety. The Harwell site is currently being decommissioned and the land is being restored. The site is being progressively de-licensed, and redeveloped as a business park, which can only be completed when all the nuclear liabilities have been removed. The recovery and processing of old waste in the solid waste plant is a key project linked to de-licensing of a section of the site. Increasing the operational efficiency of the waste processing plant could shorten the time needed to clear the site and has the potential to save money for the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The waste processing facility was constructed in the mid 1990's, and commissioned in 1999. Since operations began, the yearly throughput of the cells has increased significantly every year. To achieve targets set out in the lifetime plan (LTP) for the site, throughput must continue to increase. The operations department has measured the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) of the process for the last few years, and has used continuous improvement techniques to decrease the average cycle time. Philosophies from operational management practices such as 'lean' and 'kaizen' have been employed successfully to drive out losses and increase plant efficiency. This paper will describe how the solid waste plant

  3. Increase of Internal CO2 of Cotton Plants by Methanol Application to Increase Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badron Zakaria; Darmawan; Nurlina Kasim; Joseph Saepuddin

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment has been conducted to increase internal CO 2 and Rubisco activity detected by 14 C and to determinate which factors influence this activities. Plant material used was cotton plants which internal CO 2 concentrations and Rubisco activity was observed at 35, 50, 65, 80 days after planting (DAP). Treatments applied were methanol with concentrations of 0%, 10%,20% and 30% at available water (AW) at 25-50% AW, 50-75% AW, 75-100% AW. Results obtained showed that application of methanol at concentration of 20% at 75-100% AW, increase internal CO 2 from 266.60 ppm to 295.10 ppm (11 % increase) and this will also increase Rubisco activity from 3.81 to 14.28 (μmol. CO 2 menit -1 (μmol. Rubisco -1 ). This increase is expected to push photosynthesis rate and result in increase cotton yield. The use of 14 C was satisfactorily detected the amount of carbon. (author)

  4. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  5. Increasing plant growth by modulating omega-amidase expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2015-06-30

    The present disclosure relates to compositions and methods for increasing the leaf-to-root ratio of the signal metabolite 2-oxoglutaramate and related proline molecules in plants by modulating levels of .omega.-amidase to increase nitrogen use efficiency, resulting in enhanced growth, faster growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields.

  6. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  7. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  8. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  9. Riparian plant community responses to increased flooding: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2015-08-01

    A future higher risk of severe flooding of streams and rivers has been projected to change riparian plant community composition and species richness, but the extent and direction of the expected change remain uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize globally available experimental evidence and assess the effects of increased flooding on (1) riparian adult plant and seedling survival, (2) riparian plant biomass and (3) riparian plant species composition and richness. We evaluated which plant traits are of key importance for the response of riparian plant species to flooding. We identified and analysed 53 papers from ISI Web of Knowledge which presented quantitative experimental results on flooding treatments and corresponding control situations. Our meta-analysis demonstrated how longer duration of flooding, greater depth of flooding and, particularly, their combination reduce seedling survival of most riparian species. Plant height above water level, ability to elongate shoots and plasticity in root porosity were decisive for adult plant survival and growth during longer periods of flooding. Both 'quiescence' and 'escape' proved to be successful strategies promoting riparian plant survival, which was reflected in the wide variation in survival (full range between 0 and 100%) under fully submerged conditions, while plants that protrude above the water level (>20 cm) almost all survive. Our survey confirmed that the projected increase in the duration and depth of flooding periods is sufficient to result in species shifts. These shifts may lead to increased or decreased riparian species richness depending on the nutrient, climatic and hydrological status of the catchment. Species richness was generally reduced at flooded sites in nutrient-rich catchments and sites that previously experienced relatively stable hydrographs (e.g. rain-fed lowland streams). Species richness usually increased at sites in desert and semi-arid climate regions (e.g. intermittent

  10. Climate warming could increase recruitment success in glacier foreland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoni, Andrea; Pedrini, Simone; Bernareggi, Giulietta; Rossi, Graziano; Abeli, Thomas; Probert, Robin J; Ghitti, Michele; Bonomi, Costantino; Orsenigo, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Glacier foreland plants are highly threatened by global warming. Regeneration from seeds on deglaciated terrain will be crucial for successful migration and survival of these species, and hence a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on seedling recruitment is urgently needed to predict future plant persistence in these environments. This study presents the first field evidence of the impact of climate change on recruitment success of glacier foreland plants. Seeds of eight foreland species were sown on a foreland site at 2500 m a.s.l., and at a site 400 m lower in altitude to simulate a 2·7 °C increase in mean annual temperature. Soil from the site of origin was used to reproduce the natural germination substrate. Recruitment success, temperature and water potential were monitored for 2 years. The response of seed germination to warming was further investigated in the laboratory. At the glacier foreland site, seedling emergence was low (0 to approx. 40 %) and occurred in summer in all species after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, at the warmer site there was a shift from summer to autumn emergence in two species and a significant increase of summer emergence (13-35 % higher) in all species except two. Survival and establishment was possible for 60-75 % of autumn-emerged seedlings and was generally greater under warmer conditions. Early snowmelt in spring caused the main ecological factors enhancing the recruitment success. The results suggest that warming will influence the recruitment of glacier foreland species primarily via the extension of the snow-free period in spring, which increases seedling establishment and results in a greater resistance to summer drought and winter extremes. The changes in recruitment success observed here imply that range shifts or changes in abundance are possible in a future warmer climate, but overall success may be dependent on interactions with shifts in other components of the

  11. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Plant Iron Deficiency Tolerance via Increased Accumulation of Polyamine-Mediated Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhu, Lin; Ma, Zhongyou; Wang, Jianfei; Zhu, Jian

    2016-10-25

    Melatonin has recently been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, the possible involvement of melatonin in Fe deficiency responses and the underlying mechanisms remained elusive in Arabidopsis thaliana . In this study, Fe deficiency quickly induced melatonin synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Exogenous melatonin significantly increased the soluble Fe content of shoots and roots, and decreased the levels of root cell wall Fe bound to pectin and hemicellulose, thus alleviating Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, melatonin treatments induced a significant increase of nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in roots of Fe-deficient plants, but not in those of polyamine-deficient ( adc2-1 and d-arginine-treated) plants. Moreover, the melatonin-alleviated leaf chlorosis was blocked in the polyamine- and NO-deficient ( nia1nia2noa1 and c-PTIO-treated) plants, and the melatonin-induced Fe remobilization was largely inhibited. In addition, the expression of some Fe acquisition-related genes, including FIT1 , FRO2 , and IRT1 were significantly up-regulated by melatonin treatments, whereas the enhanced expression of these genes was obviously suppressed in the polyamine- and NO-deficient plants. Collectively, our results provide evidence to support the view that melatonin can increase the tolerance of plants to Fe deficiency in a process dependent on the polyamine-induced NO production under Fe-deficient conditions.

  12. Specificity of DNA import into isolated mitochondria from plants and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koulintchenko M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigation of different features of DNA import into plant and human mitochondria, for a better understanding of mitochondrial genetics and generation of biotechnological tools. Methods. DNA up-take experiments with isolated plant mitochondria, using as substrates various sequences associated or not with the specific terminal inverted repeats (TIRs present at each end of the plant mitochondrial linear plasmids. Results. It was established that the DNA import efficiency has a non-linear dependence on DNA size. It was shown that import into plant mitochondria of DNA molecules of «medium» sizes, i. e. between 4 and 7 kb, barely has any sequence specificity: neither TIRs from the 11.6 kb Brassica plasmid, nor TIRs from the Zea mays S-plasmids influenced DNA import into Solanum tuberosum mitochondria. Conclusions. The data obtained support the hypothesis about species-specific import mechanism operating under the mitochondrial linear plasmids transfer into plant mitochondria.

  13. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    spinner can be equipped with a 4 or 6 outlet delivery head, depending on row spacing. The planter is fitted with hoe openers. Alternatively, spear-point openers have sometimes been used under conventional tillage systems. Seeding depth control was achieved by an adjustment screw handle. The plot seeder is being moved by a 9.6 kW engine, and has been successfully used in applications. Field experiment established by using 4 plot length (2, 3, 4 and 6 with 4 replication by the constructed plot seeder and imported plot seeder. Crop measurements were planted height, spike m-2, seeds/spike, Thousand kernel weight, Biological and grain yield, harvest index and drill measurements were seeding depth, uniformity of row spacing in action, seed counter performance, power requirement, slippage evenly of rows after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there were significant differences between the plant emergences. The emergencies were higher in plots, which planted by the new plot seeder. The differences between seed distribution of openers were insignificant, but the variances of new plot seeder and imported plot seeder were 0.267 and 1.05 respectively. Mean planting depth of plots planted by the Wintersteiger plot seeder was 0.8 cm shallower than the adjusted planting depth while mean planting depth in plots planted by constructing machine had only 0.01 cm variation. Results of variance analysis revealed that effect of treatments on wheat grain yield and yield components was significant. So that, highest grain yield (4216 kgha-1, biological yield (8704 kgha-1, number of spikes per square meter (649spike, obtained from a plot which planted by constructed plot seeder. Increasing yield of treatments which planted by constructed plot seeder might be because of increasing the number of spikes per square meter in those treatments. The mean of spike per square meter in plots of new planter was 691 spikes which were116 spike more than plots planted by imported plot seeder

  14. Relative Importance and Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plants in a Kichwa Community in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Joseph Doyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, such as knowledge of the use of plants as medicine, influences how indigenous people manage forest resources. Gender and age-associated differences in traditional knowledge may impact forest resource management because of the traditional division of labor. We interviewed 18 men and 18 women between 9 and 74 years old in San José de Payamino, an indigenous community of the Kichwa ethnicity in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to determine if there are gender or age-associated differences in medicinal plant knowledge among the Payamino people and to identify the most important species from a sample of medicinal plants. Individuals were interviewed using a tablet that displayed images of 34 plants, which had been cited by traditional healers in the community. Quantitative analysis provided insight into the relative importance of plants in the sample as well as the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge among members of the community. The most important plants were Tradescantia zanonia and Monolena primuliflora. These plants should be considered candidates for further investigation. There was a positive correlation between age and knowledge of medicinal plants, but no significant difference between genders. Our results suggest that an interview method that relies on digital images can reveal differences in the importance of medicinal plants as well as provide insight into the distribution of traditional medical knowledge. While men and women are likely to manage forest resources similarly, younger members of the community may not have the same regard for forest resources as their elder counterparts.

  15. Strategies to increase Vitamin C in plants: from plant defence perspective to food biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria eLocato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by classical breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defence responses.

  16. Strategies to increase vitamin C in plants: from plant defense perspective to food biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by "classical" breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of the fault tolerance of systems important to the safety of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, S.D.; Sivokon, V.P.; Shmatkova, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    Fault tolerance is the property of a system to preserve its performance upon failures of its components. Thus, in nuclear-reactor technology one has only a qualitative evaluation of fault tolerance - the single-failure criterion, which does not enable one to compare and perform goal-directed design of fault-tolerant systems, and in the field of computer technology there are no generally accepted evaluations of fault tolerance that could be applied effectively to reactor systems. This paper considers alternative evaluations of fault tolerance and a method of comprehensive automated calculation of the reliability and fault tolerance of complex systems. The authors presented quantitative estimates of fault tolerance that develop the single-failure criterion. They have limiting processes that allow simple and graphical standardization. They worked out a method and a program for comprehensive calculation of the reliability and fault tolerance of systems of complex structure that are important to the safety of atomic power plants. The quantitative evaluation of the fault tolerance of these systems exhibits a degree of insensitivity to failures and shows to what extent their reliability is determined by a rigorously defined structure, and to what extent by the probabilistic reliability characteristics of the components. To increase safety, one must increase the fault tolerance of the most important systems of atomic power plants

  18. Evolutionary relationships can be more important than abiotic conditions in predicting the outcome of plant-plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Torices, Rubén; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative plant-plant interactions are major processes shaping plant communities. They are affected by environmental conditions and evolutionary relationships among the interacting plants. However, the generality of these factors as drivers of pairwise plant interactions and their combined effects remain virtually unknown. We conducted an observational study to assess how environmental conditions (altitude, temperature, irradiance and rainfall), the dispersal mechanism of beneficiary species and evolutionary relationships affected the co-occurrence of pairwise interactions in 11 Stipa tenacissima steppes located along an environmental gradient in Spain. We studied 197 pairwise plant-plant interactions involving the two major nurse plants (the resprouting shrub Quercus coccifera and the tussock grass S. tenacissima) found in these communities. The relative importance of the studied factors varied with the nurse species considered. None of the factors studied were good predictors of the co-ocurrence between S. tenacissima and its neighbours. However, both the dispersal mechanism of the beneficiary species and the phylogenetic distance between interacting species were crucial factors affecting the co-occurrence between Q. coccifera and its neighbours, while climatic conditions (irradiance) played a secondary role. Values of phylogenetic distance between 207-272.8 Myr led to competition, while values outside this range or fleshy-fruitness in the beneficiary species led to positive interactions. The low importance of environmental conditions as a general driver of pairwise interactions was caused by the species-specific response to changes in either rainfall or radiation. This result suggests that factors other than climatic conditions must be included in theoretical models aimed to generally predict the outcome of plant-plant interactions. Our study helps to improve current theory on plant-plant interactions and to understand how these interactions can

  19. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge...... plant provenance.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 14 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.41....

  20. Risk Importance Measures in the Designand Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrbanic I.; Samanta P.; Basic, I

    2017-10-31

    This monograph presents and discusses risk importance measures as quantified by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models of nuclear power plants (NPPs) developed according to the current standards and practices. Usually, PRA tools calculate risk importance measures related to a single ?basic event? representing particular failure mode. This is, then, reflected in many current PRA applications. The monograph focuses on the concept of ?component-level? importance measures that take into account different failure modes of the component including common-cause failures (CCFs). In opening sections the roleof risk assessment in safety analysis of an NPP is introduced and discussion given of ?traditional?, mainly deterministic, design principles which have been established to assign a level of importance to a particular system, structure or component. This is followed by an overview of main risk importance measures for risk increase and risk decrease from current PRAs. Basic relations which exist among the measures are shown. Some of the current practical applications of risk importancemeasures from the field of NPP design, operation and regulation are discussed. The core of the monograph provides a discussion on theoreticalbackground and practical aspects of main risk importance measures at the level of ?component? as modeled in a PRA, starting from the simplest case, single basic event, and going toward more complexcases with multiple basic events and involvements in CCF groups. The intent is to express the component-level importance measures via theimportance measures and probabilities of the underlying single basic events, which are the inputs readily available from a PRA model andits results. Formulas are derived and discussed for some typical cases. The formulas and their results are demonstrated through some practicalexamples, done by means of a simplified PRA model developed in and run by RiskSpectrum? tool, which are presented in the appendices. The

  1. 7 CFR 351.7 - Regulations governing importation by mail of plant material for immediate export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR... enter the commerce of the United States. (3) After inspection by the customs and quarantine officers... parcel under customs supervision; affix to the parcel the necessary postage, and comply with other...

  2. Characterizing pathways of invasion using Sternorryhncha on imported plant material in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy T. Work

    2011-01-01

    Non-indigenous Homoptera, mainly scales, aphids, and mealy bugs, intercepted on plants destined for cultivation represent an elevated risk for the establishment of invasive insects in North America. These insects [grouped as the suborder Sternorrhyncha] are often parthenogenic and are imported on viable host plants.

  3. The importance of phenology in studies of plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Thesis title: The importance of phenology in studies of plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions Author: Minghui Fei Abstract As food resources of herbivorous insects, the quality and quantity of plants can directly affect the performance of herbivorous insects and indirectly affect

  4. Ejectors of power plants turbine units efficiency and reliability increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Kuptsov, V. K.; Murmanskii, I. B.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Khaet, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The functioning of steam turbines condensation systems influence on the efficiency and reliability of a power plant a lot. At the same time, the condensation system operating is provided by basic ejectors, which maintain the vacuum level in the condenser. Development of methods of efficiency and reliability increasing for ejector functioning is an actual problem of up-to-date power engineering. In the paper there is presented statistical analysis of ejector breakdowns, revealed during repairing processes, the influence of such damages on the steam turbine operating reliability. It is determined, that 3% of steam turbine equipment breakdowns are the ejector breakdowns. At the same time, about 7% of turbine breakdowns are caused by different ejector malfunctions. Developed and approved design solutions, which can increase the ejector functioning indexes, are presented. Intercoolers are designed in separated cases, so the air-steam mixture can’t move from the high-pressure zones to the low-pressure zones and the maintainability of the apparatuses is increased. By U-type tubes application, the thermal expansion effect of intercooler tubes is compensated and the heat-transfer area is increased. By the applied nozzle fixing construction, it is possible to change the distance between a nozzle and a mixing chamber (nozzle exit position) for operating performance optimization. In operating conditions there are provided experimental researches of more than 30 serial ejectors and also high-efficient 3-staged ejector EPO-3-80, designed by authors. The measurement scheme of the designed ejector includes 21 indicator. The results of experimental tests with different nozzle exit positions of the ejector EPO-3-80 stream devices are presented. The pressure of primary stream (water steam) is optimized. Experimental data are well-approved by the calculation results.

  5. Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanauskiene, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of Ignalina nuclear power plant (two RBMK-1500 water-cooled graphite moderated channel-type power reactors) are presented

  6. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  7. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  8. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  9. Elemental analysis of some ethnomedicinaly important hydrophytes and marsh plants of India used in traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somnath Bhowmik; Badal Kumar Datta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the elemental content of some ethnomedicinaly important hydrophytes and marsh plant of Tripura, India. Methods: With the help of standardize d questionnaires, 10 informants were interviewed on the medicinal use of hydrophytes and marsh plants of Tripura, India during 2009-2010.The elemental content of those plants were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: A total of 8 plant species belonging to 8 different genera and 8 family were reported with their ethnomedicinaly uses. Among the different plant part used leaves and young tender shoots are most frequently used for the treatment of different disease. The hydrophytes and marsh plants are mostly used for the treatment of dysentery and other hepatic disorder. Different elemental constituents at trace levels of plants play an effective role in the medicines prepared. Elemental composition of eight ethno-medicinally important hydrophytes and marsh plants of Tripura, India have been determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). A total of 11 elements K+, Mg+2, Ca+2, Na+ , Fe+2, Mn+2, Cu+3, Mn+2, Cu+3, Cr+3, Zn+2, Pb+4 and Cd+2 have been measured. Their concentrations were found to vary in different samples. Toxic elements Cd and Pb were also found but at very low concentration. Medicinal properties of these plant samples and their elemental distribution have been correlated. These results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials in herbal remedies and in pharmaceutical companies. Conclusions: The data obtained in the present work will be useful in synthesis of new herbal drugs with various combinations of plants, which can be used in the treatment of different diseases at global level.

  10. Effect of post-Chernobyl chronic irradiation on some important plant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of photosynthetic plant apparatus characterized by photochemical activity of chloroplasts (the Hill reaction), cyclic photophosphorylation and activity of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase (RuBC) is investigated. These characteristics are used to show the state of plant growing under increased background radiation. There is a trend towards increase of chlorophyll content per unit wet weight of a leaf and reduction in the concentration of soluble protein in irradiated plants. However, the photochemical reactions, as indicated by RuBC activity, are similar. The low hydrolytic activity of chlorophyllase, an enzyme of chlorophyll degradation, indicates a high activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants growing under increased background radiation conditions. Thus, the observed resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to ionizing radiation and stimulation of pigment metabolism and activity of photochemical and enzyme reactions reveals a high adaptive ability of plants. Under conditions of elevated radiation background, the processes of photosynthesis in plants may become more active. This in turn may favour the accumulation of green mass and the crop raising. The prolonged chronic action of radionuclides on plants in contaminated zones will be determined by their specific accumulation in individual plant species, their radiosensitivity and factors connected with their growth - type of soil, kind of radionuclide fallout, chemical and physical effects. (author)

  11. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators increased the total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... the exogenous application of flavonoids reports plant growth regulation ... method used for extraction and quantification of endogenous gibberellins was ... 365 nm) while separation was done on a C18 reverse-phase HPLC.

  12. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting

    KAUST Repository

    van Katwijk, Marieke M.; Thorhaug, Anitra; Marbà , Nú ria; Orth, Robert J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Althuizen, Inge H. J.; Balestri, Elena; Bernard, Guillaume; Cambridge, Marion L.; Cunha, Alexandra; Durance, Cynthia; Giesen, Wim; Han, Qiuying; Hosokawa, Shinya; Kiswara, Wawan; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Lardicci, Claudio; Lee, Kun-Seop; Meinesz, Alexandre; Nakaoka, Masahiro; O'Brien, Katherine R.; Paling, Erik I.; Pickerell, Chris; Ransijn, Aryan M. A.; Verduin, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    In coastal and estuarine systems, foundation species like seagrasses, mangroves, saltmarshes or corals provide important ecosystem services. Seagrasses are globally declining and their reintroduction has been shown to restore ecosystem functions. However, seagrass restoration is often challenging, given the dynamic and stressful environment that seagrasses often grow in. From our world-wide meta-analysis of seagrass restoration trials (1786 trials), we describe general features and best practice for seagrass restoration. We confirm that removal of threats is important prior to replanting. Reduced water quality (mainly eutrophication), and construction activities led to poorer restoration success than, for instance, dredging, local direct impact and natural causes. Proximity to and recovery of donor beds were positively correlated with trial performance. Planting techniques can influence restoration success. The meta-analysis shows that both trial survival and seagrass population growth rate in trials that survived are positively affected by the number of plants or seeds initially transplanted. This relationship between restoration scale and restoration success was not related to trial characteristics of the initial restoration. The majority of the seagrass restoration trials have been very small, which may explain the low overall trial survival rate (i.e. estimated 37%). Successful regrowth of the foundation seagrass species appears to require crossing a minimum threshold of reintroduced individuals. Our study provides the first global field evidence for the requirement of a critical mass for recovery, which may also hold for other foundation species showing strong positive feedback to a dynamic environment. Synthesis and applications. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting

  13. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting

    KAUST Repository

    van Katwijk, Marieke M.

    2015-10-28

    In coastal and estuarine systems, foundation species like seagrasses, mangroves, saltmarshes or corals provide important ecosystem services. Seagrasses are globally declining and their reintroduction has been shown to restore ecosystem functions. However, seagrass restoration is often challenging, given the dynamic and stressful environment that seagrasses often grow in. From our world-wide meta-analysis of seagrass restoration trials (1786 trials), we describe general features and best practice for seagrass restoration. We confirm that removal of threats is important prior to replanting. Reduced water quality (mainly eutrophication), and construction activities led to poorer restoration success than, for instance, dredging, local direct impact and natural causes. Proximity to and recovery of donor beds were positively correlated with trial performance. Planting techniques can influence restoration success. The meta-analysis shows that both trial survival and seagrass population growth rate in trials that survived are positively affected by the number of plants or seeds initially transplanted. This relationship between restoration scale and restoration success was not related to trial characteristics of the initial restoration. The majority of the seagrass restoration trials have been very small, which may explain the low overall trial survival rate (i.e. estimated 37%). Successful regrowth of the foundation seagrass species appears to require crossing a minimum threshold of reintroduced individuals. Our study provides the first global field evidence for the requirement of a critical mass for recovery, which may also hold for other foundation species showing strong positive feedback to a dynamic environment. Synthesis and applications. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting

  14. The diversity of the pollen tube pathway in plants: towards an increasing control by the sporophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eLora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants, unlike animals, alternate multicellular diploid and haploid generations in their life cycle. While this is widespread all along the plant kingdom, the size and autonomy of the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte generations vary along evolution. Vascular plants show an evolutionary trend towards a reduction of the gametophyte, reflected both in size and lifespan, together with an increasing dependence from the sporophyte. This has resulted in an overlooking of the importance of the gametophytic phase in the evolution of higher plants. This reliance on the sporophyte is most notorious along the pollen tube journey, where the male gametophytes have to travel a long way inside the sporophyte to reach the female gametophyte. Along evolution, there is a change in the scenery of the pollen tube pathway that favors pollen competition and selection. This trend, towards apparently making complicated what could be simple, appears to be related to an increasing control of the sporophyte over the gametophyte with implications for understanding plant evolution.

  15. Increasing plant diversity with border crops reduces insecticide use and increases crop yield in urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Cai, You-Ming; Shen, Yan-Jun; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Rong; Cheng, Wei; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yao-Pei; Chen, Xin; Weiner, Jacob; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Nie, Ming; Ju, Rui-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Tang, Jian-Jun; Tian, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bo

    2018-05-24

    Urban agriculture is making an increasing contribution to food security in large cities around the world. The potential contribution of biodiversity to ecological intensification in urban agricultural systems has not been investigated. We present monitoring data collected from rice fields in 34 community farms in mega-urban Shanghai, China, from 2001 to 2015, and show that the presence of a border crop of soybeans and neighboring crops (maize, eggplant and Chinese cabbage), both without weed control, increased invertebrate predator abundance, decreased the abundance of pests and dependence on insecticides, and increased grain yield and economic profits. Two 2 year randomized experiments with the low and high diversity practices in the same locations confirmed these results. Our study shows that diversifying farming practices can make an important contribution to ecological intensification and the sustainable use of associated ecosystem services in an urban ecosystem. © 2018, Wan et al.

  16. Small seed size increases the potential for dispersal of wetland plants by ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, M.B.; van der Vlugt, C.; van Lith, B.; Heil, G.W.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance dispersal (LDD) is important in plants of dynamic and ephemeral habitats. For plants of dynamic wetland habitats, waterfowl are generally considered to be important LDD vectors. However, in comparison to the internal (endozoochorous) dispersal of terrestrial plants by birds,

  17. The importance of fossil-fired power plants for the future energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czychon, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the nuclear disaster in Fukushima and the phasing out of nuclear energy in Germany which is planned up to the year 2022, in addition to the already decommissioned nuclear power plants, a further outage capacity of approximately 13 MW will result. Against the background of the unresolved storage problem, regardless of further expansion of the use of renewable energy sources, the need arises for additional fossil-fueled power plants, i.e. gas and coal power plants. The development of gas prices shows that a further expansion of the gas turbine power plants is limited for economic reasons. This leads to the consequence that the future coal-fired power plants are needed to produce electricity. To meet the requirements for a reduction of CO 2 emissions laws, new power plants must be built with increased efficiency compared to previous systems. In order to meet the challenges of future fossil fuel power plant generations, the Grosskraftwerk Mannheim (Large-scale Power Plant Mannheim) is involved in numerous research projects to increase efficiency, reduce harmful emissions and economic implementation of ambitious technologies.

  18. Increasing flexibility of coal power plant by control system modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Ante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanding implementation of intermittent renewable energy sources has already started to change the role of thermal power plants in energy systems across Europe. Traditionally base load plants are now forced to operate as peaking plants. A familiar transition in upcoming years is expected in Croatia and coal power plant operators are preparing accordingly. To evaluate cycling capabilities and control system operation for flexible operation of selected 210 MW coal plant, series of tests with different load gradients were performed and results were thoroughly analyzed. Two possible “bottlenecks” are identified, thermal stress in superheater header, and achievable ramping rate considering operational limitations of coal feeders, firing system and evaporator dynamics. Several unexpected readings were observed, usually caused by malfunctioning sensors and equipment, resulting in unexpected oscillations of superheated steam temperature. Based on superheater geometry and experimental data, maximal steam temperature gradient during ramping was evaluated. Since thermal stress was well inside the safety margins, the simulation model of the whole boiler was used to evaluate achievable ramping on electric side.

  19. The importance of plant-soil interactions for N mineralisation in different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Conor; Paterson, Eric; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Schulte, Rogier

    2013-04-01

    The last hundred years has seen major advancements in our knowledge of nitrogen mineralisation in soil, but key drivers and controls remain poorly understood. Due to an increase in the global population there is a higher demand on food production. To accommodate this demand agriculture has increased its use of N based fertilizers, but these pose risks for water quality and GHG emissions as N can be lost through nitrate leaching, ammonia volatilization, and denitrification processes (Velthof, et al., 2009). Therefore, understanding the underlying processes that determine the soils ability to supply N to the plant is vital for effective optimisation of N-fertilisation with crop demand. Carbon rich compounds exuded from plant roots to the rhizosphere, which are utilized by the microbial biomass and support activities including nutrient transformations, may be a key unaccounted for driver of N mineralisation. The main aim of this study was to study the impact of root exudates on turnover of C and N in soil, as mediated by the microbial community. Two soil types, known to contrast in N-mineralisation capacity, were used to determine relationships between C inputs, organic matter mineralisation (priming effects) and N fluxes. 15N and 13C stable isotope approaches were used to quantify the importance of rhizosphere processes on C and N mineralisation. Gross nitrogen mineralisation was measured using 15N pool dilution. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured and 13C isotope partitioning was applied to quantify SOM turnover and microbial biomass respiration. Also, 13C was traced through the microbial biomass (chloroform fumigation) to separate pool-substitution effects (apparent priming) from altered microbial utilisation of soil organic matter (real priming effects). Addition of labile carbon resulted in an increase in N-mineralisation from soil organic matter in both soils. Concurrent with this there was an increase in microbial biomass size, indicating that labile C elicited

  20. Ethnomedicinal knowledge and relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants of Cholistan desert, Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadeem; Mahmood, Adeel; Tahir, S S; Bano, Asghari; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hassan, Seema; Ashraf, Aisha

    2014-09-11

    Ethnomedicinal studies are significant for the discovery of new crude drugs from indigenous reported medicinal plants. The current study aimed to report the indigenous medicinal knowledge of plants and herbal remedies used as folk medicines in Cholistan desert, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Rapid appraisal approach (RAA), semi-structured interviews, group meetings with herbalists, landowners and local people having awareness about the medicinal action of plants were employed to collect the data. This study reports 70 medicinal plants belonging to 27 families that were disseminated among 60 different genera and Poaceae was the predominant family over others with 13 reported medicinal plants. Among plant parts, leaves were the dominant over others with 26.4% used in herbal preparations followed by the stem (25.2%), fruit (21.5%), flower (16.3%), seed (6.5%), bark and pod (02%). Haloxylon recurvum exhibited the highest use vale (UV) 0.83 while least UV was exhibited by Mollugo cerviana that was 0.16. Important medicinal plants, reported in this study have been screened for phytochemical and pharmaceutical activities in different parts of the globe. It is recommended that reported medicinal plants having potent action for cancer and hepatitis must be screened for pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Instrumentation and control systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for establishing safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-1: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (the Requirements for Design), which establishes the design requirements for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide describes how the requirements should be met for instrumentation and control (I and C) systems important to safety. This publication is a revision and combination of two previous Safety Guides: Safety Series Nos 50-SG-D3 and 50-SG-D8, which are superseded by this new Safety Guide. The revision takes account of developments in I and C systems important to safety since the earlier Safety Guides were published in 1980 and 1984, respectively. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the design of I and C systems important to safety in nuclear power plants, including all I and C components, from the sensors allocated to the mechanical systems to the actuated equipment, operator interfaces and auxiliary equipment. This Safety Guide deals mainly with design requirements for those I and C systems that are important to safety. It expands on paragraphs of Ref in the area of I and C systems important to safety. This publication is intended for use primarily by designers of nuclear power plants and also by owners and/or operators and regulators of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide provides general guidance on I and C systems important to safety which is broadly applicable to many nuclear power plants. More detailed requirements and limitations for safe operation specific to a particular plant type should be established as part of the design process. The present guidance is focused on the design principles for systems important to safety that warrant particular attention, and should be applied to both the design of new I and C systems and the modernization of existing systems. Guidance is provided on how design

  2. Seismic margin reviews of nuclear power plants: Identification of important functions and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prassinos, P.G.; Moore, D.L.; Amico, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The results from the review of the seven utility-sponsored seismic PRAs plus the Zion SSMRP have been used to develop some insights regarding the importance of various systems and functions to seismic margins. By taking this information and combining it with the fragility insights we can develop some functional/systemic screening guideline for margin studies. This screening approach will greatly reduce the scope of the analysis. It is possible only to come to conclusions regarding the importance of plant systems and safety functions for PWRs, for which six plants were studied. For PWRs, it is possible to categorize plant safety functions as belonging to one of two groups, one of which is important to the assessment of seismic margins and one of which is not. The important functional group involves only two functions that must be considered for estimating seismic margin. These two functions are shutting down the nuclear reaction and providing cooling to the reactor core in the time period immediately following the seismic event (that is, the injection phase or pre-residual heat removal time period). It is possible to reasonably estimate the seismic margin of the plant by performing a study only involving the analysis of the plant systems and structure which are required in order to perform the two functions. Such analysis must include an assessment of a complete set of seismic initiating events. (orig./HP)

  3. Towards engineering increased pantothenate (Vitamin B5) levels in plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakauya, E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate (vitamin B5) is the precursor of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl-carrier protein. It is made by plants and microorganisms de novo, but is a dietary requirement for animals. The pantothenate biosynthetic pathway...

  4. Increased heavy metal tolerance of cowpea plants by dual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in artificially heavy metal polluted soil was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and Rhizobium (N-fixing bacteria, NFB) on the host plant cowpea (Vigna sinensis) in pot ...

  5. DNA barcodes for bio-surveillance: regulated and economically important arthropod plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    Many of the arthropod species that are important pests of agriculture and forestry are impossible to discriminate morphologically throughout all of their life stages. Some cannot be differentiated at any life stage. Over the past decade, DNA barcoding has gained increasing adoption as a tool to both identify known species and to reveal cryptic taxa. Although there has not been a focused effort to develop a barcode library for them, reference sequences are now available for 77% of the 409 species of arthropods documented on major pest databases. Aside from developing the reference library needed to guide specimen identifications, past barcode studies have revealed that a significant fraction of arthropod pests are a complex of allied taxa. Because of their importance as pests and disease vectors impacting global agriculture and forestry, DNA barcode results on these arthropods have significant implications for quarantine detection, regulation, and management. The current review discusses these implications in light of the presence of cryptic species in plant pests exposed by DNA barcoding.

  6. Modernization and power increase nuclear power plant Laguna Verde (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Serrano, J. L.; Merino, A.; Ruiz Gutierrez, L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to perform the modifications on the thermal cycle of the plant required by an Extended Power Uprate, to achieve a safe and reliable operation of the plant at 120% of its original thermal power. The scope includes the design, engineering training, supply of equipment, dismantling, installation, testing and commissioning. The duration of the project is 4 years (82007-2010), and all the modifications have been implemented in four outages, two per unit. The main modification carried out are the change of the condenser, moisture separator and main steam reheaters, the feedwater haters, the turbogenerator and its auxiliaries, transformers, isolated phase bus and main circuit breaker, etc. (Author)

  7. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  8. Ethno-botanical studies of economically important plants from mountainous region of gilgit-baltistan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.R.; Khan, A.; Jamal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ethno botanical studies of economically important plants from Gilgit-Baltistan were conducted during 2003-2006. Extensive field trips were conducted for collection of plants according to their flowering and fruiting period and ethno-botanical data obtained during field trips. This area has many ecological zones, lies between 3000ft to 29000ft above sea level. Due to difference in soil, climate, moisture contents, latitude, longitude, altitude and topography, great diversity of plants of economic importance were found in these areas. Locals belonging to different ethnic groups, like, sayed, Gujjar, Mughal, Sheen, Yaskuin, Wakhi, Tajik, Khowar, etc., are settled there. They have distinct life styles, beliefs, traditions, life style and culture. There is a great shortage medical treatment therefore locals use indigenous plants for treatment of various diseases at local level. Folklore treatment is considered the cheapest source of curing diseases at local level. Information regarding ethno-medicinal importance was obtained from local inhabitants of old age. These plants have been utilised over many generations by various ethnic groups. It was found that indigenous medicinal flora of the area is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. It is expected that this paper will be beneficial for locals, students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public alike. (author)

  9. Increased Rate of NAD Metabolism Shortens Plant Longevity by Accelerating Developmental Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Itami, Taketo; Takahara, Kentaro; Hirabayashi, Takayuki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2016-11-01

    NAD is a well-known co-enzyme that mediates hundreds of redox reactions and is the basis of various processes regulating cell responses to different environmental and developmental cues. The regulatory mechanism that determines the amount of cellular NAD and the rate of NAD metabolism remains unclear. We created Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the NAD synthase (NADS) gene that participates in the final step of NAD biosynthesis. NADS overexpression enhanced the activity of NAD biosynthesis but not the amounts of NAD + , NADH, NADP + or NADPH. However, the amounts of some intermediates were elevated, suggesting that NAD metabolism increased. The NAD redox state was greatly facilitated by an imbalance between NAD generation and degradation in response to bolting. Metabolite profiling and transcriptional analysis revealed that the drastic modulation of NAD redox homeostasis increased tricarboxylic acid flux, causing the ectopic generation of reactive oxygen species. Vascular bundles suffered from oxidative stress, leading to a malfunction in amino acid and organic acid transportation that caused early wilting of the flower stalk and shortened plant longevity, probably due to malnutrition. We concluded that the mechanism regulating the balance between NAD synthesis and degradation is important in the systemic plant response to developmental cues during the growth-phase transition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nostalgia motivates pursuit of important goals by increasing meaning in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-01-01

    This research focused on existential and motivational implications of the emotion of nostalgia. Nostalgia (relative to control) increased meaning in life, which, in turn, galvanised intentions to pursue one's most important goal (Experiment 1) and to pursue one's most important, but not least...... in life. Also, this is the first evidence that meaning is associated with specific motivational consequences. Discussion considers the relevance of the findings for the emotion and motivation literatures....... important, goal (Experiment 2). The basic pattern held in two cultures (British and Danish) independently of positive affect. This is the first evidence that nostalgia has specific motivational consequences (i.e., pursuit of more, but not less, important goals) and transmits these consequences via meaning...

  11. Effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on the yield of rice variety IR-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, E.A.; Ramazan, M.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on yield of rice variety IR-6 was conducted at the farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan. Increase plant density significantly increase number of panicles per square meter, sterility and straw yield while increased fertilizer dose of NPK increase plant height, sterility, normal kernels, and 1000 grain weight. Interaction of increased plant density and fertilizer dose was found to be non significant except sterility percentage and straw yield. However efforts are required for increasing yield per unit area of rice. (author)

  12. Negative plant-soil feedbacks increase with plant abundance, and are unchanged by competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Maron; Alyssa Laney Smith; Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks and interspecific competition are ubiquitous interactions that strongly influence the performance of plants. Yet few studies have examined whether the strength of these interactions corresponds with the abundance of plant species in the field, or whether feedbacks and competition interact in ways that either ameliorate or exacerbate their...

  13. Diligence is more important than low prices. Photovoltaic power plants; Sorgfalt geht vor Niedrigpreis. Photovoltaikanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    In all likeliness, photovoltaic power plants will have good returns. But beware: Also mini-returns or losses are possible at bad locations or in case of quality deficiencies. Good standards in the technology and assembly are important. The authors of the contribution under consideration say what aspects have to be considered by the reader of this contribution.

  14. Modern licensing approaches for analysis of important to safety processes in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, M.; Groudev, P.; Pavlova, M.; Stoyanov, S.

    2008-01-01

    It is presented within the paper the modern approaches for analysis of important to safety assessment processes in Nuclear Power Plants, included Bulgarian Regulatory Agency's requirements for quantity assessment of these processes applying deterministic and probabilistic approaches for establishing and confirming the design basis and defence-in-depth effectiveness. (authors)

  15. Increase in imported malaria in the Netherlands in asylum seekers and VFR travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Suryapranata, Franciska S T; Croughs, Mieke; van Genderen, Perry J J; Keuter, Monique; Visser, Leo G; van Vugt, Michele; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2017-02-02

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in the Netherlands, a non-endemic country. Imported malaria infections occur regularly among travellers, migrants and visitors. Surveillance data were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Trends in amounts of notifications among risk groups were analysed using Poisson regression. For asylum seekers, yearly incidence was calculated per region of origin, using national asylum request statistics as denominator data. For tourists, denominator data were used from travel statistics to estimate incidence per travel region up to 2012. A modest increase in overall imported malaria notifications occurred in 2008-2015 (from 222 in 2008 to 344 in 2015). Notably, in 2014 and 2015 sharp increases were seen in malaria among travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR), and in asylum seekers. Of all Plasmodium falciparum infections, most (1254/1337; 93.8%) were imported from Africa; 1037/1337 (77.6%) were imported from Central and West Africa. Malaria in VFR was mostly caused by P. falciparum infection after visiting Ghana (22%) or Nigeria (19%). Malaria in asylum seekers was mostly caused by Plasmodium vivax infection from the Horn of Africa. The large number of notifications in asylum seekers resulted from both an increase in number of asylum seekers and a striking increase of malaria incidence in this group. Incidence of malaria in asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa ranged between 0.02 and 0.3% in 2008-2013, but rose to 1.6% in 2014 and 1.3% in 2015. In 2008-2012, incidence in tourists visiting Central and West Africa dropped markedly. Imported malaria is on the rise again in the Netherlands, most notably since 2013. This is mostly due to immigration of asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa. The predominance of P. vivax infection among asylum seekers warrants vigilance in health workers when a migrant presents with fever, as relapses of this type of malaria can occur long after arrival in the Netherlands.

  16. The interplay of stress and mowing disturbance for the intensity and importance of plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Marchand, Lilian; Touzard, Blaise; Michalet, Richard

    2012-09-01

    There is still debate regarding the direction and strength of plant interactions under intermediate to high levels of stress. Furthermore, little is known on how disturbance may interact with physical stress in unproductive environments, although recent theory and models have shown that this interplay may induce a collapse of plant interactions and diversity. The few studies assessing such questions have considered the intensity of biotic interactions but not their importance, although this latter concept has been shown to be very useful for understanding the role of interactions in plant communities. The objective of this study was to assess the interplay between stress and disturbance for plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands. A field experiment was set up in the Dordogne, southern France, where the importance and intensity of biotic interactions undergone by four species were measured along a water stress gradient, and with and without mowing disturbance. The importance and intensity of interactions varied in a very similar way along treatments. Under undisturbed conditions, plant interactions switched from competition to neutral with increasing water stress for three of the four species, whereas the fourth species was not subject to any significant biotic interaction along the gradient. Responses to disturbance were more species-specific; for two species, competition disappeared with mowing in the wettest conditions, whereas for the two other species, competition switched to facilitation with mowing. Finally, there were no significant interactions for any species in the disturbed and driest conditions. At very high levels of stress, plant performances become too weak to allow either competition or facilitation and disturbance may accelerate the collapse of interactions in dry conditions. The results suggest that the importance and direction of interactions are more likely to be positively related in stressful environments.

  17. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  18. Increased efficiency of targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 in plants using heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Chantal; Zhang, Fei; Mendez, Josefina; Lozano, Yamile; Chatpar, Krishna; Irish, Vivian F; Jacob, Yannick

    2018-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has greatly improved our ability to engineer targeted mutations in eukaryotic genomes. While CRISPR/Cas9 appears to work universally, the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis and the adverse generation of off-target mutations vary greatly between different organisms. In this study, we report that Arabidopsis plants subjected to heat stress at 37°C show much higher frequencies of CRISPR-induced mutations compared to plants grown continuously at the standard temperature (22°C). Using quantitative assays relying on green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, we found that targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis is increased by approximately 5-fold in somatic tissues and up to 100-fold in the germline upon heat treatment. This effect of temperature on the mutation rate is not limited to Arabidopsis, as we observed a similar increase in targeted mutations by CRISPR/Cas9 in Citrus plants exposed to heat stress at 37°C. In vitro assays demonstrate that Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) is more active in creating double-stranded DNA breaks at 37°C than at 22°C, thus indicating a potential contributing mechanism for the in vivo effect of temperature on CRISPR/Cas9. This study reveals the importance of temperature in modulating SpCas9 activity in eukaryotes, and provides a simple method to increase on-target mutagenesis in plants using CRISPR/Cas9. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Study on caralluma tuberculata nutritional composition and its importance as medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, B.; Abbasi, S.J.; Hussain, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted on Caralluma tuberculata, a famous traditional medicinal plant in the northern territory of Pakistan to assess its importance. Analysis were performed on its nutritional, proximate and microchemical composition for evaluation as food plant, while experiments of cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity and as phytobiocide were conducted to study its importance as medicinal plant. A method for vegetative propagation of C. tuberculata was optimized using cut stems without roots give better result and also more economical, from single stem multiple plant can be produced. It contains good amount of nutrients and proximate contents. Due to high inhibitory effect results of C. tuberculata against Alternaria alternata it can be recommended as selective fungicide for controlling Alternaria sp., born diseases. From the results it becomes clear that C. tuberculata had some anti-bacterial compounds which had very minimum inhibitory effect on the growth of bacterial species. This plant also showed significant activity against Artemia salina, Lemna minor and can be used as cytotoxic and phytotoxic agents in concentrated states. (author)

  20. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharani Manoharan

    Full Text Available The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant's natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction.

  1. The importance of pollinator generalization and abundance for the reproductive success of a generalist plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Maldonado

    Full Text Available Previous studies have examined separately how pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success, but none so far has evaluated simultaneously the relative importance of these pollinator attributes. Here we evaluated the extent to which pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success per visit and at the population level on a generalist plant, Opuntia sulphurea (Cactaceae. We used field experiments and path analysis to evaluate whether the per-visit effect is determined by the pollinator's degree of generalization, and whether the population level effect (pollinator impact is determined by the pollinator's degree of generalization and abundance. Based on the models we tested, we concluded that the per-visit effect of a pollinator on plant reproduction was not determined by the pollinators' degree of generalization, while the population-level impact of a pollinator on plant reproduction was mainly determined by the pollinators' degree of generalization. Thus, generalist pollinators have the greatest species impact on pollination and reproductive success of O. sulphurea. According to our analysis this greatest impact of generalist pollinators may be partly explained by pollinator abundance. However, as abundance does not suffice as an explanation of pollinator impact, we suggest that vagility, need for resource consumption, and energetic efficiency of generalist pollinators may also contribute to determine a pollinator's impact on plant reproduction.

  2. New ways enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N. V; Zebrakova, I. V.; Matsko, V. P.; Kislushko, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    After Chernobyl nuclear accident it has become very important to seek new ways of enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. A great number of biologically active compounds have been tested, which increased the disease resistance of plants and simultaneously activated the physiological and biochemical processes that control the transport of micro- and macroelements (radionuclide included) and their 'soil-root-stem-leaf' redistribution. (author)

  3. Expanding and modernising an aluminium plant increases production and reduces environmental pollution; Europas stoerste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, Knut; Haaland, Leif

    2002-07-01

    At the time of writing, milk cannot be produced closer than 20 km to Norsk Hydro's aluminium factory at Sunndalsoera, Norway. Important environmental improvements are expected as the result of current modernisation and expansion of the factory. The 300 Soederberg cells which have been used for 50 years are being replaced by 340 new electrolysis cells that will produce 1900 kg aluminium per day each. This increases the annual production of aluminium from 66000 tonnes to 328800 tonnes. In addition there will be alloying metal and remelted, which increases the total production to 370000 tonnes when the plant is completed in 2004. At full production in the new plant in addition to the present plant, the electric power requirement increases to 4850 GWh. Although this is a rise in the energy consumption, the energy used per kg of aluminium produced goes down by 23 per cent. Current use of propane and oil will be replaced by liquid gas. When completed, the works will be the biggest aluminium works in Europe and the cleanest ones in the World.

  4. International travel increase and malaria importation in Romania, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-09-01

    This report aims to assess the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Romania in the context of international travel increase, and to compare them with the data reported by other European countries. Data on malaria cases were provided by the National Centre for Surveillance and Control of the Communicable Disease, whereas the data regarding international travels to and from Romania were retrieved from the Romanian Statistical Yearbook. The number of Romanian citizens who traveled to Africa in 2007 increased by over 600% as compared to the previous year. During the years 2008-2009, 25 cases of imported malaria were registered in Romania, with no fatalities. All patients were male and most of them (84%) acquired the infection in Africa. Plasmodium falciparum was involved in 68% of cases. The majority of the affected patients (41%) were aged 31 to 40 years. Labor was the main reason for traveling (72%), and 92% of cases took either partial or no chemoprophylaxis. The continuous growth of professional and leisure voyages to malaria-endemic regions may lead to a dramatic increase of imported cases, especially if prophylactic measures are not strictly followed.

  5. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct effects of warming increase woody plant abundance in a subarctic wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Lindsay G; Beard, Karen H; Adler, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Both the direct effects of warming on a species' vital rates and indirect effects of warming caused by interactions with neighboring species can influence plant populations. Furthermore, herbivory mediates the effects of warming on plant community composition in many systems. Thus, determining the importance of direct and indirect effects of warming, while considering the role of herbivory, can help predict long-term plant community dynamics. We conducted a field experiment in the coastal wetlands of western Alaska to investigate how warming and herbivory influence the interactions and abundances of two common plant species, a sedge, Carex ramenskii , and a dwarf shrub, Salix ovalifolia . We used results from the experiment to model the equilibrium abundances of the species under different warming and grazing scenarios and to determine the contribution of direct and indirect effects to predict population changes. Consistent with the current composition of the landscape, model predictions suggest that Carex is more abundant than Salix under ambient temperatures with grazing (53% and 27% cover, respectively). However, with warming and grazing, Salix becomes more abundant than Carex (57% and 41% cover, respectively), reflecting both a negative response of Carex and a positive response of Salix to warming. While grazing reduced the cover of both species, herbivory did not prevent a shift in dominance from sedges to the dwarf shrub. Direct effects of climate change explained about 97% of the total predicted change in species cover, whereas indirect effects explained only 3% of the predicted change. Thus, indirect effects, mediated by interactions between Carex and Salix, were negligible, likely due to use of different niches and weak interspecific interactions. Results suggest that a 2°C increase could cause a shift in dominance from sedges to woody plants on the coast of western Alaska over decadal timescales, and this shift was largely a result of the direct effects

  7. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in sweet passion fruit fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cláudia Inês; Bordon, Natali Gomes; da Rocha Filho, Léo Correia; Garófalo, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees' body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee's body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit production.

  8. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae in sweet passion fruit fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees’ body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee’s body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit production

  9. Modelling plant responses to elevated CO2: how important is leaf area index?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewert, F.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims The problem of increasing CO2 concentration [CO2] and associated climate change has [CO2] on plants. While variation in growth and productivity is generated much interest in modelling effects of closely related to the amount of intercepted radiation, largely determined by leaf

  10. On the importance of specific heats as regards efficiency increases for highly dilute IC engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Importance of specific heats towards increasing engine efficiency was quantified. • Decreases of specific heats contribute 3.5–6.3% (abs) to the efficiency. • Dilute engines benefit from decreases of specific heats due to lower temperatures. - Abstract: Engineering and scientific efforts continue with the development of advanced, IC engines using highly dilute mixtures, and relatively high compression ratios. Such engines are known to provide opportunities for low emissions as well as high efficiencies. The main features of these engines include higher compression ratios, lean operation, use of EGR, and shorter burn durations. First, this study reviews the quantitative contributions of each of these features as determined by an engine cycle simulation. Second, this study provides the quantitative contributions to the increased efficiency in terms of fundamental thermodynamic considerations. An automotive engine operated at 2000 rpm was selected for this study. For the conditions examined, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% (conventional engine) to 53.9% (high efficiency engine) – for an incremental increase of 16.9% (absolute). The contribution of increases of the ratio of specific heats towards the final thermal efficiency is quantified. This aspect has been well known, but has not been quantified for actual engines. For the various conditions examined, 21–35% of the total efficiency improvement was estimated to be due to the increase of the ratio of specific heats

  11. Development of import subtituting technologies for increasing productivity of sintering machines and strength of agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem of industrial fluxed agglomerates self-destruction in the process of cooling after sintering has been examined. It has been revealed that the main reason of strength degradation is polymorphism of dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 (or short designation С2S: β-Ca2SiO4 ® γ-Ca2SiO4. Ways for increasing the  agglomerate  strength by physical and crystal-chemical stabilization of the high temperature modification of C2S have been proposed and tested. Physical stabilization of C2S agglomerate is increased with its structure reinforcement due to thickening of walls between large pores that is achieved by increasing height of the sintered layer through improvement of its gas permeability. The task is addressed by substituting the previously used import sintering ore with the  polydisperse ore from the Yakovlevo field, which improves the charge  pelletizing by 3-4 times and helps to bring the  height of the sintered layer and the strength of the domestic agglomerate up to the international best practice standards, while eliminating a need to purchase import high-vacuum   exhausters. In practice crystal-chemical stabilization of C2S within iron-ore  agglomerate is ensured by adding an  opti- mal multicomponent additive in the form of the    waste product  generated in production  of alumina  from bauxites, i.e. the red mud, to the initial sinter charge. Thus mechanical strength of agglomerates and pellets is increased by 5-10 % and their hot strength improves by 20-40 %. The productivity of sintering machines and blast furnaces improves by 5-10 %. Specific coke consumption reduces by 2-2.5 %. In production of iron-ore pellets red mud is substituting the import  bentonite.

  12. Negative plant-soil feedbacks increase with plant abundance, and are unchanged by competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, John L; Laney Smith, Alyssa; Ortega, Yvette K; Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2016-08-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks and interspecific competition are ubiquitous interactions that strongly influence the performance of plants. Yet few studies have examined whether the strength of these interactions corresponds with the abundance of plant species in the field, or whether feedbacks and competition interact in ways that either ameliorate or exacerbate their effects in isolation. We sampled soil from two intermountain grassland communities where we also measured the relative abundance of plant species. In greenhouse experiments, we quantified the direction and magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks for 10 target species that spanned a range of abundances in the field. In soil from both sites, plant-soil feedbacks were mostly negative, with more abundant species suffering greater negative feedbacks than rare species. In contrast, the average response to competition for each species was unrelated with its abundance in the field. We also determined how competitive response varied among our target species when plants competed in live vs. sterile soil. Interspecific competition reduced plant size, but the strength of this negative effect was unchanged by plant-soil feedbacks. Finally, when plants competed interspecifically, we asked how conspecific-trained, heterospecific-trained, and sterile soil influenced the competitive responses of our target species and how this varied depending on whether target species were abundant or rare in the field. Here, we found that both abundant and rare species were not as harmed by competition when they grew in heterospecific-trained soil compared to when they grew in conspecific-cultured soil. Abundant species were also not as harmed by competition when growing in sterile vs. conspecific-trained soil, but this was not the case for rare species. Our results suggest that abundant plants accrue species-specific soil pathogens to a greater extent than rare species. Thus, negative feedbacks may be critical for preventing abundant species from

  13. Individual Importance Weighting of Domain Satisfaction Ratings does Not Increase Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2018-01-01

    Bottom-up models of life satisfaction are based on the assumption that individuals judge the overall quality of their lives by aggregating information across various life domains, such as health, family, and income. This aggregation supposedly involves a weighting procedure because individuals care about different parts of their lives to varying degrees. Thus, composite measures of well-being should be more accurate if domain satisfaction scores are weighted by the importance that respondents assign to the respective domains. Previous studies have arrived at mixed conclusions about whether such a procedure actually works. In the present study, importance weighting was investigated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID; N = 5,049). Both weighted composite scores and moderated regression analyses converged in producing the conclusion that individual importance weights did not result in higher correlations with the outcome variable, a global measure of life satisfaction. By contrast, using weights that vary normatively across domains (e.g., assigning a larger weight to family satisfaction than to housing satisfaction for all respondents) significantly increased the correlation with global life satisfaction (although incremental validity was rather humble). These results converge with findings from other fields such as self-concept research, where evidence for individual importance weighting seems elusive as best.

  14. Individual Importance Weighting of Domain Satisfaction Ratings does Not Increase Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M.; Schmukle, Stefan C.

    2018-01-01

    Bottom-up models of life satisfaction are based on the assumption that individuals judge the overall quality of their lives by aggregating information across various life domains, such as health, family, and income. This aggregation supposedly involves a weighting procedure because individuals care about different parts of their lives to varying degrees. Thus, composite measures of well-being should be more accurate if domain satisfaction scores are weighted by the importance that respondents assign to the respective domains. Previous studies have arrived at mixed conclusions about whether such a procedure actually works. In the present study, importance weighting was investigated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID; N = 5,049). Both weighted composite scores and moderated regression analyses converged in producing the conclusion that individual importance weights did not result in higher correlations with the outcome variable, a global measure of life satisfaction. By contrast, using weights that vary normatively across domains (e.g., assigning a larger weight to family satisfaction than to housing satisfaction for all respondents) significantly increased the correlation with global life satisfaction (although incremental validity was rather humble). These results converge with findings from other fields such as self-concept research, where evidence for individual importance weighting seems elusive as best. PMID:29652406

  15. The Importance of Knowledge Management in Terms of Increasing Social Capital in Selected Slovene Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.

  16. Europe's gas consumption and imports to increase with adequate low cost supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Gas in Europe has always been sold above its long-run supply price. Lower prices, however, still permit profitable indigeneous supply expansion. As further reductions in production and transport costs from technological advances are expected, this will continue based on the exploitation of large proven and probable reserves. By 2025, indigeneous output will be 60% up on 1995. Nevertheless, an average 2.2%/annum growth in gas demand will increase import dependence from 130 to 320 BCM over this period. Future international oil prices indicate gas-equivalent border values adequate to secure profitable supply from a range of external sources, leading to continuing competition for markets and the diversification of imports. (9 tables; 31 references). (author)

  17. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Upodika- Basella alba L.: An Important Ayurvedic Antidiabetic Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Shantha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. Results: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda.

  18. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly at

  19. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: A review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Bahmani; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei; Hassan Hassanzadazar; Morovat Taherikalani

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa.Materials and Methods: ...

  20. Assessing the relative importance of dispersal in plant communities using an ecoinformatics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, W.A.; Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Bekker, R.M.; Prinzing, A.; Bonn, S.; Poschlod, P.; Tackenberg, O.; Thompson, K.; Bakker, J.P.; Groenendael, van J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Increased insight into the factors that determine the importance of dispersal limitation on species richness and species composition is of paramount importance for conservation and restoration ecology. One way to explore the importance of dispersal limitation is to use seed-sowing experiments, but

  1. Importance of molybdenum in the nitrogen metabolism of microorganisms and higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, E G

    1948-01-01

    The effect of molybdenum on the growth of microorganisms and higher plants and on some well-defined biochemical reactions was investigated. Results indicate that Aspergillus niger requires small amounts of molybdenum when growing in a culture solution supplied with nitrate nitrogen. With ammonium sulfate as a source of nitrogen, the response of the fungus to molybdenum was much smaller. It was shown that this different response of Aspergillus to molybdenum was not brought about by a difference in purity of both nitrogen compounds used, nor by a difference in absorption of the molybdenum impurity, but by a considerably higher requirement of molybdenum in a medium with nitrate nitrogen. The growth-rate curve and the increasing sporulation of Aspergillus niger with increasing amounts of molybdenum were used in estimating very small amounts of this element in various materials. In culture solution experiments with tomato, barley and oat plants the effect of traces of molybdenum on the growth of these plants was investigated. In good agreement with the results of the experiments with Aspergillus and denitrifying bacteria it could be shown that in the green plant as in these microorganisms molybdenum is acting as a catalyst in nitrate reduction. In experiments with Azotobacter chroococcum and leguminous plants the effect of molybdenum on the fixation of gaseous N/sub 2/ was studied. In culture solutions with pea plants the effect of molybdenum on the nitrogen fixation of the nodules was investigated. In the absence of molybdenum as well as in a complete nutrient medium many nodules were formed. 30 references, 6 figures, 16 tables.

  2. Phytotoxicity evaluation and phytochemical analysis of three medicinally important plants from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the crude methanolic extracts of three medicinally important plants native to Pakistan for potent phytotoxic activities and important phytochemicals. These plants include Euphorbia wallichii, Bergenia ciliata and Phytolacca latbenia. The phytotoxic effects were checked at 10,000, 1000, and 100 µg/ml against two economically important standard target species, Triticum aestivum (monocot representative) and Brassica napus (dicot representative). The phytotoxicity effects on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling weight were checked. A simple, cost-effective in vitro phytotoxicity assay (that uses petri plates) was used to evaluate the allelopathic properties of crude extracts. At highest concentration, extracts from all the three plants showed phytotoxic activities such that P. latbenia > E. wallichii > B. ciliata. In seedling growth, root length was affected more than shoot length, whereas among the target species B. napus was found to be more sensitive towards extracts when compared with T. aestivum. Phytochemical analysis showed that P. latbenia is rich in saponins and terpenoids, while E. wallichii and B. ciliata are rich in tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. P. latbenia also carries a moderate amount of cardiac glycosides. © The Author(s) 2012.

  3. Availability increase of conventional power plants; Verfuegbarkeitserhoehung von konventionellen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, W.A.

    2004-07-01

    Availability increase need not incur higher cost provided that appropriate planning and quality insurance are observed. Appropriate technology can reduce standstill times. In the sense of high availability, the process chain should have only as many links as absolutely necessary, and the process should be user-friendly and error-tolerant in order to exclude non-availabilities resulting from unforeseeable operating conditions. (orig.)

  4. Increased importance of methane reduction for a 1.5 degree target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William J.; Webber, Christopher P.; Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason; Sitch, Stephen; Chadburn, Sarah E.; Comyn-Platt, Edward; Harper, Anna B.; Hayman, Garry; Powell, Tom

    2018-04-01

    To understand the importance of methane on the levels of carbon emission reductions required to achieve temperature goals, a processed-based approach is necessary rather than reliance on the transient climate response to emissions. We show that plausible levels of methane (CH4) mitigation can make a substantial difference to the feasibility of achieving the Paris climate targets through increasing the allowable carbon emissions. This benefit is enhanced by the indirect effects of CH4 on ozone (O3). Here the differing effects of CH4 and CO2 on land carbon storage, including the effects of surface O3, lead to an additional increase in the allowable carbon emissions with CH4 mitigation. We find a simple robust relationship between the change in the 2100 CH4 concentration and the extra allowable cumulative carbon emissions between now and 2100 (0.27 ± 0.05 GtC per ppb CH4). This relationship is independent of modelled climate sensitivity and precise temperature target, although later mitigation of CH4 reduces its value and thus methane reduction effectiveness. Up to 12% of this increase in allowable emissions is due to the effect of surface ozone. We conclude early mitigation of CH4 emissions would significantly increase the feasibility of stabilising global warming below 1.5 °C, alongside having co-benefits for human and ecosystem health.

  5. The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the next generation of evo-devo research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eGroover

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support of future evo-devo research. The driving force behind this trend is nucleic acid sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming more powerful and cost-effective, and which can be applied to virtually any species. This allows for more extensive sampling, including non-model organisms with unique biological features and plants from diverse phylogenetic positions. Importantly, a major challenge for sequencing-based evo-devo research is to identify, access, and propagate appropriate plant materials. We use a vignette of the ongoing One Thousand Transcriptomes project as an example of the challenges faced by such projects. We conclude by identifying some of the pinch-points likely to be encountered by future evo-devo researchers, and how living collections can help address them.

  6. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing peanut BTF3 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, V; Rama, N; Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, K N

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses limit crop growth and productivity worldwide. Cellular tolerance, an important abiotic stress adaptive trait, involves coordinated activities of multiple proteins linked to signalling cascades, transcriptional regulation and other diverse processes. Basal transcriptional machinery is considered to be critical for maintaining transcription under stressful conditions. From this context, discovery of novel basal transcription regulators from stress adapted crops like peanut would be useful for improving tolerance of sensitive plant types. In this study, we prospected a basal transcription factor, BTF3 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) and studied its relevance in stress acclimation by over expression in tobacco. AhBTF3 was induced under PEG-, NaCl-, and methyl viologen-induced stresses in peanut. The constitutive expression of AhBTF3 in tobacco increased plant growth under non stress condition. The transgenic plants exhibited superior phenotype compared to wild type under mannitol- and NaCl-induced stresses at seedling level. The enhanced cellular tolerance of transgenic plants was evidenced by higher cell membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, seedling survival and vigour than wild type. The transgenic lines showed better in vitro regeneration capacity on growth media supplemented with NaCl than wild type. Superior phenotype of transgenic plants under osmotic and salinity stresses seems to be due to constitutive activation of genes of multiple pathways linked to growth and stress adaptation. The study demonstrated that AhBTF3 is a positive regulator of growth and stress acclimation and hence can be considered as a potential candidate gene for crop improvement towards stress adaptation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Cortés, Carolina; Peiró, Victoriano

    2013-05-20

    The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called "sport pigeon", where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel (®) 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health.

  8. Increasing Risk Factors for Imported and Domestic Gnathostomiasis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a foodborne zoonotic helminthic infection, commonly described in Asia and Latin America, which may follow the consumption of raw fish, eels, amphibians, and reptiles infected with muscle-encysted larvae of Gnathostoma species nematodes. After an inoculum of as little as one infective larva and an incubation period of months to years, most infections are characterized by intermittent migratory swellings due to subdermal larval migration. Less commonly, larval migration to the central nervous system may result in radiculomyelopathy or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with high fatality rates; or larval migration to the eye with resulting blindness in untreated cases. Since the US now supports a zoonosis of Gnathostoma species with infective larvae encysted in imported and domestic fish and eels that may be consumed raw as exotic ethnic dishes, the objectives of this review were to describe the biology and life cycle of Gnathostoma nematodes and the behavioral risk factors for gnathostomiasis; and to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of human gnathostomiasis. Since the eradication of gnathostomiasis is very unlikely given the global distribution of Gnathostoma nematodes and the increasingly exotic culinary tastes of US residents and travelers to endemic regions, the only effective strategies for gnathostomiasis include: (1) educating citizens in the US and travelers abroad in endemic areas that fish, eels, frogs, snakes, and chicken must be cooked thoroughly first and not eaten raw or marinated; and (2) seeking medical care immediately for evaluation of migratory subcutaneous swellings. The combination of international travel and increased immigration from Asia and Latin America to the US has resulted in greater popularity of exotic ethnic cuisine, especially raw seafood dishes. The ethnic cuisine industry is supported by domestic aquaculture that produces fish-farmed tilapia and trout, and by increased

  9. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  10. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa , medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry.

  11. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagne Duguma

    Full Text Available Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis, the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus, and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae, was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

  12. Photosynthetic limitations in two Antarctic vascular plants: importance of leaf anatomical traits and Rubisco kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Patricia L; Bravo, León A; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Vallejos, Valentina; Sanhueza, Carolina; Font-Carrascosa, Marcel; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Javier Peguero-Pina, José; Galmés, Jeroni

    2017-05-17

    Particular physiological traits allow the vascular plants Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. to inhabit Antarctica. The photosynthetic performance of these species was evaluated in situ, focusing on diffusive and biochemical constraints to CO2 assimilation. Leaf gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure, and Rubisco catalytic properties were examined in plants growing on King George and Lagotellerie islands. In spite of the species- and population-specific effects of the measurement temperature on the main photosynthetic parameters, CO2 assimilation was highly limited by CO2 diffusion. In particular, the mesophyll conductance (gm)-estimated from both gas exchange and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and modeled from leaf anatomy-was remarkably low, restricting CO2 diffusion and imposing the strongest constraint to CO2 acquisition. Rubisco presented a high specificity for CO2 as determined in vitro, suggesting a tight co-ordination between CO2 diffusion and leaf biochemistry that may be critical ultimately to optimize carbon balance in these species. Interestingly, both anatomical and biochemical traits resembled those described in plants from arid environments, providing a new insight into plant functional acclimation to extreme conditions. Understanding what actually limits photosynthesis in these species is important to anticipate their responses to the ongoing and predicted rapid warming in the Antarctic Peninsula. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf of Cordia macleodii Hook., An ethnomedicinally important plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Bhargav; Pillai, A P G; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-04-01

    Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study.

  14. Population Status of Commercially Important Medicinal Plants in Dehradun Forest Division, Uttarakhand (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad B. RAUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of forest management in the tropics, in recent decades, has shifted from timber production to biodiversity conservation and maintenance of life support system. However, past forestry practices have greatly influenced the structure of plant communities, preponderance of foreign invasive species, populations of high value medicinal plants as well as other non-wood forest products. We assessed the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in managed and undisturbed forests of Dehradun Forest Division (DFD, Uttarakhand (India. A total of 80 transects (each 1 km long were laid in various categories of forest types in DFD. This paper deals with distribution, availability and regeneration status of five commercially important species viz., Justicia adhatoda, Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula, across different forest types. The study reveals that open canopy forest patches, Lantana infested patches and Acacia catechu-Dalbergia sissoo (Khair -Shisam woodlands in the eastern part of the DFD have excellent potential for the production and sustainable harvest of Justicia adhatoda. Areas those are less suitable for timber production viz., open hill forests, have greater potential for conservation and development of Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellirica. For the production and management of high value medicinal plants in the DFD these ecological considerations need to be kept in mind.

  15. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Mohd Fajri Osman; Latiffah Noordin; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Hazlina Abdullah; Amirul Azmi Supuan; Misman Sumin; Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  16. Use of gamma radiation for increasing plant disease control efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamswarng, Chiradej; Intanoo, Wanwilai; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Irradiation of Trichoderma harzianum with 0.5-8.0 k Gay of gamma ray revealed 41 strains resistant to 10 ppm propiconazole or benomyl fungicides and two strains (23/03-7 and 27/08-1) were resistant to 10 ppm of both fungicides. After these two mutant strains were repeatedly irradiated with gamma ray, 74 mutant strains were obtained. Among these, three mutant strains, used as seed treatment effectively protected tomato seedlings from the infection of Pythium apanidermatum with significantly higher surviving seedlings than the Pythium inoculated control. The higher root colonization of mutant strains was obtains from strains 03/7-113, 03-/7-114 and 08/1-11. Rice seeds (RD 17), previously soaked in water for 24 ht were placed in spore suspension of T. harzianum prepared from 1 kg of fresh culture of 81 mutant isolated derived from single or double irradiation with gamma ray in 50 1 of water for 30 min. Two mutants including 23/03-7 (derived from single irradiation) and 03/7-134 (derived from double irradiation) provided percentages of root colonization by 29.63 and 25.93, while growth-promoted roots were 12.48 and 12.65 cm in length. respectively. These two strains were tested in rice field by treating pre-soaked seeds with Trichoderma suspensions for 30 min and incubated for 24 hr before sowing. Detection of root colonization by T. harzianum at 35, 45 and 102 days after sowing revealed that all Trichoderma strains effectively colonized rice roots at all stages of growth, particularly two mutants completely colonized rice root at 102 days after sowing. After harvesting, a mutant strain 30/7-134 increased rice yield to the maximum level at 29.65% over a control, while the percentage of fertile-seeds and it's seed weight, total seed weight, fertile-seed weight were significantly higher than a control. However, all Trichoderma strains provided the potential increases of rice yield over a control. Strain 03/7-134 significantly reduced percentage of dirty-panicle diseased

  17. Plants increase laccase activity in soil with long-term elevated CO2 legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partavian, Asrin; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Vestergård, Mette

    2015-01-01

    [CO2] stimulate laccase activity. We incubated soil exposed to seven years of elevated or ambient field [CO2] in ambient or elevated [CO2] chambers for six months either with or without plants (Deschampsia flexuosa). Elevated chamber [CO2] increased D. flexuosa production and belowground respiration....... Interestingly, plants also grew larger in soil with an elevated [CO2] legacy. Plants stimulated soil microbial biomass, belowground respiration and laccase activity, and the plant-induced laccase stimulation was particularly apparent in soil exposed to long-term elevated [CO2] in the field, whereas laccase......Actively growing plants can stimulate mineralization of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), and increased atmospheric [CO2] can further enhance such plant-mediated SOM degradation. Laccases are central for recalcitrant SOM decomposition, and we therefore hypothesized that plants and elevated...

  18. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-23

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  19. Imported episodic rabies increases patient demand for and physician delivery of antirabies prophylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélie Lardon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Imported cases threaten rabies reemergence in rabies-free areas. During 2000-2005, five dog and one human rabies cases were imported into France, a rabies-free country since 2001. The Summer 2004 event led to unprecedented media warnings by the French Public Health Director. We investigated medical practice evolution following the official elimination of rabies in 2001; impact of subsequent episodic rabies importations and national newspaper coverage on demand for and delivery of antirabies prophylaxis; regular transmission of epidemiological developments within the French Antirabies Medical Center (ARMC network; and ARMC discussions on indications of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Annual data collected by the National Reference Center for Rabies NRCR (1989-2006 and the exhaustive database (2000-2005 of 56 ARMC were analyzed. Weekly numbers of patients consulting at ARMC and their RPEP- and antirabies-immunoglobulin (ARIG prescription rates were determined. Autoregressive integrated moving-average modeling and regression with autocorrelated errors were applied to examine how 2000-2005 episodic rabies events and their related national newspaper coverage affected demand for and delivery of RPEP. A slight, continuous decline of rabies-dedicated public health facility attendance was observed from 2000 to 2004. Then, during the Summer 2004 event, patient consultations and RPEP and ARIG prescriptions increased by 84%, 19.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Moreover, elevated medical resource use persisted in 2005, despite communication efforts, without any secondary human or animal case. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated appropriate responsiveness to reemerging rabies cases and effective newspaper reporting, as no secondary case occurred. However, the ensuing demand on medical resources had immediate and long-lasting effects on rabies-related public health resources and expenses. Henceforth, when

  20. An increase in insulin is important for the acquisition conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Koichi; Yamagishi, Miki; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2014-12-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in Lymnaea is brought about by pairing a sucrose solution (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with an electric shock (the unconditioned stimulus, US). Following repeated CS-US pairings, CTA occurs and it is consolidated into long-term memory (LTM). The best CTA is achieved, if snails are food-deprived for 1 day before training commences. With a longer period of food deprivation (5 days), learning and memory formation does not occur. It has been hypothesized that the levels of insulin in the central nervous system (CNS) are very important for CTA to occur. To test his hypothesis, we injected insulin directly into 5-day food-deprived snails. The injection of insulin, as expected, resulted in a decrease in hemolymph glucose concentration. Consistent with our hypothesis with insulin injection, learning and memory formation of CTA occurred. That is, the 'insulin spike' is more important than an increase in hemolymph glucose concentration for CTA-LTM. If we injected an insulin receptor antibody into the snails before the insulin injection, learning was formed but memory formation was not, which is consistent with our previous study. Therefore, a rise in the insulin concentration (i.e., insulin spike) in the CNS is considered to be a key determining factor in the process of CTA-LTM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  2. 78 FR 36506 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Plants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013-14466... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0035] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Plants for...

  3. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ozone decrease implies more ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Increased UV-B radiation triggers responses by living organisms. Despite the large potential impacts on vegetation, little is known about UV-B effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Long-term ecological studies are needed to quantify the effects of increased UV radiation on terrestrial ecosystems, asses the risks, and produce reliable data for prediction. Screening pigments are part of one of the protective mechanism in plants. Higher concentrations of screening pigments in leaves may be interpreted as a response to increased UV radiation. If the screening effect is not sufficient, important molecules will be disturbed by incoming radiation. Thus, genetics, photosynthesis, growth, plant and leaf shape and size, and pollen grains may be affected. This will have an impact on ecosystem dynamics, structure and productivity. It is necessary to monitor selected terrestrial ecosystems to permit detection and interpretation of changes attributable to global climate change and depleted ozone shield. The objectives of this project are: (1) To identify and measure indicators of the effects of increased solar UV-B radiation on terrestrial plants; (2) to select indicators with the greatest responses to UV-B exposure; (3) to test, adapt or create ecosystem models that use the information gathered by this project for prediction and to enhance our understanding of the effects of increased UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems. As a first step to achieve these objectives we propose a three-year study of forest and steppe vegetation on the North slope of the Brooks Range (within the Arctic circle, in Alaska), in the Saguaro National Monument (near Tucson, Arizona) and in the forests and steppes of Patagonia (Argentina). We selected (1) vegetation north of the Polar Circle because at 70N there is 8% risk of plant damage due to increased UV-B radiation; (2) the foothills of Catalina Mountains

  4. [The increasing importance of tumor and tissue banks in the light of genomic and proteomic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschulik, A; Zatloukal, K

    2001-09-01

    Recent technological advances in genome and proteome research offer new perspectives for diagnosis and therapy. The DNA chip technology as well as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is able to provide comprehensive information on gene and protein expression patterns, which allow insights into the dynamic and functional aspects of diseases. The application of these techniques depends on the availability of unfixed fresh or cryopreserved tissue with short ischaemia time. For this reason tissue banks are of increasing importance. The pathologist with his expertise and responsibility for histopathological diagnosis, plays a central role in the collection of the human tissues, in accordance with medical, legal and ethical standards, not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for research. The scientific value of a tissue bank is markedly increased if tissue samples are accompanied by detailed patient data as well as blood samples. Informed consent given by the patient is an essential requirement for the use of human tissue banks in biomedical research. The informed consent should not be restricted to scientific investigations but also include the potential commercial use of the data generated.

  5. Attribution of atmospheric CO2 and temperature increases to regions: importance of preindustrial land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Caldeira, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The historical contribution of each country to today’s observed atmospheric CO 2 excess and higher temperatures has become a basis for discussions around burden-sharing of greenhouse gas reduction commitments in political negotiations. However, the accounting methods have considered greenhouse gas emissions only during the industrial era, neglecting the fact that land use changes (LUC) have caused emissions long before the Industrial Revolution. Here, we hypothesize that considering preindustrial LUC affects the attribution because the geographic pattern of preindustrial LUC emissions differs significantly from that of industrial-era emissions and because preindustrial emissions have legacy effects on today’s atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and temperatures. We test this hypothesis by estimating CO 2 and temperature increases based on carbon cycle simulations of the last millennium. We find that accounting for preindustrial LUC emissions results in a shift of attribution of global temperature increase from the industrialized countries to less industrialized countries, in particular South Asia and China, by up to 2–3%, a level that may be relevant for political discussions. While further studies are needed to span the range of plausible quantifications, our study demonstrates the importance of including preindustrial emissions for the most scientifically defensible attribution. (letter)

  6. Methodology for identifying boundaries of systems important to safety in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, S.; Komljenovic, D.; Therrien, P.; Ruest, C.; Prevost, P.; Vaillancourt, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology developed to identify the boundaries of the systems important to safety (SIS) at the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), Hydro-Quebec. The SIS boundaries identification considers nuclear safety only. Components that are not identified as important to safety are systematically identified as related to safety. A global assessment process such as WANO/INPO AP-913 'Equipment Reliability Process' will be needed to implement adequate changes in the management rules of those components. The paper depicts results in applying the methodology to the Shutdown Systems 1 and 2 (SDS 1, 2), and to the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). This validation process enabled fine tuning the methodology, performing a better estimate of the effort required to evaluate a system, and identifying components important to safety of these systems. (author)

  7. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Myong-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability. Please see related article BMC Medicine, 2011, 9:87

  8. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-07-19

    Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability.

  9. Estimating the Seasonal Importance of Precipitation to Plant Source Water over Time and Space with Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. B.; Kahmen, A.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen are physical properties of water molecules that can carry information on their sources or transport histories. This provides a useful tool for assessing the importance of rainfall at different times of the year for plant growth, provided that rainwater values vary over time and that waters do not partially evaporate after deposition. We tested the viability of this approach using data from samples collected at nineteen sites throughout Europe at monthly intervals over two consecutive growing seasons in 2014 and 2015. We compared isotope measurements of plant xylem water with soil water from multiple depths, and measured and modeled precipitation isotope values. Paired analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotope values were used to screen out a limited number of water samples that were influenced by evaporation, with the majority of all water samples indicating meteoric sources. The isotopic composition of soil and xylem waters varied over the course of an individual growing season, with many trending towards more enriched values, suggesting integration of the plant-relevant water pool at a timescale shorter than the annual mean. We then quantified how soil water residence times varied at each site by calculating the interval between measured xylem water and the most recently preceding match in modeled precipitation isotope values. Results suggest a generally increasing interval between rainfall and plant uptake throughout each year, with source water corresponding to dates in the spring, likely reflecting a combination of spring rain, and mixing with winter and summer precipitation. The seasonally evolving spatial distribution of source water-precipitation lag values was then modeled as a function of location and climatology to develop continental-scale predictions. This spatial portrait of the average date for filling the plant source water pool provides insights on the seasonal importance of rainfall for plant

  10. Effect of increased renewables generation on operation of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eser, Patrick; Singh, Antriksh; Chokani, Ndaona; Abhari, Reza S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Impacts of increased renewables in central European transmission system are assessed. • Individual transmission lines and power plants of transmission system are modelled. • Starts and ramps of thermal power plants significantly increase with increased renewables. • Impact of renewables on thermal power plants is highly dependent on location. - Abstract: High spatial and temporal resolution optimal power flow simulations of the 2013 and 2020 interconnected grid in Central Western and Eastern Europe regions are undertaken to assess the impact of an increased penetration of renewables on thermal power plants. In contrast to prior studies, the present work models each individual transmission line and power plant within the two regions. Furthermore, for conventional plants, electricity costs are determined with respect to fuel type, nameplate capacity, operating condition and geographic location; cycling costs are modeled as function of the recent operational history. For renewable power plants, costs and available power are determined using mesoscale weather simulations and hydrology models. Countrywide validation of the simulations shows that all renewable and most conventional power production is predicted with less than 10% error. It is shown that the increased penetration of renewables in 2020 will induce a 4–23% increase in the number of starts of conventional plants. The number of load ramps significantly increases by 63–181%, which underlines the necessity for equipment manufacturers and utilities to adapt to scenarios of high penetration of renewables. The increased cycling operation of coal plants is shown to depend strongly on the power plant’s location and is mainly observed in Germany and the Czech Republic. Austrian coal plants are cycled less because they supply more base load power to southern Germany, where several nuclear power plants will be phased out by 2020. Thus there is a need for more transmission capacity along

  11. The plant i-AAA protease controls the turnover of an essential mitochondrial protein import component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalińska, Magdalena; Parys, Katarzyna; Murcha, Monika W; Jańska, Hanna

    2018-01-29

    Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that play a central role in energy metabolism. Owing to the life-essential functions of these organelles, mitochondrial content, quality and dynamics are tightly controlled. Across the species, highly conserved ATP-dependent proteases prevent malfunction of mitochondria through versatile activities. This study focuses on a molecular function of the plant mitochondrial inner membrane-embedded AAA protease (denoted i -AAA) FTSH4, providing its first bona fide substrate. Here, we report that the abundance of the Tim17-2 protein, an essential component of the TIM17:23 translocase (Tim17-2 together with Tim50 and Tim23), is directly controlled by the proteolytic activity of FTSH4. Plants that are lacking functional FTSH4 protease are characterized by significantly enhanced capacity of preprotein import through the TIM17:23-dependent pathway. Taken together, with the observation that FTSH4 prevents accumulation of Tim17-2, our data point towards the role of this i -AAA protease in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in plants. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Improved productivity of the MSF (multi-stage flashing) desalination plant by increasing the TBT (top brine temperature)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanshik, Chung; Jeong, Hyomin; Jeong, Kwang-Woon; Choi, Soon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The evaporating process is very important in the system concerned with liquid foods, seawater distillation and wastewater treatment, which is to concentrate the aqueous solution by evaporating the pure water usually at a vacuum state. In general, the liquid concentration is performed through the membrane, electro-dialysis, and evaporation; the former are separation process and the latter is the phase change process. In this study, only the thermal process was treated for evaluating the specific energy consumption by changing the operating conditions of an existing MSF (multi-stage flashing) desalination plant, which is still dominant for a large scale distillation plant. This study shows the quantitative energy saving strategy in sweater distillation process and, additionally, indicates that the performance of the multi-stage evaporating system can be increased with the elevation of a TBT (top brine temperature). The calculated results were based on the operating data of the currently installed plants and suggests the alternative to improve the performance of the MSF desalination plant, which means that the energy saving can be achieved only by changing the operating conditions of the existing MSF plants. - Highlights: • Detailed operating principles of an multi-stage flashing (MSF) desalting process. • Improved freshwater productivity by increasing the top brine temperature (TBT). • Increased energy efficiency of an existing MSF plants by the TBT increase.

  13. A Plant-Feeding Nematode Indirectly Increases the Fitness of an Aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace A. Hoysted

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants suffer multiple, simultaneous assaults from above and below ground. In the laboratory, pests and/or pathogen attack are commonly studied on an individual basis. The molecular response of the plant to attack from multiple organisms and the interaction of different defense pathways is unclear. The inducible systemic responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. host plant were analyzed to characterize the plant-mediated indirect interactions between a sedentary, endoparasitic nematode (Globodera pallida, and a phloem-sucking herbivore (Myzus persicae. The reproductive success of M. persicae was greater on potato plants pre-infected with G. pallida compared to control plants. Salicylic acid (SA increased systemically in the leaves of potato plants following nematode and aphid infection singly with a corresponding increase in expression of SA-mediated marker genes. An increase in jasmonic acid associated with aphid infection was suppressed when plants were co-infected with nematodes. Our data suggests a positive, asymmetric interaction between a sedentary endoparasitic nematode and a sap-sucking insect. The systemic response of the potato plant following infection with G. pallida indirectly influences the performance of M. persicae. This work reveals additional secondary benefits of controlling individual crop pests.

  14. PIGE-PIXE analysis of medicinal plants and vegetables of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Makanju, O.V.

    1995-08-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed to the study of elemental constituents of some traditional medicinal plants generally used in curing many diseases and ailments in South-Western Nigeria. Analysis were also carried out on commonly edible vegetables of medicinal and pharmacological importance. PIGE measurements were carried out using 3.5 MeV collimated protons from the 7 MV CN Van-de-Graaff accelerator of INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova), Italy, while the PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the same laboratory. The results show that many of the medicinal plants contain elements of cardinal importance in man's metabolism. The results from the vegetables also show that presence of vital elements that are needed for growth and developments. In addition, some of the toxic elements which include arsenic, cadmium, mercury, etc. were not detected. However, some of the recipes contain trace amounts of lead at very low concentrations. This calls for proper control of dose rates in some samples to prevent the attendant negative cumulative effects. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and survival of individuals and populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Importance of biotic and abiotic components in feedback between plants and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzelková, Věra

    2017-01-01

    The plant-soil feedback affects the forming of a plant community. Plants affect their own species as well as other species. The plant-soil feedback can be both positive and negative. Plants affect soil, change its properties, and the soil affects the plants reciprocally. Soil components can be divided into biotic and abiotic ones. The abiotic component is represented by physical and chemical properties of the soil. The main properties are the soil structure, the soil moisture, the soil temper...

  17. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Laar, van H.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM;

  18. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  19. Biochar increases plant growth and alters microbial communities via regulating the moisture and temperature of green roof substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoming; Ma, Jinyi; Wei, Jiaxing; Gong, Xin; Yu, Xichen; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Yanwen

    2018-09-01

    Green roofs have increasingly been designed and applied to relieve environmental problems, such as water loss, air pollution as well as heat island effect. Substrate and vegetation are important components of green roofs providing ecosystem services and benefiting the urban development. Biochar made from sewage sludge could be potentially used as the substrate amendment for green roofs, however, the effects of biochar on substrate quality and plant performance in green roofs are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of adding sludge biochar (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, v/v) to natural soil planted with three types of plant species (ryegrass, Sedum lineare and cucumber) on soil properties, plant growth and microbial communities in both green roof and ground ecosystems. Our results showed that sludge biochar addition significantly increased substrate moisture, adjusted substrate temperature, altered microbial community structure and increased plant growth. The application rate of 10-15% sludge biochar on the green roof exerted the most significant effects on both microbial and plant biomass by 63.9-89.6% and 54.0-54.2% respectively. Path analysis showed that biochar addition had a strong effect on microbial biomass via changing the soil air-filled porosity, soil moisture and temperature, and promoted plant growth through the positive effects on microbial biomass. These results suggest that the applications of biochar at an appropriate rate can significantly alter plant growth and microbial community structure, and increase the ecological benefits of green roofs via exerting effects on the moisture, temperature and nutrients of roof substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities of an important medicinal plant (Euphorbia royleana from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of methanol, hexane, and aqueous extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated as gallic acid and querectin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging of free 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduction of ferric ions, and it was observed that inhibition values increase linearly with increase in concentration of extract. The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that hexane extract has maximum ferric reducing power (12.70 ± 0.49 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract. Maximum phenolic (47.47 ± 0.71 μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract and flavonoid (63.68 ± 0.43 μg querectin equivalents/mg of plant extract contents were also found in the hexane extract. Furthermore, we examined antimicrobial activity of the three extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous against a panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pasteurella multocida, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani by disc-diffusion assay, and found the hexane extract to be the best antimicrobial agent. Hexane extract was also observed as to be most effective in a potato disc assay. As hexane extract showed potent activity in all the investigated assays, it was targeted for cytotoxic assessment. Maximum cytotoxicity (61.66% by hexane extract was found at 800 μg/mL. It is concluded that investigated extracts have potential for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  2. Increasing Hermaphrodite Flowers using Plant Growth Regulators in Andromonoecious Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DASUMIATI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (JC is a crop with potential for use in biodiesel. Production of biodiesel requires plant seed as raw material, so the viability of JC for use in biodiesel will dependent greatly on the plant's production of flowers. Generally, this plant is monoecious, meaning it has both male and female flowers. However, very rarely JC plants may be andromonoecious. Andromonoecious specimens of JC produce hermaphrodite and male flowers in the same plant. The number of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence is generally low compared to the number of male flowers. The aim of this study was to increase the proportion of hermaphrodite flowers by using plant growth regulators (PGRs in andromonoecious JC. Our experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (RBD with 9 treatments, namely kinetin, GA3, and IAA with concentrations of 0 ppm as a control, 50 and 100 ppm of each PGRs. The treatments were applied to stem cuttings from each plant and repeated 4 times. PGRs were applied by spraying the leaves within the buds of each plant. Applications took place weekly beginning when the plants entered flower initiating phase, until inflorescence produced. Observations were conducted during the treatment period (10 weeks. Results showed that plants treated with IAA, GA3, and kinetin at 50 and 100 ppm produced increased inflorescence per plant. The increases measured were 155.4 and 92.9% of (IAA, 120.4 and 151% (GA3, 96.6 and 51.7% (kinetin respectively. In addition, we found that application and GA3 at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm, and kinetin at 50 ppm, increased the number of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence by 50%, and increased the number of hermaphrodite flowers per plant by 275.6 and 183.1% (IAA, 219.5 and 254.1% (GA3, 162.9 and 103.1% (kinetin respectively. As would be expected, the number of fruit per plant increased in those specimens treated with IAA, GA3, and kinetin at 50 and 100 ppm. The increases measured were 301.7 and 167

  3. Root foraging increases performance of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans in heterogeneous nutrient environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengwen; van Kleunen, Mark; During, Heinjo J; Werger, Marinus J A

    2013-01-01

    Plastic root-foraging responses have been widely recognized as an important strategy for plants to explore heterogeneously distributed resources. However, the benefits and costs of root foraging have received little attention. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew pairs of connected ramets of 22 genotypes of the stoloniferous plant Potentilla reptans in paired pots, between which the contrast in nutrient availability was set as null, medium and high, but with the total nutrient amount kept the same. We calculated root-foraging intensity of each individual ramet pair as the difference in root mass between paired ramets divided by the total root mass. For each genotype, we then calculated root-foraging ability as the slope of the regression of root-foraging intensity against patch contrast. For all genotypes, root-foraging intensity increased with patch contrast and the total biomass and number of offspring ramets were lowest at high patch contrast. Among genotypes, root-foraging intensity was positively related to production of offspring ramets and biomass in the high patch-contrast treatment, which indicates an evolutionary benefit of root foraging in heterogeneous environments. However, we found no significant evidence that the ability of plastic foraging imposes costs under homogeneous conditions (i.e. when foraging is not needed). Our results show that plants of P. reptans adjust their root-foraging intensity according to patch contrast. Moreover, the results show that the root foraging has an evolutionary advantage in heterogeneous environments, while costs of having the ability of plastic root foraging were absent or very small.

  4. The long-term effect of zinc soil contamination on selected free amino acids playing an important role in plant adaptation to stress and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Daniela; Zemanová, Veronika; Procházková, Dagmar; Pavlík, Milan; Száková, Jiřina; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2014-02-01

    Increased endogenous plant cytokinin (CK) content through transformation with an isopentyl transferase (ipt) gene has been associated with improved plant stress tolerance. The objective of this study is to determine amino acid changes associated with elevated CK production in ipt transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Wisconsin 38). Nontransformed (WT) and transformed tobacco plants with ipt gene controlled by senescence-activated promoter (SAG) were exposed to zinc soil contamination (tested levels Zn1=250, Zn2=500, Zn3=750 mg kg(-1) soil). The Zn effect on plant stress metabolism resulted in changes in levels of selected free amino acids playing an important role in adaptation to stress and plant senescence (alanine, leucine, proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate) and differed for transformed and nontransformed tobacco plants. Analyses of amino acids confirmed that SAG tobacco plants had improved zinc tolerance compared with the WT plants. The enhanced Zn tolerance of SAG plants was associated with the maintenance of accumulation of proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate. The concentrations of leucine and alanine did not show significant differences between plant lines. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Phytochemical studies on the terpenoids of medicinally important plant Aerva lanata L. using HPTLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamunadevi M; Wesely EG; Johnson M

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the terpenoids profile of Aerva lanata (A. lanata) using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC studies were carried out. The n-hexane:ethyl acetate (7.2: 2.8) was employed as mobile phase for terpenoids. Results: The desired aim was achieved using n-hexane-ethyl acetate (7.2: 2.8) as the mobile phase. The methanolic extract of stem, leaves, root, flower and seeds of A. lanata showed the presence of 27 different types of terpenoids with 27 different Rf values in the range of 0.06 to 0.97. The developed HPTLC method for terpenoid profile is simple, precise and accurate and can be used for the identification and commercial application. Conclusions:HPTLC profile of terpenoids has been chosen here to reveal the diversity existing at biochemical level in A. lanata. Such finger printing is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and act as a biochemical marker for this medicinally important plant in the pharmaceutical industry and plant systematic studies.

  6. Canopy gap edge determination and the importance of gap edges for plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salvador-Van Eysenrode

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canopy gaps, i.e. openings in the forest cover caused by the fall of structural elements, are considered to be important for the maintenance of diversity and for the forest cycle. A gap can be considered as a young forest patch in the forest matrix, composed of interior surrounded by an edge, both enclosed by a perimeter. Much of the attention has been focused on the gap interior. However, at gap edges the spectrum of regeneration opportunities for plants may be larger than in the interior. Although definitions of gap are still discussed, any definition can describe it in an acceptable way, if justified, but defining edges is complicated and appropriate descriptors should be used. A method to determine gap interior and edge, using light as a descriptor, is presented with an example of gaps from a beech forest (Fagus sylvatica in Belgium. Also, the relevance and implications of gap edges for plant diversity and calculation of forest turnover is discussed.

  7. Plant pathogen-induced volatiles attract parasitoids to increase parasitism of an insect vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eMartini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between plant pathogens and arthropods have been predominantly studied through the prism of herbivorous arthropods. Currently, little is known about the effect of plant pathogens on the third trophic level. This question is particularly interesting in cases where pathogens manipulate host phenotype to increase vector attraction and presumably increase their own proliferation. Indeed, a predator or a parasitoid of a vector may take advantage of this manipulated phenotype to increase its foraging performance. We explored the case of a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, which modifies the odors released by its host plant (citrus trees to attract its vector, the psyllid Diaphorina citri. We found that the specialist parasitoid of D. citri, Tamarixia radiata, was attracted more toward Las-infected than uninfected plants. We demonstrated that this attractiveness was due to the release of methyl salicylate. Parasitization of D. citri nymphs on Las-infected plants was higher than on uninfected controls. Also, parasitization was higher on uninfected plants baited with methyl salicylate than on non-baited controls. This is the first report of a parasitoid ‘eavesdropping’ on a plant volatile induced by bacterial pathogen infection, which also increases effectiveness of host seeking behavior of its herbivorous vector.

  8. Discussion on several important safety requirements for the new nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Tianwen; Li Jigen; Zhang Lin; Feng Youcai; Jia Xiang; Li Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    Post the Fukushima nuclear accident, the Chinese government raised higher safety goals and safety requirements for the new nuclear power plant to be constructed. The paper expounded the important indicators of safety requirements and the aspects of safety modification that had been developed for the new NPPs. It also discussed and analyzed the main fields required by the new NPPs safety requirements in the safety goals, safety evaluation of sites, defenses of internal and external events, severe accident prevention and mitigation, design of reactor core, containment system and I and C system, and optimization of engineering measure, which gave some references to the design, construction and safety modifications of new NPPs in China. (authors)

  9. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests.

  10. Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.; Mandalidis, A.; Dugulan, A.I.; Goubitz, K.; Korving, L; Temmink, H; Witkamp, G.J.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in

  11. Tocopherol-deficient rice plants display increased sensitivity to photooxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defu; Chen, Haiwei; Zhang, Luhua; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-06-01

    Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants that are synthesized exclusively in photosynthetic organisms. Despite extensive in vivo characterization of tocopherol functions in plants, their functions in the monocot model plant, rice, remain to be determined. In this study, transgenic rice plants constitutively silenced for homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) and tocopherol cyclase (TC) activity were generated. Silencing of HPT and TC resulted in up to a 98 % reduction in foliar tocopherol content relative to the control plants, which was also confirmed by transcript level analysis. When grown under normal conditions, HPT and TC transgenics showed no distinctive phenotype relative to the control plants, except a slight reduction in plant height and a slight decrease in the first leaf length. However, when exposed to high light at low temperatures, HPT and TC transgenics had a significantly higher leaf yellowing index than the control plants. The tocopherol-deficient plants decreased their total individual chlorophyll levels, their chlorophyll a/b ratio, and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, whereas increased lipid peroxidation levels relative to the control plants. Tocopherol deficiency had no effect on ascorbate biosynthesis, but induced glutathione, antheraxanthin, and particularly zeaxanthin biosynthesis for compensation under stressful conditions. However, despite these compensation mechanisms, HPT and TC transgenics still exhibited altered phenotypes under high light at low temperatures. Therefore, it is suggested that tocopherols cannot be replaced and play an indispensable role in photoprotection in rice.

  12. Alleviatory activities in mycorrhizal tobacco plants subjected to increasing chloride in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Safahani Langeroodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of presence and absence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM+ and AM- fungus (AMF Glomus intraradices on agronomic and chemical characteristics of field-grown tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Virginia type (cv. K-326 plants exposed to varying concentrations of chloride 10, 40, 70 and 100 mg Cl L–1 (C1-C4 were studied over two growing seasons (2012-2013. Mycorrhizal plants had significantly higher uptake of nutrients in shoots and number of leaves regardless of intensities of chloride stress. The cured leaves yields of AM+ plants under C2-C4 chloride stressed conditions were higher than AM- plants. Leaf chloride content increased in line with the increase of chloride level, while AMF colonised plants maintained low Cl content. AM+ plants produced tobacco leaves that contained significantly higher quantities of nicotine than AM- plants. AM inoculation ameliorated the chloride stress to some extent. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione also exhibited great variation with chloride treatment. Chloride stress caused great alterations in the endogenous levels of growth hormones with abscisic acid showing increment. AMF inoculated plants maintained higher levels of growth hormones and also allayed the negative impact of chloride. The level of 40 mg L–1 in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal can be considered as the acceptable threshold to avoid adverse effects on Virginia tobacco.

  13. Psychological Consequences of Longevity: The Increasing Importance of Self-Regulation in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alexandra M.; Nikitin, Jana; Ritter, Johannes O.

    2009-01-01

    How do changes in life expectancy and longevity affect life-span development? This paper argues that historical increases in life expectancy primarily have an impact on the later and less on the earlier parts of the life span. Increased life expectancy is both a challenge and an opportunity for positive development. A perspective is outlined…

  14. The increasing importance of effective risk management in banking: Findings from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research presented in this paper is risk management, with a special study of banking sector. Research goals include determining the degree of importance and influence of risk management of internal and external risks to a more favorable environment for business success of banks in strategic terms, in the long run. In this sense, the key results of the empirical research on the territory of Serbia in 2015 on a sample of 34 financial institutions, of which 26 were banks, has been provided . The results were processed by statistical and mathematical methods and confirmed the validity of the defined hypotheses, that the importance of effective risk management in banking is growing, as well as the reporting system. The contribution of this research is in a scientific assessment of the importance of various risks, determination of the dominant theoretical and empirical knowledge supporting wider further research in this area in the banking industry.

  15. 78 FR 26316 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are... is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. We have prepared data sheets that detail the scientific... analysis (NAPPRA) in order to prevent the introduction of quarantine pests into the United States. The...

  16. Systematically Important Banks and Increased Capital Requirements in the Dodd-Frank Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of new capital requirements for systematically important financial institutions proposed by the Federal Reserve on September 8, 2014. Results from an event study indicate this announcement led to lower abnormal initial stock returns for systemically important...... financial firms that then reverse and dissipate after three days. Further, findings suggest that the announcement of the proposed rule change had no impact on key interest series. Overall, the results are consistent with an initial overreaction and subsequent market correction to the announcement...... of the proposed regulation by equity market investors....

  17. The importance and role of the corporate governance mechanism in increasing the level of management efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slaviša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is inherent conflict of interests between owners and managers. They try to solve it in different ways. In this paper we have tried to briefly introduce the most important internal mechanisms of corporate governance (monitoring by the board of directors, incentive system for managers, internal audit and the importance of institutional investors. The financial scandals that included the world-famous corporations as well as current world economic crisis suggests that the protection of owners should continue to work to improve existing or new solutions that will improve the level of corporate governance.

  18. Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Gough, Christopher M.; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, thus increasing plant water use efficiency. A recent study based on eddy covariance flux observations from Northern Hemisphere forests showed a large increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Here we used an updated version of the same data set and robust uncertainty quantification to revisit these contemporary IWUE trends. We tested the hypothesis that the observed IWUE increase could be attributed to interannual trends in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental change. We found that IWUE increased by 1.3% yr-1, which is less than previously reported but still larger than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations with the Tethys-Chloris ecosystem model using temporally static plant functional traits cannot explain this increase. Simulations with plant functional trait plasticity, i.e., temporal changes in model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity, match the observed trends in IWUE. Our results show that trends in plant functional traits, equal to 1.0% yr-1, can explain the observed IWUE trends. Thus, at decadal or longer time scales, trait plasticity could potentially influence forest water, carbon, and energy fluxes with profound implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant functional traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  19. Increase in imported malaria in the Netherlands in asylum seekers and VFR travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, Brechje; Suryapranata, Franciska S. T.; Croughs, Mieke; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Keuter, Monique; Visser, Leo G.; van Vugt, Michele; Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in the Netherlands, a non-endemic country. Imported malaria infections occur regularly among travellers, migrants and visitors. Surveillance data were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Trends in amounts of notifications among risk groups were analysed using Poisson

  20. Increase in imported malaria in the Netherlands in asylum seekers and VFR travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, B. de; Suryapranata, F.S.; Croughs, M.; Genderen, P.J. van; Keuter, M.; Visser, L.G.; Vugt, M. De; Sonder, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a notifiable disease in the Netherlands, a non-endemic country. Imported malaria infections occur regularly among travellers, migrants and visitors. Surveillance data were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Trends in amounts of notifications among risk groups were analysed using

  1. Smart trick at the border. Latitudinal control transformer increases import capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Starting in June 2002, energy consumers in the Netherlands can get more electric power from abroad. Without expensive system extensions, TenneT now has some 1000 MW of extra capacity available. And that is not all. Two latitudinal control transformers are able to control the capacity of the link as desired: 16 positions for import, and 16 for export [nl

  2. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  3. From the tumor-inducing principle to plant biotechnology and its importance for society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenon, Geert; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Van Montagu, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue was held between the Guest Editors of the Special Issue on "Plant Transgenesis" of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. and Marc Van Montagu. Research in the group of Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell in the 1970s was essential to reveal how the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA to host plants to cause crown gall disease. Knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying gene transfer, subsequently led to the development of plant transgene technology, an indispensable tool in fundamental plant research and plant improvement. In the early 1980s, Marc Van Montagu founded a start-up company, Plant Genetic Systems, which successfully developed insect-resistant plants, herbicide-tolerant plants and a hybrid seed production system based on nuclear male sterility. Even before the first transgenic plant had been produced, Marc Van Montagu realized that the less developed countries might benefit most from plant biotechnology and throughout his subsequent career, this remained a focus of his efforts. After becoming emeritus professor, he founded the Institute of Plant Biotechnology Outreach (IPBO), which aims to raise awareness of the major role that plant biotechnology can play in sustainable agricultural systems, especially in less developed countries. Marc Van Montagu has been honored with many prizes and awards, the most recent being the prestigious World Food Prize 2013. In this paper, we look to the past and present of plant biotechnology and to the promises this technology holds for the future, on the basis of the personal perspective of Marc Van Montagu.

  4. Increasing evidence for the important role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Damare, V.S.

    This review summarizes increasing evidence for the role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems gathered over the last six decades. It focuses on their diversity, habitats, biomass, productivity and overall role in food webs and remineralization...

  5. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Fang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T2 and T3Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium (CP4. For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV, and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  6. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS) Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Nan, Peng; Gu, Zongying; Ge, Xiaochun; Feng, Yu-Qi; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T 2 and T 3 Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium ( CP4 ). For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV), and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T 2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T 3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  7. Global warming increases the interspecific competitiveness of the invasive plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ismail, Mohannad; Ding, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Global warming could accelerate the spread of invasive species to higher latitudes and intensify their effects on native species. Here, we report results of two years of field surveys along a latitudinal gradient (21°N to 31°N) in southern China, to determine the species structure of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides community. We also performed a replacement series experiment (mono and mixed) to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature on the competitiveness of A. philoxeroides with the native co-occurring species Digitaria sanguinalis. In the field survey, we found that the dominance of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing of latitude gradient while cover of D. sanguinalis decreased. In monospecific plantings, artificial warming reduced the length of D. sanguinalis roots. In mixed plantings, warming reduced both A. philoxeroides abundance and D. sanguinalis stem length when A. philoxeroides was more prevalent in the planting. Warming also significantly reduced D. sanguinalis biomass, but increased that of A. philoxeroides. In addition, elevated temperatures significantly reduced the relative yield (RY) of D. sanguinalis, particularly when A. philoxeroides was planted in higher proportion in the plot. These results suggest that the invasiveness of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing latitude, and that warming may increase the effectiveness of its interspecific competition with D. sanguinalis. Hence, under global warming conditions, the harm to native species from A. philoxeroides would increase at higher latitudes. Our findings are critical for predicting the invasiveness of alien species under climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Power sale. An activity of increasing importance in S.N Nuclearelectrica S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the main characteristics of the power market in Romania. S. N. Nuclearelectrica S.A., the operator of Cernavoda nuclear power plant, is a new power supplier on this market. The price formation of the power sold by S. N. Nuclearelectrica S. A., its participation to the power market as well as the structure of the production costs at Cernavoda NPP are presented. The paper has the following contents: The electricity companies; - From service supplier to wholesale dealer; - Regulated contracts vs. free market; - The shock from 1 July 2005; - The last but not the final challenge. At the above noted date two events with an direct impact upon the power sale by Nuclearelectrica S.A. in Romania took place: 1.The new Trade Code of the power gross market became operative; 2. The opening degree of the free market raised steeply from 55% to over 83% of the energy demand, all the industrial consumers having the right of having the statute of 'eligible consumer'. The conclusion of the paper is that the reduced production cost in the nuclear unit as compared with those of classical stations, as well as a correct planning of the production are favorable premises to a successful transaction and sale of power produced at Cernavoda NPP

  9. A new family of standardized and symmetric indices for measuring the intensity and importance of plant neighbour effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Sierra, R.; Verwijmeren, M.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Resco de Dios, Victor; Baudena, M.

    Measurements of competition and facilitation between plants often rely upon intensity and importance indices that quantify the net effect of neighbours on the performance of a target plant. A systematic analysis of the mathematical behaviour of the indices is lacking and leads to structural

  10. Increased and Altered Fragrance of Tobacco Plants after Metabolic Engineering Using Three Monoterpene Synthases from Lemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Schwab, Wilfried; van Hautum, Bianca; Blaas, Jan; van der Plas, Linus H. W.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Verhoeven, Harrie A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants emit low levels of terpenoids, particularly from the flowers. By genetic modification of tobacco cv Petit Havana SR1 using three different monoterpene synthases from lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm. f.) and the subsequent combination of these three into one plant by crossings, we show that it is possible to increase the amount and alter the composition of the blend of monoterpenoids produced in tobacco plants. The transgenic tobacco plant line with the three introduced monoterpene synthases is emitting β-pinene, limonene, and γ-terpinene and a number of side products of the introduced monoterpene synthases, from its leaves and flowers, in addition to the terpenoids emitted by wild-type plants. The results show that there is a sufficiently high level of substrate accessible for the introduced enzymes. PMID:14718674

  11. In vivo import of plastocyanin and a fusion protein into developmentally different plastids of transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Douwe de; Cremers, Fons; Teertstra, Renske; Smits, Lianne; Hille, Jacques; Smeekens, Sjef; Weisbeek, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants that constitutively express a foreign plastocyanin gene were used to study protein transport in different tissues. Normally expression of endogenous plastocyanin genes in plants is restricted to photosynthetic tissues only, whereas this foreign plastocyanin protein is found

  12. The Importance of Biotic vs. Abiotic Drivers of Local Plant Community Composition Along Regional Bioclimatic Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Klanderud

    Full Text Available We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.

  13. Identification of important ''PIUS'' design considerations and accident sequences using qualitative plant assessment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.; Fullwood, R.; Kroeger, P.; Youngblood, R.

    1992-01-01

    The PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety) reactor is an advanced design nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features and basic physical processes to address safety concerns. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed a detailed study of the PIUS design for the NRC using primarily qualitative engineering analysis techniques. Some quantitative methods were also employed. There are three key initial areas of analysis: FMECA, HAZOP, and deterministic analyses, which are described herein. Once these three analysis methods were completed, the important findings from each of the methods were assembled into thePIUS Interim Table (PIT). This table thus contains a first cut sort of the important design considerations and features of the PIUS reactor. The table also identifies some potential initiating events and systems used for mitigating these initiators. The next stage of the analysis was the construction of event trees for each of the identified initiators. The most significant sequences were then determined qualitatively, using, some quantitative input. Finally, overall insights on the PIUS design developed from the PIT and from the event tree analysis were developed and presented

  14. Visibility Aspects Importance of User Interface Reception in Cloud Computing Applications with Increased Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Haxhixhemajli, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Visibility aspects of User Interfaces are important; they deal with the crucial phase of human-computer interaction. They allow users to perform and at the same time hide the complexity of the system. Acceptance of new systems depends on how visibility aspects of the User Interfaces are presented. Human eyes make the first contact with the appearance of any system by so it generates the very beginning of the human – application interaction. In this study it is enforced that visibility aspects...

  15. Increase in hospital purchase of hand hygiene products: The importance of focusing on the right product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Manisha; Prasad, Amber; Dhaliwal, Navneet; Gupta, A K; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol-based handrub (AHR) consumption is positively correlated with increases in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. In our 2,000-bed hospital in India, multiple awareness drives have been conducted to promote HH. This study aimed to determine the quantitative effect of these campaigns on use of HH products (soap and AHR) in the hospital. Over the last 6 years, bar soap consumption has increased by 389.15%, whereas that of AHR increased by 146.7%. We also evaluated microbial contamination of 99 bar soap and 60 liquid soap samples in our hospital for a year. Of the samples, 61 (61.6%) of the bar soaps and 2 (3.3%) of the liquid soaps were found to be contaminated with various organisms (P liquid soaps instead of bar soaps for handwashing purposes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of rubber granulate in the coal blend on important process parameters of the coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Winter; K. Pilz; A. Gahleitner; G. Woisetschlaeger; Monika Friedl [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The talk is outlined in a series of 14 slides/overheads. It discusses the use of scrapped tires in coking plant and traces the amount of zinc present in every product of the coking plant, blast furnaces and sintering plant - coke, coke breeze, sinter and waste water produced.

  17. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  18. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  19. Micropropagation of Cyclopia genistoides, an endemic South African plant of economic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Hering, Anna; Ochocka, Renata; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bucinski, Adam; Sowinski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent., an indigenous South African shrub of economic importance, was established. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tip fragments of sterile seedlings cultured on solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 microM 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) and 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ). Maximum shoot multiplication rate [(8.2 +/- 1.3) microshoots/explant)] was observed on this medium composition. Prior to rooting, the multiplied shoots were elongated for 60 days (two 30-days passages) on SH medium with one-half sucrose concentration, supplemented with 4.92 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The rooting of explants was only possible in the case of the elongated shoots. The highest root induction rate (54.8%) was achieved on solid SH medium with one-half sucrose and one-half potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate concentration, respectively, supplemented with 28.54 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 260.25 microM citric acid. The plantlets were acclimatized for 30 days in the glasshouse, with the use of peat/gravel/perlite substrate (1:1:1). The highest acclimatization rate (80%) was obtained for explants rooted with the use of IAA-supplemented medium. The phytochemical profile of the regenerated plants was similar to that of the reference intact plant material. HPLC analyses showed that C. genistoides plantlets obtained by the micropropagation procedure kept the ability to produce xanthones (mangiferin and isomangiferin) and the flavanone hesperidin, characteristic of wild-growing shrubs.

  20. Increasing importance of deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Li; Bret A. Schichtel; John T. Walker; Donna B. Schwede; Xi Chen; Christopher M. B. Lehmann; Melissa A. Puchalski; David A. Gay; Jeffrey L. Collett

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of agriculture and fossil fuel combustion greatly increased US reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in the second half of the 20th century, resulting in excess nitrogen deposition to natural ecosystems. Recent efforts to lower nitrogen oxides emissions have substantially decreased nitrate wet deposition. Levels of wet ammonium...

  1. Emerging infections-an increasingly important topic : review by the Emerging Infections Task Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E; Petrosillo, N; Koopmans, M; Stienstra, Y.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We

  2. Increasing Working Mothers' Earnings: The Importance of Race, Family, and Job Characteristics. Research-in-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Taleria R.

    Women's economic responsibility for their families has increased as more married women contribute to family income and more mothers head families alone. In view of this fact, a study compared the characteristics of Black, White, and Hispanic working mothers and the factors affecting working mothers' wages. Black working mothers were much less…

  3. Increasing carbon dioxide and the response of plants to this challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzaz, F.A.; Fajer, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed are the effects that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the air tend to have on the various types of plant. In the so-called C 3 group of plants globally elevated carbon dioxide levels may lead to increases in the rate of photosynthesis, even though these often appear to be only of a transient nature. The C 4 group of plants, however, clearly are at a disadvantage here. The attendant agricultural problems and resulting dangers to complete ecosystems including animals are described. Mention is also made of the possibility of using plants as carbon dioxide repositories. The urgent need for measures leading to a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is strongly pointed out. (MG) [de

  4. Specific safety aspects of the water-steam cycle important to nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The water-steam cycle in a nuclear power plant is similar to that used in conventional power plants. Some systems and components are required for the safe nuclear power plant operation and therefore are designed according to the safety criteria, rules and regulations applied in nuclear installations. The aim of this report is to present the safety characteristics of the water-steam cycle of a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor, as applied for the design of the nuclear power plants Angra 2 and Angra 3. (Author) [pt

  5. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  6. Increasing efficiency and optimizing thermoelectric power plant equipment. Povyshenie effektivnosti i optimizatsiia teploenergeticheskikh ustanovok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriushchenko, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of increasing the efficiency and optimizing the operational conditions of a thermoelectric power plant and providing efficient operational conditions of the primary and auxillary equipment at a thermoelectric power plant are examined. Methodologies and designs for optimizing the primary parameters of the power-generating equipment based on economic factors are given. A number of recommendations for designing equipment based on the research results are given.

  7. Study of a simplified method of evaluating the economic maintenance importance of components in nuclear power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    Safety risk importance of components in nuclear power plants has been evaluated based on the probabilistic risk assessment and used for the decisions in various plant managements. But economic risk importance of the components has not been discussed very much. Therefore, this paper discusses risk importance of the components from the viewpoint of plant economic efficiency and proposes a simplified evaluation method of the economic risk importance (or economic maintenance importance). As a result of consideration, the followings were obtained. (1) A unit cost of power generation is selected as a performance indicator and can be related to a failure rate of components in nuclear power plant which is a result of maintenance. (2) The economic maintenance importance has to major factors, i.e. repair cost at component failure and production loss associated with plant outage due to component failure. (3) The developed method enables easy understanding of economic impacts of plant shutdown or power reduction due to component failures on the plane which adopts the repair cost in vertical axis and the production loss in horizontal axis. (author)

  8. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  9. Thermal power plant operating regimes in future British power systems with increasing variable renewable penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, Ray; Davies, Lloyd; Deane, Paul; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work investigates thermal power operating regimes in future power systems. • Gas plants have low utilisation in the scenarios considered. • Ramping intensity increases for gas plants and pumped storage. • Coal plants frequently operate at minimum stable levels and start-ups increase. • Grid emission intensity and total emission production remains substantial. - Abstract: This work investigates the operational requirements of thermal power plants in a number of potential future British power systems with increasing variable renewable penetration. The PLEXOS Integrated Energy Model has been used to develop the market models, with PLEXOS employing mixed integer programming to solve the unit commitment and economic dispatch problem, subject to a number of constraints. Initially, a model of the British power system was developed and validated. Subsequently, a 2020 test model was developed to analyse a number of future system structures with differing fuel and carbon prices and generation mixes. The study has found that in three of the four scenarios considered, the utilisation of gas power plants will be relatively low, but remains fundamental to the security of supply. Also, gas plants will be subject to more intense ramping. The findings have consequent implications for energy policy as expensive government interventions may be required to prevent early decommissioning of gas capacity, should the prevailing market conditions not guarantee revenue adequacy.

  10. China’s African Policy – Increasing Importance and Active Adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As China’s economy continues to grow, it wants to expand its markets and secure reliable supplies of resources in support of its economic development. Resource diplomacy therefore becomes a prominent feature of its modernization diplomacy. In turn, many African countries perceive political and economic ties with China an important asset which strengthens their international bargaining power, especially vis-á-vis the Western countries. African countries are also depicted as China’s reliable political and economic partners. Chinese leaders have no intention of engaging in diplomatic and strategic competition with the United States and the European Union in Africa, but they certainly will not cooperate with Western governments in helping Africa because they want to push for multipolarity. China's approach to Africa has come under criticisms of neo-colonialism; and in recent years serious adjustments have been implemented. It is expected that Africa’s significance within the Chinese foreign policy framework will continue to grow.

  11. The Importance of the Microbial N Cycle in Soil for Crop Plant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is crucial for living cells, and prior to the introduction of mineral N fertilizer, fixation of atmospheric N2 by diverse prokaryotes was the primary source of N in all ecosystems. Microorganisms drive the N cycle starting with N2 fixation to ammonia, through nitrification in which ammonia is oxidized to nitrate and denitrification where nitrate is reduced to N2 to complete the cycle, or partially reduced to generate the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Traditionally, agriculture has relied on rotations that exploited N fixed by symbiotic rhizobia in leguminous plants, and recycled wastes and manures that microbial activity mineralized to release ammonia or nitrate. Mineral N fertilizer provided by the Haber-Bosch process has become essential for modern agriculture to increase crop yields and replace N removed from the system at harvest. However, with the increasing global population and problems caused by unintended N wastage and pollution, more sustainable ways of managing the N cycle in soil and utilizing biological N2 fixation have become imperative. This review describes the biological N cycle and details the steps and organisms involved. The effects of various agricultural practices that exploit fixation, retard nitrification, and reduce denitrification are presented, together with strategies that minimize inorganic fertilizer applications and curtail losses. The development and implementation of new technologies together with rediscovering traditional practices are discussed to speculate how the grand challenge of feeding the world sustainably can be met. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savola, Tuula; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MW e combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO 2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO 2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  14. Increased nutritional quality of plants for long-duration spaceflight missions through choice of plant variety and manipulation of growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohu, Christopher M.; Lombardi, Elizabeth; Adams, William W.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Low levels of radiation during spaceflight increase the incidence of eye damage and consumption of certain carotenoids (especially zeaxanthin), via a whole-food-based diet (rather than from supplements), is recommended to protect human vision against radiation damage. Availability of fresh leafy produce has, furthermore, been identified as desirable for morale during long spaceflight missions. We report that only trace amounts of zeaxanthin are retained post-harvest in leaves grown under conditions conducive to rapid plant growth. We show that growth of plants under cool temperatures and very high light can trigger a greater retention of zeaxanthin, while, however, simultaneously retarding plant growth. We here introduce a novel growth condition—low growth light supplemented with several short daily light pulses of higher intensity—that also triggers zeaxanthin retention, but without causing any growth retardation. Moreover, two plant varieties with different hardiness exhibited a different propensity for zeaxanthin retention. These findings demonstrate that growth light environment and plant variety can be exploited to simultaneously optimize nutritional quality (with respect to zeaxanthin and two other carotenoids important for human vision, lutein and β-carotene) as well as biomass production of leafy greens suitable as bioregenerative systems for long-duration manned spaceflight missions.

  15. [Expression of plant antimicrobial peptide pro-SmAMP2 gene increases resistance of transgenic potato plants to Alternaria and Fusarium pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchinkina, E M; Komakhina, V V; Vysotskii, D A; Zaitsev, D V; Smirnov, A N; Babakov, A V; Komakhin, R A

    2016-09-01

    The chickweed (Stellaria media L.) pro-SmAMP2 gene encodes the hevein-like peptides that have in vitro antimicrobial activity against certain harmful microorganisms. These peptides play an important role in protecting the chickweed plants from infection, and the pro-SmAMP2 gene was previously used to protect transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants from phytopathogens. In this study, the pro-SmAMP2 gene under control of viral CaMV35S promoter or under control of its own pro-SmAMP2 promoter was transformed into cultivated potato plants of two cultivars, differing in the resistance to Alternaria: Yubiley Zhukova (resistant) and Skoroplodny (susceptible). With the help of quantitative real-time PCR, it was demonstrated that transgenic potato plants expressed the pro-SmAMP2 gene under control of both promoters at the level comparable to or exceeding the level of the potato actin gene. Assessment of the immune status of the transformants demonstrated that expression of antimicrobial peptide pro-SmAMP2 gene was able to increase the resistance to a complex of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. phytopathogens only in potato plants of the Yubiley Zhukova cultivar. The possible role of the pro-SmAMP2 products in protecting potatoes from Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. is discussed.

  16. Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, H.; Ali, H.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional

  17. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  18. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare's quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market's action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  19. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare’s quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market’s action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  20. Importance of safety review to the safe operation of a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkerhoff, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Widely differing standards of construction of nuclear reactors are employed in different countries. Although the reactor vendors, including designers and construction contractors, have a vested interest in safety, the ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the reactor facility operator. Even though governmental agencies, either directly or indirectly, must take a strong lead in developing policies and practices of safe operation, the reactor facility operator must recognize and accept the full responsibility for safe operation of the facility. The policies and practices of safe operation imposed by governmental agencies must help assure the prudent operation and the adequate maintenance of those structures, systems, and components of importance to safety. Since each country has a slightly different philosophy for achieving safety and each vendor utilizes different structures, systems, and components to fulfil this philosophy, it is imperative that the facility operator adequately maintain those engineered safety features and those plant protective systems which have been engineered into achieving the desired levels of safety. An additional method of helping to assure that those structures, systems, and components of importance to safety are prudently operated and adequately maintained is to assign the full safety responsibility for the overall operations of the reactor facility to the operating organization, i.e. assigning a 'line of responsibility' within the reactor facility operator. This assurance can be further strengthened by requiring that the facility operator establish a safety review body that overviews the operation and assures that the operating organization complies with those policies and practices of safe operation which have been imposed on the reactor facility. (author)

  1. Positive Selection Driving Cytoplasmic Genome Evolution of the Medicinally Important Ginseng Plant Genus Panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ming-Rui; Liu, Bao; Wen, Jun; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Panax L. (the ginseng genus) is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species. Our results show that heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution rate is abundant in both of the two cytoplasmic genomes, with the mitochondrial genome possessing more variants at the total level but the chloroplast showing higher sequence polymorphisms at the genic regions. Genome-wide scanning of positive selection identified five and 12 genes from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Functional analyses further revealed that these selected genes play important roles in plant development, cellular metabolism and adaptation. We therefore conclude that positive selection might be one of the potential evolutionary forces that shaped nucleotide variation pattern of these Panax species. In particular, the mitochondrial genes evolved under stronger selective pressure compared to the chloroplast genes.

  2. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  3. Important aspects for consideration in minimizing plant outage times. Swiss experience in achieving high availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcotsis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of Swiss nuclear power plants has not been entirely free of trouble. They have experienced defective fuel elements, steam generator tube damage, excessive vibration of the core components, leakages in the recirculation pump seals and excessive corrosion and erosion in the steam-feedwater plant. Despite these technical problems in the early life of the plants, on overall balance the plants can be considered to have performed exceedingly well. The safety records from more than 40 reactor-years of operation are excellent and, individually and collectively, the capacity factors obtained are among the highest in the world. The problems mentioned have been solved and the plants continue operation with high availabilities. This success can be attributed to the good practices of the utilities with regard to the choice of special design criteria, plant organization, plant operation and plant maintenance, and also to the pragmatic approach of the licensing authorities and their consultants to quality assurance and quality control. The early technical problems encountered, the corresponding solutions adopted and the factors that contributed towards achieving high availabilities in Swiss nuclear power plants are briefly described. (author)

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting pseudomonads increases anthocyanin concentration in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in conditions of reduced fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-08-06

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gamalero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D’Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry. PMID:23924942

  7. Increased utilisation of existing biogas plants; Oekat utnyttjande av befintliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how existing biogas plants in Sweden could be utilised more efficiently, by increase the organic loading rate, and to calculate the cost efficiency of such measures. Biogas plants treating sewage sludge are currently operated with low organic loading rates and it is likely that there could be a considerable potential of increased utilisation of existing capacity. However, disposal costs of digested sewage sludge have a great impact on the economic result. Thus, the cost must be low, below 200 - 850 SEK/tonne DS, for co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic household waste to be economic competitive, compared to building of a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, using manure and organic waste as feedstock, it is not possible to say whether it is more economic to increase the utilisation of existing capacity or to increase the reactor volume. Therefore, more specific studies are required for individual plants and cases. Regarding the need for a more sophisticated monitoring and control of the biogas process, it can be established that the utilisation of sewage sludge digestion plants could be increased considerably without exceptionally high organic loading rates, thus probably without any additional monitoring and control. However, indicated prices for such applications are probably acceptable compared to establishing a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, the scope for investments is smaller and more dependent on the alternative cost for new reactors. Also, any process disturbances, which may appear even at low organic loading rates, could be very costly and result in costs in the same range as for monitoring and control equipment. Finally, the reader should observe that the analyses conducted here assume that funding and physical space for additional reactors is available at the existing site. If not, there could be situations where it is economic interesting to increase the organic loading rate although cost estimates

  8. Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (importance of certain factors analysis showed that the influence of socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health

  9. Methods of increasing thermal efficiency of steam and gas turbine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, A. A.; Shutenko, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Three new methods of increasing efficiency of turbine power plants are described. Increasing average temperature of heat supply in steam turbine plant by mixing steam after overheaters with products of combustion of natural gas in the oxygen. Development of this idea consists in maintaining steam temperature on the major part of expansion in the turbine at level, close to initial temperature. Increasing efficiency of gas turbine plant by way of regenerative heating of the air by gas after its expansion in high pressure turbine and before expansion in the low pressure turbine. Due to this temperature of air, entering combustion chamber, is increased and average temperature of heat supply is consequently increased. At the same time average temperature of heat removal is decreased. Increasing efficiency of combined cycle power plant by avoiding of heat transfer from gas to wet steam and transferring heat from gas to water and superheated steam only. Steam will be generated by multi stage throttling of the water from supercritical pressure and temperature close to critical, to the pressure slightly higher than condensation pressure. Throttling of the water and separation of the wet steam on saturated water and steam does not require complicated technical devices.

  10. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  11. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  12. The demographic consequences of mutualism: ants increase host-plant fruit production but not population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Ness, Joshua H; Bronstein, Judith L; Morris, William F

    2015-10-01

    The impact of mutualists on a partner's demography depends on how they affect the partner's multiple vital rates and how those vital rates, in turn, affect population growth. However, mutualism studies rarely measure effects on multiple vital rates or integrate them to assess the ultimate impact on population growth. We used vital rate data, population models and simulations of long-term population dynamics to quantify the demographic impact of a guild of ant species on the plant Ferocactus wislizeni. The ants feed at the plant's extrafloral nectaries and attack herbivores attempting to consume reproductive organs. Ant-guarded plants produced significantly more fruit, but ants had no significant effect on individual growth or survival. After integrating ant effects across these vital rates, we found that projected population growth was not significantly different between unguarded and ant-guarded plants because population growth was only weakly influenced by differences in fruit production (though strongly influenced by differences in individual growth and survival). However, simulations showed that ants could positively affect long-term plant population dynamics through services provided during rare but important events (herbivore outbreaks that reduce survival or years of high seedling recruitment associated with abundant precipitation). Thus, in this seemingly clear example of mutualism, the interaction may actually yield no clear benefit to plant population growth, or if it does, may only do so through the actions of the ants during rare events. These insights demonstrate the value of taking a demographic approach to studying the consequences of mutualism.

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis with Arundo donax Decreases Root Respiration and Increases Both Photosynthesis and Plant Biomass Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Munar, Antònia; Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Flexas, Jaume; Baraza, Elena; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Gulías, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis on plant growth is associated with the balance between costs and benefits. A feedback regulation loop has been described in which the higher carbohydrate cost to plants for AM symbiosis is compensated by increases in their photosynthetic rates. Nevertheless, plant carbon balance depends both on photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory carbon consumption. The hypothesis behind this research was that the role of respiration in plant growth under AM symbiosis may be as important as that of photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested in Arundo donax L. plantlets inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae. We tested the effects of AM inoculation on both photosynthetic capacity and in vivo leaf and root respiration. Additionally, analyses of the primary metabolism and ion content were performed in both leaves and roots. AM inoculation increased photosynthesis through increased CO 2 diffusion and electron transport in the chloroplast. Moreover, respiration decreased only in AM roots via the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) as measured by the oxygen isotope technique. This decline in the COP can be related to the reduced respiratory metabolism and substrates (sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) observed in roots. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cisgenesis: an important sub-invention for traditional plant breeding companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Modern plant breeding is highly dependent on new technologies to master future problems. More traits have to be combined, frequently originating from wild species. Traditional breeding is connected with linkage drag problems. The crop plant itself and its crossable species represent the traditional

  15. Infection of an Insect Vector with a Bacterial Plant Pathogen Increases Its Propensity for Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Monique R.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of vector-transmitted pathogens relies on complex interactions between host, vector and pathogen. In sessile plant pathosystems, the spread of a pathogen highly depends on the movement and mobility of the vector. However, questions remain as to whether and how pathogen-induced vector manipulations may affect the spread of a plant pathogen. Here we report for the first time that infection with a bacterial plant pathogen increases the probability of vector dispersal, and that such movement of vectors is likely manipulated by a bacterial plant pathogen. We investigated how Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) affects dispersal behavior, flight capacity, and the sexual attraction of its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). CLas is the putative causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), which is a disease that threatens the viability of commercial citrus production worldwide. When D. citri developed on CLas-infected plants, short distance dispersal of male D. citri was greater compared to counterparts reared on uninfected plants. Flight by CLas-infected D. citri was initiated earlier and long flight events were more common than by uninfected psyllids, as measured by a flight mill apparatus. Additionally, CLas titers were higher among psyllids that performed long flights than psyllid that performed short flights. Finally, attractiveness of female D. citri that developed on infected plants to male conspecifics increased proportionally with increasing CLas bacterial titers measured within female psyllids. Our study indicates that the phytopathogen, CLas, may manipulate movement and mate selection behavior of their vectors, which is a possible evolved mechanism to promote their own spread. These results have global implications for both current HLB models of disease spread and control strategies. PMID:26083763

  16. Infection of an Insect Vector with a Bacterial Plant Pathogen Increases Its Propensity for Dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Martini

    Full Text Available The spread of vector-transmitted pathogens relies on complex interactions between host, vector and pathogen. In sessile plant pathosystems, the spread of a pathogen highly depends on the movement and mobility of the vector. However, questions remain as to whether and how pathogen-induced vector manipulations may affect the spread of a plant pathogen. Here we report for the first time that infection with a bacterial plant pathogen increases the probability of vector dispersal, and that such movement of vectors is likely manipulated by a bacterial plant pathogen. We investigated how Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas affects dispersal behavior, flight capacity, and the sexual attraction of its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. CLas is the putative causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB, which is a disease that threatens the viability of commercial citrus production worldwide. When D. citri developed on CLas-infected plants, short distance dispersal of male D. citri was greater compared to counterparts reared on uninfected plants. Flight by CLas-infected D. citri was initiated earlier and long flight events were more common than by uninfected psyllids, as measured by a flight mill apparatus. Additionally, CLas titers were higher among psyllids that performed long flights than psyllid that performed short flights. Finally, attractiveness of female D. citri that developed on infected plants to male conspecifics increased proportionally with increasing CLas bacterial titers measured within female psyllids. Our study indicates that the phytopathogen, CLas, may manipulate movement and mate selection behavior of their vectors, which is a possible evolved mechanism to promote their own spread. These results have global implications for both current HLB models of disease spread and control strategies.

  17. Primary Pharmacological and Other Important Findings on the Medicinal Plant “Aconitum Heterophyllum” (Aruna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Paramanick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aconitum Heterophyllum (A. Heterophyllum is an indigenous medicinal plant of India and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A. Heterophyllum is known to possess a number of therapeutic effects. For very ancient times, this plant has been used in some formulations in the traditional healing system of India, i.e., Ayurveda. It is reported to have use in treating patients with urinary infections, diarrhea, and inflammation. It also has been used as an expectorant and for the promotion of hepatoprotective activity. The chemical studies of the plant have revealed that various parts of the plant contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, saponins, glycosides, quinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc. In the present study, a comprehensive phytochemistry and pharmacognosy, as well as the medicinal properties, of A. Heterophyllum are discussed. Abstract: Scientific information on the plant was collected from various sources,

  18. [Importance of competition for pollination in formation of the entomophylous plants complex structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlusskiĭ, G M

    2013-01-01

    Many species of entomophylous plants have a wide range of pollinators, and the same insects visit flowers of many plants. The competition for pollination leads to decreasing in seed production of competing species. However, there exists a variety of adaptations that allow plants to reduce the intensity of competition. A comparative analysis of pollinators spectra has allowed to designate groups (subcomplexes) of plants with regard to dominance of various groups of pollinators: myiophylous (flies from the superfamily Muscomorha dominate), syphidophylous (flies from the family Syrphidae dominate), psychophylous (butterflies dominate), cantharophylous (beetles dominate), nonspecialized and specialized melittophylous (Apidae, mainly bumblebees, dominate). The belonging of plants to a specific subcomplex is defined mainly by the structure of flowers and inflorescences. Modes of mechanical and attractive isolation are discussed that lead to restriction of pollinators composition. Competition abatement between species with similar spectra of pollinators and belonging to the same subcomplex is achieved mainly by spatial (ecological) and temporal (different timing of flowering) isolation.

  19. Importance of whole-plant biomass allocation and reproductive timing to habitat differentiation across the North American sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Davis, Kaleigh E; Bullock, Devon V; Donovan, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Trait-based plant ecology attempts to use small numbers of functional traits to predict plant ecological strategies. However, a major gap exists between our understanding of organ-level ecophysiological traits and our understanding of whole-plant fitness and environmental adaptation. In this gap lie whole-plant organizational traits, including those that describe how plant biomass is allocated among organs and the timing of plant reproduction. This study explores the role of whole-plant organizational traits in adaptation to diverse environments in the context of life history, growth form and leaf economic strategy in a well-studied herbaceous system. A phylogenetic comparative approach was used in conjunction with common garden phenotyping to assess the evolution of biomass allocation and reproductive timing across 83 populations of 27 species of the diverse genus Helianthus (the sunflowers). Broad diversity exists among species in both relative biomass allocation and reproductive timing. Early reproduction is strongly associated with resource-acquisitive leaf economic strategy, while biomass allocation is less integrated with either reproductive timing or leaf economics. Both biomass allocation and reproductive timing are strongly related to source site environmental characteristics, including length of the growing season, temperature, precipitation and soil fertility. Herbaceous taxa can adapt to diverse environments in many ways, including modulation of phenology, plant architecture and organ-level ecophysiology. Although leaf economic strategy captures one key aspect of plant physiology, on their own leaf traits are not particularly predictive of ecological strategies in Helianthus outside of the context of growth form, life history and whole-plant organization. These results highlight the importance of including data on whole-plant organization alongside organ-level ecophysiological traits when attempting to bridge the gap between functional traits and plant

  20. Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  1. Increasing vitamin C content in plant foods to improve their nutritional value-successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2013-08-30

    Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  2. Method to control the persons permitted to enter plants with increased security requirements and personnel lock for such plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, E.; Eickhoff, H.; Tretschoks, W.

    1978-01-01

    The personnel lock for a plant with increased security requirements, e.g. a nuclear power plant, has got two lock gates. Only persons whose right to enter has been established by the control equipment will be admitted to the lock chamber. For this purpose an identification recess is built in front of the first access to the lock chamber, where size, weight and the contours of the persons wanting to enter are roughly measured and compared with a code card carried along. The weight is established by a balance forming part of the base of the recess. By means of contact surfaces in the region of knees, upper thigh, chest and shoulder an upright position of the person is guaranteed. Scanning of the physical dimensions is performed with laser, infrared and light barriers. (DG) [de

  3. Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc Vaugh, an important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective plant used in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Sánchez-Medina, Alberto; Maldonado-Saavedra, Octavio; Domínguez-Ortiz, Miguel Ángel; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Muñoz-Muñiz, Omar David; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel

    2014-02-03

    Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc Vaugh (Euphorbiaceae) is commonly known as 'chaya' in Central America. In South East Mexico, because of its high nutritional values, is an important part of the diet of many indigenous communities. Chaya is also used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diabetes, rheumatism, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation-related diseases. Although Cnidoscolus chayamansa is one of most used and valued medicinal plants, only few studies on documenting its pharmacological properties can be found. Dried leaves of Cnidoscolus chayamansa were subjected to a successive maceration using Hex, EtOAc and EtOH. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were tested using the DPPH radical scavenging, Ferric reducing/antioxidant power and total phenolic content assays. To determine the anti-inflammatory activity, the TPA-induced mouse ear edema and the carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema assays were used. The cardioprotective effects of the EtOH extract was determined using the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model. Finally, the acute toxicity was determined using Lorke's method. The results showed a similar anti-inflammatory activity (≈30%) for all extracts but only the EtOAc extract showed relevant activity when applied intraperitoneally. When tested for their antioxidant activity none of the extracts showed a significant activity suggesting that the antinflammatory activity is not related to a direct free radical scavenging of the extracts. Additionally, the EtOH extract showed a strong cardioprotective effect at 500mg/kg when given orally. Both the EtOAc and the EtOH extract have a LD50 >5g/kg, confirming their safety in acute oral administration. All these results are relevant for a better understanding of the therapeutic used of Cnidoscolus chayamansa in the Mexican traditional medicine and highlights its cardioprotective potential. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Climate change will increase the naturalization risk from garden plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullinger, Iwona; Wessely, Johannes; Bossdorf, Oliver; Dawson, Wayne; Essl, Franz; Gattringer, Andreas; Klonner, Günther; Kreft, Holger; Kuttner, Michael; Moser, Dietmar; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Thuiller, Wilfried; van Kleunen, Mark; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Dullinger, Stefan; Beaumont, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Plant invasions often follow initial introduction with a considerable delay. The current non-native flora of a region may hence contain species that are not yet naturalized but may become so in the future, especially if climate change lifts limitations on species spread. In Europe, non-native garden plants represent a huge pool of potential future invaders. Here, we evaluate the naturalization risk from this species pool and how it may change under a warmer climate. Europe. We selected all species naturalized anywhere in the world but not yet in Europe from the set of non-native European garden plants. For this subset of 783 species, we used species distribution models to assess their potential European ranges under different scenarios of climate change. Moreover, we defined geographical hotspots of naturalization risk from those species by combining projections of climatic suitability with maps of the area available for ornamental plant cultivation. Under current climate, 165 species would already find suitable conditions in > 5% of Europe. Although climate change substantially increases the potential range of many species, there are also some that are predicted to lose climatically suitable area under a changing climate, particularly species native to boreal and Mediterranean biomes. Overall, hotspots of naturalization risk defined by climatic suitability alone, or by a combination of climatic suitability and appropriate land cover, are projected to increase by up to 102% or 64%, respectively. Our results suggest that the risk of naturalization of European garden plants will increase with warming climate, and thus it is very likely that the risk of negative impacts from invasion by these plants will also grow. It is therefore crucial to increase awareness of the possibility of biological invasions among horticulturalists, particularly in the face of a warming climate.

  5. Off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower plant to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Inês; Gueifão, Carlos; Ferreira de Jesus, J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the high dependence on imported fuels and to meet the ongoing growth of electricity demand, Cape Verde government set the goal to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island until 2020. To help maximize renewable energy penetration, an off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plant will be installed in Santiago, in one of the following locations: Chã Gonçalves, Mato Sancho and Ribeira dos Picos. This paper summarizes the studies carried out to find the optimal location and connection point of the PSH plant in Santiago’s electricity network. This goal was achieved by assessing the impact of the PSH plant, in each location, on power system stability. The simulation tool PSS/E of Siemens was used to study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the future (2020) Santiago MV grid. Different scenarios of demand and renewable resources were created. Each hydro unit of the PSH plant was modeled as an adjustable speed reversible turbine employing a DFIM. The results show that Santiago’s grid with the PSH plant in Chã Gonçalves is the one that has the best performance.

  6. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  7. The importance of cultural factors in the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge: a case study in four Basque regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2015-02-23

    Previous research suggests that the use of medicinal plants by a given group is mainly driven by biological variables such as the chemical composition or the ecological distribution of plants. However, other studies highlight the importance of cultural aspects such as the curative meaning given to a plant, beliefs, religion or the historical context. Such aspects could play an important role in the use, diffusion or even in the effectiveness of a plant remedy. Fieldwork consisted of 233 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 178 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted in four historically and geographycally delimited regions of Alava and Biscay with similar environmental conditions but different sociolinguistic backgrounds: two regions were Basque- and two Spanish-speaking. Data were structured in use-reports. A Between Class Analysis was conducted to assess the intercultural and intracultural variability of medicinal plants knowledge. The results show the existence of four clearly different medicinal ethnofloras. While the four ethnofloras share remedies widely distributed through the territory, each of them also includes remedies that are only shared among closely related communities. The ecological availability and chemical composition of the plants may explain why there are widely used plant remedies. On the contrary, the distribution of the locally shared remedies matches up with the cultural heterogeneity of the territory, so cultural factors, such as, language, social networks or the meaning response of the plants seem to explain the use of many traditional plant remedies. In Addition, we also found that Basque speaking territories show higher knowledge levels than Spanish speaking territories. In this sense, the development and reinforcement of Basque identity by Basque nationalism seems to have contributed to maintain the traditional knowledge in the Basque speaking regions. Despite the fact that pharmacological

  8. Restoration solution of increased vibrations of the fan plant's support structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varju Đerđ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a restoration solution of increased vibration of the fan plant's support structure. Based on vibrodiagnostic tests and dynamic analysis, a technical solution of the problem is given with additional steel bracing. There is particular emphasis on the diagnosis and forming of a dynamic model.

  9. Increased productivity in power plants by the computer-based information system PRAUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanbaba, P.

    1978-01-01

    Decrease of commissionning times, reduction of shut-down periods, avoiding of power reductions, fast adaption to load requirement variations act in the direction of increasing the productivity of a power plant. An essential contribution to this is provided by harmonized control, monitoring and communications concepts as realized, e.g. in the PRO-CONTROL system by Brown Boveri. (orig.) [de

  10. Plant responses to increased inundation and salt exposure: interactive effects on tidal marsh productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding and high salinity generally induce physiological stress in wetland vascular plants which may increase in intensity with sea-level rise (SLR). We tested the effects of these factors on seedling growth in a transplant experiment in a macrotidal estuary in the Pacific North...

  11. Natural genetic variation in stomatal response can help to increase acclimation of plants to dried environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van U.

    2018-01-01

    In the current century, global warming is becoming an alarming issue causing an increase in the area of barren lands. Arid and semi-arid regions are characterised with shortage of water in both under- and above-ground environments. Plants with high water use efficiency should be considered for

  12. Improvements done at Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) to increase the standards of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.S.; Gupta, R.V.; Pandey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Heavy Water Plant at Manuguru is designed to produce 185 MTY of nuclear grade heavy water based on bithermal H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process and handles large inventory of H 2 S gas (about 400 MT). As H 2 S gas is very toxic, corrosive and hazardous in nature, extreme care has been taken in the design of plant, selection of equipment and materials adhering to stringent fabrication procedures and codes to ensure the production of heavy water in a safe manner. This paper highlights the improvements done at Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) to increase the standards of environmental protection. The safety assessment of a hazardous plant is a continuous process. Apart from the extreme care taken in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the plant, review of each and every safety related unusual occurrence by various levels of review committees as stipulated and speedy implementation of the recommendations goes in a long way in increasing the standards of environmental protection

  13. Increased light-use efficiency sustains net primary productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    In agroforestry systems, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net primary productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry systems and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net primary productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net primary productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net primary productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins have...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  15. Modernisation of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant increases the power production efficiency under safe limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkeapaeae, R.

    1995-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy published the efficiency increment plans as a part of the modernisation of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The power of the reactor units, originally designed for 660 MW will now be increased for a second time. The former improvements were made in 1994. The power of the units was increased to 710 MW. After this new renovation the power of the both units will be 830-840 MW. (2 figs.)

  16. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  17. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  18. Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas. As a result of air warming, the seasonal GHG budget of the vegetated tundra surfaces shifted from a GHG sink of -300 to -198 g CO 2 -eq m -2 to a source of 105 to 144 g CO 2 -eq m -2 . At bare peat surfaces, we observed increased release of all three GHGs. While the positive warming response was dominated by CO 2 , we provide here the first in situ evidence of increasing N 2 O emissions from tundra soils with warming. Warming promoted N 2 O release not only from bare peat, previously identified as a strong N 2 O source, but also from the abundant, vegetated peat surfaces that do not emit N 2 O under present climate. At these surfaces, elevated temperatures had an adverse effect on plant growth, resulting in lower plant N uptake and, consequently, better N availability for soil microbes. Although the warming was limited to the soil surface and did not alter thaw depth, it increased concentrations of DOC, CO 2, and CH 4 in the soil down to the permafrost table. This can be attributed to downward DOC leaching, fueling microbial activity at depth. Taken together, our results emphasize the tight linkages between plant and soil processes, and different soil layers, which need to be taken into account when predicting the climate change feedback of the Arctic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The importance of ecological costs for the evolution of plant defense against herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Ellen; Etienne, Rampal S

    2015-05-07

    Plant defense against herbivory comes at a cost, which can be either direct (reducing resources available for growth and reproduction) or indirect (through reducing ecological performance, for example intraspecific competitiveness). While direct costs have been well studied in theoretical models, ecological costs have received almost no attention. In this study we compare models with a direct trade-off (reduced growth rate) to models with an ecological trade-off (reduced competitive ability), using a combination of adaptive dynamics and simulations. In addition, we study the dependence of the level of defense that can evolve on the type of defense (directly by reducing consumption, or indirectly by inducing herbivore mortality (toxicity)), and on the type of herbivore against which the plant is defending itself (generalists or specialists). We find three major results: First, for both direct and ecological costs, defense only evolves if the benefit to the plant is direct (through reducing consumption). Second, the type of cost has a major effect on the evolutionary dynamics: direct costs always lead to a single optimal strategy against herbivores, but ecological costs can lead to branching and the coexistence of non-defending and defending plants; however, coexistence is only possible when defending against generalist herbivores. Finally, we find that fast-growing plants invest less than slow-growing plants when defending against generalist herbivores, as predicted by the Resource Availability Hypothesis, but invest more than slow-growing plants when defending against specialists. Our results clearly show that assumptions about ecological interactions are crucial for understanding the evolution of defense against herbivores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subsurface earthworm casts can be important soil microsites specifically influencing the growth of grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G; Wechselberger, Katharina F; Gorfer, Markus; Hann, Patrick; Frank, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Drapela, Thomas

    Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) deposit several tons per hectare of casts enriched in nutrients and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and create a spatial and temporal soil heterogeneity that can play a role in structuring plant communities. However, while we begin to understand the role of surface casts, it is still unclear to what extent plants utilize subsurface casts. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using large mesocosms (volume 45 l) to test whether (1) soil microsites consisting of earthworm casts with or without AMF (four Glomus taxa) affect the biomass production of 11 grassland plant species comprising the three functional groups grasses, forbs, and legumes, (2) different ecological groups of earthworms (soil dwellers- Aporrectodea caliginosa vs. vertical burrowers- Lumbricus terrestris ) alter potential influences of soil microsites (i.e., four earthworms × two subsurface microsites × two AMF treatments). Soil microsites were artificially inserted in a 25-cm depth, and afterwards, plant species were sown in a regular pattern; the experiment ran for 6 months. Our results show that minute amounts of subsurface casts (0.89 g kg -1 soil) decreased the shoot and root production of forbs and legumes, but not that of grasses. The presence of earthworms reduced root biomass of grasses only. Our data also suggest that subsurface casts provide microsites from which root AMF colonization can start. Ecological groups of earthworms did not differ in their effects on plant production or AMF distribution. Taken together, these findings suggest that subsurface earthworm casts might play a role in structuring plant communities by specifically affecting the growth of certain functional groups of plants.

  1. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Determining safety importance of systems and components at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This case study emphasizes the step of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) regarding identification of systems and components important to nuclear plant safety. An importance analysis involves combining information that is both qualitative and probabilistic in nature to generate a numerical ranking to determine the system and/or component failures that dominate the risk. Such a ranking can suggest where hardware, software, human factors and component design changes can be implemented to improve plant safety. Examples of using ranking methodology are described. A qualitative ranking criteria is discussed for components and systems that are not included in a PSA. 18 refs, 7 figs, 18 tabs

  2. Increasing reliability of nuclear energy equipment and at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochrana, L.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy at the Technical University in Brno cooperates with nuclear power plants in increasing their reliability. The teaching programme is briefly described. The scientific research programme of the Department of Heat and Nuclear Power Energy Equipment in the field of reliability is based on a complex systematic concept securing a high level of reliability. In 1996 the Department prepared a study dealing with the evaluation of the maintenance system in a nuclear power plant. The proposed techniques make it possible to evaluate the reliability and maintenance characteristics of any individual component in a nuclear power plant, and to monitor, record and evaluate data at any given time intervals. (M.D.)

  3. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloud, E.S.; Berenbaum, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day -1 BE 300 ). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

  5. Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M

    2013-03-01

    Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency.

  6. Increased installation in existing hydro power plants. Potentials and costs; Oekt installasjon i eksisterende kraftverk. Potensial og kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, Kjell Erik (ed.)

    2011-06-15

    This report seeks to highlight the costs associated with increased installed capacity of existing hydropower plants. Five selected power plant is further studied. Furthermore, given an overview of the technical possibilities of power expansions in Norway. (AG)

  7. Examination of Energy Efficiency Increasing Measures in an Automobile Assembly Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÇANKA KILIÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, energy consumption analysis was performed in a car assembly plant (Body-inWhite (BiW productions, painting processes, chassis and accessory assembly processes. Examined automobile assembly plant has a production capacity of 200,000 vehicles per year by working six days a week and three shifts a day. Highly energy consuming processes are determined. Energy efficiency increasing opportunities in energy consuming systems (paint shop, drying ovens, compressed air, heating and cooling systems and effects of current automotive assembly techniques on energy efficiency are examined. Most of the total energy in the studied plant is consumed in the paint shop. Considering annual energy consumption; paint shop is responsible for the %50 of total electrical energy and %70 of total natural gas consumption. Specific energy consumption of plant is calculated as 853 kWh (SET; 275 kWh for electricity consumption (SETe , and 578 kWh for natural gas (SETdg . By performing determined energy efficiency measures; SET of plant will reduce %1 for the SETe , and %5,7 for SETdg

  8. Timing Is Important: Unmanned Aircraft vs. Satellite Imagery in Plant Invasion Monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Brůna, Josef; Bartaloš, T.; Dvořák, P.; Vítková, Michaela; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAY 31 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 887. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alien species * remote sensing detection * UAV * plant phenology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  9. The potential sensitivity of tropical plants to increased ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziska, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    Little is known concerning the impact of stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation on the phenology and growth of tropical plants. This is because, ostensibly, tropical plants are already exposed to relatively high levels of UV-B radiation (relative to a temperate environment) and should, therefore, possess a greater degree of tolerance to increased UV-B radiation. In this brief review I hope to show that, potentially, direct and indirect effects on photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, phenology and biomass could occur in both tropical crops (e.g. cassava, rice) and native species (e.g. Cecropia obtusifolia (Bertol. Fl)., Tetramolopium humile (Gray), Nana sandwicensis L.). However, it should be noted that differences in sensitivity to UV-B radiation can be related to experimental conditions, and care should be taken to ensure that the quantity and quality of background solar radiation remains at near ambient conditions. Nevertheless, by integrating current and past studies on the impact of UV-B radiation on tropical species, I hope to be able to demonstrate that photosynthesis, morphology and growth in tropical plants could be directly affected by UV-B radiation and that UV-B radiation may be a factor in species and community dynamics in natural plant populations in the tropics

  10. Phenotypic plasticity of fine root growth increases plant productivity in pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissom James E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plastic response of fine roots to a changing environment is suggested to affect the growth and form of a plant. Here we show that the plasticity of fine root growth may increase plant productivity based on an experiment using young seedlings (14-week old of loblolly pine. We use two contrasting pine ecotypes, "mesic" and "xeric", to investigate the adaptive significance of such a plastic response. Results The partitioning of biomass to fine roots is observed to reduce with increased nutrient availability. For the "mesic" ecotype, increased stem biomass as a consequence of more nutrients may be primarily due to reduced fine-root biomass partitioning. For the "xeric" ecotype, the favorable influence of the plasticity of fine root growth on stem growth results from increased allocation of biomass to foliage and decreased allocation to fine roots. An evolutionary genetic analysis indicates that the plasticity of fine root growth is inducible, whereas the plasticity of foliage is constitutive. Conclusions Results promise to enhance a fundamental understanding of evolutionary changes of tree architecture under domestication and to design sound silvicultural and breeding measures for improving plant productivity.

  11. Linkages of plant stoichiometry to ecosystem production and carbon fluxes with increasing nitrogen inputs in an alpine steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Fei; Zhou, Guoying; Fang, Kai; Zhang, Dianye; Li, Changbin; Yang, Guibiao; Wang, Guanqin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuanhe

    2017-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of nitrogen (N) have entered terrestrial ecosystems over the past century, which substantially influences the carbon (C) exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere. Temperature and moisture are generally regarded as the major controllers over the N effects on ecosystem C uptake and release. N-phosphorous (P) stoichiometry regulates the growth and metabolisms of plants and soil organisms, thereby affecting many ecosystem C processes. However, it remains unclear how the N-induced shift in the plant N:P ratio affects ecosystem production and C fluxes and its relative importance. We conducted a field manipulative experiment with eight N addition levels in a Tibetan alpine steppe and assessed the influences of N on aboveground net primary production (ANPP), gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE); we used linear mixed-effects models to further determine the relative contributions of various factors to the N-induced changes in these parameters. Our results showed that the ANPP, GEP, ER, and NEE all exhibited nonlinear responses to increasing N additions. Further analysis demonstrated that the plant N:P ratio played a dominate role in shaping these C exchange processes. There was a positive relationship between the N-induced changes in ANPP (ΔANPP) and the plant N:P ratio (ΔN:P), whereas the ΔGEP, ΔER, and ΔNEE exhibited quadratic correlations with the ΔN:P. In contrast, soil temperature and moisture were only secondary predictors for the changes in ecosystem production and C fluxes along the N addition gradient. These findings highlight the importance of plant N:P ratio in regulating ecosystem C exchange, which is crucial for improving our understanding of C cycles under the scenarios of global N enrichment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  13. Living with Invasive Plants in the Anthropocene: The Importance of Understanding Practice and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Head

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of humans in facilitating the rapid spread of plants at a scale that is considered invasive is one manifestation of the Anthropocene, now framed as a geological period in which humans are the dominant force in landscape transformation. Invasive plant management faces intensified challenges, and can no longer be viewed in terms of ′eradication′ or ′restoration of original landscapes′. In this perspectives piece, we focus on the practice and experience of people engaged in invasive plant management, using examples from Australia and Canada. We show how managers 1 face several pragmatic trade-offs; 2 must reconcile diverse views, even within stakeholder groups; 3 must balance competing temporal scales; 4 encounter tensions with policy; and 5 face critical and under-acknowledged labour challenges. These themes show the variety of considerations based on which invasive plant managers make complex decisions about when, where, and how to intervene. Their widespread pragmatic acceptance of small, situated gains (as well as losses combines with impressive long-term commitments to the task of invasives management. We suggest that the actual practice of weed management challenges those academic perspectives that still aspire to attain pristine nature.

  14. 76 FR 67581 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... marketing channels, with retailers able to buy mature plants directly from European suppliers rather than... to the extent that they would be eliminated from the marketing chain, the commenter stated that we... wholesale nurseries, but there may also be jobs created as other businesses expand due to new marketing...

  15. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleijn, David; Treier, Urs; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    availability and vegetation growth were monitored. Veratrum album shoots were experimentally removed when carbohydrate reserves were at a seasonal minimum and the subsequent changes in biomass and reserves were compared with those in control plants.  Reserves did not give V. album a competitive advantage...

  16. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Treier, U.A.; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass. Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N

  17. The reactivity of plant-derived organic matter and the potential importance of priming effects along the lower Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas D.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Gagne-Maynard, William; Cunha, Alan C.; Brito, Daimio C.; Neu, Vania; de Matos Valerio, Aline; da Silva, Rodrigo; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Keil, Richard G.

    2016-06-01

    Here we present direct measurements of the biological breakdown of 13C-labeled substrates to CO2 at seven locations along the lower Amazon River, from Óbidos to the mouth. Dark incubation experiments were performed at high and low water periods using vanillin, a lignin phenol derived from vascular plants, and at the high water period using four different 13C-labeled plant litter leachates. Leachates derived from oak wood were degraded most slowly with vanillin monomers, macrophyte leaves, macrophyte stems, and whole grass leachates being converted to CO2 1.2, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.3 times faster, respectively, at the upstream boundary, Óbidos. Relative to Óbidos, the sum degradation rate of all four leachates was 3.3 and 2.6 times faster in the algae-rich Tapajós and Xingu Rivers, respectively. Likewise, the leachates were broken down 3.2 times more quickly at Óbidos when algal biomass from the Tapajós River was simultaneously added. Leachate reactivity similarly increased from Óbidos to the mouth with leachates breaking down 1.7 times more quickly at Almeirim (midway to the mouth) and 2.8 times more quickly across the river mouth. There was no discernible correlation between in situ nutrient levels and remineralization rates, suggesting that priming effects were an important factor controlling reactivity along the continuum. Further, continuous measurements of CO2, O2, and conductivity along the confluence of the Tapajós and Amazon Rivers and the Xingu and Jarauçu Rivers revealed in situ evidence for enhanced O2 drawdown and CO2 production along the mixing zone of these confluences.

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: CANDU reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring, and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs) including the Soviet designed water moderated and water cooled energy reactors (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which

  19. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety. Primary piping in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. The

  1. Dry coniferous forest restoration and understory plant diversity: The importance of community heterogeneity and the scale of observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich Kyle Dodson; David W. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining understory plant species diversity is an important management goal as forest restoration and fuel reduction treatments are applied extensively to dry coniferous forests of western North America. However, understory diversity is a function of both local species richness (number of species in a sample unit) and community heterogeneity (beta diversity) at...

  2. On the advisability of nuclear power plant construction and some solutions on their safety increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    Neccesity in a further development of nuclear power in the USSR is proved. Specific features of layouts of nuclear heat supplying plants with increased safety including WWER-440, WWER-1000 and VK-50 reactors are considered. It is stressed that even under the most incredible accidents referring to the class of hypothetic ones, radioactive effect on the population, according to evaluations by experts, whould be much lower than maximum admissible one according to the existing standards

  3. Testing and diagnosis of the cause of increased vibration of the fan plant's support structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varju Đerđ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure of determining the causes of increased vibration of a fan plant and its support structure in the PUC 'Subotička toplana'. Excessive vibrations were observed following the installation of the frequency converter, thus a methodological approach of testing-analysis-diagnosis has been applied. Based on the definition of the causes of this problem, the paper also suggests possible repair procedures.

  4. GM plants with increased tolerance to unfavourable environment – benefits and potential risks

    OpenAIRE

    Djilianov, Dimitar

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture faces the great challenges to meet the increasing demands of the society for food and row materials and the progressing global warming. To solve these problems we need to develop new crop varieties with high yield and highly tolerant to abitoic stress and at the same time to ensure sustainable development of the society and environment. In this respect it is expected that modern biotechnologies will help plant breeding. The development of genetically modified crop...

  5. Balance of the LVC plant with increase in 15 % of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    One of the tendencies in many power reactors has been to modify some operation conditions, in order to increasing the electricity generation. The Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV) it has not been the exception and in the recent past an increment of 5% was made in the original nominal thermal power. In the face of the possibility of carrying out more modifications, a study was made in the one that one simulates an eventual increment of the power of the reactor in 15% of the original value. With this increment one carries out the balance of the plant and the thermodynamic properties were determined. With this purpose it was developed a computer tool to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the plant in several points of the power cycle, as well as to carry out energy and mass balances to determine the flows in the different extractions of steam of the turbines. The program is compared with the results to 100% and 105% of increase of power obtaining good results, for what it is concluded that the extrapolation to 115% of power increase is acceptable. (Author)

  6. Gibberellins Promote Brassinosteroids Action and Both Increase Heterosis for Plant Height in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs and Gibberellins (GAs are two classes of plant hormones affecting plant height (PHT. Thus, manipulation of BR and GA levels or signaling enables optimization of crop grain and biomass yields. We established backcross (BC families, selected for increased PHT, in two elite maize inbred backgrounds. Various exotic accessions used in the germplasm enhancement in maize project served as donors. BC1-derived doubled haploid lines in the same two elite maize inbred backgrounds established without selection for plant height were included for comparison. We conducted genome-wide association studies to explore the genetic control of PHT by BR and GA. In addition, we used BR and GA inhibitors to compare the relationship between PHT, BR, and GA in inbred lines and heterozygotes from a physiological and biological perspective. A total of 73 genomic loci were discovered to be associated with PHT, with seven co-localized with GA, and two co-localized with BR candidate genes. PHT determined in field trials was significantly correlated with seedling stage BR and GA inhibitor responses. However, this observation was only true for maize heterozygotes, not for inbred lines. Path analysis results suggest that heterozygosity increases GA levels, which in turn promote BR levels. Thus, at least part of heterosis for PHT in maize can be explained by increased GA and BR levels, and seedling stage hormone inhibitor response is promising to predict heterosis for PHT.

  7. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJA RISHI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kumar R, Tapwal A, Pandey S, Rishi R, Borah D. 2013. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India. Biodiversitas 14: 67-72. Non-timber forest products constitute an important source of livelihood for rural households from forest fringe communities across the world. Utilization of wild edible tuber plants is an integral component of their culture. Mycorrhizal associations influence the establishment and production of tuber plants under field conditions.The aim of present study is to explore the diversity and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF colonization of wild edible tuber plants grown in wet evergreen forest of Assam, India. A survey was conducted in 2009-10 in Sunaikuchi, Khulahat, and Bura Mayong reserved forest of Morigaon district of Assam to determine the AMF spore population in rhizosphere soils and root colonization of 14 tuberous edible plants belonging to five families. The results revealed AMF colonization of all selected species in all seasons. The percent colonization and spore count was less in summer, moderate in winter and highest in rainy season. Seventeen species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded in four genera viz. Acaulospora (7 species, Glomus (5 species, Sclerocystis (3 species and Gigaspora (2 species.

  8. Yicib - Cordeauxia edulis hemsl: an important indigenous plant of Somalia which has many uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmi, S.M.A.

    1979-01-01

    This shrub grows in most of the country's arid regions in open bush savanna at 300-1000 m altitude. The nuts contain 37% starch, 25% sugar, 13% protein, 11% fat, and various minerals, and are a staple of peoples in the area. Yicib is also a valuable livestock forage plant and is used as a dye and for firewood. The National Range Agency has designated several reserves to protect the species, and is sponsoring domestication studies.

  9. Dinitrogen fixation associated with shoots of aquatic carnivorous plants: is it ecologically important?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirová, D.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Adamec, Lubomír; Bárta, J.; Borovec, Jakub; Pech, J.; Owens, S.M.; Šantrůčková, H.; Schaeufele, R.; Štorchová, Helena; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2014), s. 125-133 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aldrovanda vesiculosa * aquatic carnivorous plants * Utricularia vulgaris * nitrogen fixation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EF - Botanics (BU-J); EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  10. Relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblage during the spreading of a toxic plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Shi

    Full Text Available Both deterministic and stochastic processes are expected to drive the assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi, but little is known about the relative importance of these processes during the spreading of toxic plants. Here, the species composition and phylogenetic structure of AM fungal communities colonizing the roots of a toxic plant, Ligularia virgaurea, and its neighborhood plants, were analyzed in patches with different individual densities of L. virgaurea (represents the spreading degree. Community compositions of AM fungi in both root systems were changed significantly by the L. virgaurea spreading, and also these communities fitted the neutral model very well. AM fungal communities in patches with absence and presence of L. virgaurea were phylogenetically random and clustered, respectively, suggesting that the principal ecological process determining AM fungal assemblage shifted from stochastic process to environmental filtering when this toxic plant was present. Our results indicate that deterministic and stochastic processes together determine the assemblage of AM fungi, but the dominant process would be changed by the spreading of toxic plants, and suggest that the spreading of toxic plants in alpine meadow ecosystems might be involving the mycorrhizal symbionts.

  11. Attributing Increased River Flooding in the Future: Hydrodynamic Downscaling Reveals Role of Plant Physiological Responses to Increased CO2 is First Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M. D.; Kooperman, G. J.; Pritchard, M. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    River flooding events, which are the most frequently occurring natural disaster today, are expected to become more frequent and intense in response to climate change. However, the magnitude of these changes remains debated, in part due to uncertainty in our understanding of the physical processes that contribute to these events and their representation in global climate models. While the intensification of precipitation has been shown to be a primary driver of increased flooding, plant physiological responses to increasing CO2 may also play an important role. As the atmospheric concentration of CO2 increases, plants may respond by reducing the width of their stomata (i.e. stomatal conductance), which can decrease water lost through transpiration and in turn maintain higher soil moisture levels. On long timescales, reduced transpiration has been shown to increase average runoff, but on short timescales elevated soil moisture can also increase instantaneous runoff by limiting the rate at which water is able to infiltrate the soil surface. Here, through hydrodynamic downscaling, we isolate the portion of flooding amplification that can be attributed to the physiological response to increasing CO2. This builds on a new analysis that has revealed such physiological effects can rival changes caused by the atmospheric response alone in the tails of the runoff distribution. We use a set of four simulations run with the Community Earth System Model: one pre-industrial control simulation and three others that are forced with four times CO2. In the three climate change simulations, the increased CO2 is applied only to the land-surface, only to the atmosphere, and to both, respectively. Thirty years of daily runoff from these experiments are used as input for the hydrodynamic CaMa-Flood model. Our results reveal that both the radiative and physiological responses to climate change contribute significantly to future changes in flood return period and inundated area. This

  12. Shell Canada Limited application for increased throughput sour gas plant - Caroline Field : decision 97-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to amend its existing Caroline Gas plant approval. Shell desires to add additional cooling equipment to enhance gas processing during the warmer months. Interveners raised several concerns, including the impact of the existing operation on the environment, and the health and safety of the community. Shell stated that the proposed increased throughput of sour gas would result in a 21 per cent increase in sulphur inlet, but that the emissions of SO 2 would still remain below the currently-approved daily maximum level of 45 t/d. Shell also stated that the proposed project would have no impact on flaring duration or frequency. The Board reviewed the evidence filed, and considered the comments of the participants made at a pre-hearing on June 11, 1996. The Board's assessment was that a public hearing was necessary to address Shell's application. The Board also expressed the belief that the scope of the public hearing should be limited to the possible impacts that may occur from the processing of incremental raw inlet gas and sulphur. A hearing date of July 22, 1996 was set. Having regard to the evidence which the Board received and considered, the Board declared itself satisfied that the technical changes to the plant were satisfactory and that the applied-for plant modifications would meet regulatory standards. The Board also believed that the approval of the application to increase throughput at the plant would be in the public interest. Accordingly, the Board declared its readiness to approve the application provided that Shell agreed to meet certain specified conditions. tab., 1 fig

  13. The importance of aboveground–belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defense traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geem, Moniek; Gols, Rieta; van Dam, Nicole M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Fortuna, Taiadjana; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades a growing body of empirical research has shown that many ecological processes are mediated by a complex array of indirect interactions occurring between rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms and those found on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground–belowground studies have thus far focused on elucidating processes and underlying mechanisms that mediate the behavior and performance of invertebrates in opposite ecosystem compartments. Less is known about genetic variation in plant traits such as defense as that may be driven by above- and belowground trophic interactions. For instance, although our understanding of genetic variation in aboveground plant traits and its effects on community-level interactions is well developed, little is known about the importance of aboveground–belowground interactions in driving this variation. Plant traits may have evolved in response to selection pressures from above- and below-ground interactions from antagonists and mutualists. Here, we discuss gaps in our understanding of genetic variation in plant-related traits as they relate to aboveground and belowground multitrophic interactions. When metabolic resources are limiting, multiple attacks by antagonists in both domains may lead to trade-offs. In nature, these trade-offs may critically depend upon their effects on plant fitness. Natural enemies of herbivores may also influence selection for different traits via top–down control. At larger scales these interactions may generate evolutionary “hotspots” where the expression of various plant traits is the result of strong reciprocal selection via direct and indirect interactions. The role of abiotic factors in driving genetic variation in plant traits is also discussed. PMID:24348484

  14. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and ware out of components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of heavy water moderated reactors (HWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  15. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g., caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs; and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of

  16. Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety: Steam Generators. 2011 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    At present there are over four hundred forty operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Ageing degradation of the systems, structures of components during their operational life must be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This IAEA-TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuteriumuranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of ageing management and economic planning. The target audience of the reports consists of technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present publication is the steam

  17. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. © FEMS 2015.

  18. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants. PMID:29190278

  19. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Rechner

    Full Text Available Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm, violet (420 nm, blue (470 nm, or green (515 nm. We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates, and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants over control plants.

  20. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Lao, Jeemeng [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Catena, Michela [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Verhertbruggen, Yves [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Herter, Thomas [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Yang, Fan [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Harholt, Jesper [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Ebert, Berit [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Ronald, Pamela C. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant Pathology and the Genome Center, University of California, Davis CA USA

    2015-01-14

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops.

  1. The Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms Providing the Increased Constitutive Cold Resistance in the Potato Plants, Expressing the Yeast SUC2 Gene Encoding Apoplastic Invertase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Deryabin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expression of heterologous genes in plants is an effective method to improve our understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to investigate the involvement of cell-wall invertase and apoplastic sugars into constitutive cold resistance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Dйsirйe plants, which expressed the yeast SUC2 gene encoding apoplastic invertase. WT-plants of a potato served as the control. The increase in the essential cell-wall invertase activity in the leaves of transformed plants indicates significant changes in the cellular carbohydrate metabolism and regulatory function of this enzyme. The activity of yeast invertase changed the composition of intracellular sugars in the leaves of the transformed potato plant. The total content of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose in the leaves and apoplast was higher in the transformants, in comparison by WT-plants. Our data indicate higher constitutive resistance of transformants to severe hypothermia conditions compared to WT-plants. This fact allows us to consider cell-wall invertase as a enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism playing an important regulatory role in the metabolic signaling upon forming increased plant resistance to low temperature. Thus, the potato line with the integrated SUC2 gene is a convenient tool to study the role of the apoplastic invertase and the products of its activity during growth, development and formation constitutive resistance to hypothermia.

  2. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  4. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mostacero León

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5, Anacardiaceae (2, Annonaceae (2, Asteraceae (2, Berberidaceae (2, Rosaceae (2, and Solanaceae (2. Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam. Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  5. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-12-18

    Abstract : Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species : Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana , and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  6. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E.; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries. PMID:29258279

  7. Peak season plant activity shift towards spring is reflected by increasing carbon uptake by extratropical ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Ooi, Ying W

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is lengthening the growing season of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known regarding the timing and dynamics of the peak season of plant activity. Here, we use 34-year satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations and atmospheric CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C isotope measurements at Point Barrow (Alaska, USA, 71°N) to study the dynamics of the peak of season (POS) of plant activity. Averaged across extratropical (>23°N) non-evergreen-dominated pixels, NDVI data show that the POS has advanced by 1.2 ± 0.6 days per decade in response to the spring-ward shifts of the start (1.0 ± 0.8 days per decade) and end (1.5 ± 1.0 days per decade) of peak activity, and the earlier onset of the start of growing season (1.4 ± 0.8 days per decade), while POS maximum NDVI value increased by 7.8 ± 1.8% for 1982-2015. Similarly, the peak day of carbon uptake, based on calculations from atmospheric CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C data, is advancing by 2.5 ± 2.6 and 4.3 ± 2.9 days per decade, respectively. POS maximum NDVI value shows strong negative relationships (p POS days. Given that the maximum solar irradiance and day length occur before the average POS day, the earlier occurrence of peak plant activity results in increased plant productivity. Both the advancing POS day and increasing POS vegetation greenness are consistent with the shifting peak productivity towards spring and the increasing annual maximum values of gross and net ecosystem productivity simulated by coupled Earth system models. Our results further indicate that the decline in autumn NDVI is contributing the most to the overall browning of the northern high latitudes (>50°N) since 2011. The spring-ward shift of peak season plant activity is expected to disrupt the synchrony of biotic interaction and exert strong biophysical feedbacks on climate by modifying the surface albedo and energy budget. © 2017

  8. Functions important to nuclear power plant safety, and training and qualification of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The requirements for the safe operation of the organisation attending to direct operational, the maintenance and the technical support functions of a nuclear power plant are defined in the guide. The basic education, work experience and medical fitness for the job required during recruitment, the requirements relating to the initial training of a person for his job and certain job-specific approvals granted separately are presented. General requirements for the training function and for the refresher and continuing training arranged by the licence-holder are also set out. (1 ref.)

  9. Reliability analysis of microcomputer boards and computer based systems important to safety of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrikhande, S.V.; Patil, V.K.; Ganesh, G.; Biswas, B.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Computer Based Systems (CBS) are employed in Indian nuclear plants for protection, control and monitoring purpose. For forthcoming CBS, Reactor Control Division has designed and developed a new standardized family of microcomputer boards qualified to stringent requirements of nuclear industry. These boards form the basic building blocks of CBS. Reliability analysis of these boards is being carried out using analysis package based on MIL-STD-217Plus methodology. The estimated failure rate values of these standardized microcomputer boards will be useful for reliability assessment of these systems. The paper presents reliability analysis of microcomputer boards and case study of a CBS system built using these boards. (author)

  10. The importance of flexible power plant operation for Jiangsu's wind integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of different regulation strategies on wind energy integration into the existing energy system of Jiangsu. The ability of wind integration is defined in terms of the ability to avoid excess electricity production, to conserve primary energy consumption and to redu...... regulations of Jiangsu’s energy system are compared and analyzed in the range of a wind input from 0% to 42% of the total electricity demand. It is concluded that operating power plants in a flexible way facilitates the promotion of more intermittent wind integration....

  11. Increase net plant output through selective operation of the heat-rejection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, E.T.; Queenan, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Depending on unit load and ambient meteorological conditions, a net increase of 800 to 5500 kW in plant output is possible for many generating units through optimized operation of the major motor-driven equipment in the heat-rejection system - the circulating water pumps and mechanical-draft cooling tower fans. This can be realised when the resulting decrease in auxiliary-power demand is greater than the decrease in gross electric generation caused by operating fewer pumps and/or fans. No capital expenditures are incurred and only operating procedures are involved so that the performance gains are achieved at no cost. The paper considers the application of this technique to nuclear power plants, pump optimization and the superimposition of fan and cooling tower performance curves

  12. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae in sweet passion fruit fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees’ body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee’s body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit productionLa abeja euglosina Eulaema nigrita juega un importante papel para la polinización de las plantas nativas y de importancia económica, como es el caso de la fruta de la pasión o maracuyá Passiflora alata. E. nigrita únicamente recoge el néctar las flores de P. alata

  13. Aromatic plants play an important role in promoting soil biological activity related to nitrogen cycling in an orchard ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxin; Song, Beizhou; Yao, Yuncong; Wu, Hongying; Hu, Jinghui; Zhao, Lingling

    2014-02-15

    Aromatic plants can substantially improve the diversity and structure of arthropod communities, as well as reduce the number of herbivore pests and regulate the abundance of predators and parasitoids. However, it is not clear whether aromatic plants are also effective in improving soil quality by enhancing nutrient cycling. Here, field experiments are described involving intercropping with aromatic plants to investigate their effect on soil nitrogen (N) cycling in an orchard ecosystem. The results indicate that the soil organic nitrogen and available nitrogen contents increased significantly in soils intercropped with aromatic plants. Similarly, the activities of soil protease and urease increased, together with total microbial biomass involved in N cycling, including nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and azotobacters, as well as the total numbers of bacteria and fungi. This suggests that aromatic plants improve soil N cycling and nutrient levels by enriching the soil in organic matter through the regulation of both the abundance and community structure of microorganisms, together with associated soil enzyme activity, in orchard ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PLANT BREEDING IS A SOLUTION FOR IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Pivovarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable production  is one of the economic sectors  that  provides  the  population  with  foodstuff  products with high biological values. To achieve independence in production  of the agricultural foodstuffs,  the part of imported  products should not be beyond 25 % from total volume of foodstuffs  fabricated. As a result of national breeding program, the varieties and hybrids adapted to different growing conditions, with resistance to  local races of pathogens, temperature stresses, and ground frosts were developed to provide the sustainable production of vegetables with high nutritional and medicinal qualities. The varieties and hybrids F1  of white  head cabbage that have been created for the last 5 years are distinguished from foreign ones by taste qualities, appropriate pickling characteristics with increased  sugar,  and  decreased  cellulose  contents. The local onion varieties combine long shelf life, early maturing, well bulb formation, high dry matter content (18-20% and ability to form the bulb for one year. The cucumber  is  the  traditional  vegetable crop  in  Russia and very profitable for greenhouse enterprises. Breeders have developed bee-pollinated and parthenocarpic hybrids well adapted to local growing conditions and  suitable  for   open  field   cultivation   in  different regions of Russia. Parthenocarpic heterotic hybrids of the  multi-propose  use, corresponding  to  the  modern variety model with high productivity, early-ripening, bunch ovary disposition, resistance to abiotic stresses, and  most  harmful  diseases. The carrot  and  red  beet varieties with  high nutritional  qualities, long shelf-life, ecological plasticity that are widely used for seed production have been created. The varieties of nightshade crops have been developed to cultivate in NonChernozem zone, Far East, Western Siberia, the Middle Belt of Russia and the south of Russia, are also

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Avicennia alba against some important pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this present study antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Avicennia alba were evaluated against the resistant pathogens belong to aquatic, human and plant origin. Methods: Soxhlet extraction method was used to get the corresponding extracts of hexane, chloroform and methanol. The antimicrobial activities of the organic solvent extracts on the various test microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi investigated using agar well diffusion technique. The length of inhibition zone was measured in millimeters from the edge of the well to the edge of the inhibition zone. Methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited promising antimicrobial activity than hexane extracts. Results: The zone of inhibition of chloroform varies from (9 to 17 mm where as with methanol (11 to 28 mm at 100 mg/ml concentration. Among all microorganisms studied Erwinia caratovara and Pseudomonas syringae showed the considerable growth inhibition with chloroform and methanolic extracts. Conclusions: A. alba can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Further studies are being carried out in order to separate the individual components that are present in plant extracts of A. alba using column chromatography.

  16. Testing the importance of plant strategies on facilitation using congeners in a coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Cui, Baoshan; Bertness, Mark D; An, Yuan

    2012-09-01

    Much is known about how environmental stress mediates the strength of facilitation, but less is known about how different plant traits affect facilitation. We examined interactions between the shrub Tamarix chinensis and two congeneric forbs (Suaeda salsa and S. glauca) on the Chinese coast. Although S. salsa and S. glauca are both annuals, morphologically similar, and have synchronous phenologies, they have contrasting adaptive strategies. S. glauca is salt intolerant but competitively superior, and S. salsa is salt tolerant but competitively inferior. Field surveys showed that S. glauca was associated with T. chinensis canopies while S. salsa was more abundant in open areas. A T. chinensis removal experiment showed that S. glauca cover was lower and soil salinity higher after two years in removal than in control plots. Transplant experiments showed that S. salsa performance under T. chinensis canopies was reduced by competition from S. glauca and T. chinensis, while in open areas S. glauca was not affected by S. salsa competition. Thus, contrasting competitive abilities and stress tolerances of S. glauca and S. salsa underlie their facilitative and competitive interactions with T. chinensis, suggesting that plant strategies are critical to the outcome of species interactions.

  17. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Metal components of BWR containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed toward technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific

  18. The evolutionary response of plants to increased UV-B radiation: Field studies with Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbull, V.L.; Paige, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    The response of a species to any environmental change is determined by both phenotypic and evolutionary adjustments. To date, the majority of research concerning the response of terrestrial plants to increased UV-B radiation has focused on phenotypic adjustments. Recently we have initiated field studies aimed at assessing genetic variation for UV-B sensitivity within a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana. This population consists of at least eight discrete genotypes that have been confirmed by RAPD analysis. We used an incomplete block design to assess the impact of UV-B (ambient and ambient + 6 kJ) and PAR (low and high) on these genotypes. The high UV-B treatment caused a significant reduction in fruit number and plant height while the high PAR treatment caused a significant increase in these variables. In addition, there was a marginally significant (p=0.1) UV-B x PAR x maternal line interaction for fruit number, indicating that genetic variation for UV-B sensitivity within this population depends on the PAR environment. The combination of high UV-B and high PAR caused a change in fruit number (relative to the ambient UV-B/high PAR treatment) ranging from an increase of 24% to a decrease of 47%. This range was much smaller in the low PAR treatment. These results indicate the potential for increased UV-B radiation to act as an agent of natural selection within this population

  19. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on plant growth and development: The importance of green and blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, K. R.; Bugbee, B.

    2011-12-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging technology for plant growth lighting. Due to their narrow spectral output, colored LEDs provide many options for studying the spectral effects of light on plants. Early on, efficient red LEDs were the primary focus of photobiological research; however, subsequent studies have shown that normal plant growth and development cannot be achieved under red light without blue light supplementation. More recent studies have shown that red and blue (RB) LEDs supplemented with green light increase plant dry mass. This is because green light transmits more effectively through the leaf canopy than red and blue light, thus illuminating lower plant leaves and increasing whole-plant photosynthesis. Red, green and blue (RGB) light can be provided by either a conventional white light source (such as fluorescent lights), a combination of RGB LEDs, or from recently developed white LEDs. White LEDs exceed the efficiency of fluorescent lights and have a comparable broad spectrum. As such, they have the potential to replace fluorescent lighting for growth-chamber-based crop production both on Earth and in space. Here we report the results of studies on the effects of three white LED types (warm, neutral and cool) on plant growth and development compared to combinations of RB and RGB LEDs. Plants were grown under two constant light intensities (200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1). Temperature, environmental conditions and root-zone environment were uniformly maintained across treatments. Phytochrome photoequilbria and red/far-red ratios were similar among treatments and were comparable to conventional fluorescent lights. Blue light had a significant effect on both plant growth (dry mass gain) and development (dry mass partitioning). An increase in the absolute amount (μmol m-2 s-1) of blue light from 0-80 μmol m-2 s-1 resulted in a decrease in stem elongation, independent of the light intensity. However, an increase in the relative amount (%) of blue

  20. How best management practices affect emissions in gas turbine power plants - an important factor to consider when strengthening emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinghai; Xing, Min; Hou, Min; England, Glenn C; Yan, Jing

    2018-04-27

    The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) is considering strengthening the Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Stationary Gas Turbines, originally published in 2011 (DB11/847-2011), with a focus on reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the current operation of twelve (12) existing combined-cycle gas turbine power plants and the design of two (2) new plants in Beijing and their emission reduction potential, in comparison with a state-of-the-art power plant in California, United States. The study found that Best Management Practices (BMPs) could potentially improve the emission level of the power plants, and should be implemented to minimize emissions under current design characteristics. These BMPs include (1) more frequent tuning of turbine combustors; (2) onsite testing of natural gas characteristics in comparison to turbine manufacturer's specifics and tuning of turbine to natural gas quality; (3) onsite testing of aqueous ammonia to ensure adequate ammonia concentration in the mixed solution, and the purity of the solution; (4) more careful inspection of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) during operation and maintenance; (5) annual testing of the catalyst coupon on the SCR to ensure catalyst effectiveness; and (6) annual ammonia injection grid (AIG) tuning. The study found that without major modification to the plants, improving the management of the Beijing gas turbine power plants may potentially reduce the current hourly-average NOx emission level of 5-10 parts per million (ppm, ranges reflects plant variation) by up to 20%. The exact improvement associated with each BMP for each facility requires more detailed analysis, and requires engagement of turbine, HRSG, and SCR manufacturers. This potential improvement is an important factor to consider when strengthening the emission standard. However it is to be noted that with the continuous

  1. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... importation into the United States be free of sand, soil, earth, and other growing media. This requirement is..., Quarantine, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Rice, Vegetables. Accordingly, we propose to amend 7...

  2. 77 FR 48582 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Plants of Virtue and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...'' by Shitao to be imported by The Santa Barbara Museum of Art from abroad for temporary exhibition... exhibit object at The Santa Barbara Museum of Art in Santa Barbara, California from on or about October 20...

  3. Evaluation of static analysis tools used to assess software important to nuclear power plant safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourghanlian, Alain [EDF Lab CHATOU, Simulation and Information Technologies for Power Generation Systems Department, EDF R and D, Cedex (France)

    2015-03-15

    We describe a comparative analysis of different tools used to assess safety-critical software used in nuclear power plants. To enhance the credibility of safety assessments and to optimize safety justification costs, Electricit e de France (EDF) investigates the use of methods and tools for source code semantic analysis, to obtain indisputable evidence and help assessors focus on the most critical issues. EDF has been using the PolySpace tool for more than 10 years. Currently, new industrial tools based on the same formal approach, Abstract Interpretation, are available. Practical experimentation with these new tools shows that the precision obtained on one of our shutdown systems software packages is substantially improved. In the first part of this article, we present the analysis principles of the tools used in our experimentation. In the second part, we present the main characteristics of protection-system software, and why these characteristics are well adapted for the new analysis tools.

  4. Energy benchmarking in wastewater treatment plants: the importance of site operation and layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, C; Stanford, C; Soares, A

    2015-01-01

    Energy benchmarking is a powerful tool in the optimization of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in helping to reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Traditionally, energy benchmarking methods focused solely on reporting electricity consumption, however, recent developments in this area have led to the inclusion of other types of energy, including electrical, manual, chemical and mechanical consumptions that can be expressed in kWh/m3. In this study, two full-scale WWTPs were benchmarked, both incorporated preliminary, secondary (oxidation ditch) and tertiary treatment processes, Site 1 also had an additional primary treatment step. The results indicated that Site 1 required 2.32 kWh/m3 against 0.98 kWh/m3 for Site 2. Aeration presented the highest energy consumption for both sites with 2.08 kWh/m3 required for Site 1 and 0.91 kWh/m3 in Site 2. The mechanical energy represented the second biggest consumption for Site 1 (9%, 0.212 kWh/m3) and chemical input was significant in Site 2 (4.1%, 0.026 kWh/m3). The analysis of the results indicated that Site 2 could be optimized by constructing a primary settling tank that would reduce the biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and NH4 loads to the oxidation ditch by 55%, 75% and 12%, respectively, and at the same time reduce the aeration requirements by 49%. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of the energy benchmarking exercise in identifying the highest energy-consuming assets, nevertheless it points out the need to develop a holistic overview of the WWTP and the need to include parameters such as effluent quality, site operation and plant layout to allow adequate benchmarking.

  5. Agroecological Importance of the Protective Forest Plantings in Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantsova Elena Anatolyevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive role of protective forest plantings in maintaining the stability of biotic communities and ensuring stabilization of a phytosanitary situation in the agricultural and woodland landscape of steppe and semiarid zones of Lower Volga region is established. The analysis of long-term data testifies that in general, the number of a harmful complex on fields of winter wheat (Triticum and brown mustard (Brassica juncea in the system of forest strips is lower than in opened agrocoenosis in average by 20,6 % and 16,2 %, respectively. The regularities of distribution of harmful and useful insects in corn and mustard agrocoenosis are noted. The obtained data on distribution of harmful insects and their concentration in a forested field gives the grounds to include regional processings of agrocoenosis of agricultural and woodland landscape in the system of protective measures. It is established that the existence of fields afforestation in Volgograd region creates the favorable conditions for development and accumulation of entomophages in fields. It leads to restriction of mass reproduction of harmful insects and to the decrease in their injuriousness. The essential distinctions in distribution and development of diseases in the agrocoenosis protected by forest plantings and the treeless fields are revealed. The maximal values of development of a complex of diseases on winter wheat are observed in zones, adjacent to forest strips (I and III, minimum – in the middle of a field. The estimated values of development of diseases in forested field is less, and in certain cases it slightly differs from the data obtained in a treeless field.

  6. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  7. Retrofitting a Geothermal Plant with Solar and Storage to Increase Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McTigue, Joshua Dominic P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Castro, Jose [Coso Operating Co.; Mungas, Greg [Hyperlight Energy; Kramer, Nick [Hyperlight Energy; King, John [Hyperlight Energy

    2017-10-04

    Solar hybridization using concentrating solar power (CSP) can be an effective approach to augment the power generation and power cycle efficiency of a geothermal power plant with a declining resource. Thermal storage can further increase the dispatchability of a geothermal/solar hybrid system, which is particularly valued for a national grid with high renewable penetration. In this paper, a hybrid plant design with thermal storage is proposed based on the requirements of the Coso geothermal field in China Lake, California. The objective is to increase the power production by 4 MWe. In this system, a portion of the injection brine is recirculated through a heat exchanger with the solar heat transfer fluid, before being mixed with the production well brine. In the solar heating loop the brine should be heated to at least 155 degrees C to increase the net power. The solar field and storage were sized based on solar data for China Lake. Thermal storage is used to store excess power at the high-solar-irradiation hours and generate additional power during the evenings. The solar field size, the type and capacity of thermal storage and the operating temperatures are critical factors in determining the most economic hybrid system. Further investigations are required to optimize the hybrid system and evaluate its economic feasibility.

  8. Measures to increase the availability of electronic control units, illustrated by examples from power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1976-01-01

    The availibility of electric control units in the power plant engineering is increased by a decentralized construction, redundant current supply. miniaturized electronic modules, short-circuit-safe outputs, efficient protection of the wiring against over-voltage and intensive control of the afferent cables against wire break and short circuits. To reduce disturbing and damaging influences on the control multiple earthings should be avoided, the inductive coupling of distrubances should be reduced by parallel earth wires, and cable shields handled according to the prescriptions should reduce influences on the capacity. (orig.) [de

  9. Diversity and importance of filamentous bacteria in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plants – a worldwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Ziegler, Anja Sloth

    Filamentous bacteria are present in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) worldwide where they play an important role by providing structural backbone for activated sludge (AS) flocs and thus ensuring good settling properties. However, their excessive growth may lead to inter-floc bridging, which i...... demonstrated limited diversity of abundant filamentous bacteria in AS community around the globe presenting a hope for solution of sludge settling problems if we can couple the knowledge of filaments identity and their physiology....

  10. The importance of meteorology in the environmental impacts assessment of nuclear power plants: scenarios studies using geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.; Biagio, R.M.S.; Costa, E.M.; Alves, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant (CNAAA) is located in a very complex region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The environmental impact caused by the normal operation of such installation can be better evaluated by using an integrated approach, in which a geographical information system plays a very important role. In this study, environmental scenarios are integrated with some extreme and representative meteorological situations. (author)

  11. Species mixture effects on flammability across plant phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size and the special role for non-Pinus Pinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Cornwell, William K; van Pomeren, Marinda; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-11-01

    Fire affects and is affected by plants. Vegetation varies in flammability, that is, its general ability to burn, at different levels of ecological organization. To scale from individual plant traits to community flammability states, understanding trait effects on species flammability variation and their interaction is important. Plant traits are the cumulative result of evolution and they show, to differing extents, phylogenetic conservatism. We asked whether phylogenetic distance between species predicts species mixture effects on litterbed flammability. We conducted controlled laboratory burns for 34 phylogenetically wide-ranging species and 34 random two-species mixtures from them. Generally, phylogenetic distance did not predict species mixture effects on flammability. Across the plant phylogeny, most species were flammable except those in the non- Pinus Pinaceae, which shed small needles producing dense, poorly ventilated litterbeds above the packing threshold and therefore nonflammable. Consistently, either positive or negative dominance effects on flammability of certain flammable or those non-flammable species were found in mixtures involving the non- Pinus Pinaceae. We demonstrate litter particle size is key to explaining species nonadditivity in fuelbed flammability. The potential of certain species to influence fire disproportionately to their abundance might increase the positive feedback effects of plant flammability on community flammability state if flammable species are favored by fire.

  12. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. The Importance of Microtopography and Nurse Canopy for Successful Restoration Planting of the Slow-Growing Conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauhus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that, owing to a lack of seed trees, the natural rate of recovery of fire-disturbed bog forests previously dominated by the endemic and endangered conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don Florin is extremely slow. Hence, increasing the number of seed trees in the landscape through restoration planting could remove the principal biotic filter, limiting recovery of these forests. Here, we analyzed how the success of restoration plantings may be improved through the choice or manipulation of microsites in P. uviferum forests on Chiloé Island in North Patagonia. For this purpose, we manipulated microtopography in water-logged sites in bogs (mounds, flat terrain, mineral soil and changed canopy conditions (gaps, semi-open, closed canopy in upland sites with better drainage. In bogs, there was no significant effect of microtopography on growth and survival of P. uviferum plantings. However, fluorescence measurements indicated lower stress in seedlings established on mounds. Seedlings in upland areas established beneath a nurse canopy had lower mortality and higher relative shoot growth, foliar nutrients, photosynthetic light use efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence values than those planted in the open. This indicates that seedlings of the slow growing P. uviferum can tolerate extremely wet conditions, yet suffer from stress when grown in the open. Here, the removal of canopy appeared to have also removed or reduced mycorrhizal networks for seedlings, leading to poorer nutrition and growth. Based on these results, recommendations for restoration plantings in highly degraded P. uviferum forests are presented.

  14. Maintenance of civil engineering structures important to safety of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Civil engineering structures in nuclear installations form an important feature having implications to safety performance of these installations. This safety standard is written to specify the objectives and minimum requirements for the design of civil engineering buildings/structures that are to be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety of nuclear installations in India

  15. Botryosphaeria dothidea: a latent pathogen of global importance to woody plant health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsberg, Angelica; Kemler, Martin; Jami, Fahimeh; Nagel, Jan H.; Postma-Smidt, Alisa; Naidoo, Sanushka; Wingfield, Michael J.; Crous, Pedro W.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Hesse, Cedar N.; Robbertse, Barbara; Slippers, Bernard

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of

  16. Landscape and host plant effects on two important omnivorous arthropod taxa in field crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economically important brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), is a native pest of many crops in southeastern USA and insecticide applications are the prevailing method of population suppression. To elucidate biological control of E. servus populations, we investigated two egg predators’ (red ...

  17. Increases in plasma plant sterols stabilize within four weeks of plant sterol intake and are independent of cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, R T; Koppenol, W P; Garczarek, U; Otten-Hofman, A; Fuchs, D; Wagner, F; Trautwein, E A

    2016-04-01

    Plant sterols (PS) lower plasma LDL-cholesterol through partial inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Although PS themselves are poorly absorbed, increased intakes of PS result in elevated plasma concentrations. In this paper, we report time curves of changes in plasma PS during 12 weeks of PS intake. Furthermore, the impact of cholesterol synthesis and absorption on changes in plasma PS is explored. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with the main aim to investigate the effects of PS on vascular function (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01803178). Hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy men and women (n = 240) consumed low-fat spreads without or with added PS (3 g/d) for 12 weeks after a 4-week run-in period. Blood sampling was performed at week 0, 4, 8 and 12. Basal cholesterol-standardized concentrations of lathosterol and sitosterol + campesterol were used as markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, respectively. In the PS group, plasma sitosterol and campesterol concentrations increased within the first 4 weeks of intervention by 69% (95%CI: 58; 82) starting at 7.2 μmol/L and by 28% (95%CI: 19; 39) starting at 11.4 μmol/L, respectively, and remained stable during the following 8 weeks. Placebo-corrected increases in plasma PS were not significantly different between high and low cholesterol synthesizers (P-values >0.05). Between high and low cholesterol absorbers, no significant differences were observed, except for the cholesterol-standardized sum of four major plasma PS (sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol) showing larger increases in low absorbers (78.3% (95%CI: 51.7; 109.5)) compared to high absorbers (40.8% (95%CI: 19.9; 65.5)). Increases in plasma PS stabilize within 4 weeks of PS intake and do not seem impacted by basal cholesterol synthesis or absorption efficiency. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01803178). Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  19. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  20. In vitro micropropagation of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast: An important indoor ornamental plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Junaid; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A protocol has been developed for in vitro plant regeneration from a nodal explant of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast. Nodal explant showed high callus induction potentiality on MS medium supplemented with 6.78 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) followed by 46.5 μM chlorophenoxy acetic acid (CPA). The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (85%) and number of shoots per explant (5.6) were obtained on medium supplemented with 7.84 μM N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA). Rooting was high on MS solid compared to liquid medium when added with 7.38 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Fifty percent of the roots were also directly rooted as microcuttings on soil rite, sand and peat mixture (1:1:1). In vitro and ex vitro raised plantlets were used for acclimatization. More than 90% of the plantlets was successfully acclimatized and established in plastic pots. Ex vitro transferred plantlets were normal without any phenotypic aberrations.

  1. Dependability Assessment by Static Analysis of Software Important to Nuclear Power Plant Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourghanlian, Alain [EDF Lab, Chatou (France)

    2014-08-15

    We describe a practical experimentation of safety assessment of safety-critical software used in Nuclear Power Plants. To enhance the credibility of safety assessments and to optimize safety justification costs, Electricite de France (EDF) investigates the use of methods and tools for source code semantic analysis, to obtain indisputable evidence and help assessors focus on the most critical issues. EDF has been using the PolySpace tool for more than 10 years. Today, new industrial tools, based on the same formal approach, Abstract Interpretation, are available. Practical experimentation with these new tools shows that the precision obtained on one of our shutdown systems software is very significantly improved. In a first part, we present the analysis principles of the tools used in our experimentation. In a second part, we present the main characteristics of protection-system software, and why these characteristics are well adapted for the new analysis tools. In the last part, we present an overview of the results and the limitation of the tools.

  2. The importance of Arabidopsis glutathione peroxidase 8 for protecting Arabidopsis plant and E. coli cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are major family of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. Recently, database analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed a new open-reading frame, thus increasing the total number of AtGPX gene family to eight (AtGPX1-8). The effect of plant hormones like; i. e. salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and mannitol on the expression of the genes confirm that the AtGPX genes family is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The survival rate of AtGPX8 knockout plants (KO8) was significantly decreased under heat stress compared with the wild type. Moreover, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein oxidation was significantly increased in the KO8 plant cells under heat stress. Results indicating that the deficiency of AtGPX8 accelerates the progression of oxidative stress in KO8 plants. On the other hand, the overexpression of AtGPX8 in E. coli cells enhance the growth of the recombinant enzyme on media supplemented with 0.2 mM cumene hydroperoxide, 0.3 mM H 2O 2 or 600 mM NaCl.

  3. ESRS guidelines for software safety reviews. Reference document for the organization and conduct of Engineering Safety Review Services (ESRS) on software important to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA provides safety review services to assist Member States in the application of safety standards and, in particular, to evaluate and facilitate improvements in nuclear power plant safety performance. Complementary to the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) and the International Regulatory Review Team (IRRT) services are the Engineering Safety Review Services (ESRS), which include reviews of siting, external events and structural safety, design safety, fire safety, ageing management and software safety. Software is of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as the use of computer based equipment and systems, controlled by software, is increasing in new and older plants. Computer based devices are used in both safety related applications (such as process control and monitoring) and safety critical applications (such as reactor protection). Their dependability can only be ensured if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is used. The ESRS on software safety are designed to assist a nuclear power plant or a regulatory body of a Member State in the review of documentation relating to the development, application and safety assessment of software embedded in computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. The software safety reviews can be tailored to the specific needs of the requesting organization. Examples of such reviews are: project planning reviews, reviews of specific issues and reviews prior final acceptance. This report gives information on the possible scope of ESRS software safety reviews and guidance on the organization and conduct of the reviews. It is aimed at Member States considering these reviews and IAEA staff and external experts performing the reviews. The ESRS software safety reviews evaluate the degree to which software documents show that the development process and the final product conform to international standards, guidelines and current practices. Recommendations are

  4. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. They have been compiled using contributions from technical experts in typically 10 to 12 countries for each report, a feedback from a September 1994 Technical Committee Meeting attended by 53 technical experts from 21 Member States (who reviewed first drafts in specialized working groups), and review comments from invited specialists

  5. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Belda, Antonio; Cort?s, Carolina; Peir?, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    Background: The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic ...

  6. The import and function of diatom and plant frataxins in the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Long, Shaojun; Vávrová, Zuzana; Lukeš, Julius

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2008), s. 100-104 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960705; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129; GA ČR GA204/06/1558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : frataxin * mitochondrion * Trypanosoma * diatom * evolutionary conservativeness * import Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.951, year: 2008

  7. The Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Flowering Plants on Sheet-Web and Wolf Spider Populations (Araneae: Lycosidae and Linyphiidae) and Its Importance for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabawy, El-Said M; Tsuda, Katsuo; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Oda, Asahi; Ushijima, Yurie

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify the treatment that increases the populations of spiders, which are effective predators in agroecosystems. In 2013 and 2014 the experimental eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) field was two different treatments, organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizer treatment, and in 2014 we surrounded organic fertilizer plots with the flowering plants mealy cup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Analysis using repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant influences of fertilizer type on the numbers of linyphiid spiders and Collembola in 2013. In 2014, the numbers of Collembola, thrips, and lycosid and linyphiid spider were higher in organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment comparing with the chemical fertilizer treatment. Moreover, the numbers of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) were significantly lower in the organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment than in chemical fertilizers treatment. Finally, we expect that Thysanoptera and Collembola were important alternative prey for linyphiid and lycosid spiders and the use of organic fertilizer and flowering plants enhanced the density of these spiders, and may increase their effectiveness in suppressing the populations of H. vigintioctopunctata (F.). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Reduced mycorrhizal responsiveness leads to increased competitive tolerance in an invasive exotic plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren P. Waller; Ragan M. Callaway; John N. Klironomos; Yvette K. Ortega; John L. Maron

    2016-01-01

    1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can exert a powerful influence on the outcome of plant–plant competition. Since some exotic plants interact differently with soil biota such as AM fungi in their new range, range-based shifts in AM responsiveness could shift competitive interactions between exotic and resident plants, although this remains poorly studied. 2. We...

  9. Increasing the capacity of the NEAG natural gas processing plants; Kapazitaetssteigerung der Erdgasaufbereitungsanlagen der NEAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, W.; Weiss, A. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The fact that new deposits of sour natural gas were found in the concessions at Scholen/Wesergebirgsvorland and that a sour gas pipeline was built from the BEB-operated field in South-Oldenburg increased the sour gas volume handled by the North German Natural Gas Processing Company (NEAG) so much, that capacities had to be stepped up. This paper describes the measures taken to increase capacities. Various interesting process engineering methods employed to remove bottlenecks in the parts of the plant are described in detail. These refer to the modification of the baffle plates in the high-pressure absorber of the Purisolwashers NEAG I, as well as in the expansion tank and the purified gas waher of the NEAG III washing plant as well as comprehensive modifications of the MODOP-flue gas scrubber NEAG III (orig.) [Deutsch] Neue Sauergasfunde in den Konzessionen Scholen/Wiehengebirgsvorland sowie der Bau der Sauergasverbindungsleitung aus dem von BEB operierten Feldesbereich Sued-Oldenburg haben die der Norddeutschen Erdgas-Aufbereitungsgesellschaft (NEAG) in Voigtei angebotenen Sauergasmengen soweit erhoeht, dass eine Kapazitaetserhoehung notwendig wurde. Im Rahmen des Vortrages werden die Massnahmen zur Kapazitaetssteigerung vorgestellt. Einige verfahrenstechnisch besonders interessante Loesungen zur Beseitigung von Engpaessen in Anlagenteilen werden detailliert beschrieben. Es handelt sich hierbei um die Modifikation der Einbauten im Hochdruckabsorber der Purisolwaesche NEAG I, im Entspannungsbehaelter und Reingaswaescher der Waesche NEAG III sowie umfangreiche Aenderungen im Bereich der MODOP-Abgasreinigungsanlage NEAG III. (orig.)

  10. Manipulation of the Xanthophyll Cycle Increases Plant Susceptibility to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle is involved in dissipating excess light energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus in a process commonly assessed from non-photochemical quenching (NPQ of chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, it is shown that the xanthophyll cycle is modulated by the necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum at the early stage of infection. Incubation of Sclerotinia led to a localized increase in NPQ even at low light intensity. Further studies showed that this abnormal change in NPQ was closely correlated with a decreased pH caused by Sclerotinia-secreted oxalate, which might decrease the ATP synthase activity and lead to a deepening of thylakoid lumen acidification under continuous illumination. Furthermore, suppression (with dithiothreitol or a defect (in the npq1-2 mutant of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE abolished the Sclerotinia-induced NPQ increase. HPLC analysis showed that the Sclerotinia-inoculated tissue accumulated substantial quantities of zeaxanthin at the expense of violaxanthin, with a corresponding decrease in neoxanthin content. Immunoassays revealed that the decrease in these xanthophyll precursors reduced de novo abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and apparently weakened tissue defense responses, including ROS induction and callose deposition, resulting in enhanced plant susceptibility to Sclerotinia. We thus propose that Sclerotinia antagonizes ABA biosynthesis to suppress host defense by manipulating the xanthophyll cycle in early pathogenesis. These findings provide a model of how photoprotective metabolites integrate into the defense responses, and expand the current knowledge of early plant-Sclerotinia interactions at infection sites.

  11. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Importance of independent and dependent human error to system reliability and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uncertainty analysis of the quantification of the unavailability for the emergency core cooling system was made. The reliability analysis of the low pressure injection system (LPIS) of the ECCS of WWER-440 reactor was also performed. Results of reliability analysis proved that LPIS reliability under normal conditions is sufficient and can be increased by two orders of magnitude. This increase in reliability can be achieved by means of simple changes such as securing an opening of the quick-acting fittings at LPIS discharge line. A method for analysis of systems uncertainty with periodic inspected components was elaborated and verified by performing an analysis of the medium size system. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Importance of genetic diversity assessment in crop plants and its recent advances: an overview of its analytical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, M; Vetriventhan, M; Srinivasan, M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of plant genetic diversity (PGD) is now being recognized as a specific area since exploding population with urbanization and decreasing cultivable lands are the critical factors contributing to food insecurity in developing world. Agricultural scientists realized that PGD can be captured and stored in the form of plant genetic resources (PGR) such as gene bank, DNA library, and so forth, in the biorepository which preserve genetic material for long period. However, conserved PGR must be utilized for crop improvement in order to meet future global challenges in relation to food and nutritional security. This paper comprehensively reviews four important areas; (i) the significance of plant genetic diversity (PGD) and PGR especially on agriculturally important crops (mostly field crops); (ii) risk associated with narrowing the genetic base of current commercial cultivars and climate change; (iii) analysis of existing PGD analytical methods in pregenomic and genomic era; and (iv) modern tools available for PGD analysis in postgenomic era. This discussion benefits the plant scientist community in order to use the new methods and technology for better and rapid assessment, for utilization of germplasm from gene banks to their applied breeding programs. With the advent of new biotechnological techniques, this process of genetic manipulation is now being accelerated and carried out with more precision (neglecting environmental effects) and fast-track manner than the classical breeding techniques. It is also to note that gene banks look into several issues in order to improve levels of germplasm distribution and its utilization, duplication of plant identity, and access to database, for prebreeding activities. Since plant breeding research and cultivar development are integral components of improving food production, therefore, availability of and access to diverse genetic sources will ensure that the global food production network becomes more sustainable

  15. Importance of Genetic Diversity Assessment in Crop Plants and Its Recent Advances: An Overview of Its Analytical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Govindaraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of plant genetic diversity (PGD is now being recognized as a specific area since exploding population with urbanization and decreasing cultivable lands are the critical factors contributing to food insecurity in developing world. Agricultural scientists realized that PGD can be captured and stored in the form of plant genetic resources (PGR such as gene bank, DNA library, and so forth, in the biorepository which preserve genetic material for long period. However, conserved PGR must be utilized for crop improvement in order to meet future global challenges in relation to food and nutritional security. This paper comprehensively reviews four important areas; (i the significance of plant genetic diversity (PGD and PGR especially on agriculturally important crops (mostly field crops; (ii risk associated with narrowing the genetic base of current commercial cultivars and climate change; (iii analysis of existing PGD analytical methods in pregenomic and genomic era; and (iv modern tools available for PGD analysis in postgenomic era. This discussion benefits the plant scientist community in order to use the new methods and technology for better and rapid assessment, for utilization of germplasm from gene banks to their applied breeding programs. With the advent of new biotechnological techniques, this process of genetic manipulation is now being accelerated and carried out with more precision (neglecting environmental effects and fast-track manner than the classical breeding techniques. It is also to note that gene banks look into several issues in order to improve levels of germplasm distribution and its utilization, duplication of plant identity, and access to database, for prebreeding activities. Since plant breeding research and cultivar development are integral components of improving food production, therefore, availability of and access to diverse genetic sources will ensure that the global food production network becomes more

  16. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  17. Efficient improvement of nuclear power plant safety by reorganization of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods for piping welded portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Takashi; Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Suyama, Takeshi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Morota, Hidetsugu; Kojima, Sigeo; Mizuno, Yoshinobu [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In this work, risk information was used to evaluate the safety importance of piping welded portions which were important for plant operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. There are two types of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods, namely the ASME method and the EPRI method. Since both methods have advantages and disadvantages, elements of each method were combined and reorganized. Considerations included whether the degradation mechanisms would be objectively evaluated and whether plant safety would be efficiently improved. The most objective and efficient method was as follows. Piping failure potential is quantitatively and objectively evaluated for failure with probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and for other degradation mechanisms with empirical failure rates, and conditional core damage probability (CCDP) is calculated with PSA. This method reduces the inspected segment numbers to 1/4 of the deterministic method and increases the ratio of risk, which is covered by the inspected segments, to total risk from 80% of the deterministic method to 95%. Piping inspection numbers decreased for safety injection systems that were required the inspections by the deterministic method. Piping inspections were required for part of main feed water and main steam systems that were not required the inspections by the deterministic method. (author)

  18. Export and import provisions for nuclear materials and power plants, from the legal point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper provides a general review of the legal bases for and the administrative procedures involved in the export and import licensing of nuclear power reactors, fuels, and other nuclear materials by the United States. The basic statutory provisions and requirements are briefly described, and the requirement of an agreement for cooperation reviewed. The regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are covered in greater detail as they apply to the export and import of power reactors, nuclear fuels, source materials and byproduct materials. The intra-governmental procedures for review of an application for an export license are described in detail. Problems encountered in the administration of the law and regulations are described and the methods of resolving them are noted. The paper concludes with a brief account of three current topics, 1) the preparation of an environmental impact statement for export programs, 2) the situation with respect to the export licensing of component parts of reactors by the U.S. Department of Commerce, and 3) the shipment of plutonium by air. (orig.) [de

  19. Importance of intra- and interspecific plant interactions for the phytomanagement of semiarid mine tailings using the tree species Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Oró, Duli; Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose Ignacio; Conesa, Héctor M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of plant interactions (intra- and interspecific) on the growth and metal(loid) uptake of the tree species Pinus halepensis to determine its suitability for the phytomanagement of semiarid mine tailings. The pioneer tailings colonizer grass Piptatherum miliaceum was selected for assessing interspecific interactions. The experiment was conducted following a pot experimental design employing mine tailings soil. Pots containing single individuals of P. halepensis or P. miliaceum and pots containing combinations with pines (two pines per pot, or one pine and one grass per pot) were used. The analyses included the determination of plant biomass, foliar element status and stable isotope composition, metal(loid) uptake and its translocation to different plant organs. P. halepensis strongly favoured the growth of P. miliaceum by increasing 9-fold the latter's biomass and alleviating its P limitation. In this interspecific treatment P. halepensis showed a strong N limitation (N/P = 7), which negatively affected its growth, (to about half the biomass of that obtained for the other treatments) and exhibited a significant increase in some metals translocation (especially Cd) into aerial parts. Interestingly, P. miliaceum showed a decrease in the root to leaves translocation factor for most of metals when growing together with pines. The effects of the intraespecific combination on growth and metal uptake in P. halepensis were less relevant than those obtained for the interspecific one. Further research should be focused on testing the behaviour of plant co-cultures under the addition of N or P amendments which could alleviate the negative effects of plant competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plant mortality and natural selection may increase biomass yield in switchgrass swards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important candidate for bioenergy feedstock production, prompting significant efforts to increase the number of breeding programs and the output of those programs. The objective of this experiment was to determine the potential utility of natural selection for...

  1. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1. [plant gravitational physiology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of temperature control to HEFLEX, a Spacelab experiment designed to measure kinetic properties of Helianthis nutation in a low-g environment, is discussed. It is argued that the development of the HEFLEX experiment has been severely hampered by the inadequate control of ambient air temperature provided by the spacecraft module design. A worst case calculation shows that delivery of only 69% of the maximum yield of useful data from the HEFLEX system is guaranteed; significant data losses from inadequate temperature control are expected. The magnitude of the expected data losses indicates that the cost reductions associated with imprecise temperature controls may prove to be a false economy in the long term.

  2. Solanum venturii, a suitable model system for virus-induced gene silencing studies in potato reveals StMKK6 as an important player in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobnik, David; Lazar, Ana; Stare, Tjaša; Gruden, Kristina; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Žel, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an optimal tool for functional analysis of genes in plants, as the viral vector spreads throughout the plant and causes reduced expression of selected gene over the whole plant. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important food crops,

  3. Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT. The expression levels of structural genes and MYB transcription factors related to flavonoid biosynthesis were one- to seven-fold higher in the RIT. Among these genes, CHS, DFR, ANS, FLS and MYB10 showed more than a 10-fold increase, suggesting that these genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the RIT. Hormone concentration assays showed that the levels of abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH, jasmonate (JA and salicylic acid (SA were higher in the RIT and were consistent with the expression levels of McNCED, McACS, McLOX and McNPR1, respectively. Our study explored the complicated crosstalk of the signal transduction pathways of ABA, ETH, JA and SA; the primary metabolism of glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol; and the secondary metabolism of flavonoids involved in the rust resistance of Malus crabapple leaves.

  4. The Need to Increase Regulatory Controls on Imports and Exports came from the Detection of an Argentine Import Containing Exceeding Pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, N.A.; Vidal, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    In Argentina, radioactive sources for application in Industrial Gamma radiography are manufactured using small metallic discs called pellets of radioactive isotope Ir-192, that are imported. They have to be shipped in specially sealed recipients according to their high radioactive levels. These recipients are large enough to contain activities as high as 296 TBq and are therefore approved as Type B(U) packages. This paper thoroughly describes a particular import of this material in which an exceeding 220 ± 2 Pellets (75,62 TBq) was found. The total amount of activity had not been declared adequately by the consignor. The corresponding notification to the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) was made by the importer and national manufacturer at the moment these particular Pellets were to be used for source production. The exceeding material doubled that which had been authorized to be imported. After the notification and since the material had entered to the country illicitly, customs legislations were applied in a legal process in which the Nuclear Regulatory Authority participated as well. The decision of the judge was to ship the exceeding cargo again to its proceeding country. However, a significant time had passed since the cargo arrived and the pellets had stuck to each other due to high temperature. This made them impossible to handle in order to encapsulate them as special form radioactive material again for their shipment in the available Type B(U) package. In the outcome, the material was retained at the manufacturer facilities, in its original packaging, with suitable radiological and physical conditions to guarantee safety and security, waiting until its activity had decayed to acceptable levels for its shipment as Type A package. As a result, a need to require further technical specifications from the vendor was detected. These specifications should warn about the period in which these Pellets may be utilized for source production before

  5. The need to increase regulatory controls on imports and exports came from the detection of an Argentine import containing exceeding pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, Nicolas; Vidal, Dora

    2008-01-01

    In Argentina, radioactive sources for application in industrial gamma radiography are manufactured using small metallic discs called pellets of radioactive isotope Ir-192, that are imported. They are to be shipped in specially sealed recipients according to their high radioactive levels. These recipients are large enough to contain activities as high as 296 TBq and are therefore approved as type B (U) packages. This paper thoroughly describes a particular import of this material in which an exceeding 220±2 pellets (75,62 TBq) was found. The total amount of activity had not been declared adequately by the consignor. The corresponding notification to the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) was made by the importer and national manufacturer at the moment these particular pellets were to be used for source production. The exceeding material doubled that which had been authorized to be imported. After the notification and since the material had entered to the country Illicitly, customs legislation were applied in a legal process in which the Nuclear regulatory Authority participated as well. The decision of the judge was to ship the exceeding cargo again to its proceeding country. However, a significant time had passed since the cargo arrived and the pellets has struck to each other due to high temperature. This made them impossible to handle in order to encapsulate them as special form radioactive material again for their shipment in the available Type B (U) package. In the outcome, the material was retained at the manufacturer facilities, in its original packaging, with suitable radiological and physical conditions to guarantee safety and security, waiting until its activity had decayed to acceptable levels for its shipments as type A package. As a result, a need to require further technical specifications from the vendor was detected. These specifications should warn about the period in which these pellets may be utilized for source production before

  6. Genome-Wide Search for Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Important Plant and Flower Traits in Petunia Using an Interspecific Recombinant Inbred Population of Petunia axillaris and Petunia exserta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Guo, Yufang; Yang, Qian; He, Yanhong; Fetouh, Mohammed; Warner, Ryan M; Deng, Zhanao

    2018-05-15

    A major bottleneck in plant breeding has been the much limited genetic base and much reduced genetic diversity in domesticated, cultivated germplasm. Identification and utilization of favorable gene loci or alleles from wild or progenitor species can serve as an effective approach to increasing genetic diversity and breaking this bottleneck in plant breeding. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wild or progenitor petunia species that can be used to improve important horticultural traits in garden petunia. An F 7 recombinant inbred population derived between Petunia axillaris and P. exserta was phenotyped for plant height, plant spread, plant size, flower counts, flower diameter, flower length, and days to anthesis, in Florida in two consecutive years. Transgressive segregation was observed for all seven traits in both years. The broad-sense heritability estimates for the traits ranged from 0.20 (days to anthesis) to 0.62 (flower length). A genome-wide genetic linkage map consisting 368 single nucleotide polymorphism bins and extending over 277 cM was searched to identify QTL for these traits. Nineteen QTL were identified and localized to five linkage groups. Eleven of the loci were identified consistently in both years; several loci explained up to 34.0% and 24.1% of the phenotypic variance for flower length and flower diameter, respectively. Multiple loci controlling different traits are co-localized in four intervals in four linkage groups. These intervals contain desirable alleles that can be introgressed into commercial petunia germplasm to expand the genetic base and improve plant performance and flower characteristics in petunia. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  7. Operation efficiency increasing of dual-purpose NPP's by means of improving turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.; Borovkov, V.M.; Levit, I.G.; Averbakh, Yu.A.; Titova, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    Ways of operation efficiency increasing power plants for combined electrisity prodUction and centralized heating with WWER-440 reactors and wet-steam heating-condensating turbines are considered. Two variants of floWsheets of by-pass steam distribution permitting to use energy of excess steam in a wide pressure range in the secondary circuit for keeping electric or thermal power of the power unit at a possibly higher level are analyzed. Optimum time of operating cycle prolongation of a heating WWER-440 poWer unit when using the suggested flowsheets with pipelines of by-pass distribution of excess steam covers 16-40 days for the range of change in expenditures at reconstruction for electric power and heat 13.5-17 rub/MWxh and 2-3 rub./MWxh. The maximum time of the reactor operating cycle prolongation for the considered situations makes up 30-80 days

  8. Applied means to increase stimulation in the control room work at the Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, P.E.; Akerhielm, F.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are generally designed and built with a quality which implies that the units seldom require intervention from the operating staff under normal operating conditions. This leaves the operators with the dominating task of only passively supervising the process. A number of measures have been taken to counteract the problem of under-stimulated individuals in the control rooms and to maintain active and purposeful working conditions. Basically these measures derive from the belief that augmented competence, increased responsibilities and a enhanced sense of indispensability functions as an inspiration even in a monotonous working situation. For this purpose a number of activities and tasks, parallel to the normal duties as member of the operating staff, have been implemented

  9. Engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of Hamaoka nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonishi, Yoshihiro; Kondou, Makoto; Hattori, Kazushi

    2007-01-01

    The improvement works of the ground of outdoor piping and duct system of Hamaoka-3, one of engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of the plant, are reported. The movable outdoor piping systems were moved. SJ method, one of the high-pressure jet mixing method, improved the ground between the duct and the unmoved light oil tank on the western side, and the environmental ground. The other places were improved by the concrete replacement works. The results of ground treated by SJ method showed the high quality of stiffness and continuity. Outline of engineering works, execution of concrete replacement works, the high-pressure jet mixing method, SJ method, the quality control and treatment of the generated mud by SJ method are reported. A seismic response analysis, execution facilities, construction planning, working diagram, improvement work conditions of three methods, and steps of SJ method are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  10. Accounting for sampling patterns reverses the relative importance of trade and climate for the global sharing of exotic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2017-01-01

    AimThe distributions of exotic species reflect patterns of human-mediated dispersal, species climatic tolerances and a suite of other biotic and abiotic factors. The relative importance of each of these factors will shape how the spread of exotic species is affected by ongoing economic globalization and climate change. However, patterns of trade may be correlated with variation in scientific sampling effort globally, potentially confounding studies that do not account for sampling patterns.LocationGlobal.Time periodMuseum records, generally from the 1800s up to 2015.Major taxa studiedPlant species exotic to the United States.MethodsWe used data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to summarize the number of plant species with exotic occurrences in the United States that also occur in each other country world-wide. We assessed the relative importance of trade and climatic similarity for explaining variation in the number of shared species while evaluating several methods to account for variation in sampling effort among countries.ResultsAccounting for variation in sampling effort reversed the relative importance of trade and climate for explaining numbers of shared species. Trade was strongly correlated with numbers of shared U.S. exotic plants between the United States and other countries before, but not after, accounting for sampling variation among countries. Conversely, accounting for sampling effort strengthened the relationship between climatic similarity and species sharing. Using the number of records as a measure of sampling effort provided a straightforward approach for the analysis of occurrence data, whereas species richness estimators and rarefaction were less effective at removing sampling bias.Main conclusionsOur work provides support for broad-scale climatic limitation on the distributions of exotic species, illustrates the need to account for variation in sampling effort in large biodiversity databases, and highlights the

  11. Physiological, morphological and allocational plasticity in understory deciduous trees: importance of plant size and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian; Lechowicz, Martin J; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    In a 4-year study, we investigated changes in leaf physiology, crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation in seedlings and saplings of shade-tolerant sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and intermediate shade-tolerant yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) growing in natural understory light (0.5 to 35% of full sunlight) or in understory light reduced by 50% with shade nets to simulate the effect of gap closure. Leaf physiological parameters were mainly influenced by the light gradient, whereas crown morphological and whole-tree allocational parameters were mainly influenced by tree size. No single physiological, morphological or allocational trait was identified that could explain the difference in shade tolerance between the species. Yellow birch had higher growth rates, biomass allocation to branches and leaf physiological plasticity and lower crown morphological plasticity in unmodified understory light than sugar maple. Sugar maple did not display significant physiological plasticity, but showed variation with tree size in both crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation. When sugar maple was small, a greater proportion of whole-tree biomass was allocated to roots. However, physiological differences between the species decreased with decreasing light and most morphological and allocational differences tended to disappear with increasing tree size, suggesting that many species differences in shade-tolerance are expressed mainly during the seedling stage. Understory trees of both species survived for 4 years under shade nets, possibly because of higher plasticity when small and the use of stored reserves when taller. Copyright 2004 Heron Publishing

  12. International legal and political issues associated with the export/import of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear power can be achieved by most nations only through international commerce that has been shaped by political considerations and implemented through legal instruments. The end product is a structure of legal agreements designed to implement the basic political and commercial decisions that are required for any nation to enter the nuclear power arena. The IAEA Statute, the Non-Proliferation Treaty and regional nuclear agreements have reflected the international political consensus concerning nuclear power. In recent years, however, events have occurred that in all probability will result in additional international arrangements. It is expected that the increase in terrorist activities will result in greater physical protection commitments, that concern for weapons proliferation will result in further definition of sanctions, and that such troublesome issues as double labelling of materials will be discussed by the international community. In areas such as bilateral agreements between nations, commercial arrangements and export licences, this is a period of rethinking, renegotiating, and readjusting. The result is a degree of uncertainty and lack of stability that could so jeopardize the potential for nuclear transfers that the nuclear energy option may not vest. While there always will be questions and issues, it is essential to settle some of the key problems without delay so that nuclear benefits can be realized. (author)

  13. Strain Identity of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor Is More Important than Richness in Regulating Plant and Fungal Performance under Nutrient Rich Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hazard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biodiversity on productivity are more likely to be expressed when there is greater potential for niche complementarity. In soil, chemically complex pools of nutrient resources should provide more opportunities for niche complementarity than chemically simple pools. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal genotypes can exhibit substantial variation in nutrient acquisition traits and are key components of soil biodiversity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing the chemical complexity and forms of soil nutrients would enhance the effects of intraspecific ECM diversity on host plant and fungal productivity. In pure culture, we found substantial variation in growth of strains of the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor on a range of inorganic and organic forms of nutrients. Subsequent experiments examined the effects of intraspecific identity and richness using Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized with different strains of L. bicolor growing on substrates supplemented with either inorganic or organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Intraspecific identity effects on plant productivity were only found under the inorganic nutrient amendment, whereas intraspecific identity affected fungal productivity to a similar extent under both nutrient treatments. Overall, there were no significant effects of intraspecific richness on plant and fungal productivity. Our findings suggest soil nutrient composition does not interact strongly with ECM intraspecific richness, at least under experimental conditions where mineral nutrients were not limiting. Under these conditions, intraspecific identity of ECM fungi becomes more important than richness in modulating plant and fungal performance.

  14. Cooling Tower Optimization A Simple Way to Generate Green Megawatts and to Increase the Efficiency of a Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    2014-07-01

    The profitability of nuclear power plants is worldwide challenged by low electricity prices. One hand low cost shale gas is offering a low price electricity production , other hand additional taxes on fuel are reducing the operating income of nuclear power stations. The optimization of cooling towers can help to increase the efficiency and profit of a nuclear power plant. (Author)

  15. Effects of climate-induced increases in summer drought on riparian plant species : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, Annemarie G.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Soons, Merel B.

    Frequency and duration of summer droughts are predicted to increase in the near future in many parts of the world, with considerable anticipated effects on riparian plant community composition and species richness. Riparian plant communities along lowland streams are characterised by high species

  16. Importance of benthonic marine flora monitoring in the liquid effluent discharge form Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloise, G.C.; Araujo Costa, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant use sea water to condenser the steam of the secondary circuit. This water capted from Itaorna bay is chlorined and discharged more heater in Piraquara de Fora small bay. The temperature, chlorinade concentration, marine flora and fauna are monitored frequently with the intend of value the impact caused by this discharge to marine environment. The macroscopic marines algae is very sensible to environment temperature variations, constitutes on of the main rink in the food chain and stay every time attach at the bottom. Because of this facts they are considered an important bio indicators. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Comparative Analysis of Putative Orthologues of Mitochondrial Import Motor Subunit: Pam18 and Pam16 in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuejin; Ghazanfar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui

    2013-01-01

    Pam18/Tim14 and Pam16/Tim16, highly conserved proteins among eukaryotes, are two essential subunits of protein import motors localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The heterodimer formed by Pam18 and Pam16 via their J-type domains serves a regulatory function in protein translocation. Here, we report that thirty-one Pam18 and twenty-six Pam16 putative orthologues in twelve plant species were identified and analyzed through bioinformatics strategy. Results data revealed that Pam18 and ...

  18. Increased Range of Motion Is Important for Functional Outcome and Satisfaction After Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Song, Young-Suk; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Yong-Geun

    2016-06-01

    Although range of motion (ROM) is considered as an important factor for good outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the association of the degree of ROM with functional outcome and patient satisfaction is debated. We, therefore, investigated whether increased ROM would affect functional outcome and patient satisfaction after TKA in Asian patients. We reviewed 630 patients who underwent primary TKA with minimum 2-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Knee Society (KS) score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, and high-flexion knee score. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a validated questionnaire. The association of ROM and change in ROM (cROM) with clinical outcomes and satisfaction were analyzed using partial correlation analysis and multiple median regression analysis. All functional scores showed significant correlation with postoperative ROM (r = 0.129, P = .001 in Knee Society score; r = -0.101, P = .012 in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index; r = 0.183, P satisfaction (r = 0.192, P = .005). Postoperative ROM and cROM were revealed as predisposing factors affecting function outcome using multivariable regression analysis. cROM was found as a predisposing factor affecting satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, ROM positively associated with functional outcome and cROM positively associated with patient satisfaction after TKA. These findings suggest that increased ROM after TKA is an important factor for functional outcome and satisfaction in Asian patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Importance of the terminal α-amino group of bradykinin and some kynins on capillary permeability increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugavara, S.

    1979-01-01

    A simple and reliable method is described for the quantitative evaluation of vascular permeability increase induced by vasoactive drugs with Evans blue labelled with iodine-125 or 131. By using this method the importance of α-amino group of bradykinin (Bk), kallidin (Kd) and methionyl-kallidin (Met-Kd) on the biological activity were studied after reacting the kinins with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. Phosphopyridoxyl-kinins were formed leaving free the guanidino groups. Aminoacid analysis of phosphopyridoxyl-kinin showed that the efficiency of the reaction was extremely good in the blockage of α-amino groups [phosphopyridoxyl-bradikinin (PP-Bk) = 98,8%, phosphopyridoxyl-kallidin (PP-Kd) = 95,2%, phosphopyridoxyl-methionyl-kallidin (PP-Met-Kd) = 98,0%. Log dose-response curves were obtained for Bk, Kd, Met-Kd, acetyl-bradykinin (Ac-Bk), PP-Bk, PP-Kd and PP-Met-Kd and the relative potencies calculated through the Lineweaver-Burk plots. The relative potencies were: PP-Bk about 16% the activity of Bk, Ac-Bk about 31% the activity of Bk, PP-Kd about 17% the activity of Kd, PP-Met-Kd about 12% the activity of Met-Kd. The results show that the terminal α-amino group of kinins is important in the mechanisms of biological activity. (Author) [pt

  20. Serum sterol responses to increasing plant sterol intake from natural foods in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra, Mercè; Bulló, Mónica; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Zazpe, Itziar; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    Phytosterols in natural foods are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption. The Mediterranean diet is rich in phytosterol-containing plant foods. To assess whether increasing phytosterol intake from natural foods was associated with a cholesterol-lowering effect in a substudy of a randomized trial of nutritional intervention with Mediterranean diets for primary cardiovascular prevention (PREDIMED study). One hundred and six high cardiovascular risk subjects assigned to two Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, which are phytosterol-rich foods, or advice on a low-fat diet. Outcomes were 1-year changes in nutrient intake and serum levels of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols. Average phytosterol intake increased by 76, 158 and 15 mg/day in participants assigned VOO, nuts and low-fat diets, respectively. Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, changes in outcome variables were observed only in those in the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, with increases in intake of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (P natural foods appear to be bioactive in cholesterol lowering.

  1. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the response of the transgenic spring rape plants (Brassica napus L. var. ‘Westar’ with the rice transfactor-encoding gene Osmyb4 to treatment with salts of heavy metals (HM CuSO4 or ZnSO4 and accumulation in the leaves of biomass, metals, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant compounds: total phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were determined. Vegetatively propagated transgenic plants and wild-type plants were grown on Hoagland-Snyder medium at 24°C, then at the 5-6th leaves-stage, CuSO4 (in concentration 25-150 mM or ZnSO4 (500 - 5000 mM were added to the growth medium, and plants were exposed to the salts for 15 days. Under the action of small concentrations of salts, the results obtained for the transgenic and untransformed plants did not differ, but at high concentrations strong differences between transgenic and untransformed plants were observed. In transgenic plants, accumulation of biomass was greater. Carotene and xanthophyll were destroyed in transgenic plants less than in the untransformed plants. They have accumulated in their leaves more metal, especially Zn, reaching almost to the accumulation of 7 mg per g of dry biomass, bringing these plants to the hyperaccumulation of Zn. In the tissues of transgenic plants exposed to high concentrations of salts, the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and low molecular weight compounds, that are responsible for protection against ROS, increased significantly. All these results indicate a greater stability of the transgenic plants to the action of heavy metals, as evidenced also by less activity of lipid peroxidases in their tissue: at high salt concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulated significantly less in transgenic plants than in non-transformed plant tissues. The greater stability of transgenic plants to stressful effect of HM is also evidenced by the

  2. An innovative program to increase safety culture for workers on a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schryvers, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Full text: To implement the WENRA harmonized guidelines and the IAEA reference guides, Electrabel has recently introduced a major training program for both its own staff and the contractors working on the sites of its Nuclear Power Plants. This training program stresses the importance of safety culture on both theoretical and practical level and is mostly focused on the behavioural aspects during activities performed at the site of a Nuclear Power Plant. Further emphasis is put on radiation protection, industrial safety, environmental protection and explosion prevention. The training scheme for both the staff of Electrabel and contractors typically contains a theoretical part introducing the basic concepts of nuclear safety and safety culture and a practical exercise in a simulated environment. A novel element in the training cycle is the use of a simulated environment, where the actual working conditions in the nuclear part of the installation are simulated. This mock-up installation enables the workers to train the nuclear safety constraints linked to the actual installation and to enhance safety culture by responding on simulated problems and changing conditions possibly being encountered during an intervention at the real working site. To analyze the behaviour of the future workers, the activities are videotaped and commented for further improvement. A refresh of the training courses is implemented after 3 years.Although this training program has only been in operation for just 6 months, the response of the contractors and the staff to this training has been enthusiastic. At this moment, more than 1.000 workers have successfully completed the training course. (author)

  3. Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from power plant lignite ash--influence of parameters important for environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergal, Miodrag M; Relić, Dubravka; Tešić, Zivoslav Lj; Popović, Aleksandar R

    2014-03-01

    Nikola Tesla B power plant (TENT B), located at the Sava River, in Obrenovac, 50 km west from the Serbian's capital, Belgrade, is the second largest coal-fired power plant in the country, consisting of two blocks, each of 620 MW capacity. In order to investigate the threat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from deposited coal ash, obtained by coal combustion in this power plant, can represent for the surrounding environment, samples of coal ash were submitted to extraction with river water used for transport of coal ash to the dump, as well as with water of different ionic strength and acidity. It was found that, out of 16 EPA priority PAHs, only naphthalene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenantrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were found in measurable concentrations in the different extracts. Their combined concentration was around 0.1 μg/L, so they do not, in terms of leached concentrations, represent serious danger for the surrounding environment. In all cases of established (and leached) PAH compounds, changes of ionic strength, acidity, or the presence of organic compounds in river water may to some extent influence the leached concentrations. However, under the examined conditions, similar to those present in the environment, leached concentrations were not more than 50 % greater than the concentrations leached by distilled water. Therefore, water desorption is likely the most important mechanism responsible for leaching of PAH compounds from filter coal ash.

  4. Increased plant sterol and stanol levels in brain of Watanabe rabbits fed rapeseed oil derived plant sterol or stanol esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fricke, Christiane B.; Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    . Cholesterol synthesis in brain, indicated by lathosterol, a local surrogate cholesterol synthesis marker, does not seem to be affected by plant sterol or stanol ester feeding. We conclude that high dose intake of plant sterol and stanol esters in Watanabe rabbits results in elevated concentrations...... of these components not only in the periphery but also in the central nervous system....... of these components in brain tissue of homozygous and heterozygous Watanabe rabbits, an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia. Homozygous animals received either a standard diet, RSO stanol or RSO sterol ester while heterozygous animals were additionally fed with 2 g cholesterol/kg to the respective diet...

  5. Medical and economic impact of extraintestinal infections due to Escherichia coli: focus on an increasingly important endemic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Thomas A; Johnson, James R

    2003-04-01

    Escherichia coli is probably the best-known bacterial species and one of the most frequently isolated organisms from clinical specimens. Despite this, underappreciation and misunderstandings exist among medical professionals and the lay public alike regarding E. coli as an extraintestinal pathogen. Underappreciated features include (i) the wide variety of extraintestinal infections E. coli can cause, (ii) the high incidence and associated morbidity, mortality, and costs of these diverse clinical syndromes, (iii) the pathogenic potential of different groups of E. coli strains for causing intestinal versus extraintestinal disease, and (iv) increasing antimicrobial resistance. In this era in which health news often sensationalizes uncommon infection syndromes or pathogens, the strains of E. coli that cause extraintestinal infection are an increasingly important endemic problem and underappreciated "killers". Billions of health care dollars, millions of work days, and hundreds of thousands of lives are lost each year to extraintestinal infections due to E. coli. New treatments and prevention measures will be needed for improved outcomes and a diminished disease burden.

  6. Ethnopharmacological appraisal of culturally important medicinal plants and polyherbal formulas used against communicable diseases in Rodrigues Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoisy, Anne Kathie; Mahomoodally, Fawzi

    2016-12-24

    The tropical island of Rodrigues is one of three islands that constitute the Mascarene archipelago in the Indian Ocean. Currently considered as a biodiversity hotspot, the island has also a resilient history in the use of traditional medicine. However, there has been no ethnopharmacological study to document quantitatively such traditional practice against communicable diseases (CD), which currently accounts for 6.61% annual death and 30.7% attendances in public hospitals. The aim of the present study was to collect, analyse, and document traditionally used medicinal plants (MP) and polyherbal formulas from key informants and traditional medicine practitioners (TMP) in Rodrigues to treat and/or manage common CD. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews with MP users (n=113) and TMP (n=9) from 17 key sites. Seven quantitative ethnopharmacological indices, namely family use value (FUV), use value (UV), informant agreement ratio (IAR), relative frequency of citation (RFC), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI), and ethnobotanicity index (EI) were calculated. Ninety-seven plants belonging to 49 families were recorded to be in common use as monotherapy (80 plants) and/or as part of polyherbal preparation (23 plants) for the treatment and/or management of 16 different CD. Thirteen MPs were found to have a maximum FL of 100% for CD. The highest IAR (0.98) was observed for diseases of the eye and adnexa and skin and subcutaneous tissue. The highest FUV was for Arecaceae. Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M. king et H.Rob. scored the highest UV (UV=2.72). Seven endemic medicinal plants have been recorded to be employed in cultural rituals for the management of common CDs, whereas 14 polyherbal preparations were used to treat and/or manage 6 different types of CDs. Side effects were also reported following use of some these medicinal plants. Given the dearth of updated information on traditional medicine from Rodrigues, this work has provided an

  7. Effect of Increase in Plant Density on Stem Yield and Sucrose Content in Two Sweet Sorghum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soleymani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the effect of increase plant density on stalk yield and sucrose content in two sweet sorghum cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Isfahan University located at Zaghmar village. A split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with tree replication was used. Main plots were plant densities (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plant/ha and subplots were cultivars (Rio and Keller. The effect of plant density at hard dough harvest stage on plant height, stem diameter, number of tillers, stem fresh weight and juice yield were significant but had no significant effect on brix, sucrose percentage and purity. The highest juice yield and purity were produced by 400 thousand plants/ha. Keller was significantly superior for plant height, stem diameter, stem fresh weight, juice yield and brix at hard dough harvest stage as compared to Rio. Number of tiller per plant of Rio was significantly more than Keller. There were no significant difference between two cultivars for sucrose percentage and purity but sucrose percentage in Keller had highest as compared to Rio. Maximum stem fresh weight, juice yield, sucrose percentage and purity were obtained at hard dough harvest stag. On the basis of the results obtained, 400 thousand plant/ha plant density, Keller cultivar and hard dough harvest stage might be suitable for sweet sorghum production under the condition similar to the present study. Keywords: Sweet sorghum, Stem yield, Sucrose percentage, Harvesting stages

  8. Population growth rate of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer) (Acariformes: Eriophyidae) on agriculturally important plants and implications on taxonomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bulb mite (DBM), Aceria tulipae, is an economically important mite with a worldwide distribution and a broad host range. As a generalist, it is the most important eriophyoid mite attacking bulbous plants such as garlic, onion, and tulip. To date, DBM has been recorded on host plants belonging to...

  9. Increase on the initial soluble heme levels in acidic conditions is an important mechanism for spontaneous heme crystallization in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stiebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemozoin (Hz is a heme crystal that represents a vital pathway for heme disposal in several blood-feeding organisms. Recent evidence demonstrated that β-hematin (βH (the synthetic counterpart of Hz formation occurs under physiological conditions near synthetic or biological hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. This seems to require a heme dimer acting as a precursor of Hz crystals that would be formed spontaneously in the absence of the competing water molecules bound to the heme iron. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of medium polarity on spontaneous βH formation in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the effect of water content on spontaneous βH formation by using the aprotic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and a series of polyethyleneglycols (PEGs. We observed that both DMSO and PEGs (3.350, 6.000, 8.000, and 22.000 increased the levels of soluble heme under acidic conditions. These compounds were able to stimulate the production of βH crystals in the absence of any biological sample. Interestingly, the effects of DMSO and PEGs on βH formation were positively correlated with their capacity to promote previous heme solubilization in acidic conditions. Curiously, a short chain polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300 caused a significant reduction in both soluble heme levels and βH formation. Finally, both heme solubilization and βH formation strongly correlated with reduced medium water activity provided by increased DMSO concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here support the notion that reduction of the water activity is an important mechanism to support spontaneous heme crystallization, which depends on the previous increase of soluble heme levels.

  10. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (( 134 Cs + 137 Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  11. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  12. Implications of human induced changes on the distribution of important plant species in the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Waseem Halmy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of species distribution modeling in deserts is a useful tool for mapping species and assessing the impact of human induced changes on individual species. Such applications are still rare, and this may be attributed to the fact that much of the arid lands and deserts around the world are located in inaccessible areas. Few studies have conducted spatially explicit modeling of plant species distribution in Egypt. The random forest modeling approach was applied to climatic and land-surface parameters to predict the distribution of ten important plant species in an arid landscape in the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt. The impact of changes in land use and climate on the distribution of the plant species was assessed. The results indicate that the changes in land use in the area have resulted in habitat loss for all the modeled species. Projected future changes in land use reveals that all the modeled species will continue to suffer habitat loss. The projected impact of modeled climate scenarios (A1B, A2A and B2A on the distribution of the modeled species by 2040 varied. Some of the species were projected to be adversely affected by the changes in climate, while other species are expected to benefit from these changes. The combined impact of the changes in land use and climate pose serious threats to most of the modeled species. The study found that all the species are expected to suffer loss in habitat, except Gymnocarpos decanderus. The study highlights the importance of assessing the impact of land use/climate change scenarios on other species of restricted distribution in the area and can help shape policy and mitigation measures directed toward biodiversity conservation in Egypt.

  13. Species interactions in an Andean bird–flowering plant network: phenology is more important than abundance or morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological constraints and neutral processes have been proposed to explain the properties of plant–pollinator networks. Using interactions between nectarivorous birds (hummingbirds and flowerpiercers and flowering plants in high elevation forests (i.e., “elfin” forests of the Andes, we explore the importance of biological constraints and neutral processes (random interactions to explain the observed species interactions and network metrics, such as connectance, specialization, nestedness and asymmetry. In cold environments of elfin forests, which are located at the top of the tropical montane forest zone, many plants are adapted for pollination by birds, making this an ideal system to study plant–pollinator networks. To build the network of interactions between birds and plants, we used direct field observations. We measured abundance of birds using mist-nets and flower abundance using transects, and phenology by scoring presence of birds and flowers over time. We compared the length of birds’ bills to flower length to identify “forbidden interactions”—those interactions that could not result in legitimate floral visits based on mis-match in morphology. Diglossa flowerpiercers, which are characterized as “illegitimate” flower visitors, were relatively abundant. We found that the elfin forest network was nested with phenology being the factor that best explained interaction frequencies and nestedness, providing support for biological constraints hypothesis. We did not find morphological constraints to be important in explaining observed interaction frequencies and network metrics. Other network metrics (connectance, evenness and asymmetry, however, were better predicted by abundance (neutral process models. Flowerpiercers, which cut holes and access flowers at their base and, consequently, facilitate nectar access for other hummingbirds, explain why morphological mis-matches were relatively unimportant in this system. Future

  14. Drought resistant rice mutants, characteristics and discussions on possibilities for planting them in some Arab Countries which import rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.

    1994-01-01

    A number of drought resistant mutants of rice were produced from ordinary rice varieties being planted in several parts of Egypt through utilization of gamma rays as a mutagen. The mutants have water requirements less than one half of that of their mother varieties. According to official data, authorities in Egypt insure about 18000 M 3 of irrigation water for every hectare (10000 M 2 ) of rice and about 6700 M 3 , 6900 M 3 for every hectare of corn and ground nuts, respectively. Peanuts and corn are summer crops like the drought resistant rice mutants. The mentioned mutants can produce good yield under water requirements very near to that of corn and peanuts. The wide gap in agricultural food stuffs for the Arab Countries (more than 20000 million US $ annually) includes rice imports usually exceeds 700 million US $ per year> Rice imports of Arab Countries such as Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya and the Sudan, reached 180, 47, 21, 16 and 14 million US $ in 1988 as an example. Such countries could make use of the drought resistant rice mutants for plantation on water requirements very near to those of usual summer crops such as corn and peanuts which is significantly less than one half of water requirements of their mother varieties. Some characteristics of such mutants as well as discussions on possibilities for planting them in some of the nominated Arab Countries are presented. However, arrangements for ensuring the minimum water requirements during the growing period irrespective to rain which in many cases did not accord the growing period of the mutants should be taken if such countries wants to make use of the drought resistant rice mutants. The author believe that most if not all requirements of rice of such countries could locally be ensured through planting of the above mentioned rice mutants. In this case, maximizing the efficiency of utilizing the limited water resources of such countries could also be counted as another cause for presenting this

  15. Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control systems important for safety - Classification (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 1226:1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1996-01-01

    This international standard established a method of classification of the information and command functions for nuclear power plants, and the I and C and equipment that provide those functions, into categories that designate the importance for safety of the functions, and the associated systems and equipment. The resulting classification then determines relevant design criteria. The design criteria are the measures of quality by which the adequacy of each functions, and the associated systems and equipment in relation to its importance to plant safety is ensured. In this standard, the criteria are those of functionality, reliability, performance, environmental durability and quality assurance. This standard is applicable to all the information and command functions, and the instrumentation and control systems and equipment that provide those functions. The functions, systems and equipment under consideration provide automated protection, closed or open loop control, and information to the operating staff. They keep the NPP conditions inside the safe operating envelope and provide automatic actions, or enable manual actions, that mitigate accidents or prevent or minimize radioactive releases to the site or wider environment. The functions, and the associated systems and equipment that fulfill these roles safeguard the health and safety of the NPP operators and the public. This standard complements, and does not replace or supersede, the Safety Guides and Codes of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  16. Integrated equipment for increasing and maintaining coolant pressure in primary circuit of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.

    1986-01-01

    An open heat pump circuit is claimed connected to the primary circuit. The pump circuit consists of a steam pressurizer with a built-in steam distributor, a compressor, an expander, a reducing valve, an auxiliary pump, and of water and steam pipes. The operation is described and a block diagram is shown of integrated equipment for increasing and maintaining pressure in the nuclear power plant primary circuit. The appropriate entropy diagram is also shown. The advantage of the open pump circuit consists in reducing the electric power input and electric power consumption for the steam pressurizers, removing entropy loss in heat transfer with high temperature gradient, in the possibility of inserting, between the expander and the auxiliary pump, a primary circuit coolant treatment station, in simplified design and manufacture of the high-pressure steam pressurizer vessel, reducing the weight of the steam pressurizer by changing its shape from cylindrical to spherical, increasing the rate of pressure growth in the primary circuit. (E.S.)

  17. Economic Analysis of Cikaso Mini Hydro Power Plant as a CDM Project for Increasing IRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irhan Febijanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy fueled power generations are few developed by private sector in Indonesia. High-cost investment and low electricity selling price to PT PLN as a single buyer is main barriers for private sector to involve in the development of renewable energy fueled power generations. In this project, the economic feasibility of Mini Hydro Power Plant of Cikaso with capacity of 5.3 MW, located at Sukabumi Regency, West Java province was assessed. This project utilized revenue generated from carbon market to increase the economic feasibility. Procedure to register the project to United Nation for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC as a Clean Development Mechanism project was explained in detail. Approved Consolidation Methodology (ACM 0002 Version 12.3.0 was used to calculate grid emission factor in Jawa-Bali-Madura the grid electricity system. It was calculated that the grid emission factor is 0.833 (t-CO2/MWh, and the carbon emission reduction generated for this project is 21,982 ton/year. From the analysis result, it can be proven that the additional revenue from carbon credit could increase the project IRR from 10.28% to 13.52%.

  18. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria increases wood yield under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Viviana Torres Cely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce and Acaulospora sp. (Ac; two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2; and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2 in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1 were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone.

  19. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Wood Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Martha V T; Siviero, Marco A; Emiliano, Janaina; Spago, Flávia R; Freitas, Vanessa F; Barazetti, André R; Goya, Erika T; Lamberti, Gustavo de Souza; Dos Santos, Igor M O; De Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce), and Acaulospora sp. (Ac); two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2); and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2) in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1) were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone.

  20. Whole-plant growth and N utilization in transgenic rice plants with increased or decreased Rubisco content under different CO2 partial pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Emi; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2014-11-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) strongly limits photosynthesis at lower CO2 concentration [CO2] whereas [corrected] Rubisco limitation is cancelled by elevated [CO2]. Therefore, increase or reduction in Rubisco content by transformation with a sense or an antisense RBCS construct are expected to alter the biomass production under different CO2 levels. RBCS-sense (125% Rubisco of wild-type) and -antisense (35% Rubisco of wild-type) rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were grown for 63 days at three different CO2 levels: low [CO2] (28 Pa), normal [CO2] (40 Pa) and elevated [CO2] (120 Pa). The biomass of RBCS-sense plants was 32% and 15% greater at low [CO2] and normal [CO2] than that of the wild-type plants, respectively, but did not differ at elevated [CO2]. Conversely, the biomass of RBCS-antisense plants was the smallest at low [CO2]. Thus, overproduction of Rubisco was effective for biomass production at low [CO2]. Greater biomass production at low [CO2] in RBCS-sense plants was caused by an increase in the net assimilation rate, and associated with an increase in the amount of N uptake. Furthermore, Rubisco overproduction in RBCS-sense plants was also promoted at low [CO2]. Although it seems that low [CO2]-growth additionally stimulates the effect of RBCS overexpression, such a phenomenon observed at low [CO2] was mediated through an increase in total leaf N content. Thus, the dependence of the growth improvement in RBCS-sense rice on growth [CO2] was closely related to the degree of Rubisco overproduction which was accompanied not only by leaf N content but also by whole plant N content. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Digital poly-victimization: The increasing importance of online crime and harassment to the burden of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Sherry; Blount, Zach; Smith, Alli; Jones, Lisa; Mitchell, Kimberly; Taylor, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Many forms of victimization, including bullying and property crime, are increasingly moving online, but most studies of poly-victimization still primarily focus on in-person crime and violence. Few studies have examined the importance of incorporating technology-based victimizations for assessing the true burden of violence. The purpose of this study is to explore whether digital poly-victimization contributes to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms after controlling for in-person poly-victimization. Given that technology use and technology-based victimization are changing rapidly, a mixed methods approach was adopted. In the first two phases, focus groups and cognitive interviews (89 total participants) were used to identify the range of digital victimization and develop the Digital Poly-Victimization Scale. In the third phase, the new measure was included in a community survey (n = 478, 57.5% female; 62.6% earning under $50,000 per year) in a rural Southern region, along with measures of in-person poly-victimization, posttraumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms, and other outcomes and personal characteristics. A comprehensive measure of digital poly-victimization indicated that almost 3 in 4 participants (72.3%) had experienced at least one form of digital victimization. The results indicated that digital poly-victimization contributed unique variance to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms (p Digital victimization often presents fewer risks to perpetrators and can be expected to represent an increasing share of the societal burden of violence. Future research on poly-victimization should pay more attention to the role of digital victimization.

  2. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  3. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria [New York, NY; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A [Santiago, CL; Nero, Damion C [Woodside, NY

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  4. Does plasticity in plant physiological traits explain the rapid increase in water use efficiency? An ecohydrological modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to stimulate plant productivity by enhancing photosynthesis and reducing stomatal conductance and thus increasing plant water use efficiency (WUE) worldwide. An analysis of eddy covariance flux tower data from 21 forested ecosystems across the north hemisphere detected an unexpectedly large increase in WUE (Keenan et al, 2013), which was six times larger than the increase found by most previous studies based on controlled experiments (e.g., FACE), leaf-scale analyses, and numerical modelling. This increase could be solely attributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 since other confounding factors were ruled out. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of plant plasticity, reflected in the temporal adjustment of major plant physiological traits, on changes in WUE using the ecohydrological model Tethys and Chloris (T&C). We hypothesize that the increase in WUE can be attributed to small variations in plant physiological traits, undetectable through observations, eventually triggered by the atmospheric CO2 increase. Data from the 21 sites in the above mentioned study are used to force the model. Simulation results with and without plasticity in the physiological traits (i.e., model parameters in our numerical experiments) are compared with the observed trends in WUE. We test several plant adaptation strategies in being effective in explaining the observed increase in WUE using a multifactorial numerical experiment in which we perturb in a systematic way selected plant parameters. Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., and Richardson, A. D. (2013). Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324-7.

  5. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liao

    Full Text Available Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS, the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant

  6. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant.

  7. Antibody array in a multiwell plate format for the sensitive and multiplexed detection of important plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Elliott, Christopher T; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-07-15

    The global seed market is considered to be an important industry with a total value of $10,543 million US dollars in 2012. Because plant pathogens such as bacteria and viruses cause a significant economic loss to both producers and exporters, the seed export industry urgently requires rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive testing for the pathogens to prevent disease spreading worldwide. This study developed an antibody array in a multiwell plate format to simultaneously detect four crucial plant pathogens, namely, a bacterial fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV, potyvirus), Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). The capture antibodies specific to the pathogens were immobilized on each well at preassigned positions by an automatic microarrayer. The antibodies on the arrays specifically captured the corresponding pathogens present in the sample extracts. The presence of pathogens bound on the capture antibodies was subsequently detected by a cocktail of fluorescently conjugated secondary antibodies. The limits of detection of the developed antibody array for the detection of Aac, ChiVMV, WSMoV, and MYSV were 5 × 10(5) CFU/mL, 30 ng/mL, 1000 ng/mL, and 160 ng/mL, respectively, which were very similar to those of the conventional ELISA method. The antibody array in a multiwell plate format accurately detected plant pathogens in single and multiple detections. Moreover, this format enables easy handling of the assay at a higher speed of operation.

  8. Increase of the efficiency of SNCR plants; Steigerung der Effizienz von SNCR-Anlagentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Joerg [VWT Ing.-Buero, Schwandorf (Germany); Gotthardt, Wolfgang; Rieger, Konrad; Franke, Thomas [ZMS Schwandorf (Germany); Krueger, Sascha [IBK - Verfahrenstechnik, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A simple und economic SNCR technique is described which meets the future limiting values for nitrogen oxide and ammonia slip for municipal waste, biomass and RDF incineration plants. The injection of the reduction agent into the flue gas flow is the weak point in the existing systems. The suitability of the system could be tested successfully in the Schwandorf municipal waste incineration plant. (orig.).

  9. Increase of efficiency of the photosynthetic device of plants by gene updating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the information advantages of plants of agricultural crops with photosynthesis C4 before plants of type C3 are shined. By means of genetically-modified designs uses introductions such C4 a metabolism, or its part the estimation of possibilities is spent to the main agricultural crops with C3 a metabolism.

  10. Increased plant productivity in Alaskan tundra as a result of experimental warming of soil and permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Natali; E.A.G. Schuur; R.L. Rubin

    2012-01-01

    The response of northern tundra plant communities to warming temperatures is of critical concern because permafrost ecosystems play a key role in global carbon (C) storage, and climate-induced ecological shifts in the plant community will affect the transfer of carbon-dioxide between biological and atmospheric pools. This study, which focuses on the response of tundra...

  11. Chemically assisted phytoextraction: a review of potential soil amendments for increasing plant uptake of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, E; Tack, F M G; Van Slycken, S; Ruttens, A; Du Laing, G; Vangronsveld, J; Verloo, M G

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of soils by trace metals has been an unfortunate sideeffect of industrialization. Some of these contaminants can interfere with vulnerable enduses of soil, such as agriculture or nature, already at relatively low levels of contamination. Reversely, conventional civil-technical soil-remediation techniques are too expensive to remediate extended areas of moderately contaminated soil. Phytoextraction has been proposed as a more economic complementary approach to deal with this specific niche of soil contamination. However, phytoextraction has been shown to be a slow-working process due to the low amounts of metals that can be annually removed from the soil under normal agronomic conditions. Therefore, extensive research has been conducted on process optimization by means of chemically improving plant availability and the uptake of heavy metals. A wide range of potential amendments has been proposed in the literature, with considerable attention being spent on aminopolycarboxylic acids such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). However, these compounds have received increasing criticism due to their environmental persistence and associated risks for leaching. This review presents an overview of potential soil amendments that can be employed for enhancing metal uptake by phytoextraction crops, with a distinct focus on more degradable alternatives to persistent compounds such as EDTA.

  12. Increase in the amount of evaporator concentrate from nuclear power plants in cemented products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Bruna S.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power plants, research centers and other nuclear facilities are sources of radioactive liquid waste generation. These wastes can come from cooling of the primary reactor system, cleaning spent pool of fuel, washing contaminated clothing, among others. One of the most used methods for the treatment of these aqueous flows is the evaporation, which generates the concentrate of the evaporator, waste classified as low and medium level of radiation. Norms determine that radioactive waste must be minimized, and that to be accepted in repositories, they must be solidified. The work sought to reduce the volume of the evaporated concentrate waste and its subsequent solidification in cement. In order to carry out the tests, the evaporator concentrate (CE) simulation solution was prepared and then dried in an oven. Subsequently, cementation of the dry material was made using cement, fluidizer, NaOH and water. After a curing time of 28 days, the compressive strength tests were made for all specimens obtained, and for the samples that obtained resistance above that required by the norm, which is 10MPa, the percentages of reject incorporated and volume reduction. The results showed that, by drying the evaporator concentrate, it was possible to reduce the volume of the waste generated by up to 27% in relation to the waste without drying, which shows that drying is an effective way to increase the incorporation of the evaporator concentrate in packaged waste

  13. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Borch Nielsen, Peter; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants based on groundwater may suffer from incomplete ammonium removal, which deteriorates drinking water quality and constrains water utilities in the operation of their plants. Ammonium is normally removed through nitrification in biological granular media filters...... groundwater treatment plants, all of which had displayed several years of incomplete nitrification. Plants exceeded the Danish national water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH4+/L by a factor of 2–12. Within only 2-3 weeks of dosing, ammonium removal rates increased significantly (up to 150%). Nitrification...... was fully established, with ammonium effluent concentrations of water chemistry, ammonium loading rates, filter design and operation, or treatment plant configuration. However, for filters without primary filtration, it took longer time...

  14. Importance of climate change-physical forcing on the increase of cyanobacterial blooms in a small, stratified lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Planas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of planktonic cyanobacteria was studied in a dimictic lake in which recurrent summer surface algal blooms have frequently occurred since the beginning of this millennium. In eutrophic-hypereutrophic lakes, epilimnetic cyanobacterial blooms are promoted by increased ambient temperatures and water column thermal stability, which favour the vertical migration of buoyancy-regulating cyanobacteria. Here we propose that intensified external energy (wind that alters thermocline stability could explain the occurence of heavy blooms in the surface of lakes with low external nutrient loading. Specifically, we hypothesized that: i in small stratified lakes with low external nutrient sources, cyanobacterial growth primarily occurs near the lake bottom, where phosphorus is more abundant and light is available; ii we additionally hypothesized that turbulence induced by strong winds increases the amplitude and energy of metalimnetic internal waves and entrains meta- and hypolimnetic water,  rich in nutrients and cyanobacteria, into the epilimnion. The study was done in a small lake (45 Ha, maximum and mean depth 7.2 m and 4.3 m, respectively with mean epilimnetic dissolved phosphorus concentrations ≈ 4 μg L-1 and chlorophyll α ≈ 8 μg L-1.  Vertical temperature profiles during the open season were continuously registered using thermistors.  Weekly vertical profiles of light transmission, phytoplankton distribution and water chemistry were also taken. On one occasion, these variables were measured throughout a continuous 24 h cycle. Results demonstrated that summer cyanobacterial blooms were dominated by Plankthotrix spp., which began their cycle in late spring at the bottom of the lake, and grew to form dense metalimnetic biomass peaks. Time series analysis of isotherms and the Lake number indicated that internal metalimnetic waves (seiches were present through the summer. During the diel sampling cycle, we found that medium to

  15. UNIRAM modeling for increased nuclear-plant availability and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mara, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    At the start of a nuclear-power plant's design life of 40 years, most parts of the plant are effectively brand new, but some subcomponents have already experienced significant wear and aging effects. In short, the spectrum of where each component is in its life cycle at any time is quite broad, and this makes the prediction of the future availability of the plant a complex issue. Predictive models that account for the differential effects of aging, wear, and functional failure on the plant are desirable as a means to represent this complex behavior. This paper addresses the task of using a computer model to account for the relationships between components, systems, and plant availability, in the context of current and future needs, including eventual life extension. The computer model is based on the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) code, UNIRAM, which has a large and growing user base among utilities

  16. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of sample preparation methods for the determination of essential and toxic elements in important indigenous medicinal plant Aloe barbadensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Wattoo, M.H.S.

    2002-01-01

    The role of elements particularly traces elements in health and disease is now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very important herb Aloe barbadensis, it is commonly used in different ailments especially of elementary tract. We used four extraction methods for the determination of total elements in Aloe barbadensis. The procedure, which is found to be more efficient and decompose the biological material, is nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide as compared to other method. The sample of plants was collected from surrounding of Hyderabad; Sindh University and vouches specimens were prepared following the standard herbarium techniques. Fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements such as Zn, Cr, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Pb, Al, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni and Cd were determined in plant and in its decoction. Using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Hitachi Model 180-50. It is noted that, level of essential elements was found high as compare to the level of toxic elements. (author)

  18. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  19. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.

    1995-01-01

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  20. The importance of the restoration of plant genetic fund in the solution of food security in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, R.

    2015-01-01

    The main part of the world population nutrition arranges bread and bakery products. Azerbaijan is the country with the most commonly used products such as bread. Productivity must rise in order to meet the growing demand of the grain. The solving of this problem depends on 3 directions 1) the creation of high agro-technical conditions; 2) the inclusion of new lands into circulation; 3) the creation of new productive varieties as a result of replacement of wheat in relation to genotype by the method of selection. X-ray and laser rays react to different genotypes. The distant hybridization method is the biggest theoretical and practical significant method in modern methods of plant breeding. The results of the study show