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Sample records for plants ii ficus

  1. Ficus septica plant extracts for treating Dengue virus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Chieh Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1-4 (DENV-1-4 are positive-strand RNA viruses with an envelope that belongs to the Flaviviridae. DENV infection threatens human health worldwide. However, other than supportive treatments, no specific therapy is available for the infection. In order to discover novel medicine against DENV, we tested 59 crude extracts, without cytotoxicity, from 23 plants in vitro; immunofluorescence assay revealed that the methanol extracts of fruit, heartwood, leaves and stem from Ficus septica Burm. f. had a promising anti-DENV-1 and DENV-2 effect. However, infection with the non-envelope picornavirus, Aichi virus, was not inhibited by treatment with F. septica extracts. F. septica may be a candidate antiviral drug against an enveloped virus such as DENV.

  2. [Antimutagenic activity of Armoracia rusticana, Zea mays and Ficus carica plant extracts and their mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E

    2005-01-01

    Antimutagenic action of plant extracts of Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica, Zea mays and their mixture on environmental xenobiotics has been investigated. The plant extracts and their mixture decreased the level of mutations induced by N-metil-N'-nitro-N-nitrozoguanidin (MNNG) in Vicia faba cells, chlorophyll mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana and NaF induced mutability in rat marrow cells. The studied plant extracts and their mixture demonstrate the ability to decrease the genotoxicity of environmental mutagens.

  3. Ficus carica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issam

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... of fig (Ficus carica L.) to develop an efficient in vitro propagation method. The results ... In vitro grown F. carica L. were obtained from Plant Tissue Culture ..... biochemical responses of tomato microshoots to induce salinity.

  4. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  5. [Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts from Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica and Zea mays and peroxidase in eukaryotic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E; Alekperov, U K

    2004-01-01

    Antimutagene activity and high efficiency of antimutagene action of plant extracts from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), fig brunches (Ficus carica) and mays seedlings (Zea mays) and their ability to decrease the frequency of spontaneous and induced by gamma-rays chromosome aberrations in meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice have been shown. Comparative assessment of genoprotective properties of peroxidase and the studied extracts has revealed higher efficiency of antimutagene action of peroxidase.

  6. Potential effect of the medicinal plants Calotropis procera, Ficus elastica and Zingiber officinale against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif el-Din, Sayed H; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Mohamed, Mona A; Hamed, Manal M; Sterner, Olov; Botros, Sanaa S

    2014-02-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) have been traditionally used to treat many diseases. The antischistosomal activity of these plant extracts was evaluated against Schistosoma mansoni. Male mice exposed to 80 ± 10 cercariae per mouse were divided into two batches. The first was divided into five groups: (I) infected untreated, while groups from (II-V) were treated orally (500 mg/kg for three consecutive days) by aqueous stem latex and flowers of C. procera, latex of F. elastica and ether extract of Z. officinale, respectively. The second batch was divided into four comparable groups (except Z. officinale-treated group) similarly treated as the first batch in addition to the antacid ranitidine (30 mg/kg) 1 h before extract administration. Safety, worm recovery, tissues egg load and oogram pattern were assessed. Calotropis procera latex and flower extracts are toxic (50-70% mortality) even in a small dose (250 mg/kg) before washing off their toxic rubber. Zingiber officinale extract insignificantly decrease (7.26%) S. mansoni worms. When toxic rubber was washed off and ranitidine was used, C. procera (stem latex and flowers) and F. elastica extracts revealed significant S. mansoni worm reductions by 45.31, 53.7 and 16.71%, respectively. Moreover, C. procera extracts produced significant reductions in tissue egg load (∼34-38.5%) and positively affected oogram pattern. The present study may be useful to supplement information with regard to C. procera and F. elastica antischistosomal activity and provide a basis for further experimental trials.

  7. Protein domain analysis of genomic sequence data reveals regulation of LRR related domains in plant transpiration in Ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tiange; Yin, Kangquan; Liu, Jinyu; Cao, Kunfang; Cannon, Charles H; Du, Fang K

    2014-01-01

    Predicting protein domains is essential for understanding a protein's function at the molecular level. However, up till now, there has been no direct and straightforward method for predicting protein domains in species without a reference genome sequence. In this study, we developed a functionality with a set of programs that can predict protein domains directly from genomic sequence data without a reference genome. Using whole genome sequence data, the programming functionality mainly comprised DNA assembly in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) assembly methods and traditional methods, peptide prediction and protein domain prediction. The proposed new functionality avoids problems associated with de novo assembly due to micro reads and small single repeats. Furthermore, we applied our functionality for the prediction of leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains in four species of Ficus with no reference genome, based on NGS genomic data. We found that the LRRNT_2 and LRR_8 domains are related to plant transpiration efficiency, as indicated by the stomata index, in the four species of Ficus. The programming functionality established in this study provides new insights for protein domain prediction, which is particularly timely in the current age of NGS data expansion.

  8. Effect of plant growth regulators on indirect shoot organogenesis of Ficus religiosa through seedling derived petiole segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hesami

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ficus religiosa is known as a long-lived multipurpose forest tree. The tree plays an important role for religious, medicinal, and ornamental purposes. However, the propagation rate of Ficus religiosa is low in natural habitat so the plant tissue culture techniques are an applicable method for multiplication of this valuable medicinal plants. Thus, the aim of this study is to understand the effect of different auxin/cytokinin ratios on indirect shoot organogenesis of this plant. According to our results, the maximum callus induction frequency (100% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D plus 0.05 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP from petiole segments. For shoot induction purpose, the yellow-brownish, friable, organogenic calli were inoculated on shoot induction medium. On MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP and 0.15 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 96.66% of the petiole-derived calli responded with an average number of 3.56 shoots per culture. The highest root formation frequency (96.66%, root number (5.5, and root length (4.83 cm were achieved on MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l IBA plus 0.1 mg/l Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. The rooted shoots were successfully transferred to field condition and the substrate with the mixture of cocopeat and perlite (1:1 had the highest survival rate (96.66%. This is the first report of an effective in vitro organogenesis protocol for F. religiosa by indirect shoot organogenesis through axenic seedling derived petiole explants, which can be efficiently employed for conservation of this important medicinal plant species as well as the utilization of active biomolecules. Keywords: Callus formation, Multiplication, Acclimatization, Growth regulators ratio

  9. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of plant biomass versus soil solution in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrish, Valerie; Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L

    2010-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio of a terrestrial plant reflects the relative availability of N and P in the soil in which the plant grows. Here, this was assessed for a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida. Seedlings were grown in sand and irrigated with nutrient solutions containing N:P ratios ranging from 100. The experimental design further allowed investigation of physiological responses to N and P availability. Homeostatic control over N:P ratios was stronger in leaves than in stems or roots, suggesting that N:P ratios of stems and roots are more sensitive indicators of the relative availability of N and P at a site than N:P ratios of leaves. The leaf N:P ratio at which the largest plant dry mass and highest photosynthetic rates were achieved was approximately 11, whereas the corresponding whole-plant N:P ratio was approximately 6. Plant P concentration varied as a function of transpiration rate at constant nutrient solution P concentration, possibly due to transpiration-induced variation in the mass flow of P to root surfaces. The transpiration rate varied in response to nutrient solution N concentration, but not to nutrient solution P concentration, demonstrating nutritional control over transpiration by N but not P. Water-use efficiency varied as a function of N availability, but not as a function of P availability.

  10. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

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    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  11. Biological activities of plant extracts from Ficus elastica and Selaginella vogelli: An antimalarial, antitrypanosomal and cytotoxity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Emmanuel Mbosso Teinkela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic, antiplasmodial, and antitrypanosomal activities of two medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon were evaluated. Wood of Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem. aerial roots (Moraceae and Selaginella vogelii Spring (Selaginellaceae leaves were collected from two different sites in Cameroon. In vitro cell-growth inhibition activities were assessed on methanol extract of plant materials against Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 and Trypanosoma brucei brucei, as well as against HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 value < 10 μg/mL. The extract of S. vogelii did not significantly reduce the viability of P. falciparum at a concentration of 25 μg/mL but dramatically affected the trypanosome growth with an IC50 of 2.4 μg/mL. In contrast, at the same concentration, the extract of F. elastica exhibited plasmodiacidal activity (IC50 value of 9.5 μg/mL and trypanocidal (IC50 value of 0.9 μg/mL activity. Both extracts presented low cytotoxic effects on HeLa cancer cell line. These results indicate that the selected medicinal plants could be further investigated for identifying compounds that may be responsible for the observed activities and that may represent new leads in parasitical drug discovery.

  12. Antihyperglycemic activities of leaves of three edible fruit plants (Averrhoa carambola, Ficus hispida and Syzygium samarangense) of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahreen, Shejuty; Banik, Joyanta; Hafiz, Abdul; Rahman, Shahnaz; Zaman, Anahita Tanzia; Shoyeb, Md Abu; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of diabetes, while the leaves of S. samarangense are used for treatment of cold, itches, and waist pain. Since scientific studies are absent on the antihyperglycemic effects of the leaves of the three plants, it was the objective of the present study to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of the plants in oral glucose tolerance tests carried out with glucose-loaded mice. The extracts at different doses were administered one hour prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hours of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. Significant oral hypoglycemic activity was found with the extracts of leaves of all three plants tested. The fall in serum glucose levels were dose-dependent for every individual plant, being highest at the highest dose tested of 400 mg extract per kg body weight. At this dose, the extracts of A. carambola, F. hispida, and S. samarangense caused, respectively, 34.1, 22.7, and 59.3% reductions in serum glucose levels when compared to control animals. The standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, caused a 57.3% reduction in serum glucose levels versus control. Among the three plants evaluated, the methanolic extract of leaves of S. samarangense proved to be the most potent in demonstrating antihyperglycemic effects. The result validates the folk medicinal uses of A. carambola and F. hispida in the treatment of diabetes, and indicates that the leaves of S. samarangense can also possibly be used for amelioration of diabetes-induced hyperglycemia.

  13. Energy efficient cultivation planning for pot plants. A calculation platform for energy efficient scenarios in the Ficus cultivation; Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten. Een rekenplatform voor energie-efficiente scenario's in de Ficus-teelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buwalda, F.; Van Noort, F. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); De Jong, B.

    2012-06-15

    The project Energy Efficient Scheduling of Pot Plant Production was aimed at developing and testing a decision support system for pot plant nurseries. The system allowed growers and consultants to compare the effects of changes in production schedules and climate settings on crop performance and energy requirement. The model-based scenario tool incorporated dynamic crop models for Euphorbia pulcherrima, Ficus benjamina and Hydrangea macrophylla, and the KASPRO model for greenhouse climate and energy balance. The system automatically acquired data from a local weather forecast service, real-time, web-based nursery-specific data acquisition systems and crop registration modules. Web-based data sharing also supported benchmarking between nurseries. The system was tested in field trials, involving four nurseries for each pot plant species. Improvements in energy efficiency of the production process resulted from optimized pot spacing schedules and from temperature strategies incorporating more prominent influences of the season, weather conditions and crop developmental phase [Dutch] In het kader van het project Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten is gewerkt aan een adviessysteem dat potplantentelers in staat stelt om zelfstandig de energie-efficiëntie van teeltscenario's te evalueren op basis van actuele, bedrijfsspecifieke gegevens. Daarnaast maakt het systeem het mogelijk om via internet teeltscenario's te delen met teeltadviseurs en binnen bedrijfsvergelijkingsgroepen. Het systeem is gebaseerd op dynamische gewasmodellen voor Hortensia, Poinsettia en Ficus, en maakt voor het berekenen van kasklimaat en energiestromen gebruik van het rekenmodel KASPRO. Dit rapport beschrijft de werking van het systeem, de resultaten op 4 bedrijven per gewas, de reacties van de betrokken telers, en een evaluatie van het project. De belangrijkste mogelijkheden om de energie-efficientie van een teelt te verbeteren werden gevonden in verbeterde wijderzetschema

  14. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  15. Antimicrobial activities of some Thai traditional medical longevity formulations from plants and antibacterial compounds from Ficus foveolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerungrueang, W; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2014-09-01

    Medicinal plants involved in traditional Thai longevity formulations are potential sources of antimicrobial compounds. To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of some extracts from medicinal plants used in traditional Thai longevity formulations against some oral pathogens, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. An extract that possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity was fractionated to isolate and identify the active compounds. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of 25 medicinal plants used as Thai longevity formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion (5 mg/disc) and broth microdilution (1.2-2500 µg/mL) methods. The ethyl acetate extract of Ficus foveolata Wall. (Moraceae) stems that exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity was fractionated to isolate the active compounds by an antibacterial assay-guided isolation process. The ethyl acetate extract of F. foveolata showed the strongest antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 19.5-39.0 and 39.0-156.2 µg/mL, respectively. On the basis of an antibacterial assay-guided isolation, seven antibacterial compounds, including 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), syringaldehyde (2), sinapaldehyde (3), coniferaldehyde (4), 3β-hydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one (5), umbelliferone (6), and scopoletin (7), were purified. Among these isolated compounds, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1) exhibited the strongest antibacterial activities against S. pyogenes, S. mitis, and S. mutans with MIC values of 7.8, 7.8, and 15.6 µg/mL, and MBC values of 7.8, 7.8, and 31.2 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, this is the first report of these antibacterial compounds in the stems of F. foveolata.

  16. Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus exasperata protects the Liver against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ficus exasperata is an important medicinal plant with a wide geographical distribution in Africa particularly in Nigeria. In this study, aqueous stem bark extracts of Ficus exasperata were administered to investigate its hepatoprotective effects on Paracetamol induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats. A total of Twenty Five Wistar rats ...

  17. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandra V D; Padmaa M Paarakh

    2011-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae) grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemi...

  18. opuntia ficus-indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15], the composition of phenolic compounds of cladodes of O. ficus-indica is found to be: total ... hydroxide and ascorbic acid (BDH, England); D-catechin, hydrochloric acid, ... on the reduction of phosphotungstate-phosphomolybdate complex by ...

  19. Ficus Deltoidea Enhance Glucose Uptake Activity in Cultured Muscle Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis; Amin Ismail; Muhajir Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas cotek is one of the common medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Our previous studies showed that this plant have blood glucose lowering effect. Glucose uptake into muscle and adipocytes cells is one of the known mechanisms of blood glucose lowering effect. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Ficus deltoidea on glucose uptake activity into muscle cells. The cells were incubated with Ficus deltoidea extracts either alone or combination with insulin. Amount of glucose uptake by L6 myotubes was determined using glucose tracer, 2-deoxy-(1- 3 H 1 )-glucose. The results showed that Ficus deltoidea extracts at particular doses enhanced basal or insulin-mediated glucose uptake into muscle cells significantly. Hot aqueous extract enhanced glucose uptake at the low concentration (10 μg/ ml) whereas methanolic extract enhanced glucose uptake at low and high concentrations. Methanolic extract also mimicked insulin activity during enhancing glucose uptake into L^ muscle cells. Glucose uptake activity of Ficus deltoidea could be attributed by the phenolic compound presence in the plant. This study had shown that Ficus deltoidea has the ability to enhance glucose uptake into muscle cells which is partly contributed the antidiabetic activity of this plant. (author)

  20. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  1. Ficus benghalensis L. also spelt as Ficus bengalensis (English ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ficus benghalensis L. also spelt as Ficus bengalensis (English: Banyan; Hindi: Bargad) of Moraceae is a giant evergreen tree with spreading branches which are supported by aerial roots that go down into the soil to form the 'props'. (A banyan tree in Calcutta. Botanical Gardens has a main stem 45 feet in girth and its ...

  2. CO[sub 2] exchange and growth of the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant opuntia ficus-indica under elevated CO[sub 2] in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism species, were studied at CO[sub 2] concentrations of 370, 520, and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] in open-top chambers during a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 76 and 98% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Eight weeks after daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35 and 49% higher at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, than at 370 L L[sup [minus]1]. Daily water-use efficiency was 88% higher under elevated CO[sub 2] for basal cladodes and 57% higher for daughter cladodes. The daily net CO[sub 2] uptake capacity for basal cladodes increased for 4 weeks after planting and then remained fairly constant, whereas for daughter cladodes, it increased with cladode age, became maximal at 8 to 14 weeks, and then declined. The percentage enhancement in daily net CO[sub 2] uptake caused by elevated CO[sub 2] was greatest initially for basal cladodes and at 8 to 14 weeks for daughter cladodes. The chlorophyll content per unit fresh weight of chlorenchyma for daughter cladodes at 8 weeks was 19 and 62% lower in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, compared with 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Despite the reduced chlorophyll content, plant biomass production during 23 weeks in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 21 and 55% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. The root dry weight nearly tripled as the CO[sub 2] concentration was doubled, causing the root/shoot ratio to increase with CO[sub 2] concentration. During the 23-week period, elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production of O. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Isolated Ficus trees deliver dual conservation and development benefits in a rural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bajpai, Omesh; Chaudhary, Lal B.

    2015-01-01

    strategy to manage the availability of valuable plant resources, facilitated by the use of isolated Ficus trees as restoration nuclei. We surveyed the plants growing under 207 isolated trees in Assam, India, and categorized them according to their local human-uses. We found that Ficus trees were associated...... densities in most categories. Community management practices that conserve isolated Ficus trees, and restrict livestock grazing and high-intensity land-use in their vicinity, can promote plant growth and the provision of important local resources....

  4. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  5. Silvopastoral system based on Ficus thonningii : an adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In selecting, evaluating and comparing fodder trees for a climate-resilient silvopastoral system, local farmers used 20 criteria of varying importance and belonging to three categories: animal-based, plant-based and multipurpose. In terms of suitability for climate-resilient silvopastoral system, Ficus thonningii was ranked first ...

  6. In Vitro Pro-apoptotic and Anti-migratory Effects of Ficus deltoidea L. Plant Extracts on the Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines PC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Mohd M. M.; Afzan, Adlin; Yaakob, Harisun; Aziz, Ramlan; Sarmidi, Mohamad R.; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Prieto, Jose M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and anti-migratory effects of Ficus deltoidea L. on prostate cancer cells, identify the active compound/s and characterize their mechanism of actions. Two farmed varieties were studied, var. angustifolia (FD1) and var. deltoidea (FD2). Their crude methanolic extracts were partitioned into n-hexane (FD1h, FD2h) chloroform (FD1c, FD2c) and aqueous extracts (FD1a, FD2a). Antiproliferative fractions (IC50 < 30 μg/mL, SRB staining of PC3 cells) were further fractionated. Active compound/s were dereplicated using spectroscopic methods. In vitro mechanistic studies on PC3 and/or LNCaP cells included: annexin V-FITC staining, MMP depolarization measurements, activity of caspases 3 and 7, nuclear DNA fragmentation and cell cycle analysis, modulation of Bax, Bcl-2, Smac/Diablo, and Alox-5 mRNA gene expression by RT-PCR. Effects of cytotoxic fractions on 2D migration and 3D invasion were tested by exclusion assays and modified Boyden chamber, respectively. Their mechanisms of action on these tests were further studied by measuring the expression VEGF-A, CXCR4, and CXCL12 in PC3 cells by RT-PCR. FD1c and FD2c extracts induced cell death (P < 0.05) via apoptosis as evidenced by nuclear DNA fragmentation. This was accompanied by an increase in MMP depolarization (P < 0.05), activation of caspases 3 and 7 (P < 0.05) in both PC3 and LNCaP cell lines. All active plant extracts up-regulated Bax and Smac/DIABLO, down-regulated Bcl-2 (P < 0.05). Both FD1c and FD2c were not cytotoxic against normal human fibroblast cells (HDFa) at the tested concentrations. Both plant extracts inhibited both migration and invasion of PC3 cells (P < 0.05). These effects were accompanied by down-regulation of both VEGF-A and CXCL-12 gene expressions (P < 0.001). LC–MS dereplication using taxonomy filters and molecular networking databases identified isovitexin in FD1c; and oleanolic acid, moretenol, betulin, lupenone, and lupeol in FD2c. In conclusion

  7. CO2 uptake of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. whole trees and single cladodes, in relation to plant water status and cladode age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Liguori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of net photosynthesis determinations in Opuntia ficus-indica come from measurements on individual cladodes. However, they have limitations when used to scale up to whole canopy gas exchange, because a large variability of carbon assimilation may occur within the canopy, due to, among others, differences in cladode age and intercepted radiation or individual cladode response to abiotic stresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of open gas exchange chambers, simultaneously applied around the whole canopy, to measure net CO2 uptake, continuously over a 24 h period, in single Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. potted trees and in relation with their water status. Net CO2 uptake was also measured for single cladodes differentiated by age. O. ficus-indica trees continued their photosynthetic activity 60 days after the irrigation was stopped, when soil water content was lower than 5%. At this stage, current-year and 1-year-old cladodes had become flaccid but still the daily net CO2 uptake of non-irrigated trees kept the same rate than at the beginning of the experiment, while watered trees had doubled their net CO2 uptake. The highest instantaneous rates and total daily net CO2 uptake for both well-watered and non-irrigated trees occurred 60 days after the onset of the dry period, when maximal instantaneous rates were 11.1 in well-watered trees and 8.4 mol m–2 s–1 in non-irrigated trees. During the drought period, the chlorenchyma fresh weight decreased by 45% and 30%, in 1- and 2-yearold drought cladodes respectively, and marginally increased in currentyear ones (+20%. Net CO2 uptake for 1-year-old and 2-year-old cladodes changed only at highest photosynthetic photon flux density and temperatures, and average seasonal net CO2 uptake of 2-year-old cladodes was 15% lower than for 1-year-old ones. Whole-tree gas exchange measurements applied for the first time to O. ficus-indica indicated that whole cactus pear trees maintain

  8. Vegetation and plant food reconstruction of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, using modern analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Sandi R

    2007-08-01

    Vegetation and plant foods for hominins of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge were modeled by examining vegetation in modern habitats in northern Tanzania (Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro, Serengeti) that are analogous to the paleolandscape in terms of climate, land forms, and soil types, as indicated by previous paleoenvironmental studies of Olduvai. Plant species in the modern habitats were identified in a series of sample plots, and those known to be eaten by modern humans, chimpanzees, or baboons were considered potentially edible for early hominins. Within the 50-80 kyr deposition of lowermost Bed II, periods of drier climate were characterized by low lake stands and a broad eastern lacustrine plain containing a mosaic of springs, marsh, woodland, and edaphic grassland. Based on results of this study, plant food diversity in each of those habitats was relatively low, but the mosaic nature of the area meant that hominins could reach several different habitat types within short distances, with access to potential plant foods including marsh plants, grass grains, roots, shrub fruits, edible parts from palms, leafy herbaceous plants, and Acacia pods, flowers, and gum. Based on Manyara analogs, a greater variety of plant foods, such as tree fruits (e.g., Ficus, Trichilia) and the roots and fruits of shrubs (e.g., Cordia, Salvadora) would be expected further east along the rivers in the lacustrine terrace and alluvial fans. Interfluves of the alluvial fans were probably less wooded and offered relatively fewer varieties of plant foods, but there is sparse paleoenvironmental evidence for the character of Olduvai's alluvial fans, making the choice of appropriate modern analogs difficult. In the western side of the basin, based on modern analogs in the Serengeti, riverine habitats provided the greatest variety of edible plant food species (e.g., Acacia, Grewia, Justicia). If the interfluves were grassland, then a large variety of potentially edible grasses and forbs were present

  9. Influences of elevated CO[sub 2] on CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production for the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica were studied at the current and two elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations (plus 150 and plus 350 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]) in open-top chambers over a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 49% and 84% higher, respectively, than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Nine weeks after the first-daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35% and 49% higher, respectively, in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Despite significantly lower chlorophyll contents (19% and 62%, respectively) in the first-daughter cladodes, biomass production over 23 weeks in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 22% and 50% higher, respectively, than for plants at the current CO[sub 2].

  10. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  11. Dependence of leaf surface potential response of a plant (Ficus Elastica) to light irradiation on room temperature; Shokubutsu (gomunoki) hamen den`i no hikari shosha oto no shitsuon izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In order to clarify plant body potential information, study was made on a leaf surface potential response to light irradiation. The leaf surface potential change, total transpiration and transpiration rate of Ficus Elastica were measured using light irradiation period and room temperature as parameters. The leaf surface potential change shows a positive peak after the start of light irradiation, while a negative peak after its end. Arrival time to both peaks is constant regardless of the light irradiation period, while decrease with an increase in room temperature. Although the total transpiration increases with room temperature, this tendency disappears with an increase in light irradiation period. The transpiration rate shows its peak after the start of light irradiation. Arrival time to the peak is saturated with the light irradiation period of 60min, while decreases with an increase in room temperature. These results suggest that opening of stomata becomes active with an increase in room temperature, and the peak of the leaf surface potential after the start of light irradiation relates to the opening. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Authenticity of Ficus Hispida as a Local Traditional Product in the Lembah Lenggong World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz Siti Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lembah Lenggong is a place well known amongst locals as an archaeological site; the valley has been attested as a World Heritage Site. There is an overwhelming variety of plant species that are uniquely used in their cultural and traditional cuisines including Ficus hispida (Senia. Ficus hispida is a well-known species restricted to the native people in Lembah Lenggong. It is recognized as one of the plants used specifically in the traditional cuisine of the locals, especially amongst the old folks. The plant leaves are a major part of a local traditional dish called ‘Masak Pindang’. The fruit of Ficus hispida is also edible, and consumed locally in candied form (halwa. In their traditional herbal remedies, Ficus hispida is used in treating wounds and as a medicine in post and pre natal care (maternal remedies. The desired outcome of this study is to emphasize and promote this specific species as one of the more unique products of Lembah Lenggong in a tourism aspect. The traditional knowledge and practices involving the use of Ficus hispida should be cherished and treasured by future generations to retain the authenticity of their local traditional and cultural products in the light of the awakening tourism industry.

  13. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia - PB. Starting from sick cladodes isolations, multiplications and identifications of the found microorganisms were made. The identification of the microorganisms was achieved through observations of the macro and micromorphological characteristics of the cultures and tests of Gram and pathogenicity. Great incidence and diversity of microorganisms was verified in the cacti researched, but the highest occurrence was mainly that of fungus. The fungi of widest occurrence were: Scytallidium lignicola, Alternate tenuis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Exserohilum turcicum, Pestalotia pitospora, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaceloma protearum. A bacterium was also detected that was suspected to belong to the Erwinia sp. strain. Satisfaction of the Postulates of Koch proved the infectious nature of the detected microorganisms. High occurrence of the fungus S. lignicola, an agent of scale rot disease in 100% of the places researched, was observed. This fact is of great concern, since the progression of the disease can cause significant losses in production.

  14. Influences of soil volume and an elevated CO[sub 2] level on growth and CO[sub 2] exchange for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Luo, Y. (UCLA-DOE Lab., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the current (38 Pa) and an elevated (74 Pa) CO[sub 2] partial pressure on root and shoot areas, biomass accumulation and daily net CO[sub 2] exchange were determined for opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, a highly productive Crassulacean acid metabolism species cultivated worldwide. Plants were grown in environmentally controlled rooms for 18 weeks in pots of three soil volumes (2600, 6500 and 26000 cm[sup 3]), the smallest of which was intended to restrict root growth. For plants in the medium-sized soil volume, basal cladodes tended to be thicker and areas of main and lateral roots tended to be greater as the CO[sub 2] level was doubled. Daughter cladodes tended to be initiated sooner at the current compared with the elevated CO[sub 2] level but total areas were similar by 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for the three soil volumes averaged 24% higher for plants growing under elevated compared with current CO-2 levels, but at 18 weeks only 3% enhancement in uptake occurred. Dry weight gain was enhanced 24% by elevated CO[sub 2] during the first 10 weeks but only 8% over 18 weeks. Increasing the soil volume 10-fold led to a greater stimulation of daily net CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production than did doubling the CO[sub 2] level. At 18 weeks, root biomass doubled and shoot biomass nearly doubled as the soil volume was increased 10-fold; the effects of soil volume tended to be greater for elevated CO[sub 2]. The amount of cladode nitrogen per unit dry weight decreased as the CO[sub 2] level was raised and increased as soil volume increased, the latter suggesting that the effects of soil volume could be due to nitrogen limitations. (au) (30 refs.)

  15. Prospects in the use of Ficus polita as a local ruminant feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate as well as the mineral compositions of Ficus polita and some anti nutritional factors were determined in order to justify the local use of this plant as a feedstuff especially for ruminant animals and to establish the possible wide scale utilization of this plant in the feed industry. The proximate, mineral and ...

  16. Atucha II nuclear power plant digital simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santome, D.; Rovere, L.A.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the start-up of a digital simulation code apt to be performed in real time of Atucha II nuclear power plant, foreseeing its subsequent usage in a Basic Principles Simulator. Adaptability and modification of existing routines and development of modules in order to incorporate the necessary variables dynamics to couple the different modes, were the main tasks. The mathematical model used allows the representation of the following sub-systems: a) a reactor's core point model, which comprehends the neutronic kinetics, fission and decaying powers, thermal transfer and Xe-poisoning calculation; b) pressurizer, which considers two sub-systems that may or may not be in thermodynamic equilibrium, both in two phases; c) coolants and moderators bonds considering separate moderator loops with the aim of introducing asymmetric perturbations; d) secondary sub-subsystem, which includes the feed water loop, pumps, steam generators and control valves; e) steam generators; f) control and safety systems, including power control, steam generators levels, moderator's temperature primary loop system, limitations and protection. (Author)

  17. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  18. Isolated Ficus trees deliver dual conservation and development benefits in a rural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee-Jones, H Eden W; Bajpai, Omesh; Chaudhary, Lal B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Many of the world's rural populations are dependent on the local provision of economically and medicinally important plant resources. However, increasing land-use intensity is depleting these resources, reducing human welfare, and thereby constraining development. Here we investigate a low cost strategy to manage the availability of valuable plant resources, facilitated by the use of isolated Ficus trees as restoration nuclei. We surveyed the plants growing under 207 isolated trees in Assam, India, and categorized them according to their local human-uses. We found that Ficus trees were associated with double the density of important high-grade timber, firewood, human food, livestock fodder, and medicinal plants compared to non-Ficus trees. Management practices were also important in determining the density of valuable plants, with grazing pressure and land-use intensity significantly affecting densities in most categories. Community management practices that conserve isolated Ficus trees, and restrict livestock grazing and high-intensity land-use in their vicinity, can promote plant growth and the provision of important local resources.

  19. Ficus carica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... enhancement of oxidation resistance, antibiotic effects, antiviral properties, and ... antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, and purified from fig leaves. ... Fungi were obtained from the National Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant ... inhibition around the cup with the antifungal samples. RESULTS AND ...

  20. Modernization of computer of plant Vandellos-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente Arias, E. de la

    2014-01-01

    The Plant computer from the nuclear de Vandellos II, whose modernization process will carry out Westinghouse, is a centralized system which performs monitoring and supervision in real time of plant processes and which performs the calculations necessary for an efficient assessment of plant operation, without performing any action on it. Its main function is to provide current and historical information on the status of the plant, both in normal operation and emergency conditions. (Author)

  1. Ficus religiosa L. (English: Peepal tree or sacred fig; Hindi: Pippal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ficus religiosa L. (English: Peepal tree or sacred fig; Hindi: Pippal) of Moraceae is a large deciduous tree that grows wild as well as cultivated. The picture shows the tree with fresh flush of leaves. The tree is planted chiefly near the temples by Hindus and Buddhists who regard it as sacred. The characteristic heart-shaped ...

  2. Micropropagation of Ficus religiosa L. via leaf explants and comparative evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in the micropropagated and conventionally grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, Priyanka; Gill, Anita Rani

    2014-10-01

    A high-frequency, season-independent, in vitro regeneration of Ficusreligiosa was developed, followed by comparative acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChEI) activity assay of the in vitro raised and conventionally grown plants. The use of AChEI activity is the most accepted strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Fully expanded, mature leaves were cut into different segments to initiate the cultures. The middle section of the leaf in vertical orientation with cut portion inserted inside the medium was found most suitable for direct shoot regeneration. Leaf explants responded with nearly consistent frequency (60-66.67 %) throughout the year. To obtain high frequency response with enhanced shoot multiplication rate, 32 plant growth regulator regimes were screened amongst which benzylaminopurine at 5.0 mg/l was found most suitable, yielding 100 % response and maximum number of shoots per explant (7.93); same concentration was also most supportive for repeated multiplication (6.53 shoots). The quality of the shoots and multiplication rate could be significantly enhanced (24.35 shoots) when adenine sulphate, glutamine and phloroglucinol, in an optimised concentration, were additionally supplemented. The clonal nature of the micropropagated plants was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. A comparative analysis of AChEI activity was carried out amongst the methanolic extracts of stem segments of the mother plant, randomly selected seedlings of different age (4 and 6 months old) of the same mother plant and randomly selected micropropagated plants of different age (3 and 6 months age). The mother plant sample showed effective AChEI activity, with IC 50 of 66.46 μg/ml while seedlings, of different age groups, performed poorly (6-month-old seedlings, Se-1 6M , yielded IC 50 of 20,538.46 μg/ml, while two randomly selected 4 months' aged seedlings, Se-2 4M and Se-3 4M exhibited IC 50 of 19,341.03 and 24,281.70 μg/ml). On the other hand

  3. Construction technique for a chemical plant (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book deals with design and construction for a chemical plant which includes design and building of steel structure for a chemical plant with types, basic regulation, plan, shop fabrication for steel structure and field construction. It explains design and construction of making building for a chemical construction with measurement, types of building and basic rule of the building, design of the building, constructing plumbing for a chemical plant with plan, management of material, checking for construction, construction of electrical installation on plan, know-how to construction and maintenance.

  4. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducte...

  5. Action of mercury in plant mitosis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente, R

    1972-01-01

    The cytological abnormalities induced by mercurochrome on mitosis and meiosis of Allium cepa are studied and the capacity of the chemical agent to induce c-mitosis is shown. Inhibition of the cytokinetic process as well as alterations of the nucleoli and pollen-mother cells (from pachytene to division II) have also been observed. These cytological effects may be ascribed to the affinity of the mercurial compounds for the thyolic groups existing in the nucleoproteins and protoplasmic proteins, with the subsequent inhibitory effect on the enzymatic mechanisms.

  6. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  7. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  8. An ethnobotanical study of the less known wild edible figs (genus Ficus) native to Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yinxian; Hu, Huabin; Xu, Youkai; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-09-24

    The genus Ficus, collectively known as figs, is a key component of tropical forests and is well known for its ethnobotanical importance. In recent decades an increasing number of studies have shown the indigenous knowledge about wild edible Ficus species and their culinary or medicinal value. However, rather little is known about the role of these species in rural livelihoods, because of both species and cultural diversity. In this study we 1) collected the species and ethnic names of wild edible Ficus exploited by four cultural groups in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China, and 2) recorded the collection activities and modes of consumption through semi-structured interviews, 3) investigated the resource management by a statistical survey of their field distribution and cultivation, and 4) compared and estimated the usage intensities by the grading method. The young leaves, leaf buds and young or ripe syconia of 13 Ficus species or varieties are traditionally consumed. All the species had fixed and usually food-related ethnic names. All four cultural groups are experienced in the collection and use of edible Ficus species as vegetables, fruits or beverages, with the surplus sold for cash income. Different cultural groups use the Ficus species at different intensities because of differences in availability, forest dependency and cultural factors. Both the mountain and basin villagers make an effort to realize sustainable collection and meet their own and market needs by resource management in situ or cultivation. In comparison with reports from other parts of the world, ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna exploited more edible Ficus species for young leaves or leaf buds. Most of the edible species undergo a gradient of management intensities following a gradient of manipulation from simple field gathering to ex situ cultivation. This study contributes to our understanding of the origins and diffusion of the knowledge of perception, application and managing a group of

  9. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  10. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M Bhanushali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test, convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT. Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1 a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2 significant muscle relaxant activity; (3 a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4 a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5 a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6 increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.

  12. Structure and membrane organization of photosystem II in green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Barber, J; Boekema, EJ

    1997-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is the pigment protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that uses solar energy to drive the photosynthetic water-splitting reaction. This chapter reviews the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of PSII as

  13. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereiche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J.; Croce, Roberta; Kereïche, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II ( PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it

  14. Ficus Deltoidea: A potential source for new oral antidiabetic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Shafii Khamis; Muhajir Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas Cotek is one of the common medicinal plant used in Malaysia. Ethno botanical approaches showed that this plant possess antidiabetic property. Previous study had shown that F. deltoidea reduced hyperglycemia in type I diabetic rats at different prandial state. This study was done to elucidate the possible antihyperglycemic mechanisms of F. deltoidea. The results showed that F. deltoidea significantly stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells with the highest magnitude of stimulation was 7.31-fold (p 50 value was 4.15±0.25 mg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme activity revealed the F. deltoidea exhibited a mixed-type inhibition mechanism against sucrase activity. Such observations showed that F. deltoidea has the potential to be developed as new oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (author)

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prelimlinary phytochemical screening of Ficus exasperata root bark showed that it contains saponin, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and reducing sugar with no traces of tannin and anthraquinone. The results of the study provide scientific basis for developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal formulation in future.

  16. First plastid phylogenomic study reveals potential cyto-nuclear discordance in the evolutionary history of Ficus L. (Moraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Lund, Sam; Clement, Wendy; Kjellberg, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Standard Sanger chloroplast markers provide limited information to resolve species level relationships within plants, in particular within large genera. Figs (Ficus L., Moraceae) compose one of the 50 largest genera of angiosperms with 750 species occurring in the tropics and subtropics worldwide...... to all other Ficus. However, conflicts between the new plastome topology and previous nuclear studies are observed for both individual species as well as relationships among some sections at deeper levels. Conflicts could be caused by lack of resolution in the nuclear data or may indicate potential cyto...

  17. In vitro studies on the hypoglycemic potential of Ficus racemosa stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-02-01

    Medicinal plants have been reported to play an important role in modulating glycemic responses and have preventive and therapeutic implications. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the antidiabetic effect of medicinal plants such as inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, manipulation of glucose transporters, beta-cell regeneration and enhancing insulin-releasing activity. The present investigation evaluated the possible mechanism of action through which Ficus racemosa stem bark (Moraceae) exerts its hypoglycemic effect using suitable in vitro techniques. Ficus racemosa bark (FRB) exhibited significantly higher (P FRB, as reflected by a significantly lower (P system containing FRB compared to the control and acarbose. Furthermore, FRB significantly increased (P < or = 0.01) the rate of glucose transport across the yeast cell membrane and also in isolated rat hemi-diaphragm. The findings indicate F. racemosa bark to possess strong hypoglycemic effect and hence can be utilized as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  19. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid ...

  20. Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation.

  1. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Ch...

  2. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  3. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhao

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species and fig wasps (Agaonidae, any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated.

  4. Effects Of Ficus Thonningii Extracts On The Gastrointestinal Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ficus thonningii is commonly used in traditional medicine across the African continent. We investigated the effects of crude Ficus thonningii extracts on growth, morphology and morphometry of the abdominal viscera and clinical biochemistry of neonatal rats. Materials and Methods: Forty, 6-day old Sprague ...

  5. Sub-Chronic Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stem bark of Ficus sycomorus is used traditionally for cure of fungal infection, jaundice and dysentery in some parts of northern Nigeria. The leaves of Ficus sycomorus were collected, dried and extracted to screen for some phytochemicals and study its effect on liver and kidney functions in experimental rats.

  6. Multifrequency tests in the EBR-II reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.E.; Mohr, D.; Gross, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    A series of eight multifrequency tests was conducted on the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. In half of the tests a control rod was oscillated and in the other half the controller input voltage to the intermediate-loop-sodium pump was perturbed. In each test the input disturbance consisted of several superimposed single-frequency sinusoidal harmonics of the same fundamental. The tests are described along with the theoretical and practical aspects of their development and design. Samples of measured frequency responses are also provided for both the reactor and the power plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Ficus cornelisiana, a new species of Ficus subsection Urostigma (Moraceae) from the Sino-himalayan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chantarasuwan, B.; Peng, Y.-Q.; Baas, P.; Rasplus, J.-Y.; Heuven, van B.-J.; Welzen, van P.C.

    2014-01-01

    A small fig tree has been misidentified as Ficus orthoneura for a long time. However, morphologically it is distinct from F. orthoneura and F. hookeriana. Typical are the ellipsoid, puberulous receptacle and caducous basal bracts. Leaf anatomy shows a multiple epidermis with the cells in the inner

  8. Reactor building design of nuclear power plant ATUCHA II, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufino, R.E.; Hermann, E.R.; Richter, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented the civil engineering project carried out by the joint venture Hochtief - Techint-Bignoli (HTB) for the reactor building at the Atucha II power plant (PHWR of 745 MWe) in Buenos Aires. All the other civil projects at Atucha II are also being carried out by HTB. This building has the same general characteristics of the PWR plants developed by KWU in Germany, known for the spherical steel containment 56m in diameter. Nevertheless, it differs from those principally in the equipment lay-out and the remarkable foundation depth. From the basic engineering provided by ENACE, the joint venture has had to face the challenge of designing a tridimensional structure of large size. This has necessitated using simplified models which had to be superimposed, since the use of only one spatial mode would be highly inadequate, lacking the flexibility necessary to absorb the numerous modifications that this type of project undergoes during construction. In addition, this procedure has eliminated resorting to numerous and costly computer processings. (Author) [pt

  9. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  10. Electrochemical Microsensors for the Detection of Cadmium(II and Lead(II Ions in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krystofova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Routine determination of trace metals in complex media is still a difficult task for many analytical instruments. The aim of this work was to compare three electro-chemical instruments [a standard potentiostat (Autolab, a commercially available miniaturized potentiostat (PalmSens and a homemade micropotentiostat] for easy-to-use and sensitive determination of cadmium(II and lead(II ions. The lowest detection limits (hundreds of pM for both metals was achieved by using of the standard potentiostat, followed by the miniaturized potentiostat (tens of nM and the homemade instrument (hundreds of nM. Nevertheless, all potentiostats were sensitive enough to evaluate contamination of the environment, because the environmental limits for both metals are higher than detection limits of the instruments. Further, we tested all used potentiostats and working electrodes on analysis of environmental samples (rainwater, flour and plant extract with artificially added cadmium(II and lead(II. Based on the similar results obtained for all potentiostats we choose a homemade instrument with a carbon tip working electrode for our subsequent environmental experiments, in which we analyzed maize and sunflower seedlings and rainwater obtained from various sites in the Czech Republic.

  11. Flavones from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Daniel F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavones, 5 -hydroxy -7,5' -dimethoxy -3',4' -methylenedioxyflavone and 5 -hydroxy -7,3',5' -trimethoxy -4' -(3,3 -dimethylallyloxy flavone, as well as three known flavones: 5,6,7,3',4',5' -hexamethoxyflavone, 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4' -trimethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone and 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4',5' -tetramethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone were isolated from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data.

  12. Modernization of computer of plant Vandellos-II; Modernizacion del ordenador de planta de Vandello-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Arias, E. de la

    2014-07-01

    The Plant computer from the nuclear de Vandellos II, whose modernization process will carry out Westinghouse, is a centralized system which performs monitoring and supervision in real time of plant processes and which performs the calculations necessary for an efficient assessment of plant operation, without performing any action on it. Its main function is to provide current and historical information on the status of the plant, both in normal operation and emergency conditions. (Author)

  13. Compositional and structural changes in Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica with pretreatment: Effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and second generation ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, Benard Anayo; Erkurt, Emrah Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Two different plants namely Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica were used as substrate for reducing sugar generation and ethanol production. Dilute acid, alkaline and steam explosion were used as pretreatment methods in order to depolymerize lignin and/or hemicellulose and recover cellulose. By using alkaline pretreatment with 2.5% NaOH 71.08% for P. canariensis and 74.61% for O. ficus-indica lignin removal and 81.84% for P. canariensis and 72.66% for O. ficus-indica cellulose recovery yields were obtained. Pretreated materials were hydrolyzed by cellulase with high efficiency (87.0% and 84.5% cellulose conversion yields for P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica) and used as substrate for fermentation. Maximum ethanol production of 15.75g/L and 14.71g/L were achieved from P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica respectively. Structural differences were observed by XRD, FTIR and SEM for untreated, pretreated, hydrolyzed and fermented samples and were highly correlated with compositional analysis results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Felling Ficus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Whitaker, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    ethnographic techniques to assess the attudes of villagers towards fig trees in the village of Komargoan and its surroundings in Assam, India. As reported for other parts of South Asia, we found fig trees have significant sacred status, which included taboos against cutng them down. However, we discovered...... mixed and sometmes contradictory understandings of the religious atributes of fig trees, which were sometmes believed to be inhabited by gods or ancestral spirits. The benefits most commonly associated with fig trees by interviewees were their aesthetc beauty, large size, and shade during the daytme...... heat. When the presence of these trees incurred economic costs, their religious, aesthetc, and practcal benefits were not sufficient reasons to prevent people from cutng them down, although often saplings would be planted in another place as compensaton. Unexpectedly, figs were only planted...

  15. Crop quality control system: a tool to control the visual quality of pot plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: quality, growth, model, leaf unfolding rate, internode, plant height, plant width, leaf area, temperature, plant spacing, season, light, development, image processing, grading, neural network, pot plant, Ficus benjamina

  16. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  17. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-10-07

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C(2)S(2)M(2) at 12 A resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching.

  18. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) fruit juice protects against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HICHEM

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... A putative beneficial effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear ... peroxidation levels were also increased in animals given ethanol compared to the controls. ..... mechanisms are suggested in this study to explain the.

  19. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Activity of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blanco Leaf Extracts Against Human Prostate Cancer Cell. Lines ... Keywords: Ficus pseudopalma, Cytotoxicity, Apopotic, human prostate PRST2 cancer cell, Lupeol,. Quercetin. ..... apoptosis through Fas-receptor mediated pathway in a ...

  20. Changes in activities of tissues enzymes in rats administered Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the effects of methanolic extract of Ficus exasperata leaf on the ... measuring the levels of some key enzymes in ... powder using an electrical blender. .... of the cells at these doses. .... activities and acute toxicity of a stem.

  1. Ficus deltoidea Standardization: Analytical Methods for Bioactive Markers in Deltozide Tablet 200 MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Zainah Adam; Rosniza Razali

    2016-01-01

    Standardization of herbal materials based on their chemical and biological profile is an important prerequisite for development of herbal product. The phyto pharmaceutical product that has been developed by Medical Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency is DELTOZIDE TABLET 200 MG containing 200 mg of spray-dried aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea var kunstleri leaf as the active ingredient. Ficus deltoidea Jack or locally known as Mas Cotek is a South East Asian native plant traditionally used to treat several diseases. Pharmacological data showed that this plant exhibited good antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is important to establish the chemical profiles and determine the phytochemicals content of this plant as it is popularly used in traditional medicines. Thus, the present study reports on the comprehensive phytochemicals evaluation of bioactive markers from this extract for the development of DELTOZIDE TABLET 200 MG . Characterization of extract using LCMS/ MS Triple TOF System showed the presence of major constituents representing vitexin, isovitexin, gallic acid, catechinic, api genin, epicatechin and caffeoylquinic acid along with other minor constituents. The extract was standardized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using two pharmacologically active markers, vitexin and isovitexin. Furthermore, qualitative determination of phytochemicals showed the presence of important phyto-constituents namely anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids and phenols in the aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea. Quantitative determination of phytochemicals revealed that the amount of total phenolic content (TPC; Gallic acid as standard) and total flavonoid content (TFC; Quercetin as standard) were 126.67±3.98 mg GAE/ g extract and 9.08±0.36 mg QE/ g extract respectively. The generated data provides some explanation for its wide usage in

  2. Evolution of fruit traits in Ficus subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Rhett D.; Rønsted, Nina; Xu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Fig trees are a ubiquitous component of tropical rain forests and exhibit an enormous diversity of ecologies. Focusing on Ficus subgenus Sycomorus, a phenotypically diverse and ecologically important Old World lineage, we examined the evolution of fruit traits using a molecular phylogeny construc......, such as flowering phenology, nutrient economy, and habitat preference. Thus, plant life-history, both directly and through its influence on fig placement, appears to have played a prominent role in determining fruit traits in these figs....

  3. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karym El-Mostafa; Youssef El Kharrassi; Asmaa Badreddine; Pierre Andreoletti; Joseph Vamecq; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Gérard Lizard; Boubker Nasser; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vit...

  4. HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The HYLIFE-II inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets, to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-II avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li 2 BeF 4 ) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. In addition, although not adequately considered for HYLIFE-I, there is liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, at higher repetition rates than 1 Hz. Splash removal is accomplished in the central region by oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW·h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost, that is, a zero cost driver would give a calculated cost of electricity of 0.045 $/kWh

  5. HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The HYLIFE-II inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets, to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-II avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li 2 BeF 4 ) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 Gj from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. In addition, although not adequately considered for HYLIFE-I, there is liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, at higher repetition rates than 1 Hz. Splash removal is accomplished in the central region by oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW·h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost, that is, a zero cost driver would give a calculated cost of electricity of 0.045 $/kWh

  6. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  7. Ficus benjamina grown on pot with ebb-flood; Primo ciclo di coltivazione di Ficus benjamina con tecnica Ebb-Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The trial was carried out in 1994 in the experimental station at Tavazzano.The aim was to evaluate the production of Ficus Benjamina grown on pot with Ebb-Flood (closed system) and with a traditional technique. The trial started at february 8 and ended, after 154 days of cultivation, at june 29. Salinity an nutritional aspects of the soil solution were controlled during the cultural cycle, by means water extract analysis, taking into account the upper, medium end lower layers of the substrate in the pot, and also the growth of the plant at different ages during the cultivation, were considered. At the end of the trail the plants grown with Ebb-Flood technique showed a better development (vegetative mass and length) than those grown traditionally, with an higher commercial value.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  9. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Pattern-recognition system application to EBR-II plant-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Radtke, W.H.; Mott, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-based pattern-recognition system, the System State Analyzer (SSA), is being used as part of the EBR-II plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. The SSA is used for surveillance of the EBR-II primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps, and plant heat balances. Early results of this surveillance indicate that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals, and can provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed critical sensors. These results are being used in planning for extended-life operation of EBR-II

  11. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  12. STRUKTUR ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT KAYU DAN AKAR GANTUNG BERINGIN (FICUS BENJAMINA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. is one of typical fast growing tree species which are commonly found in Indonesia. The trees grow with hanging roots which grow larger and often can merged with the main stem, then its timber is not optimally utilized. This paper studies the anatomical structure and fiber quality of main stem and large, medium, and small diameter of hanging roots of beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. tree. Anatomical structure was observed macroscopically and microscopically, while fiber dimensions were measured from macerated samples. The results show that the anatomical structure pattern of the roots is similar with those of main stem, however the quantity and dimension of anatomical components of hanging roots are smaller and shorter than components of main stem. Likewise, the fiber dimensions of roots are shorter and thinner than those taken from the main stem. Based on fiber dimensions and its derivative value, beringin wood fibers are classified into class quality II for pulp and paper. The creamy white color with white streaky figure of beringin wood from main stem is recommended for indoor decoration products such as wooden venetian blind, while the small roots are recommended for strap or webbing material crafts.

  13. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchakivska Yu. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the salinity and osmotic stress tolerance by plant survival test in presence of NaCl and PEG in different concentrations. Results. Transgenic plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II gene (transcription proved for 60–100 % were obtained by agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic carrot plant extracts inhibited the growth of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria strains but exhibited no antifungal activity. Survival level of transgenic plants under the salinity and osmotic stress effect was definitely higher comparing to the untransgenic ones. The analysis of the photosynthetic pigment content in the transgenic carrot plants showed no significant difference of this parameter under salinity stress that may indicate a possible protective activity of the recombinant protein. Conclusions. The obtained in our study transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express the recombinant thaumatin II gene were characterized by antibacterial activity and increased tolerance to salinity and osmotic stress factors.

  14. Parametric cost analysis of a HYLIFE-II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code was adapted to model a power plant using a HYLIFE-2 reactor chamber. The code was then used to examine the dependence of the plant capital costs and the busbar cost of electricity (COE) on a variety of design parameters (type of driver, chamber repetition rate, and net electric power). The results show the most attractive operating space for each set of driver/target assumptions and quantify the benefits of improvements in key design parameters. The base-case plant was a 1000-MW(e) plant containing a reactor vessel driven by an induction linac heavy-ion accelerator, run at 8 Hz with a driver energy of 6.73 MJ and a target yield of 350 MJ. The total direct cost for this plant was $2.6 billion. (All costs in this paper are given in equivalent 1988 dollars.) The COE was 8.5 cents/(kWh). The COE and total capital costs for a 1000-MW(e) base plant are nearly independent of the chosen combination of repetition rate and driver energy for a driver operating between 4 and 10 Hz. For comparison, the COE for a coal or future fission plant would be 4.5--5.5 cents/(kWh). The COE for a 1000-MW(e) plant could be reduced to 7.5 cents/(kWh) by using advanced targets and could be cut to 6.5 cents/(kWh) with conventional targets, if the driver cost could be cut in half. There is a large economy of scale with heavy-ion-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plants. A 2000-MW(e) plant with a heavy-ion driver and a HYLIFE-2 chamber would have a COE of only 5.8 cents/(kWh)

  15. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Neffar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria, we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents on native plant community. Vegetation cover and plant diversity were assessed by calculating the number of individual plants (N, species richness (S, their ratio (N/S, Shannon index, and Evenness in prickly pear plantation plots of different ages (control, 5 and 20 years. Even if surveyed soil parameters did not differ significantly among O. ficus-indica plantations, results of ANOVA testing the effect of Opuntia plantations on native vegetation traits revealed significant variation for plant abundance (P < 0.0001, N/S ratio (P = 0.003 and vegetation cover (P < 0.0001. Vegetation cover differed significantly with both prickly-pear plantation age (P = 0.031 and seasons (P = 0.019. Tukey's tests revealed that all vegetation traits were significantly higher on prickly pear plantations than in control plots. Multiple comparisons also showed that plant abundance, N/S ratio and vegetation cover were significantly different between both young and old plantations and the controls. Prickly pear cultures facilitated the colonization and development of herbaceous species by ameliorating the severe environmental conditions. In conclusion, the facilitative effect of O. ficus-indica has been clearly demonstrated for both abundance and cover of native vegetation.

  16. Mark II containment lead plant program load evaluation and acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The report, prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, addresses the portion of the Mark II owner's program that provides a generic methodology for establishing design basis LOCA and safety relief valve loads for the lead Mark II facilities (Zimmer, Shoreham, and LaSalle), i.e., the lead plant program. The report includes an evaluation of the Mark II owner's load methodology, a description of load methodologies that we find acceptable for use in the individual plant unique assessments, and the basis for the stated conclusions

  17. Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidun Bunawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species.

  18. The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part II: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, G.L.; Piva, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the transients of thermal plant with control systems. In the companion paper forming part I of this article [G.L. Morini, S. Piva, The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part I: Mathematical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2138-2144] it has been described how a 'thermal-library' of customised blocks can be built and used, in an intuitive way, to study the transients of any kind of thermal plant. Each component of plant such as valves, boilers, and pumps, is represented by a single block. In this paper, the 'thermal-library' approach is demonstrated by the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a central heating plant of a typical apartment house during a sinusoidal variation of the external temperature. A comparison of the behaviour of such a plant with three way valve working either in flow rate or in temperature control, is presented and discussed. Finally, the results show the delaying effect of the thermal capacity of the building on the performance of the control system

  19. Comparison of hypotensive, diuretic and renal effects between cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica and furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori; El-Haskoury, Redouan; El-Menyiy, Nawal; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the diuretic, hypotensive and renal effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in two different species in oral and intravenous administration. Diuretic activity was evaluated in rats with the plant cladode gel and aqueous extract administrated orally, and was evaluated in rabbits with plant extract administered intravenously. Single and repeated doses of cladode gel or aqueous extract of cladode were tested. Urine volume and blood and urine creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated. The hypotensive effect of lyophilized extract of cladode was evaluated in rabbits. Two polyethylene PE50 catheters were used: one in the jugular vein for the infusion of the plant extract and the other in the carotid for the evaluation of the arterial pressure. The cladode gel or aqueous extract increased urine volume, creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium without significant effect on serum creatinine or blood urea. Furosemide, gel and aqueous extract of cladode insignificantly lowered plasma potassium in rats. Intravenous administration of the lyophilized extract caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure in rabbits with a significant increase in urine volume and urine sodium and potassium; the effect was dose dependent. Intravenous administration of lyophilized extract did not affect plasma sodium or potassium. Gel and aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode have a significant diuretic effect on rats, and the lyophilized extract has a diuretic and hypotensive effect on normotensive rabbits without deterioration in renal function test. Additional studies on active ingredients are essential to pave the way for clinical studies on diuretic and hypotensive effect of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF FICUS ARNOTTIANA (MIQ) LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandaker Amol; Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Ficus arnottiana was used to evaluate the analgesic activity. The above activity was evaluated using the eddy’s hot plate and heat conduction method and acetic acid induced writing in mice. The dose used for the test of activity (100, 200. 400 mg/kg i.p). The extract at all doses tested significantly (P

  1. Ficus deltoidea: A Potential Alternative Medicine for Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainah Adam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus deltoidea from the Moraceae family has been scientifically proven to reduce hyperglycemia at different prandial states. In this study, we evaluate the mechanisms that underlie antihyperglycemic action of Ficus deltoidea. The results had shown that hot aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulated insulin secretion significantly with the highest magnitude of stimulation was 7.31-fold (P<0.001. The insulin secretory actions of the hot aqueous extract involved K+ ATP channel-dependent and K+ ATP-channel-independent pathway. The extract also has the ability to induce the usage of intracellular Ca2+ to trigger insulin release. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts enhanced basal and insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipocytes cells. The extracts possess either insulin-mimetic or insulin-sensitizing property or combination of both properties during enhancing glucose uptake into such cells. Meanwhile, the hot aqueous and methanolic extracts augmented basal and insulin-stimulated adiponectin secretion from adipocytes cells. From this study, it is suggested that Ficus deltoidea has the potential to be developed as future oral antidiabetic agent.

  2. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  3. The importance of Ficus (Moraceae) trees for tropical forest restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bajpai, Omesh; Chaudhary, Lal B.

    2016-01-01

    Forest restoration is an increasingly important tool to offset and indeed reverse global deforestation rates. One low cost strategy to accelerate forest recovery is conserving scattered native trees that persist across disturbed landscapes and which may act as seedling recruitment foci. Ficus trees...... restoration agents than other remnant trees in disturbed landscapes, and therefore the conservation of these trees should be prioritized....

  4. A morphometric analysis of the genus Ficus Linn. (moraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar parameters of Ficus in Nigeria were subjected to quantitative analysis. The morphometric analysis is based on ten quantitative parameters of the leaves of species. Principal compound analysis produced six groups whose characters are described. Highly significant positive correlation exists between leaf length and ...

  5. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Tigray, a region in north Ethiopia, is a semi-arid area with limited agricultural potential ..... ficus-indica recorded in South Africa by Hugh Mciteka [31]. Younger ... camel and equines feed on cactus varieties most, compared to goats and sheep.

  6. Research Note Nutritional evaluation of Ficus thonningii Blume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Nutritional evaluation of Ficus thonningii Blume leaves as ruminant livestock feed in the Ahferom district of Tigray, Ethiopia. ... Data on foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), digestible crude protein (DCP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF), ash content and ...

  7. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  8. Modeling of the core of Atucha II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    This work is part of a Nuclear Engineer degree thesis of the Instituto Balseiro and it is carried out under the development of an Argentinean Nuclear Power Plant Simulator. To obtain the best representation of the reactor physical behavior using the state of the art tools this Simulator should couple a 3D neutronics core calculation code with a thermal-hydraulics system code. Focused in the neutronic nature of this job, using PARCS, we modeled and performed calculations of the nuclear power plant Atucha 2 core. Whenever it is possible, we compare our results against results obtained with PUMA (the official core code for Atucha 2). (author) [es

  9. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity

  10. HTGR plant availability and reliability evaluations. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, G.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Jacobsen, F.K.; Stokely, R.J.

    1976-12-01

    Information is presented in the following areas: methodology of identifying components and systems important for availability studies, failure modes and effects analyses, quantitative evaluations, comparison with experience, estimated cost of plant unavailability, and probabilistic use of interest formulas for rare events

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmalik, IA; Sule, MI; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, MI; Abdulkadir, MF; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1,...

  12. Conceptual design of China fusion power plant FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, H.

    2007-01-01

    As one of the series of fusion system design concepts developed by the FDS Team of China, FDS-II is designated to exploit and evaluate potential attractiveness of fusion energy application for the generation of electricity on the basis of conservatively advanced plasma parameters, which can be limitedly extrapolated from the successful operation of ITER. The principle of the blanket design is established in both the feasibility and potential attractiveness of technology to meet the requirement for tritium self-sufficiency, safety margin, operation economy and environment protection etc. The plasma physics and engineering parameters of FDS-II are selected on the basis of the progress in recent experiments and associated theoretical studies of magnetic confinement fusion plasma with a fusion power of 2∝3 GW. The neutron wall load of 2∝3 MW/m 2 and the surface heat flux of 0.5∝1 MW/m 2 are considered for high effective power conversion. The ''multi-modules'' scenario is adopted in the FDS-II blanket design to reduce thermal stress and electromagnetic forces under plasma disruption, with liquid metal lithium lead (LiPb) as tritium breeder, the Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material. Two options of specific liquid LiPb blanket concepts have been proposed, named the Dual-cooled Lithium Lead (DLL) breeder blanket and the Quasi-Static Lithium Lead (SLL) breeder blanket. The DLL blanket is a dual-cooled LiPb breeder system with helium gas to cool the first wall and main structure and LiPb eutectic to be self-cooled. The flow channel inserts (FCIs), e.g. SiCf/SiC composites, are designed as the thermal and electrical insulators inside the LiPb flow channels to reduce the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop and to allow the coolant LiPb outlet temperature up to 700 C for high thermal efficiency. The SLL blanket is another option of the FDS-II blanket with the technology developed relatively easily. To avoid or mitigate the

  13. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  14. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  15. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  16. Evaluation of Electrochemical Behavior of Nopal Extract (Opuntia Ficus- Indica as Possible Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Mandujano-Ruíz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main problems of degradation in components, tooling, equipment and even in structural applications, examples of this are the carbon steels. In the present work, the capacity of corrosion inhibition of a biodegradable organic extract from the Nopal plant (Opuntia ficus-indica, for the protection of carbon steel type AISI 1018 was studied adding 50% v/v of the Nopal extract (EN in a solution of H2SO4 (0.6 mol.l-1. Polarization Resistance (LPR and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques were used for the electrochemical evaluation at room temperature for 24 h in order to obtain corrosion rates (Vcorr and inhibition efficiency (IE. Metallographic examination was also carried out to register the surface damage by corrosion. The results showed a reduction of the Vcorr with a maximum IE value of about 84% by adding the organic- liquid extracted from Nopal.

  17. FITOHORMONII – MODULATORI AI ACTIVITĂŢII ENZIMELOR ANTIOXIDANTE LA PLANTE ÎN CONDIŢII DE SECETĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia ŞTEFÎRŢĂ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available În experienţe realizate în diferite condiţii de umiditate s-a demonstrat că deshidratarea plantelor de Ph.vulgaris L., cauzată de secetă, este asociată cu intensificarea formării speciilor reactive de oxigen (SRO şi a destrucţiei oxidative a structurilor celulare. Utilizarea exogenă a fitohormonilor (AIA, CK, GA3 minimizează producerea SRO şi reduce oxi­darea peroxidică a lipidelor din membranele celulare. Optimizarea capacităţii de protecţie de la stresul oxidativ sub in­fluenţa fitohormonilor este o consecinţă a ameliorării statusului apei şi a intensificării activităţii enzimelor antioxidante. THE PHYTOHORMONES – MODULATORS OF PLANTS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY IN DROUGHT CONDITIONSIn experiments conducted under different conditions of moisture has been demonstrated, that dehydration plant Ph. vulgaris L. caused by drought, is associated with intensification of reactive oxygen species formation (ROS and oxidative cell destruction. The use of exogenous phytohormones (IAA, CK, GA3 minimizes the production of ROS and of peroxide oxidation lipids. The optimization of antioxidant protection by the exogenous phytohormones is a consequence of improving the water status and enhancing of the antioxidant enzymes activity. 

  18. Nuclear power plant simulators for operator licensing and training. Part I. The need for plant-reference simulators. Part II. The use of plant-reference simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    Part I of this report presents technical justification for the use of plant-reference simulators in the licensing and training of nuclear power plant operators and examines alternatives to the use of plant-reference simulators. The technical rationale is based on research on the use of simulators in other industries, psychological learning and testing principles, expert opinion and user opinion. Part II discusses the central considerations in using plant-reference simulators for licensing examination of nuclear power plant operators and for incorporating simulators into nuclear power plant training programs. Recommendations are presented for the administration of simulator examinations in operator licensing that reflect the goal of maximizing both reliability and validity in the examination process. A series of organizational tasks that promote the acceptance, use, and effectiveness of simulator training as part of the onsite training program is delineated

  19. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, I A; Sule, M I; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, M I; Abdulkadir, M F; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400 mg kg(-1), i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100 mg kg(-1), 200 mg kg(-1), and 400 mg kg(-1) significantly (Pacetic acid induced writhes by 1.50 ± 0.43, 3.0 ± 0.82 and 1.0 ± 0.82 respectively. It also exhibited significantly (Pscreening of the plant extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins while the effect of flavonoids, steroids and tannins on analgesic and inflammatory has been reported. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD(50)) value of the extract was found to be 3807.8 mgkg(-1) body weights. The result obtained from this study shows that the extract of Ficus iteophylla contained phytochemical constituents with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, therefore the leaf part of the plant could be used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtee Wani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a cost effective and eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (F-AuNPs using aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa as the reducing and stabilizing agent. These nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as UV-Vis, XRD, TEM and FTIR. The characteristic surface plasmon peak was observed at 540 nm while XRD analysis suggested it to be a face-centered cubic (fcc structure with peaks at 38.06, 44.46, 64.75 and 77.56. FTIR studies indicated the capping of the nanoparticles with polyphenols, amines and carboxylates present in the extract of Ficus religiosa whereas TEM analysis showed spherical morphology with other shapes such as triangles and hexagons. The F-AuNPs were found to be non-toxic to HEK 293 cells, thereby suggesting their potential application in the field of nanobiotechnology.

  1. Chemical Constituents and Antifungal Activity of Ficus hirta Vahl. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2, five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3–7, three flavonoids (8–10, and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4–6, and 8–11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits, showed good antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the phytopathogen of citrus blue mold caused the majority rotten of citrus fruits.

  2. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D'Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca 2+ for muscle contraction. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50

  3. Anatomía de la agalla en Ficus benjamina (Moraceae asociada a "thrips" (Tubulifera: Phlaeothripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las agallas son reconocidas generalmente como crecimientos anormales de los tejidos afectados por insectos cuando estos realizan la deposición de los huevecillos o se alimentan de los tejidos de la planta. En Ficus benjamina la acción del thrips Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi al alimentarse de los tejidos de la hoja, provoca una agalla que consiste en el doblamiento de la hoja. En este trabajo se analizó la ultraestructura de secciones de hojas sanas y hojas con agallas de F. benjamina mediante el uso de la microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se analizó la cantidad de estomas por área y no se determinó alteración significativa, aunque se observa menor cantidad de cera cuticular en la superficie del área afectada por la agalla. En la zona de la hoja afectada por G. garitacambroneroi se observó bacilos y hongos y huevecillos de otros organismos, aparentemente invasores. Además, en los tejidos internos de las hojas con agallas se pudo determinar problemas de diferenciación de los mesófilos de empalizada y esponjoso, observándose sólo tejido parenquimático.Anatomy of the gall in Ficus benjamina (Moraceae associated with thrips (Tubulifera: Phlaeothripidae. The galls are generally recognized as abnormal growths of tissues affected by insects when lay the eggs or feed on plant tissues. In, Ficus benjamina the insect Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi, when feeding on leaf tissues, causes a gall which consists on the bending of the leaves. In this paper we analyzed the ultrastructure of sections of healthy leaves, and leaves with galls of F. benjamina using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We analyzed the number of stomata per area and found no significant changes, although there is less cuticular wax on the surface of the affected area by the barb. In the leaf area affected by G. garitacambroneroi, bacilli and fungi were observed and eggs of other organisms as possible invaders. Moreover, the inner tissues of leaves with galls had some

  4. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Results: Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. Conclusion: The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca2+ for muscle contraction. SUMMARY Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical

  5. Concept and structure of instrumentation and control of the Atucha II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, D.; Roca, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The general structure of instrumentation and control of Atucha II nuclear power plant as well as the technologies used, are described: concepts of functional decentralization and physical centralization; concept of functional group and functional complex; description of the technologies used (physical support) in the project of plant instrumentation and control; description of the different automation levels on the basis of concepts of control interface, automatism, regulation, group and subgroup controls; principles of signal conditioning; concept of announcement of alarms and state: supervisory computer, description of HAS (Hard wired Alarm System) and CAS (Computer Alarm System); application of the above mentioned structure to the project of another type of plants. (Author)

  6. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  7. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E.

    1990-02-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I ampersand C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Efficiency of Opuntia ficus in the phytoremediation of a soil contaminated with used motor oil and lead, compared to that of Lolium perenne and Aloe barbadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Alvarado, Luisa F; Vaca-Mier, Mabel; López-Callejas, Raymundo; Rojas-Valencia, Ma Neftalí

    2018-01-28

    Industrial pollutants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons in soils represent a serious concern due to their persistence and negative effects on the environment, affecting cellular processes in living organisms and even causing mutations and cancer. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the efficiency of Opuntia ficus in the phytoremediation of a soil polluted with used motor oil. Two other species, one with different and one with similar characteristics, relatively, were used for comparison purposes: Lolium perenne and Aloe barbadensis. The effect of the plants on lead solubility and bioaccumulation, the biomass production of each specie and the microbial counts and bacterial identification for each experiment was studied. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were measured every 5 weeks throughout the 20-week phytoremediation experiment. At the end of the experiment soluble Pb, Pb extracted by the plant species, microbiological counts, total biomass and bacterial species in soil were analyzed. Even though Lolium perenne showed the highest TPH removal (47%), Opuntia ficus produced the highest biomass and similar removal (46%). Since Opuntia ficus requires low amounts of water and grows fast, it would be a suitable option in the remediation of soils polluted with hydrocarbons and/or heavy metals.

  9. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, A.V.; Wentworth, M.; Yakushevska, A.E.; Andersson, J.; Lee, P.J.; Keegstra, W.; Dekker, J.P.; Boekema, E.J.; Jansson, S.; Horton, P.

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  10. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  11. Modification of EBR-II plant to conduct loss-of-flow-without-scram tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messick, N C; Betten, P R; Booty, W F; Christensen, L J; Fryer, R M; Mohr, D; Planchon, H P; Radtke, W H

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the details of and the philosophy behind changes made to the EBR-II plant in order to conduct loss-of-flow-without-scram tests. No changes were required to conduct loss-of-heat-sink-without-scram tests.

  12. Modification of EBR-II plant to conduct loss-of-flow-without-scram tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, N.C.; Betten, P.R.; Booty, W.F.; Christensen, L.J.; Fryer, R.M.; Mohr, D.; Planchon, H.P.; Radtke, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the details of and the philosophy behind changes made to the EBR-II plant in order to conduct loss-of-flow-without-scram tests. No changes were required to conduct loss-of-heat-sink-without-scram tests. (orig.)

  13. The xanthophylls in light-harvesting complex II of higher plants: light harvesting and triplet quenching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, E.J.G.; Gradinaru, C.C.; Calkoen, F.; Borst, J.C.; van Grondelle, R.; van Amerongen, H.

    1997-01-01

    A spectral and functional assignment of the xanthophylls in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complex II of green plants has been obtained using HPLC analysis of the pigment composition, laser-flash induced triplet- minus-singlet, fluorescence excitation, and absorption spectra. It is shown

  14. Small RNAs were involved in homozygous state-associated silencing of a marker gene (Neomycin phosphotransferase II: nptII) in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Pan, Yu; Chen, Xuqing; Chen, Guoping; Hu, Zongli

    2013-07-01

    Homozygous state-associated co-suppression is not a very common phenomenon. In our experiments, two transgenic plants 3A29 and 1195A were constructed by being transformed with the constructs pBIN-353A and pBIN119A containing nptII gene as a marker respectively. The homozygous progeny from these two independent transgenic lines 3A29 and 1195A, displayed kanamycin-sensitivity and produced a short main root without any lateral roots as untransformed control (wild-type) seedlings when germinated on kanamycin media. For the seedlings derived from putative hemizygous plants, the percentage of the seedlings showing normal growth on kanamycin media was about 50% and lower than the expected percentage (75%). Southern analysis of the genomic DNA confirmed that the homozygous and hemizygous plants derived from the same lines contained the same multiple nptII transgenes, which were located on the same site of chromosome. Northern analysis suggested that the marker nptII gene was expressed in the primary and the hemizygous transformants, but it was silenced in the homozygous transgenic plants. Further Northern analysis indicated that antisense and sense small nptII-derived RNAs were present in the transgenic plants and the blotting signal of nptII-derived small RNA was much higher in the homozygous transgenic plants than that of hemizygous transgenic plants. Additionally, read-through transcripts from the TRAMP gene to the nptII gene were detected. These results suggest that the read-through transcripts may be involved in homozygous state-associated silencing of the nptII transgene in transgenic tomato plants and a certain threshold level of the nptII-derived small RNAs is required for the homozygous state-associated co-suppression of the nptII transgene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. HYLIFE-II inertial confinement: Fusion power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li 2 BeF 4 ) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW·h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Transgenic rice plants harboring an introduced potato proteinase inhibitor II gene are insect resistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Li, X; Xue, Q; Abo-el-Saad, M; Xu, D; Wu, R

    1996-04-01

    We introduced the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PINII) gene (pin2) into several Japonica rice varieties, and regenerated a large number of transgenic rice plants. Wound-inducible expression of the pin2 gene driven by its own promoter, together with the first intron of the rice actin 1 gene (act1), resulted in high-level accumulation of the PINII protein in the transgenic plants. The introduced pin2 gene was stably inherited in the second, third, and fourth generations, as shown by molecular analyses. Based on data from the molecular analyses, several homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. Bioassay for insect resistance with the fifth-generation transgenic rice plants showed that transgenic rice plants had increased resistance to a major rice insect pest, pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens). Thus, introduction of an insecticidal proteinase inhibitor gene into cereal plants can be used as a general strategy for control of insect pests.

  17. Exergetic performance analysis of a Dora II geothermal power plant in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjehsarabi, Hadi; Gungor, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the energy sector there is an urgent need to produce energy from renewable energy sources due to the rising demand, the depletion of fossil fuels and their effects on the environment. Geothermal power is a well-established energy resource and the aim of this research was to examine the energetic performance of a geothermal power plant. The studied power plant, Dora II, has a 9.5 MW power output and is situated in Aydin, Turkey. An evaluation of the plant's performance was carried out using an exergy analysis method on each of the plant's components. Results showed that the highest exergy destruction occurs in brine re-injection while the preheater had the best exergy efficiency; the plant had an overall exergetic efficiency of 29.6%. This study highlighted the components where significant exergy destructions take place so actions could be taken to improve the overall efficiency.

  18. Authentication of Ficus Deltoidea Variety Kunstleri for Deltozide Phyto pharmaceutical Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anee Suryani Sued; Zainah Adam; Fazliana Mohd Saaya

    2016-01-01

    Plant authentication is a quality assurance process that ensures the correct plant species and plant parts are used as raw materials for herbal medicines. Identification methods employed in the authentication of herbal materials are macroscopic identification and microscopic examination. Macroscopic examination involves the comparison of morphological characters that are visible with the naked eye or under low magnification with descriptions of the plant or botanical drug in floras or monographs. Characters such as size, shape and colour of leaves (or leaf fragments), flowers or fruits are commonly used in macroscopic identification. Microscopic examination focuses on anatomical structures in the plant material that are visible only with the help of a microscope. Features such as trichome (hair) shape and structure, the arrangement of stomata in the epidermis, the presence or absence of compounds such as mucilage, starch or lignin, or the presence of tissues with characteristic cells might be used in the microscopic identifications of herbal drugs. Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has been classified into various varieties such as var. deltoidea, var. angustifolia, var.bilobata, var. intermedia, var.kunstleri, var. motleyana, and var. trengganuensis. Morphological variations and unclear boundaries between varieties can lead to the misleading identification. Thus, correct identification of F. deltoidea varieties is important. The present study aims to examine the macroscopic morphology and microscopic anatomy of F. deltoidea var. kunstleri leaf, as the main phyto-ingredient in DELTOZIDE phyto pharmaceutical product. (author)

  19. Aktivitas Antioksidan Danangiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor oleh Yogurt dengan Ekstrak Daun Ficus glomerata Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Rani Dewi Wulandani

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRAK  Ficus glomerata Roxb. telah diketahui memiliki senyawa flavonoid. Senyawa flavonoid yang terdapat didalam tanaman diketahui memiliki kemampuan sebagai antioksidan dan mampu sebagai Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor. Penelitian ini diawali dengan melakukan ekstraksi dengan menggunakan air pada daun Ficus glomerata Roxb untuk mendapatkan profil senyawa phenolik pada ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb [gallic acid, flavonol (quercetin dan rutin, flavanol (catechin, dan flavanone]. Tahap berikutnya adalah inokulasi dan perbanyakan starter yogurt untuk selanjutnya melakukan proses pembuatan yogurt dengan penambahan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb. Pengujian aktivitas antioksidan, pengujian terhadap nilai o-phthalaldehyde (OPA dan pengujan terhadap angiotensin converting enzyme I- inhibitor dilakukan terhadap yogurt dengan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama proses penyimpanan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari kemampuan aktivitas antioksidan dan Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor pada yogurt dengan penambahan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama penyimpanan (1, 7, 14, 21, dan 28 hari pada suhu 4 °C. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas antioksidan, nilai o-phthalaldehyde (OPA dan Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor pada yogurt dengan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama proses penyimpanan di dalam refrigerator (4 °C adalah lebih tinggi dan menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (p < 0,05 dibandingkan dengan plain yogurt yang mencapai optimalnya pada hari ke-7 penyimpanan. Kata kunci: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ficus glomerata Roxb; yogurt

  20. Potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors: modulating plant physiology and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, David; Lorito, Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) are a large and complex group of plant proteins. Members of the potato type I (Pin1) and II (Pin2) proteinase inhibitor families are among the first and most extensively characterized plant PIs. Many insects and phytopathogenic microorganisms use intracellular and extracellular serine proteases playing important roles in pathogenesis. Plants, however, are able to fight these pathogens through the activation of an intricate defence system that leads to the accumulation of various PIs, including Pin1 and Pin2. Several transgenic plants over-expressing members of the Pin1 and Pin2 families have been obtained in the last twenty years and their enhanced defensive capabilities demonstrated against insects, fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, Pin1 and Pin2 genetically engineered plants showed altered regulation of different plant physiological processes (e.g., dehydratation response, programmed cell death, plant growth, trichome density and branching), supporting an endogenous role in various plant species in addition to the well established defensive one. This review summarizes the current knowledge about Pin1 and Pin2 structure, the role of these proteins in plant defence and physiology, and their potential exploitation in biotechnology.

  1. Mechanisms of energy transfer and conversion in plant Light-Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Tiago Ferreira de

    2009-09-24

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is the major antenna complex in plant photosynthesis. It accounts for roughly 30% of the total protein in plant chloroplasts, which makes it arguably the most abundant membrane protein on Earth, and binds about half of plant chlorophyll (Chl). The complex assembles as a trimer in the thylakoid membrane and binds a total of 54 pigment molecules, including 24 Chl a, 18 Chl b, 6 lutein (Lut), 3 neoxanthin (Neo) and 3 violaxanthin (Vio). LHC-II has five key roles in plant photosynthesis. It: (1) harvests sunlight and transmits excitation energy to the reaction centres of photosystems II and I, (2) regulates the amount of excitation energy reaching each of the two photosystems, (3) has a structural role in the architecture of the photosynthetic supercomplexes, (4) contributes to the tight appression of thylakoid membranes in chloroplast grana, and (5) protects the photosynthetic apparatus from photo damage by non photochemical quenching (NPQ). A major fraction of NPQ is accounted for its energy-dependent component qE. Despite being critical for plant survival and having been studied for decades, the exact details of how excess absorbed light energy is dissipated under qE conditions remain enigmatic. Today it is accepted that qE is regulated by the magnitude of the pH gradient ({delta}pH) across the thylakoid membrane. It is also well documented that the drop in pH in the thylakoid lumen during high-light conditions activates the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which converts the carotenoid Vio into zeaxanthin (Zea) as part of the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, studies with Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the photosystem II subunit PsbS is necessary for qE. How these physiological responses switch LHC-II from the active, energy transmitting to the quenched, energy-dissipating state, in which the solar energy is not transmitted to the photosystems but instead dissipated as heat, remains unclear and is the

  2. DPPH RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLICS AND FLAVONOIDS OF WATER SOLUBLE EXTRACTS DERIVED FROM LEAVES AND FRUIT OF Ficus carica L. AND Ficus parietalis Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavia Tri Wahyuni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ficus carica L and Ficus parietalis Bl. (Moraceae are closely related plants which also known in Indonesia as Figs L. Considering the wide therapeutic value of Figs, this research was aimed to evaluate the DPPH-radical scavenging activity of both plants as well as their total phenolic and flavonoids. Extracts were produced by using boiled water and diluted to gain the desired concentration. Analyses were performed by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Radical scavenging activity testing was done by using radical of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl to determine the IC50s. The determination of total phenolic was conducted by using Folin-Ciocalteau method and calculated as Gallic Acid Equivalence (GAE. The total flavonoid was measured by using AlCl3-reagents, and calculated as Rutin Equivalence (RE. Afterwards, the radical scavenging activity was correlated to the total phenolic and flavonoids contents. The results showed that the water soluble extract of F. carica fruit had the best IC50 value of 33.38 mg/mL, followed successively by the F. parietalis fruit (35.69 mg/mL, F. parietalis leaves (44.01 mg/mL and the F. carica leaves (76.38 mg/mL. The highest content of total phenolic was shown by the leaves of F. parietalis (1.46% w/w GAE and the lowest was in the fruit or F. carica (0.36% w/w GAE. The highest flavonoid content was detected in the leaves of F. carica (1.42% w/w RE and the lowest was in the F. parietalis fruit (0.20% w/w RE. Correlation analyses of the IC50 values vs. the total phenolic and the flavonoids contents resulted in a positive slope having R2 values as 0.5362 and 0.9895, respectively. As a conclusion, the total flavonoid content influenced the DPPH radical scavenging activity by 98.95%, while the total phenolic content influence was only 53.62%.

  3. The modernization of the nuclear power plants of Asco and Vandellos II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Anton, L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of their commercial operation, the nuclear power plants of Asco and Vandellos have made design modifications aimed at improving the safety, reliability and operation of the plants. From the moment the management of the three plants was brought together within the Association Nuclear Asco-Vandellos II, and within the assets management process, joint strategic modernisation and improvement plans have been developed on the basis of the status of equipment, the evaluation of their ageing, obsolesce, degradations, manufacturers recommendations and/or the application of new regulations. The article lists the mos important actions already carried out or in the project phase for the 3 plants in the primary and secondary system, electrical and instrumentation systems and auxiliary systems, highlighting the problems and the solutions adopted in the most relevant modifications. (Author)

  4. Evaluation and measures of the life extension of TVO I and TVO II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, J.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous and wide preventive maintenance and renovation is chosen to the life extension strategy at TVO I and II units. This requires extensive concentration on all ageing phenomena on theoretical level as well as on following their development at the power plant. The work related to ageing is partly performed by persons who are responsible for systems and components in the power plant organization, partly by the working groups, which are organized for those purposes. The evaluation of the ageing phenomenon of the power plant systems, of large components and of different technical fields has revealed several needs for measures. Partly those are already performed. However the evaluation has not revealed any such ageing phenomena, which would limit the power plant life time to originally planned 40 years. (orig.)

  5. Manganese Loading and Photosystem II Stability are Key Components of Manganese Efficiency in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency constitutes a major plant nutritional problem in commercial crop production of winter cereals. In plants, Mn has an indispensable role in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Hence, the consequences of Mn deficiency are reduced plant growth......, and eventually substantial yield losses. It is well known, that genotypes within plant species differ considerably in tolerance to growth under Mn limiting conditions, a phenomenon designated as Mn efficiency. However, the physiological responses reflecting the underlying mechanisms of Mn efficiency are still...... not fully understood. In this PhD study, a new method for determination and characterization of metal binding in size-fractionated photosynthetic protein complexes from barley thylakoids was established. The applicability of the method was shown by quantification of Mn binding in PSII from thylakoids of two...

  6. Compact sodium cooled nuclear power plant with fast core (KNK II- Karlsruhe), Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    After the operation of the KNK plant with a thermal core (KNK I), the installation of a fast core (KNK II) had been realized. The planning of the core and the necessary reconstruction work was done by INTERATOM. Owner and customer was the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (KfK), while the operating company was the Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (KBG) Karlsruhe. The main goals of the KNK II project and its special experimental test program were to gather experience for the construction, the licensing and operation of future larger plants, to develop and to test fuel and absorber assemblies and to further develop the sodium technology and the associated components. The present safety report consists of three parts. Part 1 contains the description of the nuclear plant. Hereby, the reactor and its components, the handling facilities, the instrumentation with the plant protection, the design of the plant including the reactor core and the nominal operation processes are described. Part 2 contains the safety related investigation and measures. This concerns the reactivity accidents, local cooling perturbations, radiological consequences with the surveillance measures and the justification of the choice of structural materials. Part three finally is the appendix with the figures, showing the different buildings, the reactor and its components, the heat transfer systems and the different auxiliary facilities [de

  7. Communication and surrounding of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Asco and Vandellos-II power plants have always been integrated into the regions where they are located, and they take an active part in the development of surrounding towns through quality employment provided by our facilities, social and cultural support and aid to development promoted by regional councils. Communication to media is a corporate priority defined in our strategic plant, to ensure openness, rigour and punctuality. We also attend to the visitors who want to learn more about our facilities in the visitor center, and we have agreements with agrarian institutions in the area so that students can de practical training in the farms we own for agricultural production. (Author)

  8. Potential safety enhancements to nuclear plant control: proof testing at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.; Chisholm, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Future changes in nuclear plant control and protective systems will reflect an evolutionary improvement through increased use of computers coupled with a better integration of man and machine. Before improvements can be accepted into the licensed commercial plant environment, significant testing must be accomplished to answer safety questions and to prove the worth of new ideas. The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is being used as a test-bed for both in-house development and testing for others in a DOE sponsored Man-Machine Integration program. The ultimate result of the development and testing would be a control system for which safety credit could be taken in the licensing process

  9. User's manual for the BNW-II optimization code for dry/wet-cooled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, D.J.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Wiles, L.E.

    1978-05-01

    The User's Manual describes how to operate BNW-II, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as a part of its activities under the Department of Energy (DOE) Dry Cooling Enhancement Program. The computer program offers a comprehensive method of evaluating the cost savings potential of dry/wet-cooled heat rejection systems. Going beyond simple ''figure-of-merit'' cooling tower optimization, this method includes such items as the cost of annual replacement capacity, and the optimum split between plant scale-up and replacement capacity, as well as the purchase and operating costs of all major heat rejection components. Hence the BNW-II code is a useful tool for determining potential cost savings of new dry/wet surfaces, new piping, or other components as part of an optimized system for a dry/wet-cooled plant

  10. The History of the Construction and Operation of the German KNK II Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1994-11-01

    The report gives a historical review of the German KNK fast breeder project, from its beginnings in 1957 up to permanent plant shutdown in 1991. The original design was for the sodium cooled thermal reactor KNK I, which was commissioned on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The conversion into a fast nuclear power plant however was a process, which had to overcome considerable licensing difficulties. KNK II attained high fuel element burnups, and the completion of the fuel cycle was achieved. Various technical problems encountered in specific components are described in detail. After the termination of the SNR 300 fast breeder project in Kalkar for political reasons, KNK II was shutdown in August 1991

  11. Mega akku in the Alps. Pumped-storage power plant Limberg II in Kaprun; Mega-Akku in den Alpen. Pumpspeicherwerk Limberg II in Kaprun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyrer, Peter [POEYRY Energy GmbH, Salzburg (Austria). Konstruktiver Wasserbau

    2011-05-15

    Since the 1920ies, the Kaprun valley and the area around the Grossglockner are a subject for project planning of hydropower plants. The power plant group Glockner-Kaprun with upper and main stage was completed in 1955. Since 1970, various options for expansion were examined by a pumped storage plant. The result of these investigations is the project Limberg II, which is realized since 2007 and completed this year.

  12. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII)(2) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes(3)-which together form PSII supercomplexes(4-6). The antenna comple...

  13. Temperature variation on the Mediterranean Sea by the exploitation of the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal Romero, M.; Ribes Hernandez, G.; Esparza Martin, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the compliance with the Resolution of 7th February MAH/285/2007 Departament de Medi Ambient I Habitatge de la Generalitat de Catalunya establishing discharges limits to the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, the section that references the thermal rise. The study area include about 1.5 km coastline, which is located in the vicinity of the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant.

  14. Heavy metal remediation with Ficus microcarpa through transplantation and its environmental risks through field scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cai, Limei; Qi, Shihua; Wu, Jian; Gu, Xiaowen Sophie

    2018-02-01

    The phytoremediation efficiency of various metals by Ficus microcarpa was evaluated through a real scale experiment in the present study. The root biomass production of the species varied significantly from 3.68 to 5.43 g because of the spatial heterogeneity of different metals. It would take 4-93 years to purify the excess Cd of the experimental site. Mercury was the most inflexible element which can barely be phytoremediated by F. microcarpa. After the species transplanted from the polluted soil to the clean site, Cd and Cu were transferred to the rhizosphere soil to different extent while the bulk soil was barely influenced. Relative to Cd and Cu, significantly fewer amounts of Pb and Hg were released. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb in the clean soil were far below their corresponding safe thresholds for agricultural land after 3 months of the polluted plants were cultivated and metal concentrations of plant leaves were negligible, both indicated the low ecological risk of transplantation. Results from this study suggested a feasible disposal method for metal rich plants after phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pullulan-hyperproducing color variant strain of Aureobasidium pullulans FB-1 newly isolated from phylloplane of Ficus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Saini, G K

    2008-06-01

    The studies were carried out for the isolation of efficient pullulan producing strains of Aureobasidium pullulans. Five strains were isolated from phylloplane of different plants. Amongst these, three were producing black pigment melanin, while the remaining two produced pink pigment. These two color variant isolates of A. pullulans were designated as FB-1 and FG-1, and obtained from phylloplane of Ficus benjamina and Ficus glometa, respectively. The parameters employed for the identification of the isolates included morphology, nutritional assimilation patterns and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Isolates were compared with standard cultures for EPS production. A. pullulans FB-1 was the best producer of pullulan giving up to 1.9, 1.4 and 1.7 times more pullulan than the control of A. pullulans NCIM 976, NCIM 1048 and NCIM 1049, respectively. The IR spectra of the isolates and standard strains revealed that the polysaccharide was pullulan, but not aubasidan. The study also supported the fact that A. pullulans is a ubiquitous organism and phylloplane being the important niche of the organism.

  17. Chemotaxonomic Diversity of Three Ficus Species: Their Discrimination Using Chemometric Analysis and Their Role in Combating Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal; Ebada, Sherif S; Gad, Haidy A; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed Lotfy

    2017-10-01

    Genus Ficus (Moraceae) constitutes more than 850 species and about 2000 varieties and it acts as a golden mine that could afford effective and safe remedies combating many health disorders. Discrimination of Ficus cordata , Ficus ingens , and Ficus palmata using chemometric analysis and assessment of their role in combating oxidative stress. Phytochemical profiling of the methanol extracts of the three Ficus species and their successive fractions was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Their discrimination was carried out using the obtained spectral data applying chemometric unsupervised pattern-recognition techniques, namely, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. In vitro hepatoprotective and antioxidant evaluation of the samples was performed using human hepatocellular carcinoma cells challenged by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Altogether, 22 compounds belonging to polyphenolics, flavonoids, and furanocoumarins were identified in the three Ficus species. Aviprin is the most abundant compound in F. cordata while chlorogenic acid and psoralen were present in high percentages in F. ingens and F. palmata , respectively. Chemometric analyses showed that F. palmata and F. cordata are more closely related chemically to each other rather than F. ingens . The ethyl acetate fractions of all the examined species showed a marked hepatoprotective efficacy accounting for 54.78%, 55.46%, and 56.42% reduction in serum level of alanine transaminase and 56.82%, 54.16%, and 57.06% suppression in serum level of aspartate transaminase, respectively, at 100 μg/mL comparable to CCl 4 -treated cells. Ficus species exhibited a no table antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity owing to their richness in polyphenolics and furanocoumarins. Ficus cordata , Ficus ingens , and Ficus palmata were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry that revealed

  18. AKUT-II: an experimental plant for purifying the HTR loop of combustion waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, H.; Vygen, H.

    1976-02-15

    A plant for the separation of aerosols, krypton and tritium (AKUT) used for purifying the head end of the reprocessing of thorium-containing fuel elements from combustion waste gases is described. Data are to be collected to enable a process engineer to plan and construct a large-scale plant, and the correctness and practicability of the concept adopted is to be proved in conjunction with the JUPITER plant. It is true that the tests on the AKUT I plant confirmed that the flow scheme was basically correct, but the actual experimental operation was considerably limited by a fixed and rigid coupling to the combustion furnace. Some operational conditions were encountered which did not meet the design values. Part of the plant (krypton separation) is being tested in the USA. The German concept was taken over in the early stages of tests and adapted to existing apparatuses, the result inevitably being different experimental conditions. The AKUT II plant can now be used for consideration of the economic and safety conditions, and comparisons can be made.

  19. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transport of Zn (II by TDDA-Polypropylene Supported Liquid Membranes and Recovery from Waste Discharge Liquor of Galvanizing Plant of Zn (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Ur Rehman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The facilitated passage of Zn (II across flat sheet supported liquid membrane saturated with TDDA (tri-n-dodecylamine in xylene membrane phase has been investigated. The effect of acid and metal ion concentration in the feed solution, the carrier concentration in membrane phase, stripping agent concentration in stripping phase, and coions on the extraction of Zn (II was investigated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species, that is, complex, was investigated on slope analysis method and it was found that the complex (LH2·Zn(Cl2 is responsible for transport of Zn (II. A mathematical model was developed for transport of Zn (II, and the predicted results strongly agree with experimental ones. The mechanism of transport was determined by coupled coion transport mechanism with H+ and Cl− coupled ions. The optimized SLM was effectively used for elimination of Zn (II from waste discharge liquor of galvanizing plant of Zn (II.

  1. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Opatrilova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of lead (II ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 µM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 µg/mL or 15 µg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG and phytochelatin 2 (PC2 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the

  2. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Shestivska, Violetta; Galiova, Michaela; Novotny, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef; Zehnalek, Josef; Babula, Petr; Opatrilova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 μM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 μg/mL or 15 μg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular

  3. Nuclear emergency buildings of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants; Centros alternativos de emergencias de las centrales nucleares de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuet, J.; Sabater, J.; Mirallas Esteban, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Nuclear Emergency Buildings sited at Asco and Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are designed to safety manage emergencies in extreme situations, beyond the design basis of the Nuclear Power Plants. Designed in accordance with the requirements of the Spanish Nuclear Regulator (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear-CSN) these buildings are ready to operate over a period of 72 hours without external assistance and ensure habitability for crews of 120 and 70 people respectively. This article describes the architectural conception, features and major systems of the Nuclear Emergency Buildings sited at Asco and Vandellos II. (Author)

  4. Experience gathered from the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorini, A.; Belinco, C.G.; El Bis, E.D.; Sacchi, M.A.; Mayans, C.O.; Martin Ghiselli, A.; Marcora, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the needs to materialize the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type, under special conditions, from the Fabrication Pilot Plant sited at the Constituyentes Atomic Center and the Ezeiza Atomic Center, for its subsequent analysis at the High Pressure Experimental Loop. The special conditions under which the transport has been made responded to the fact that the prototype presents a fragile adjustment between rods and separators, necessary to be preserved. (Author) [es

  5. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  6. Human Reliability analysis for digitized nuclear power plants: Case study on the LingAo II nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yan Hua; Zhang, Li [Institute of Human Factors Engineering AND Safety Management, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang (China); Dai, Cao; Li, Peng Cheng; Qing, Tao [Human Factors Institute, University of South China, Hengyang (China)

    2017-03-15

    The main control room (MCR) in advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs) has changed from analog to digital control system (DCS). Operation and control have become more automated, centralized, and accurate due to the digitalization of NPPs, which has improved the efficiency and security of the system. New issues associated with human reliability inevitably arise due to the adoption of new accident procedures and digitalization of main control rooms in NPPs. The LingAo II NPP is the first digital NPP in China to apply the state-oriented procedure. In order to address issues related to human reliability analysis for DCS and DCS + state-oriented procedure, the Hunan Institute of Technology conducted a research project based on a cooperative agreement with the LingDong Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. This paper is a brief introduction to the project.

  7. Human Reliability Analysis for Digitized Nuclear Power Plants: Case Study on the LingAo II Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main control room (MCR in advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs has changed from analog to digital control system (DCS. Operation and control have become more automated, centralized, and accurate due to the digitalization of NPPs, which has improved the efficiency and security of the system. New issues associated with human reliability inevitably arise due to the adoption of new accident procedures and digitalization of main control rooms in NPPs. The LingAo II NPP is the first digital NPP in China to apply the state-oriented procedure. In order to address issues related to human reliability analysis for DCS and DCS + state-oriented procedure, the Hunan Institute of Technology conducted a research project based on a cooperative agreement with the LingDong Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. This paper is a brief introduction to the project.

  8. The history of the construction und operation of the KNK II German Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the German KNK fast breeder project from its beginnings in 1957 until permanent shutdown in 1991. The initial design provided for a sodium-cooled, but thermal reactor. Already during the commissioning of KNK I on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center modification into a fast nuclear power plant was decided. Considerable difficulties in licensing had to be overcome. KNK II reached high burnup values in the fuel elements and closing of the fuel cycle was achieved. A number of technical problems concerning individual components are described in detail. After the politically motivated discontinuation of the SNR 300 fast breeder project at Kalkar, KNK II was shut down for good in August 1991. (orig.) [de

  9. Digestibility of Ficus roxburghii, Castanopsis indica and Ficus cunia on growing buffalo from Western Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Upreti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine buffalo calves were subjected to three fodder tree species namely; Ficus roxburghii (Nimaro, Castanopsis indica (Dhalne Katus and Ficus cunia (Rai Khanyu for digestibility trial during November 27 to December 3, 2005 in Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Lumle, Kaski Nepal. Animals were kept 7 days for adaptation for these fodders. Weighed amount of fodder tree leaves including twigs and small branches were fed two times a day and observation on fodder offered, refused and faeces voided were recorded daily. Chemical composition of fresh matter and faeces voided were carried out for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, calcium (Ca and phosphorous (P. The mean DM content and their dry matter digestibility (DMD of these three fodder tree species were found 27.86, 46.02, 34.72, 73.21, 65.93 and 71.28 percent respectively. There were strong negative correlations (r=-0.75 to -0.78; p<0.05 observed between Ca. and CP with fiber fraction (NDF and ADF. The weak correlation was also observed between P and other constituents with respect to digestibility. From the results, if there could be provision of low fiber content in dry season, the three main nutrients (Ca, P and CP may easily be absorbed by the animals.

  10. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  11. Transpiration efficiency of a tropical pioneer tree (Ficus insipida) in relation to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Turner, Benjamin L; Marshall, John D

    2007-01-01

    The response of whole-plant water-use efficiency, termed transpiration efficiency (TE), to variation in soil fertility was assessed in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida Willd. Measurements of stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(18)O, delta(15)N), elemental concentrations (C, N, P), plant growth, instantaneous leaf gas exchange, and whole-plant water use were used to analyse the mechanisms controlling TE. Plants were grown individually in 19 l pots with non-limiting soil moisture. Soil fertility was altered by mixing soil with varying proportions of rice husks, and applying a slow release fertilizer. A large variation was observed in leaf photosynthetic rate, mean relative growth rate (RGR), and TE in response to experimental treatments; these traits were well correlated with variation in leaf N concentration. Variation in TE showed a strong dependence on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) mole fractions (c(i)/c(a)); both for instantaneous measurements of c(i)/c(a) (R(2)=0.69, P <0.0001, n=30), and integrated estimates based on C isotope discrimination (R(2)=0.88, P <0.0001, n=30). On the other hand, variations in the leaf-to-air humidity gradient, unproductive water loss, and respiratory C use probably played only minor roles in modulating TE in the face of variable soil fertility. The pronounced variation in TE resulted from a combination of the strong response of c(i)/c(a) to leaf N, and inherently high values of c(i)/c(a) for this tropical tree species; these two factors conspired to cause a 4-fold variation among treatments in (1-c(i)/c(a)), the term that actually modifies TE. Results suggest that variation in plant N status could have important implications for the coupling between C and water exchange in tropical forest trees.

  12. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  13. Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergren, R; Normen, E; Hellen, G [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland); and others

    1997-10-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash are used in some geographically restricted areas. The ash components can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The LIEKKI 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants, Part I and II, have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuels with a very high ash content. The chemistry during combustion has been studied. The chemical and physical properties of the particles in the exhaust gas, of the deposits, and of exhaust valves have been investigated. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both with and without deposit modifying fuel additive. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. On the practical side two long time field tests are going on, one with an ash/deposit modifying fuel additive (vanadium chemistry alteration), one with fuel water washing (sodium removal). Seven different reports have been written. (orig.)

  14. Etude physico-chimique, biochimique et stabilité d’un nouveau produit : jus de cladode du figuier de Barbarie marocain (Opuntia ficus-indica et Opuntia megacantha).

    OpenAIRE

    Boutakiout , Amale

    2015-01-01

    The orientations of the Moroccan agricultural policy concerning the Green Morocco Plan, promote the development of the arid zones and the development of crops that adapt to global warming. The prickly pear cactus is a plant which is adapted to the arid climate and still untapped in Morocco. Prickly pear cladodes contain bioactive components that have beneficial health effects. The juice extracted from cladodes of both species Opuntia ficus-indica(spineless) and Opuntia megacantha(spiny) was t...

  15. Safety philosophy in upgrading the EBR-II plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    The EBR-II plant protection system (PPS) has been substantially modified, upgrading its performance to more fully comply with modern safety philosophy and criteria. The upgrading effort required that the total reactor system be evaluated for possible faults and that a PPS be designed to accommodate them. The result was deletion of a number of existing trip functions and upgrading of others. Particular attention was given to loss of primary pumping power and reactivity insertion events. The design and performance criteria for the PPS has been more firmly established, understanding of the PPS function has been improved and the reactor has been subjected to fewer spurious trips, improving operational reliability

  16. Co{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-12-31

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO{sub 2}. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO{sub 2} condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants under elevated CO{sub 2}, which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO{sub 2} compared with 360 ppM.

  17. Co[sub 2] exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO[sub 2]. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO[sub 2] condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants under elevated CO[sub 2], which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO[sub 2] compared with 360 ppM.

  18. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  19. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  20. Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

    2013-03-01

    Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  3. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  4. Learning and memory enhancing activity of Ficus carica (Fig: An experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the learning and memory enhancing activity of the ethanolic fruit extract of Ficus carica in rats using elevated plus maze (EPM, Hebb-William maze (HWM and Morris water maze (MWM. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats (100-150 g of either sex, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6. Group I (control animals received vehicle, Group II (scopolamine control animals received scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p, Groups III and IV animals received ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o and Group V animals received piracetam (400 mg/kg i.p for 27 days. The rats of Groups III-V were injected with a single dose of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p on 19 th and 27 th day. Assessment of transfer latency (TL, time taken to reach reward chamber (TRC and swim latency (SL was done on 19 th and 27 th day using EPM, HWM and MWM, respectively. The data was analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance followed by Dunnett′s test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica decreased TL, TRC and SL in comparison to scopolamine treated rats. Conclusion: The fruit of F. carica enhanced learning and memory activity.

  5. Study of plant pigment concentration using synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, B.H.; Raghuvanshi, F.C.; Mahalle, N.S.; Munde, B.S.; Devhade, S.K.; Arsad, S.S.; Kadam, K.P.; Pachkawade, A.P.; Hiswankar, S.U.

    2006-01-01

    We have recorded the SL (Synchronous Luminescence) spectra emitted by several plant leaves. We investigate in detail SL spectra emitted by the leaf of the plants like Hibiscus Schizopetalus, Ficus Benghalensis, Ficus Religiosa and Ficus Glomerata and study the concentration of the pigments in the plant leaves and the mechanism of photosynthesis process taking place in the leaves. The SL spectra have several features which may help in revealing the density and structure of the molecules present in the samples. The SL spectra exhibit two, three, four and five peaked structure. The peak appear at different wavelengths and their spectral widths are also different. The chlorophyll, xanthophyll and carotene concentration may be obtained from the study of the spectra. The plant species may be identified from the study of SL spectroscopy. (author)

  6. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-09-17

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  7. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karym El-Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  8. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual function of active constituents from bark of Ficus racemosa L in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopage, Nisansala Swarnamali; Kamal Bandara Gunaherath, G M; Jayawardena, Kithsiri Hector; Wijeyaratne, Sushila Chandrani; Abeysekera, Ajita Mahendra; Somaratne, Seneviratne

    2018-01-25

    Different parts including the latex of Ficus racemosa L. has been used as a medicine for wound healing in the Ayurveda and in the indigenous system of medicine in Sri Lanka. This plant has been evaluated for its wound healing potential using animal models. The aim of this study was to obtain an insight into the wound healing process and identify the potential wound healing active substance/s present in F. racemosa L. bark using scratch wound assay (SWA) as the in-vitro assay method. Stem bark extracts of F. racemosa were evaluated using scratch wound assay (SWA) on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK 21) and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay on common bacteria and fungi for cell migration enhancing ability and antimicrobial activity respectively. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts which showed cell migration enhancement activity on SWA were subjected to bioactivity directed fractionation using column chromatography followed by preparative thin layer chromatography to identify the compounds responsible for the cell migration enhancement activity. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts showed cell migration enhancement activity on both cell lines, while EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and Bacillus species and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces spp. and Candida albicans. Lupeol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) were isolated as the potential wound healing active compounds which exhibited significant cell migration enhancement activity on BHK 21 and MDCK cell lines (> 80%) in par with the positive control, asiaticoside at a concentration of 25 μM. The optimum concentration of each compound required for the maximum wound healing has been determined as 30 μM and 35 μM for 1 and 2 respectively on both cell lines. It is also established that lupeol acetate (3) isolated from the hexanes extract act as a pro-drug by undergoing hydrolysis into lupeol in the vicinity of cells. Different

  10. Iodine application increased ascorbic acid content and modified the vascular tissue in opuntia ficus-indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuna, H.T.G.; Morales, R.; Rubio, E.M.; Mendoza, A.B.; Ruvalcaba, R.M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discern the effect of applying both iodide and iodate to Opuntia ficus indica irrigation. The effect of iodate (KIO/sub 3/, 10-4 M) and iodide (KI, 10-4 M) on plant growth, yield and morphology was studied. Experiments were carried in three samples under tunnel conditions. In the last sampling, iodine species (KIO/sub 3/, KI) caused a negative effect in biomass. The amount of ascorbic acid, however, was increased over 51% in both iodine treatments. Phosphorus (0.26%), iron (50 ppm), and magnesium (1402 ppm) increases were also observed with iodate treatment in the first sampling, and increases in potassium (46.8 ppm) were apparent in the second. Iodide treatment increased the amounts of copper (1.02 ppm) and manganese (32.80 ppm) in the first sampling. Iodate treatment modified the number of xylem vessels and increased both the mucilage area and amount of druses. In general this study shows that iodate increases the amount of ascorbic acid and the morphology of the vascular tissue. (author)

  11. Interlaboratory comparison of fig (Ficus carica L. microsatellite genotyping data and determination of reference alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have been identified as the marker of choice in plant genotyping projects. However, due to length discrepancies obtained between different laboratories for the same allele, interlaboratory comparison of fingerprinting results is often a difficult task. The objectives of this study were to compare genotyping results of two laboratories, to evaluate genetic parameters of microsatellite markers and to determine reference allele sizes for fig cultivars from the Istrian peninsula.Genotyping results of ninety fig (Ficus carica L. accessions were comparable between the laboratories despite differences observed when comparing electropherograms of different capillary electrophoresis systems. Differences in lengths of the same alleles were detected due to different PCR methods and laboratory equipment, but the distances between alleles of the same locus were preserved. However, locus FSYC01 exhibited one allele dropout which led to misidentification of 28 heterozygotes as homozygote individuals suggesting this locus as unreliable. Allele dropout was assigned to the tail PCR technology or to a touchdown PCR protocol.Genotypes of twenty-four reference cultivars from the Istrian peninsula were confirmed by both laboratories. These results will contribute to the usage of markers with greater reliability, discrimination power and consequently, to more reliable standardization with other fig genotyping projects.

  12. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  13. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  15. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  16. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian, E-mail: shivashangari@gmail.com [Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu (India); Ravikumar, Vilwanathan, E-mail: ravikumarbdu@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  17. Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Ficus natalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the bark and leaves extracts of Ficus natalensis were carried out by using various techniques. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars in different extracts of Ficus natalensis. The antibacterial potential against S. aureus was reported as most promising amongst all. The petroleum ether extract of leaves with a zone of inhibition 50 ± 0.51 mm and bark extracts with a zone of inhibition 55.7 ± 1.15 mm inhibited S. aureus. The chloroform leaves extract also showed an inhibition zone of 50 ± 2 mm against S. aureus. The antifungal potential of methanol bark extract at 43.7 ±1.527 mm and petroleum ether extracts of bark with zones of inhibition 37 ± 0.577 mm against A. niger showed most prominent activity. By using different assays, the extracts were screened for the antioxidant potential. The estimation of antioxidant activity by metal chelating activity revealed that water extract of leaves was most active with a value of 74.673 ± 0.302 percentage bound iron. The chloroform extract of bark showed highest flavonoid content (1005.53 ± 0.503 mg/mL of quercetin), whereas chloroform extract of leaves exhibited maximum phenolic content (21.626 ± 0.545 mg/g of GAE). In ABTS assay, water extract of leaves showed maximum TEAC value (7.713 ± 0.7 mM of trolox equivalent). The highest free radical scavenging DPPH percentage was observed with distilled water extract of bark (91.92 ± 0.08 percent). (author)

  18. Ageing management program of wires for Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla, J.; Antonaccio, E.; Luraschi, C.; Simionato, E.; Nieto, H.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical cables constitute one of the most important components of NPP in terms o maintenance, safety and availability of the plant. Due to their large extension (thousands of kilometers) it is impossible to fully replace them and aging management becomes essential for long term operation of NPP. Since Atucha II is under construction there was a good opportunity to establish and implement a holistic cable aging management program from the beginning according to the state of the art in this field. The scope of this program involves safety related cables, including EQ cables and non EQ cables as well. Due to the diversity of the installed cables is impossible to address an aging management program of every single specimen. However it is possible to establish 'cables families' of similar aging behavior based on insulation and jacket material, manufacture, etc Several aging management strategies were set for the different 'cables families'. These strategies include cables deposit in plant, elaboration of procedures of visual and tactile inspection, NDE techniques, etc Currently the aging management program is being implemented covering topic such as: Cable screening and grouping. Review of EQ documentation and conventional qualification information referring to the installed cables. Establishment of base line of condition monitoring techniques. Calibration and set up of test parameters for NDE techniques. Aging mechanism characterization and determination of. Design construction and installation of cable deposit in plant (author)

  19. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, A V; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, A E; Andersson, J; Lee, P J; Keegstra, W; Dekker, J P; Boekema, E J; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-02-06

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes-which together form PSII supercomplexes. The antenna complexes are essential for collecting sunlight and regulating photosynthesis, but the relationship between these functions and their molecular architecture is unresolved. Here we report that antisense Arabidopsis plants lacking the proteins that form LHCII trimers have PSII supercomplexes with almost identical abundance and structure to those found in wild-type plants. The place of LHCII is taken by a normally minor and monomeric complex, CP26, which is synthesized in large amounts and organized into trimers. Trimerization is clearly not a specific attribute of LHCII. Our results highlight the importance of the PSII macrostructure: in the absence of one of its main components, another protein is recruited to allow it to assemble and function.

  20. Flora of IGCAR campus and PFBR site: II plant diversity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajendiran, N.; Ragupathy, S.

    2003-09-01

    This report highlights the level of plant diversity that prevails in IGCAR and PFBR sites. The stress tolerant sandy-shore flora of natural vegetation adorns the Campus. It is bewitchingly blended with horticultural design and sets the backdrop of the nuclear industries- MAPS I and II and the incumbent PFBR. The floristic analysis points out the genetic richness of the campus (over 650 plant species in a narrow strip of ∼2500 acres), which can also serve as genetic reserve for coastal flora. Based on the study, a digitized inventory of plant resources of Kalpakkam is now made available. Taxonomy, distribution, vernacular name, uses, produces, bio-chemical component, ethnobotany, photograph are featured in the database. The survey highlights the potential of mangroves as bio-fence protecting against cyclone and sand and salt laden wind erosion. Such information may also be useful to understand the flora of east coast, in general. Biodiversity information gains importance for its use in caring the ecosystem and for its wise management at every micro-level down to the back yard of individual institution, which is the need of the hour. The sustainable use and preserving the biological resources maximize the net long-term benefits to mankind. (author)

  1. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  2. The modernization of the nuclear power plants of Asco and Vandellos II; Modernizacion de las centrales nucleares de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Anton, L.

    2011-07-01

    Since the beginning of their commercial operation, the nuclear power plants of Asco and Vandellos have made design modifications aimed at improving the safety, reliability and operation of the plants. From the moment the management of the three plants was brought together within the Association Nuclear Asco-Vandellos II, and within the assets management process, joint strategic modernisation and improvement plans have been developed on the basis of the status of equipment, the evaluation of their ageing, obsolesce, degradations, manufacturers recommendations and/or the application of new regulations. The article lists the mos important actions already carried out or in the project phase for the 3 plants in the primary and secondary system, electrical and instrumentation systems and auxiliary systems, highlighting the problems and the solutions adopted in the most relevant modifications. (Author)

  3. PIP-II Cryogenic System and the evolution of Superfluid Helium Cryogenic Plant Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Anindya [Fermilab; Rane, Tejas [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab

    2017-07-06

    The PIP-II cryogenic system consists of a Superfluid Helium Cryogenic Plant (SHCP) and a Cryogenic Distribution System (CDS) connecting the SHCP to the Superconducting (SC) Linac consisting of 25 cryomodules. The dynamic heat load of the SC cavities for continuous wave (CW) as well as pulsed mode of operation has been listed out. The static heat loads of the cavities along with the CDS have also been discussed. Simulation study has been carried out to compute the supercritical helium (SHe) flow requirements for each cryomodule. Comparison between the flow requirements of the cryomodules for the CW and pulsed modes of operation have also been made. From the total computed heat load and pressure drop values in the CDS, the basic specifications for the SHCP, required for cooling the SC Linac, have evolved.

  4. Herpetofauna, Santa Edwiges I and II hydroelectric power plants, state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintra, C. E. D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a check list of amphibians and reptiles of the area under the influence of Santa Edwiges I and IIsmall hydroelectric power plants on Rio Buritis, state of Goiás, Brazil. The list was the result of faunal rescueoperations carried out between 31 August and 29 September 2005 (Santa Edwiges II and between 30 July and 12September 2006 (Santa Edwiges I. The list comprises 30 species of amphibians belonging to 16 genera and 8 families(Caeciliidae, Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae, Hylidae, Brachycephalidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae, andMicrohylidae, and 45 species of reptiles belonging to 38 genera and 16 families (Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae,Gekkonidae, Gymnophtalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae,Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Dipsadidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae.

  5. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S. E-mail: reyessuarezl@llnl.gov; Latkowski, J.F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J

    2001-05-21

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  6. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  7. Tradeoff between Stem Hydraulic Efficiency and Mechanical Strength Affects Leaf–Stem Allometry in 28 Ficus Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xin Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf–stem allometry is an important spectrum that linked to biomass allocation and life history strategy in plants, although the determinants and evolutionary significance of leaf–stem allometry remain poorly understood. Leaf and stem architectures – including stem area/mass, petiole area/mass, lamina area/mass, leaf number, specific leaf area (LA, and mass-based leafing intensity (LI – were measured on the current-year branches for 28 Ficus species growing in a common garden in SW China. The leaf anatomical traits, stem wood density (WD, and stem anatomical and mechanical properties of these species were also measured. We analyzed leaf–stem allometric relationships and their associations with stem hydraulic ad mechanical properties using species-level data and phylogenetically independent contrasts. We found isometric relationship between leaf lamina area/mass and stem area/mass, suggesting that the biomass allocation to leaf was independent to stem size. However, allometric relationship between LA/mass and petiole mass was found, indicating large leaves invest a higher fractional of biomass in petiole than small ones. LI, i.e., leaf numbers per unit of stem mass, was negatively related with leaf and stem size. Species with larger terminal branches tend to have larger vessels and theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but lower WD and mechanical strength. The size of leaf lamina, petiole, and stem was correlated positively with stem theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but negatively with stem WD and mechanical strength. Our results suggest that leaf–stem allometry in Ficus species was shaped by the trade-off between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability, supporting a functional interpretation of the relationship between leaf and stem dimensions.

  8. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  9. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  10. Communication and surrounding of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants; La comunicacion y el entorno de las centrales de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Asco and Vandellos-II power plants have always been integrated into the regions where they are located, and they take an active part in the development of surrounding towns through quality employment provided by our facilities, social and cultural support and aid to development promoted by regional councils. Communication to media is a corporate priority defined in our strategic plant, to ensure openness, rigour and punctuality. We also attend to the visitors who want to learn more about our facilities in the visitor center, and we have agreements with agrarian institutions in the area so that students can de practical training in the farms we own for agricultural production. (Author)

  11. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M.; Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2010-01-01

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 μm). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  12. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@epfl.c [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 mum). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  13. The HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant concept and implications for IFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    HYLIFE-II is based on nonflammable, renewable-liquid-wall fusion target chambers formed with Li 2 BeF 4 molten-salt jets, a heavy-ion driver, and single-sided illumination of indirect-drive targets. Building fusion chambers from existing materials with life-of-plant structural walls behind the liquid walls, while still meeting non-nuclear grade construction and low-level waste requirements, has profound implications for IFE development. Fluid-flow work and computational fluid dynamics predict chamber clearing adequate for 6-Hz pulse rates. Predicted electricity cost is reduced about 30% to 4.4 cents/kWh at 1 GWe. Development can be foreshortened and cost reduced by obviating expensive neutron sources to develop first-wall materials. The driver and chamber can be upgraded in stages, avoiding separate and sequential facilities. The most important features of a practical inertial fusion power plant are sufficient ignition and gain in targets; a low-cost, efficient, rep-ratable driver; and low-cost targets

  14. The application of risk analysis methods for the evaluation of the KBS-II encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshausen, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Following a short description of the process of risk analysis and a definition of the objective, the encapsulation plant is described to the extent required. For certain systems, e.g. ventilation, the data was insufficient and some assumptions had to be made. A number of critical events were identified, and one of these, the release of radioactive substances through the ventilation system, was chosen for more detailed analysis. The plant was regarded as a system of barriers to which the substance had to be transported (TO), and through which the substance had to penetrate (THROUGH). The procedure is therefore called the TO/THROUGH method. Detailed fault trees with 'release via ventilation' as the critical event (top event) were drawn. As a numerical example two initiating events from the KBS-II report were treated; 1. degassing of previously damaged pins (2 per year); 2. fall of a fully loaded rack (1 per year). If either of these events coincides with failure of the ventilation system radioactive dust (aerosol) can be released to the atmosphere. The probability for this and the amount of radioactivity released are estimated. (JIW)

  15. Evolutionary Trails of Plant Group II Pyridoxal Phosphate-Dependent Decarboxylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Type II pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (PLP_deC) enzymes play important metabolic roles during nitrogen metabolism. Recent evolutionary profiling of these genes revealed a sharp expansion of histidine decarboxylase genes in the members of Solanaceae family. In spite of the high sequence homology shared by PLP_deC orthologs, these enzymes display remarkable differences in their substrate specificities. Currently, limited information is available on the gene repertoires and substrate specificities of PLP_deCs which renders their precise annotation challenging and offers technical challenges in the immediate identification and biochemical characterization of their full gene complements in plants. Herein, we explored their evolutionary trails in a comprehensive manner by taking advantage of high-throughput data accessibility and computational approaches. We discussed the premise that has enabled an improved reconstruction of their evolutionary lineage and evaluated the factors offering constraints in their rapid functional characterization, till date. We envisage that the synthesized information herein would act as a catalyst for the rapid exploration of their biochemical specificity and physiological roles in more plant species.

  16. Application of Opuntia ficus-indica in bioremediation of wastewaters. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metal ion, pesticide and dye wastewaters cause severe ecological contamination with conventional treatment methods proving inadequate, unsuccessful or expensive to apply. Several biomaterials have recently been explored for the biosorption and biocoagulation-flocculation of pollutants from wastewaters. In the past 10 years, there has been an extensive research output on the use of biological materials such as agricultural wastes, chitosan, Moringa Oleifera, Eichhornia crassipes, bacteria, algae, Cactus plants etc. in environmental remediation. The present paper reviews the scattered information about the green technology involving Opuntia ficus-indica derived biomaterials in wastewater decontamination. Its characterization, physicochemical compositions, its application in biosorption and flocculation of dyes, pesticides and metallic species focussing on equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic properties are reviewed. The main results obtained in the depollution of a variety of contaminated wastewaters using cladodes, fruit pulp and peels mucilage and electrolytes show very high and promising pollutant maximum sorption capacities and removal percentages in the range -125.4-1000 mg/g and 0.31-2251.56 mg/g for the biosorption of dyes and metallic species respectively and removal % ranges of 50-98.7%, 11-93.62% and 17-100% for turbidity, chemical oxygen demand and heavy metals respectively by coagulation-flocculation process. The biomaterials proved to be efficient in pollutant removal that there is need to explore the scaling up of the study from the laboratory scale to community pilot plants and eventually to industrial levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on symptoms of the alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Jeff; McPherson, Steve; Odden, Michelle C; Shlipak, Michael G

    2004-06-28

    The severity of the alcohol hangover may be related to inflammation induced by impurities in the alcohol beverage and byproducts of alcohol metabolism. An extract of the Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) plant diminishes the inflammatory response to stressful stimuli. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 64 healthy, young adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive OFI (1600 IU) and identical placebo, given 5 hours before alcohol consumption. During 4 hours, subjects consumed up to 1.75 g of alcohol per kilogram of body weight. Hangover severity (9 symptoms) and overall well-being were assessed on a scale (0-6), and blood and urine samples were obtained the following morning. Two weeks later, the study protocol was repeated with OFI and placebo reversed. Fifty-five subjects completed both the OFI and placebo arms of the study. Three of the 9 symptoms-nausea, dry mouth, and anorexia-were significantly reduced by OFI (all P/=18 points) was reduced by half (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.88; P =.02). C-reactive protein levels were strongly associated with hangover severity; the mean symptom index was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.1; P =.007) higher in subjects with morning C-reactive protein levels greater than 1.0 mg/L. In addition, C-reactive protein levels were 40% higher after subjects consumed placebo compared with OFI. The symptoms of the alcohol hangover are largely due to the activation of inflammation. An extract of the OFI plant has a moderate effect on reducing hangover symptoms, apparently by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators.

  18. Caracterización de la Opuntia ficus-indica para su uso como coagulante natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Villabona Ortíz

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Actualmente municipios de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana no cuentan con suministro de agua potable. La aplicación artesanal de la Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica  como coagulante es una práctica tradicional en comunidades rurales. En esta investigación se realiza la caracterización del tallo de la Tuna que crece de manera silvestre en el departamento de Bolívar, y del polvo extraído de esta planta, con el fin de identificar componentes asociados a su poder coagulante para la remoción de turbidez y de color en aguas crudas. Las pencas de la planta se sometieron a operaciones de corte, pelado, secado, molienda, tamizado y despigmentado para obtener el coagulante. El rendimiento del proceso global fue de 65g de coagulante/Kg de material vegetal. Los resultados indicaron que la penca contiene alto porcentaje de humedad y pequeñas proporciones de saponinas, flavonoides, sales minerales de calcio y hierro; lo cual permitió concluir que estos metabolitos y sales no son los responsables de su poder coagulante debido a las cantidades poco significativas en las que se encuentran. Se consideró que otras especies química tales como el ácido poligalacturónico y compuestos algínicos son realmente los que le confieran la cualidad al biomaterial. También, se evaluó el poder coagulante del material extraído, se analizó el efecto de tres dosis sobre el color, la turbidez y el pH del agua tratada. Los resultados indicaron que tiene la capacidad de remover 50% del color y 70% de turbidez de aguas crudas con alta turbidez inicial, y que no altera significativamente su pH.  Palabras clave: aguas crudas, clarificación, flavonoides, saponinas, turbidez. Abstract Currently, municipalities in the Colombian Atlantic Coast do not have potable water supply. The implementation of the Tuna as a coagulant is a traditional practice in rural communities, but is used in craft way. In the present investigation, the characterization of the stalk of Tuna (Opuntia ficus

  19. Variations in antioxidant content in leaves and fruits of Ficus fistulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlail, Shrrog Hammed; Wan Ahmad, Wan Juliana; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of (rural vs urban) forest conditions on the total phenolic content and antioxidants activity of Ficus fistulosa in four locations (Bangi, Ayer Hitam, Chini and Bera Forest Reserves) in Malaysia. Total phenolic content of Ficus leaves and fruits extracts was determined by the Foline-Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant activity of Ficus leaves and fruits was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2-Dipheny-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The TPC and antioxidant activity of F.fistulosa leaves and fruits extracts were significantly (Pextracts ranged from251.74 to 321.75 mg /100g DW, 75.49 to 90.54%, and 158.36 to 114.18μmol TE/100g DW respectively. The results suggested that F. fistulosa leaves and fruits are a goodsources of natural antioxidants.

  20. Caracterización de la opuntia ficus-indica para su uso como coagulante natural

    OpenAIRE

    Villabona Ortíz, Angel; Paz, Isabel Cristina; Martínez García, Jasser

    2013-01-01

    Título en inglés: Characterization of Opuntia ficus-indica for using as a natural coagulantTítulo corto: Caracterización de Opuntia ficus-indica para coagulante naturalResumenActualmente municipios de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana no cuentan con suministro de agua potable. La aplicación artesanal de la Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica)  como coagulante es una práctica tradicional en comunidades rurales. En esta investigación se realiza la caracterización del tallo de la Tuna que crece de manera sil...

  1. Dynamique spatio-temporelle de Planococcus ficus (Signoret, 1875 dans les vignobles de la Mitidja (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zohra Bissaad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bissaad, F. Bounaceur, F. and Doumandji-Mitichet B. 2017. Spatio-temporal dynamics of Planococcus ficus (Signoret, 1875 in the vineyards of Mitidja (Algeria. Lebanese Science Journal. 18(1: 26-46. Until now, the research undertaken in Algeria on controlling Planococcus ficus or mealybug, a pest responsible of high level of damages on vines, were very limited. A study on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the pest was conducted for three years in the vineyards of the Western Mitidja in Algeria. The weekly sampling of leaves and clusters were carried out from 2006 to 2008, on wine and table grapes. A high contamination by P. ficus was observed in summer and the beginning of autumn depending on the varieties and years. The monitoring system showed the development of 5 to 6 successive peaks on leaves, and 3 to 4 successive peaks on grape clusters.

  2. The research on corrosion condition and anticorrosion methods of SEP system pipelines in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Cao Feng; Wang Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    SEP system in Qinshan nuclear power plant phase II provides drinking water and firefight water for nuclear island, conventional island, inner and outer of BOP structures. Many corrosion perforations in the SEP pipeline were found during operation. This article analysis the corrosion reasons and presents some reasonable treatment and surveillance methods. (authors)

  3. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-06-01

    To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries.

  4. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (C

  5. Ceramides and cytotoxic constituents from Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nana, Frederic; Sandjo, Louis Pergaud; Keumedjio, Felix; Ambassa, Pantaleon [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde (Cameroon); Malik, Rizwana [H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi (Pakistan); Kuete, Victor; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal [Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon); Rincheval, Vincent [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire Batiment Fermat, University of Versailles, St Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Traditional Pharmacopeia, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2012-03-15

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Ficus glumosa (Moraceae) yielded two new ceramides (2R,7E)-2-hydroxy-N-[(2S,3S,4R)-1,3,4-trihydroxyhexadecan-2-yl] hexacos-7-enamide and (2R)-N-{l_brace}(2S,3S,4R,9Z)-1-O-[({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl]-3,4-dihydroxyheptadec -9-en-2-yl{r_brace}-2-hydroxypentacosanamide together with twenty one known compounds. The structures were established using NMR data, mass spectrometry, chemical transformation and by comparison with the reported data. Twenty one compounds were further tested against the prostate cancer PC-3 cell line and six of them revealed cytotoxic effect. Dongnoside E was the most active compound with an IC{sub 50} 0.75 {mu}mol L{sup -1}against the cancer cells line PC-3 while the reference drug doxorubicin displayed 0.91 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. This compound also proved to inhibit the cell growth of the fibrosarcoma cancer HT1080 (IC{sub 50} 0.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  6. Nuevas nociones sobre el género Ficus en Colombia, IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available En el curso de mi estudio del genero Ficus en Colombia, había pospuesto exprofeso el examen crítico del grupo de Ficus glabrata H. B. K. esperando reunir mayor cantidad de material para tratar de resolver las diferencias que presentan algunos ejemplares colombianos de esta especie, la cual es una de las cinco o seis diferentes, Ilamadas vulgarmente "Higuerones", que se explotan en Colombia por las propiedades antihelminticas de su látex, conocido en la farmacopea popular con el nombre de "Ieche de higueron".

  7. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.M.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  8. Beznau II nuclear power plant: Expertise on NOK's request for the removal of the time limitation for the operation licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) is the Swiss authority responsible for nuclear safety and protection against radioactivity in nuclear power plants. It has to examine the request of the North-East Swiss Power Corporation (NOK) concerning the removal of the operational time limitation for the Beznau-II reactor (KKB-II). In the present report HSK reviews the enterprise management and the safety of KKB-II on the basis of the results of the Periodic Safety Review. The Beznau nuclear power plant exhibits a very high degree of technical and organisational safety. During the past 10 years the plant has been operated in a safe manner. At the same time the plant has been improved and this guarantees that the mechanisms of ageing degradation are systematically identified and that measures can be taken that are possibly necessary. Under such conditions, the safety of KKB-II can be guarantied at all times. As a result of the management of quality, environmental and working safety conditions, the correct application and the continuous improvement of all processes important to safety are ensured. With these measures KKB has shown that safety is given priority over and against all other working goals. The examination by HSK of the Periodic Safety Review has shown that, in the past, KKB has applied modernisation measures independent of the licensing situation of the two reactor blocks. These modernisation measures largely contribute to the fact that the HSK examination did not reveal any significant safety deficiencies. Other improvement measures allow risk reduction or can bee seen as an adaptation to experience gained and to the state of the technological art. In conclusion, HSK states that no safety-relevant facts have been found which could prevent the removal of the time limitation on the operational licence for KKB-II. From the point of view of HSK, KKB-II fulfils the conditions for the safe continuation of operation

  9. Estudio florístico de Ficus (Moraceae en el estado de Guerrero, México Floristic study of Ficus (Moraceae in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Durán-Ramírez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Con base en salidas al campo y la revisión de ejemplares de herbario, se registran 13 especies de Ficus (Moraceae en el estado de Guerrero, 4 pertenecen al subgénero Pharmacosycea (F.insípida, F. lapathifolia, F. maxima y F. yoponensis y 9 al subgénero Urostigma (F. citrifolia, F. cotinifolia, F. crocata, F. membranacea, F. obtusifolia, F. pertusa, F. petiolaris, F. pringlei y F. velutina, al cual se añade un posible registro de F. aurea. Se incluye una clave para su identificación y se proporcionan descripciones, mapas de distribución, datos del hábitat y fenología de las especies, y se ilustran 6 de éstas. El bosque de galería y el bosque tropical caducifolio destacan por su riqueza de especies (8. Ficus lapathifolia restringe su distribución al bosque mesófilo de montaña y F. pringlei al bosque tropical caducifolio. Chilpancingo de los Bravo y Atoyac de Álvarez fueron los municipios con mayor cantidad de especies, con 11 y 9 especies, respectivamente. Por primera vez se registran para el estado: F. crocata, F. lapathifolia, F. membranacea, F. pringlei y F. yoponensis.Based on herbarium specimens and on field explorations, 14 native species of Ficus (Moraceae were recognized for Guerrero, Mexico. Four species are included in subgenus Pharmacosycea (Ficus insipida, F. lapathifolia, F. maxima and F. yoponensis and 9 in subgenus Urostigma (F. citrifolia, F. cotinifolia, F. crocata, F. membranacea, F. obtusifolia, F. pertusa, F. petiolaris, F. pringlei and F. velutina, including a possible record of F. aurea. A key, descriptions, distribution maps, and phenology data of species are provided, and 6 of them are ilustrated. Riparian forest and tropical deciduous forest were the vegetation communities with the highest number of species (8. Ficus lapathifolia was restricted to cloud forest whereas F. pringlei shows the same condition in the tropical deciduous forest. The municipalities of Chilpancingo de los Bravo and Atoyac de Alvarez

  10. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducted for the most prevalent pathogenic fungus using aqueous neem extract in both cold and hot water. The results showed that the fungal isolates belong to three genera Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger A. terrus and A. flavus Botryosphaeria sp. and Botrytis sp. The most prevalent mycoflora was Botryosphaeria sp. relative density range 35-45 the second one was A.niger 20 then Botrytis sp. 15 A. flavus 10 and A.terreus 2-8. The efficacy of aqueous cold and hot extracts of neem leaf on the growth of Botryosphaeria sp. showed that the hot extract is effective than the cold one and the inhibition percentage were 100 and 65 respectively on the 14th days.

  11. Evaluation of phenolic content, total flavonoid and survey of antioxidant activity of leaves of Ficus carica and Pterocarya fraxinifolia trees using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatograph methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Juglandaceae and Ficus carica (Moraceae extract were carried out by spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography methods. The leaves of P. fraxinifolia and F. carica were collected from Whitney and Shast Kalate (Golestan, Noor (Mazandaran and Asalem (Guilan forests in Iran. Methanolc extract was used in different experiments. The phenolic compounds (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin were also measured by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method.The maximum IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity (595.12±21.4 μg ml-1 were observed in P. fraxinifolia leaves. According to the inhibition time, phenolic compound (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin in F. carica leaves and gallic acid and coumaric acid were detected of Pterocarya leaves methanol extracts. The maximum amount of gallic acid (78.93 and coumaric acid (8.14 in extracts Pterocarya leaves Asalem and the lowest gallic acid (8.56 and coumaric acid (0.89 milligrams per gram was observed in Ficus leaf of Noor forest. Based on the standard chromatogram retention time of gallic acid (2.383, coumaric acid (3.817 and quercetin (7.217 mg/g was reported. This study showed that soil factors, such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus and nitrogen compounds with antioxidant phenolic extracts of the leaves of both plants there is a significant correlation.

  12. Ficus carica latex prevents invasion through induction of let-7d expression in GBM cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat; Sahin, Saliha; Budak, Ferah; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Demir, Cevdet; Guvenc, Gokcen; Yilmaz, Gozde; Erkan, Leman Gizem; Malyer, Hulusi; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Evrensel, Turkkan; Bilir, Ayhan

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest human malignancies. A cure for GBM remains elusive, and the overall survival time is less than 1 year. Thus, the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients is required. Induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals derived from medicinal herbs and dietary plants has become a new frontier for cancer therapy research. Although the cancer suppressive effect of Ficus carica (fig) latex (FCL) has been determined in a few cancer types, the effect of this latex on GBM tumors has not been investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the anti-proliferative activity of FCL and the effect of the FCL-temozolomide (TMZ) combination were tested in the T98G, U-138 MG, and U-87 MG GBM cell lines using the WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed using Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays, and the effect of FCL on invasion was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. To determine the effect of FCL on GBM progression, the expression levels of 40 GBM associated miRNAs were analyzed in T98G cells using RT-qPCR. According to the obtained data, FCL causes cell death in GBM cells with different responses to TMZ, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with TMZ. In addition, the current study is the first to demonstrate the effect of FCL on modulation of let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of this extract.

  13. Intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator designs for the HYLIFE-II fusion power plant using molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The HYLIFE-II fusion power plant employs the molten salt, Flibe, for the liquid jets which form the self-healing 'first wall' of the reactor. The molten salt, sodium fluoroborate then transports the heat from the IHX's to the steam generators. The design and optimization of the IHX's and the steam generators for use with molten salts has been done as part of the HYLIFE-II conceptual design study. The results of this study are described, and reference designs of these large heat exchangers are selected to minimize the cost of electricity while satisfying other important constraints

  14. Final report on Phase II remedial action at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and associated properties. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    Volume 2 presents the radiological measurement data taken after remedial action on properties surrounding the former Middlesex Sampling Plant during Phase II of the DOE Middlesex Remedial Action Program. Also included are analyses of the confirmatory radiological survey data for each parcel with respect to the remedial action criteria established by DOE for the Phase II cleanup and a discussion of the final status of each property. Engineering details of this project and a description of the associated health physics and environmental monitoring activities are presented in Volume 1

  15. Anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn. extract (FPLE) in rats. Methods: Hyperprolactinemic rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of metoclopramide dihydrochloride (50 mg/kg). A high dose (800 mg/kg), moderate dose (400 mg/kg), or low dose (200 mg/kg) of FPLE was ...

  16. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  17. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  18. Les caractéristiques des stomates des feuilles de Ficus benjamina L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to assess the potential of Ficus benjamina stomata to be used as indicators of local air pollution. Methodology: Stomatal prints were taken from the species of study in the vicinity of roads, in residential and industrial areas and parks. Density, pore surface and stomatal resistance ...

  19. Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Ficus asperifolia bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric juice pH, gastric acid concentration, gastric ulcer score, percentage gastric ulcer inhibition, activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and malondiadehyde (MDA) were determined. Ficus asperifolia extract significantly increased gastric pH (p<0.05) but decreased (p<0.01) gastric acid secretion in dose ...

  20. Beheersing intrinsieke kwaliteit potplanten met als pilot Ficus en Anthurium : deelproject 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.; Verberkt, H.; Snel, J.F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Ontwikkelen van een meettechniek waarmee de intrinsieke kwaliteit van potplanten tijdens de teelt gemeten kan worden. Uit deelproject 2 blijkt dat symptomen van lichtstress in een vroeg stadium met MIPS gemeten kunnen worden bij zowel Ficus als Anthurium. Van belang is om na te gaan of al voordat

  1. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro = The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Alves Peixoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, asplântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based onbovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  2. The effects of Ficus carica on the activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramgopal Mopuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the various parts of Ficus carica L. (figs on antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects in vitro. Fruit, leaves, and stembark of the F. carica plant were sequentially extracted using organic and inorganic solvents and their total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were estimated. The effects of the extracts on antioxidative, antidiabetic (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes, and antiobesogenic (antilipase activities were measured using several experimental models. The fruit ethanolic extract contained a high quantity of polyphenols and flavonoids (104.67±5.51 μg/mL and 81.67±4.00 μg/mL compared with all other extracts. The activity of the ethanolic extract of F. carica fruit was significantly (p<0.05 higher than all other extracts and parts of the plant in terms of antioxidative, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects. The IC50 values of the fruit ethanolic extract in terms of antioxidative (134.44±18.43 μg/mL, and inhibition of α-glucosidase (255.57±36.46 μg/mL, α-amylase (315.89±3.83 μg/mL, and pancreatic lipase (230.475±9.65 μg/mL activity indicate that the activity of fruit ethanolic extract is better than all other extracts of the plant. The gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analysis of the fruit ethanolic extract showed the presence of a number of bioactive compounds such as butyl butyrate, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, 1-butoxy-1-isobutoxy butane, malic acid, tetradecanoic acid, phytol acetate, trans phytol, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, stearic acid, sitosterol, 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2,4,5-trimethyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one. The results of this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of the fruit of F. carica may have potential antidiabetic and antiobesogenic agents.

  3. User's manual for the BNW-II optimization code for dry/wet-cooled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.J.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Wiles, L.E.

    1978-05-01

    The User's Manual describes how to operate BNW-II, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as a part of its activities under the Department of Energy (DOE) Dry Cooling Enhancement Program. The computer program offers a comprehensive method of evaluating the cost savings potential of dry/wet-cooled heat rejection systems. Going beyond simple ''figure-of-merit'' cooling tower optimization, this method includes such items as the cost of annual replacement capacity, and the optimum split between plant scale-up and replacement capacity, as well as the purchase and operating costs of all major heat rejection components. Hence the BNW-II code is a useful tool for determining potential cost savings of new dry/wet surfaces, new piping, or other components as part of an optimized system for a dry/wet-cooled plant.

  4. The ring-stiffened shell of the ISAR II nuclear power plant natural-draught cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Form, J.

    1986-01-01

    The natural-draught cooling tower of the ISAR II nuclear power plant is one of the largest in the world. The bid specifications provided for an unstiffened cooling tower shell. For the execution, however, it was decided to adopt a shell with three additional stiffening rings. The present contribution deals with the static and dynamic calculations of the execution and, in particular, with the working technique employed for the construction of the rings. (author)

  5. Removal of Copper(II) Ions in Aqueous Solutions Using Tannin-Rich Plants as Natural Bio-Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksamut, J.; Boonsong, P.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the purpose of our interest is to investigatethe adsorption behavior of copper (II) ions in aqueous solution using some tannin-rich plants as natural bio-adsorbents such as mangosteen peels (Garciniamangostana L.), cassava leaves (Manihotesculenta Crantz) and Thai copper pod leaves (Sennasiamea (Lam.)) as powder form in different dosage of adsorbent plant materials.The adsorption capacities at different pH of solution and contact time were performed.All the experiments in this studywere chosen at room temperature by batch technique. From the experimental results showed that cassava leaves gave better adsorbent properties than mangosteen peels and Thai copper pod leaves. The increasing dosage of all adsorbents and contact time have been found to increase adsorption capacities. In this respect, the adsorption capacities depend crucially on the adsorbents and contact time. The optimum pH of copper (II) ions adsorption was pH4. According to this work, it was observed that bioadsorbent materials from tannin-rich plants could be used to remove copper (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  6. Oxidation behavior analysis of cladding during severe accidents with combined codes for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingwei; Cao, Xinrong; Liu, Zhengzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new verified oxidation model of cladding has been added in Severe Accident Program (SAP). • A coupled analysis method utilizing RELAP5 and SAP codes has been developed and applied to analyze a SA caused by LBLOCA. • Analysis of cladding oxidation under a SA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) has been performed by SAP. • Estimation of the production of hydrogen has been achieved by coupled codes. - Abstract: Core behavior at a high temperature is extremely complicated during transition from Design Basic Accident (DBA) to the severe accident (SA) in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The progression of core damage is strongly affected by the behavior of fuel cladding (oxidation, embrittlement and burst). A Severe Accident Program (SAP) is developed to simulate the process of fuel cladding oxidation, rupture and relocation of core debris based on the oxidation models of cladding, candling of melted material and mechanical slumping of core components. Relying on the thermal–hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of a SA caused by the large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) without mitigating measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) was performed by SAP for finding the key sequences of accidents, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding

  7. Praevalensen afhud- og slimhindesymptomer blandt gartnere der omgås Ficus benjamina (stuebirk) og Hedera helix (vedbend). Et tvaersnitsstudie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Allergic and toxic initiative symptoms from skin, eyes and respiratory tract are well known among gardeners This study reports the prevalence of these symptoms among gardeners working with Ficus Benjamina (Fb) and Hedera helix (Hh).......Allergic and toxic initiative symptoms from skin, eyes and respiratory tract are well known among gardeners This study reports the prevalence of these symptoms among gardeners working with Ficus Benjamina (Fb) and Hedera helix (Hh)....

  8. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult ...

  10. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of ...

  11. Analysis of the utilization history and the planning and the participation profiles of the shaft plant Asse II. Final report; Analyse der Nutzungsgeschichte und der Planungs- und Beteiligungsformen der Schachtanlage Asse II. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, Detlev; Kost, Susanne; Weichler, Holger

    2010-03-08

    The report on the utilization history of Asse II covers the following issues: Historical facts of the purchase of the shaft plant Asse II, decision sequences and line of arguments, research mine or final repository? Emplacement of radioactive materials (inventory), stability of the mine layout and water ingress, risk assessment - accident analysis, communication and public information, conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a main feedwater turbopump trip transient in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-12-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos (ANV) have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); a load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); a load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); and, a feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the feedwater turbopump trip transient simulation. This transient actually occurred in the plant on June 19, 1989

  13. Interaction of amatoxins with plant cells and RNA polymerases II: selection of amanitin-resistant cell lines and synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments directed toward deriving basic information regarding plant RNA polymerase II is presented. The experiments described relate to the potential of isolating RNA polymerase II mutants in plants, using carrot cell cultures as models. Additionally, the synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands to immobilize isolated plant RNA polymerase II and associated transcriptional complexes is described. RNA polymerase II activities have been isolated from suspension cultures of carrot and compared to other plant RNA polymerases II with respect to subunit analysis and inhibition with α-amanitin. RNA polymerase II purified by polymin P absorption, DE52, phosphocellulose, and RNA-agarose chromatography is shown to copurify with proteins of 175 (and 200), 135, 70, 43, 28, 22, and 17 kdaltons apparent molecular weights. Conditions for accurate determination of amanitin inhibition of the enzyme are established using 3 H-amanitin and are presented for the first time for plant RNA polymerase II; RNA polymerase II from these cultures is shown to be inhibited by 50% at 3-5 nM by α-amanitin, a value 10-50 times lower than previously reported

  14. A Novel Approach for the Removal of Lead(II Ion from Wastewater Using Mucilaginous Leaves of Diceriocaryum eriocarpum Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead(II ion is a very toxic element known to cause detrimental effects to human health even at very low concentrations. An adsorbent prepared using mucilaginous leaves from Diceriocaryum eriocarpum plant (DEP was used for the adsorption of lead(II ion from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed on simulated aqueous solutions under optimized conditions of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and initial lead(II ion concentration at 298 K. The Langmuir isotherm model more suitably described the adsorption process than the Freundlich model with linearized coefficients of 0.9661 and 0.9547, respectively. Pseudo-second order kinetic equation best described the kinetics of the reaction. Fourier transform infra-red analysis confirmed the presence of amino (–NH, carbonyl (–C=O and hydroxyl (–OH functional groups. Application of the prepared adsorbent to wastewater samples of 10 mg/L and 12 mg/L of lead(II ion concentration taken from a waste stabilization pond showed removal efficiencies of 95.8% and 96.4%, respectively. Futhermore, 0.1 M HCl was a better desorbing agent than 0.1 M NaOH and de-ionized water. The experimental data obtained demonstrated that mucilaginous leaves from DEP can be used as a suitable adsorbent for lead(II ion removal from wastewater.

  15. Responsiveness of cold tolerant chickpea characteristics in fall and spring planting: II. yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad nezami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in Mashhad collection chickpeas (MCC has shown that there are some cold tolerant genotypes for fall planting in the highlands. To obtain more detailed information about the reaction of these genotypes to fall and spring planting, the yield and yield component responses of 33 chickpea genotypes (32 cold tolerant genotypes and one susceptible genotypes to four planting dates (28 Sep., 16 Oct., 2 Nov., and 7 Mar. were evaluated in 2000-2001 growing season. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a split plot design with two replications. The planting dates were imposed as main plot and chickpea genotypes as subplot. Effects of planting date and genotype on percent of plant survival (PPS after winter, number. of pod per plant, 100 seed weight, yield and Harvest Index (HI were significant (p

  16. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  19. Resolving the role of plant glutamate dehydrogenase: II. Physiological characterization of plants overexpressing the two enzyme subunits individually or simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Bedu, Magali; Dargel-Grafin, Céline; Dubois, Frédéric; Gibon, Yves; Restivo, Francesco M; Hirel, Bertrand

    2013-10-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is able to carry out the deamination of glutamate in higher plants. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physiological function of GDH in leaves, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were constructed that overexpress two genes from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (GDHA and GDHB under the control of the Cauliflower mosiac virus 35S promoter), which encode the α- and β-subunits of GDH individually or simultaneously. In the transgenic plants, the GDH protein accumulated in the mitochondria of mesophyll cells and in the mitochondria of the phloem companion cells (CCs), where the native enzyme is normally expressed. Such a shift in the cellular location of the GDH enzyme induced major changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolite accumulation and a reduction in growth. These changes were mainly characterized by a decrease in the amount of sucrose, starch and glutamine in the leaves, which was accompanied by an increase in the amount of nitrate and Chl. In addition, there was an increase in the content of asparagine and a decrease in proline. Such changes may explain the lower plant biomass determined in the GDH-overexpressing lines. Overexpressing the two genes GDHA and GDHB individually or simultaneously induced a differential accumulation of glutamate and glutamine and a modification of the glutamate to glutamine ratio. The impact of the metabolic changes occurring in the different types of GDH-overexpressing plants is discussed in relation to the possible physiological function of each subunit when present in the form of homohexamers or heterohexamers.

  20. Efeito de vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus - vespas de figos Effect of non-pollinating fig wasps over fig-fig wasp mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G. Elias

    study mutualistic interactions and opportunistic strategies (parasites of mutualism. Plants of the genus Ficus maintain a mutualistic interaction with tiny pollinating wasps (Agaonidae and are exploited by other non-pollinating fig wasp species. This study aimed to assess the effect of non-pollinating wasps over the mutualistic relation between Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae and its pollinator Pegoscapus tonduzi Grandi, 1919 (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae. We compared both seed (female plant function and pollinating female (male plant function production rates among samples of high- and low-infested figs by non-pollinating wasps, sampled in three Brazilian cities, Londrina (State of Paraná, Campinas and Ribeirão Preto (state of São Paulo, Brazil. Our results have shown a negative impact over both female and male floral reproductive components. This effect was higher on the male plant component (production of pollinating females. Pollinator production was approximately seven times lower in infested figs, whereas seed production was 1.5 times lower in those figs. We discuss hypotheses about mutualism stability with the occurrence of opportunistic species.

  1. Isolated flavonoids from Ficus racemosa stem bark possess antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and protective effects in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshari, Amit K; Kumar, Ghanendra; Kushwaha, Priya S; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kumar, Pranesh; Rawat, Atul; Kumar, Dinesh; Prakash, Anand; Ghosh, Balaram; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-04-02

    Ficus racemosa (FR) has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is closely associated with prevention, treatment and cure of various human ailments like obesity and diabetes. It is popularly known as gular. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds like polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane type triterpene, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. However, no detail studies related to isolation of flavonoids has been reported previously with their antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological consequences. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological assessments of flavonoids isolated from Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark. We isolated four flavonoids from stem bark of FR and structures were confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (both 1D and 2D), mass spectroscopy (MS). Later, these flavonoids were administered to streptozotocin (STZ) rats once in a day for a period of seven days at 100mg/kg dose. We measured blood glucose level and body weight changes at different days (1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days). Serum lipid profiles were also estimated to investigate the hypolipidemic potential of flavonoids in the similar experiment. Various oxidative stress parameters in pancreas and liver and hepatic biomarker enzymes in plasma were also determined to investigate the toxicity potential of isolated flavonoids. Finally, we performed docking studies to find out the mechanism of action. Our results collectively suggested that four flavonoids reduced blood glucose level and restored body weight, signifying antidiabetic action. There were reduction of other lipid profile parameters and increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) during administration of flavonoids, also signifying hypolipidemic action. Various oxidative stress biomarkers and hepatic enzymes levels were also normalized with respect

  2. Technical summary of Groundwater Quality Protection Program at Savannah River Plant. Volume II. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Christensen, E.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report (Volume II) presents representative monitoring data for radioactivity in groundwater at SRP. Four major groups of radioactive waste disposal sites and three minor sites are described. Much of the geohydrological and and other background information given in Volume I is applicable to these sites and is incorporated by reference. Several of the sites that contain mixed chemical and radioactive wastes are discussed in both Volumes I and II. Bulk unirradiated uranium is considered primarily a chemical waste which is addressed in Volume I, but generally not in Volume II

  3. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: SRC-II process application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The solvent refined coal (SRC-II) process is an advanced process being developed by Gulf Mineral Resources Ltd. (a Gulf Oil Corporation subsidiary) to produce a clean, non-polluting liquid fuel from high-sulfur bituminous coals. The SRC-II commercial plant will process about 24,300 tonnes (26,800 tons) of feed coal per stream day, producing primarily fuel oil plus secondary fuel gases. This summary report describes the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating in a process steam/cogeneration mode (HTGR-PS/C) to provide the energy requirements for the SRC-II process. The HTGR-PS/C plant was developed by General Atomic Company (GA) specifically for industries which require energy in the form of both steam and electricity. General Atomic has developed an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C design which is particularly well suited to industrial applications and is expected to have excellent cost benefits over other sources of energy

  4. Planning and execution of jobs in nuclear power plants according to IWRS II. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmer, R.; Hauck, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with various efforts taken for a reduction of the radiation exposure of nuclear power plant staff. Health physics considerations range from the design of plants to include components requiring less time for maintenance and repair, to plant operation and optimization of job processes with special consideration of requirements made by radiation protection and maintenance. The paper presents in detail legal provisions and their translation into job process organization, job assignment and job schedulling. (HAG) [de

  5. Conserved and divergent rhythms of crassulacean acid metabolism-related and core clock gene expression in the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallona, Izaskun; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Weiss, Julia

    2011-08-01

    The cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Current knowledge of CAM metabolism suggests that the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) is circadian regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are posttranslationally controlled. As little transcriptomic data are available from obligate CAM plants, we created an expressed sequence tag database derived from different organs and developmental stages. Sequences were assembled, compared with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database for identification of putative orthologs, and mapped using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology and Gene Ontology. We identified genes involved in circadian regulation and CAM metabolism for transcriptomic analysis in plants grown in long days. We identified stable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that OfiSAND, like its counterpart in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and OfiTUB are generally appropriate standards for use in the quantification of gene expression in O. ficus-indica. Three kinds of expression profiles were found: transcripts of OfiPPCK oscillated with a 24-h periodicity; transcripts of the light-active OfiNADP-ME and OfiPPDK genes adapted to 12-h cycles, while transcript accumulation patterns of OfiPEPC and OfiMDH were arrhythmic. Expression of the circadian clock gene OfiTOC1, similar to Arabidopsis, oscillated with a 24-h periodicity, peaking at night. Expression of OfiCCA1 and OfiPRR9, unlike in Arabidopsis, adapted best to a 12-h rhythm, suggesting that circadian clock gene interactions differ from those of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the evolution of CAM metabolism could be the result of modified circadian regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional

  6. Conserved and Divergent Rhythms of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism-Related and Core Clock Gene Expression in the Cactus Opuntia ficus-indica1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallona, Izaskun; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Weiss, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Current knowledge of CAM metabolism suggests that the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) is circadian regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are posttranslationally controlled. As little transcriptomic data are available from obligate CAM plants, we created an expressed sequence tag database derived from different organs and developmental stages. Sequences were assembled, compared with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database for identification of putative orthologs, and mapped using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology and Gene Ontology. We identified genes involved in circadian regulation and CAM metabolism for transcriptomic analysis in plants grown in long days. We identified stable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that OfiSAND, like its counterpart in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and OfiTUB are generally appropriate standards for use in the quantification of gene expression in O. ficus-indica. Three kinds of expression profiles were found: transcripts of OfiPPCK oscillated with a 24-h periodicity; transcripts of the light-active OfiNADP-ME and OfiPPDK genes adapted to 12-h cycles, while transcript accumulation patterns of OfiPEPC and OfiMDH were arrhythmic. Expression of the circadian clock gene OfiTOC1, similar to Arabidopsis, oscillated with a 24-h periodicity, peaking at night. Expression of OfiCCA1 and OfiPRR9, unlike in Arabidopsis, adapted best to a 12-h rhythm, suggesting that circadian clock gene interactions differ from those of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the evolution of CAM metabolism could be the result of modified circadian regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional

  7. COMPORTAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PALMA (Opuntia ficus-indica l. SUBMETIDAS À FERMENTAÇÃO E SECAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marie Macedo Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage cactus is cultivated of extensive form as a producing species of fruits and fodder plant in many countries. The extensive culture if bases on the vegetative propagation, that is preferred, had its easiness. The propagation for seeds can come to be a useful tool for ends of genetic improvement, then, in this work forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L. seeds were submitted to different fermentation periods (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 hours and were dried or not, before sowing. It was evaluated the physiological quality of the seeds through the determination of the moisture content, emergence percentage and speed of seedling emergency. It was used an entirely randomized experimental design 5x2 (period of fermentation and drying. The practical one of the fermentation is efficient in the elimination of the sarcotesta in palm seeds, occurring bigger vigor in the seeds without drying and submitted the 55 hours of fermentation, as well as, the drying of the seeds, after the first periods of fermentation promotes reduction of the physiological quality, with reflected right-handers in the vigor.

  8. Innovative approach for urease inhibition by Ficus carica extract-fabricated silver nanoparticles: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Wagh, Nilesh D; Patil, Satish V

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a rapid, low-cost, and ecofriendly method of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis using leaves extract of Ficus carica (F. carica), a plant with diverse metabolic consortium, is reported for the first time. An absorption peak at 422 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy, a spherical shape with an average size of 21 nm in transmission electron microscopy, and crystalline nature in X-ray powder diffraction studies were observed for the synthesized AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins of F. carica might have a vital role in AgNP synthesis and stabilization. AgNPs were found to inhibit urease, a key enzyme responsible for the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. Inhibition of urease by AgNPs was monitored spectrophotometrically by the evaluation of ammonia release. The urease inhibition potential of AgNPs can be explored in the treatment of H. pylori by preparing novel combinations of standard drugs with AgNPs- or AgNPs-encapsulated drug molecules. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Source of sustained voltage difference between the xylem of a potted Ficus benjamina tree and its soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Love

    Full Text Available It has long been known that there is a sustained electrical potential (voltage difference between the xylem of many plants and their surrounding soil, but the mechanism behind this voltage has remained controversial. After eliminating any extraneous capacitive or inductive couplings and ground-mediated electric current flows, we have measured sustained differences of 50-200 mV between the xylem region of a Faraday-caged, intact, potted Ficus benjamina tree and its soil, as well as between its cut branches and soils and ionic solutions standardized to various pH values. Using identical platinum electrodes, no correlation between the voltage and time of day, illumination, sap flow, electrode elevation, or ionic composition of soil was found, suggesting no direct connection to simple dissimilar-metal redox reactions or transpirational activity. Instead, a clear relationship between the voltage polarity and magnitude and the pH difference between xylem and soil was observed. We attribute these sustained voltages to a biological concentration cell likely set up by the homeostatic mechanisms of the tree. Potential applications of this finding are briefly explored.

  11. Docking-based Screening of Ficus religiosa Phytochemicals as Inhibitors of Human Histamine H2 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Amit; Yadav, Birendra Singh; Singh, Swati; Maurya, Pramod Kumar; Mishra, Alok; Srivastva, Shweta; Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Singh, Nand Kumar; Mani, Ashutosh

    2017-10-01

    Ficus religiosa L. is generally known as Peepal and belongs to family Moraceae . The tree is a source of many compounds having high medicinal value. In gastrointestinal tract, histamine H2 receptors have key role in histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Their over stimulation causes its excessive production which is responsible for gastric ulcer. This study aims to screen the range of phytochemicals present in F. religiosa for binding with human histamine H2 and identify therapeutics for a gastric ulcer from the plant. In this work, a 3D-structure of human histamine H2 receptor was modeled by using homology modeling and the predicted model was validated using PROCHECK. Docking studies were also performed to assess binding affinities between modeled receptor and 34 compounds. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to identify most stable receptor-ligand complexes. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and screening was done to evaluate pharmacokinetic properties of compounds. The results suggest that seven ligands, namely, germacrene, bergaptol, lanosterol, Ergost-5-en-3beta-ol, α-amyrin acetate, bergapten, and γ-cadinene showed better binding affinities. Among seven phytochemicals, lanosterol and α-amyrin acetate were found to have greater stability during simulation studies. These two compounds may be a suitable therapeutic agent against histamine H2 receptor. This study was performed to screen antiulcer compounds from F. religiosa . Molecular modeling, molecular docking and MD simulation studies were performed with selected phytochemicals from F. religiosa . The analysis suggests that Lanosterol and α-amyrin may be a suitable therapeutic agent against histamine H2 receptor. This study facilitates initiation of the herbal drug discovery process for the antiulcer activity. Abbreviations used: ADMET: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, DOPE: Discrete Optimized Potential Energy, OPLS: Optimized potential for liquid

  12. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  13. Plants used to manage type II diabetes mellitus in selected districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, documentation of the various medicinal plants is still lacking, necessitating a well-organized information search for such knowledge through research. Such information can lay a firm and clear foundation for scientific investigation of the purported therapeutic benefits of the said plants. The objective of this study ...

  14. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  15. Degradation of PVC/HC blends. II. Terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Profire, Lenuţa; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The behavior at degradation by soil burial of some plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with a variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, physiologic state of the plants, assimilatory pigments) were studied. Using the growth test of the terrestrial plants, we followed the development of Triticum (wheat), Helianthus annus minimus (little sunflower), Pisum sativum (pea), and Vicia X hybrida hort, during a vegetation cycle. After the harvest, for each plant, the quantities of chlorophyll and carotenoidic pigments and of trace- and macroelements were determined. It was proved that, in the presence of polymer blends, the plants do not suffer morphological and physiological modifications, the products released in the culture soil being not toxic for the plants growth.

  16. Ciclo vital de Pegoscapus aff. silvestrii (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae, polinizador de Ficus andicola (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jansen G.

    2006-07-01

    de sexo en las poblaciones de avispas que emergen de los frutos de cada especie de Ficus. A pesar de esto, son pocos los estudios que tratan la biología básica de las avispas, especialmente para el Neotrópico. El presente trabajo describe el ciclo vital de la avispa agaónida Pegoscapus aff. silvestrii, polinizadora de Ficus andicola, a partir de un seguimiento intensivo a los frutos de un árbol. La especie tiene cinco estadíos larvales que juntos abarcaron 80 días desde la postura, con presencia de aparato bucal en los últimos dos. A éstos les sigue una pupa del tipo exarata y finalmente el adulto.

  17. Nuevas nociones sobre el género Ficus en Colombia, III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, continuación de mi estudio del genero Ficus en Colombia, se describe una especie nueva de este país y se proponen sendos nombres nuevos para dos especies antiguas recientemente halladas en Colombia pero originalmente descritas del Amazonas brasileño y de la América Central. Aprovecho esta oportunidad para expresar mi más vivo agradecimiento a la señorita Marjorie W. Stone, Bibliógrafa del Gray Herbarium, Universidad de Harvard, y al señor León Groizat, del Arnold Arboretum, Universidad de Harvard, por la muy diligente y valiosa ayuda que me han prestado en la búsqueda de datos bibliográficos referentes a algunas especies de Ficus de status nomenclatural incierto o dudoso.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  20. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  1. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus Glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver the tissue for analysis on the 7 day ...

  2. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver tissue for th analysis on the 7 day.

  3. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  4. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Guti?rrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Mart?nez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Sald?var, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  5. Atlantic forests to the all Americas: Biogeographical history and divergence times of Neotropical Ficus (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson Ferreira Pinto; Rønsted, Nina; Bruun-Lund, Sam; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano

    2018-05-01

    Ficus (Moraceae) is well diversified in the Neotropics with two lineages inhabiting the wet forests of this region. The hemiepiphytes of section Americanae are the most diversified with c. 120 species, whereas section Pharmacosycea includes about 20 species mostly with a terrestrial habit. To reconstruct the biogeographical history and diversification of Ficus in the Americas, we produced a dated Bayesian phylogenetic hypothesis of Neotropical Ficus including two thirds of the species sequenced for five nuclear regions (At103, ETS, G3pdh, ITS/5.8S and Tpi). Ancestral range was estimated using all models available in Biogeobears and Binary State Speciation and Extinction analysis was used to evaluate the role of the initial habit and propagule size in diversification. The phylogenetic analyses resolved both Neotropical sections as monophyletic but the internal relationships between species in section Americanae remain unclear. Ficus started their diversification in the Neotropics between the Oligocene and Miocene. The genus experienced two bursts of diversification: in the middle Miocene and the Pliocene. Colonization events from the Amazon to adjacent areas coincide with the end of the Pebas system (10 Mya) and the connection of landmasses. Divergence of endemic species in the Atlantic forest is inferred to have happened after its isolation and the opening and consolidation of the Cerrado. Our results suggest a complex diversification in the Atlantic forest differing between postulated refuges and more instable areas in the South distribution of the forest. Finally the selection for initial hemiepiphytic habit and small to medium propagule size influenced the diversification and current distribution of the species at Neotropical forests marked by the historical instability and long-distance dispersal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Argentine nuclear policy: evaluation and proposals of the National Atomic Energy Commission. Privatization of the nuclear power plants and the situation of Atucha II. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis is made of the possible privatization of the nuclear power plants in Argentina. The urgent definition of a nuclear policy for the short, medium and long term is strongly recommended to the Government together with the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant

  7. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  8. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  9. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  10. Photosystem II repair and plant immunity: Lessons learned from Arabidopsis mutant lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari eJärvi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415-425. Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light.

  11. Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant: Part II – Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaca, Adem; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant is found to be 59.37% and 38.99% respectively. • Performance assessment of a cement plant indicates that the calcination process involves the highest portion of energy losses. • The specific exergetic cost cement produced by the cement plant is calculated to be 180.5 USD/GJ. • The specific cement manufacturing cost is found to be 41.84 USD/ton. - Abstract: This paper is Part 2 of the study on the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant. In Part 1, thermodynamic and exergoeconomic formulations and procedure for such a comprehensive analysis are provided while this paper provides an application of the developed formulation that considers an actual cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey. The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant is found to be 59.37% and 38.99% respectively. The exergy destructions, exergetic cost allocations, and various exergoeconomic performance parameters are determined by using the exergoeconomic analysis based on specific exergy costing method (SPECO) for the entire plant and its components. The specific unit exergetic cost of the farine, clinker and cement produced by the cement plant are calculated to be 43.77 USD/GJ, 133.72 USD/GJ and 180.5 USD/GJ respectively. The specific manufacturing costs of farine, clinker and cement are found to be 3.8 USD/ton, 33.11 USD/ton and 41.84 USD/ton respectively

  12. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  13. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants : From photosystem II paricticle to intact leaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Klaas Jan

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis several aspects of photoinhibition have been studied. Photoinhibition of PS II was studied, both on a basic (biophysical and biochemical) level and on a more integrated (eco)physiological level. The results of the different approaches were integrated and discussed with respect to the

  14. Containment performance evaluation for the GESSAR-II plant for seismic initiating events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.K.; Chu, T.; Ludewig, H.; Pratt, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    As a part of the overall effort undertaken by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to review the GESSAR-II probabilistic risk assessment, an independent containment performance evaluation was performed using the containment event tree approach. This evaluation focused principally on those accident sequences which are initiated by seismic events. This paper reports the findings of this study. 1 ref

  15. 75 FR 68821 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Construction and Operation of Kaheawa II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    .... DATES: All comments from interested parties must be received on or before December 9, 2010. ADDRESSES... under the Service's ``No Surprises'' regulations at 50 CFR 17.32(b)(5) and 50 CFR 17.22(b)(5). KWP II is... implementation. We invite comments and suggestions from all interested parties and request that comments be as...

  16. Carotenoid-binding sites of the major light-harvesting complex II of higher plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, Roberta; Weiss, Saskia; Bassi, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins with modified carotenoid composition have been obtained by in vitro reconstitution of the Lhcb1 protein overexpressed in bacteria. The monomeric protein possesses three xanthophyll-binding sites. The L1 and L2 sites, localized by electron

  17. Stark effect measurements on monomers and trimers of reconstituted light-harvesting complex II of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, M.A.; Caffarri, S.; Bassi, R.; Grondelle, van R.; Amerongen, van H.

    2004-01-01

    The electric-field induced absorption changes (Stark effect) of reconstituted light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) in different oligomerisation states - monomers and trimers - with different xanthophyll content have been probed at 77 K. The Stark spectra of the reconstituted control samples,

  18. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); ICTP Fellow on Sabbatical Leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Adebajo, A. C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O. R. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M. C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  19. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Adebajo, A.C.; Omobuwajo, O.R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications

  20. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant - Part II: Assessment of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Bruzzi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    In the previous paper the authors have studied the radioactive pollution caused by a complex fertilizers production plant. In this paper, the effective doses to the plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site are estimated. The authors have considered external irradiation, inhalation and ingestion of dust and inhalation of radon and radon daughters as the main occupational exposure routes. After estimating the single contributions, the total effective dose has been calculated as the sum of said contributions. Calculations have been differentiated according to the different tasks of the company employees. The estimated annual effective doses range from 0.6 to 1.4 mSv y -1 . Annual individual effective doses to local residents, resulting from internal and external irradiation caused by particulate matter emitted into the atmosphere by the plant have been estimated. The maximum individual dose rate is estimated to be about 4 μSv y -1

  2. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume II: introduction and site description, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effecs of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. This report presents the results from the first year of the two year study and also summarizes results from previous studies on aquatic ecosystems of the Savannah River Plant. Five major program elements are addressed: water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands ecology, aquatic ecology, and endangered species. 63 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengry, P.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant [fr

  4. Density of phonon states in the light-harvesting complex II of green plants

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Irrgang, K D; Renger, G

    2002-01-01

    In photosynthetic antenna complexes, the coupling of electronic transitions to low-frequency vibrations of the protein matrix (phonons) plays an essential role in light absorption and ultra-fast excitation energy transfer (EET). The model calculations presented here indicate that inelastic neutron scattering experiments provide invaluable information on the phonon density of states for light-harvesting complex II, which may permit a consistent interpretation of contradictory results from high-resolution optical spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. The rising of the land at the nuclear power plant Asco II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sanchez, J.; Ubalde, L.

    1997-01-01

    The rising of the land on which Asco II is settled is a geological process of slow and falling evolution in the time, studied and followed by means of geophysical models of the underground and continuous auscultation. Their influence on the structures, equipment, components and systems is contemplated in the bases of the design of the power station, whose behaviour towards this phenomenon evolves satisfactorily in accordance with control parameters. (Author)

  6. Fe uptake from meso and D,L-racemic Fe(o,o-EDDHA) isomers by strategy I and II plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Mar; Alcañiz, Sara; Juárez, Margarita; Jordá, Juana D; Bermúdez, Dolores

    2006-02-22

    One of the most efficient fertilizers to correct Fe deficiency in calcareous soils and waters with high bicarbonate content is based on ferric ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid [Fe(o,o-EDDHA)]. Fe(o,o-EDDHA) forms two groups of geometric isomers known as meso and D,L-racemic. To determine the Fe uptake from meso and D,L-racemic Fe(o,o-EDDHA), four iron-efficient plants, two plants representative of strategy I (tomato and pepper) and two plants representative of strategy II (wheat and oats), were grown in hydroponic culture. Results indicated that strategy II plants took up iron from both Fe(o,o-EDDHA) isomers equally. However, strategy I plants took mainly the iron associated with the meso form (the lowest stability isomer).

  7. Savannah River Plant - Project 8980 engineering and design history. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This volume provides an engineering and design history of the 100 area of the Savannah River Plant. This site consisted of five separate production reactor sites, 100-R, P, L, K, and C. The document summarizes work on design of the reactors, support facilities, buildings, siting, etc. for these areas.

  8. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  10. Growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on potato plants expressing the oryzacystatin II proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingel, Aleksandar; Savić, Jelena; Vinterhalter, Branka; Vinterhalter, Dragan; Kostić, Miroslav; Jovanović, Darka Šešlija; Smigocki, Ann; Ninković, Slavica

    2015-08-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. PI oryzacystatin II (OCII), isolated from rice, showed potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate the applicability of the OCII gene in enhancing plant defence, OCII-transformed potatoes were bioassayed for resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Feeding on transformed leaves of potato cultivars Desiree and Jelica significantly affected larval growth and development, but did not change mortality rates. During the L2 and L3 developmental stages larvae consumed the OCII-transformed foliage faster as compared to the nontransformed control. Also these larvae reached the prepupal stage (end of L4 stage) 2 days earlier than those fed on control leaves. However, the total amounts of consumed OCII-transformed leaves were up to 23% lower than of control, and the maximal weights of prepupal larvae were reduced by up to 18% as compared to larvae fed on nontransformed leaves. The reduction in insect fitness reported in this study in combination with other control measures, could lead to improved CPB resistance management in potato.

  11. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on

  12. Generation IV nuclear energy systems: road map and concepts. 2. Generation II Measurement Systems for Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Don W.

    2001-01-01

    need for substantial research. As we consider I and C systems in Generation IV reactors, we have the opportunity to take a much less 'timid' design philosophy than was taken in the design of I and C systems in the ALWRs. We need to make use of advanced technology to design an I and C system for the Generation IV multi-unit plant designs currently being considered. Such a design should accomplish the following: 1. provides for multi-unit control; 2. contributes to a plant design objective of a very low core damage frequency; 3. maximizes plant thermal efficiency (>50%); 4. maximizes plant capacity factor (>90%); 5. optimizes operability; 6. maximizes maintainability; 7. provides for on-line monitoring, calibration, and diagnostics; 8. provides optimum response to disturbances; 9. provides excellent load-following capability. When we consider the current situation in operating Generation I and II nuclear power plants and even Generation III ALWR design, we conclude that Generation IV reactors should employ at least Generation II measurement systems. Let us first consider data transmission, which is a form of communication, and ask the question: Do new communication-transferring methods by electrons flow in copper wires? The obvious answer is no. Virtually all new communication systems are using some electromagnetic method, such as light, microwaves, HF or VHF radio signals, and virtually no copper wires. When we envision Generation IV nuclear power plants, we should minimize the use of copper wires for data transmission. We should transmit data primarily by fiber optics and various wireless methods, some of which can penetrate thick barriers. Now let us consider sensors. If we use light for data transmission, then we should also use optical-based sensors. We should also take advantage of microprocessors, which provide opportunities to embed 'intelligence' in the sensor that can be used to increase accuracy, stability, and tolerance to external stressors (i.e., radiation

  13. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  14. Brassinosteroids improve photosystem II efficiency, gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and growth of cowpea plants exposed to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J V; Lobato, A K S

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is considered the main abiotic stress that limits agricultural production worldwide. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural substances that play roles in plant tolerance against abiotic stresses, including water deficit. This research aims to determine whether BRs can mitigate the negative effects caused by water deficiency, revealing how BRs act and their possible contribution to increased tolerance of cowpea plants to water deficit. The experiment was a factorial design with the factors completely randomised, with two water conditions (control and water deficit) and three levels of brassinosteroids (0, 50 and 100 nM 24-epibrassinolide; EBR is an active BRs). Plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR under the water deficit presented significant increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR compared with plants subjected to the water deficit without EBR. With respect to gas exchange, P N , E and g s exhibited significant reductions after water deficit, but application of 100 nM EBR caused increases in these variables of 96, 24 and 33%, respectively, compared to the water deficit + 0 nM EBR treatment. To antioxidant enzymes, EBR resulted in increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX, indicating that EBR acts on the antioxidant system, reducing cell damage. The water deficit caused significant reductions in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, while plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR showed significant increases of 26, 58 and 33% in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, respectively. This study revealed that EBR improves photosystem II efficiency, inducing increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR. This substance also mitigated the negative effects on gas exchange and growth induced by the water deficit. Increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX of plants treated with EBR indicate that this steroid clearly increased the tolerance to the water deficit, reducing reactive oxygen species, cell damage, and maintaining the photosynthetic pigments. Additionally, 100 nM EBR resulted in a better dose-response of cowpea

  15. Antiangiogenic Effect of Ficus deltoidea Jack Standardised Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: To prepare the water extract (FD-A), the powder of the plant was extracted with water under ... chromatography (RP-HPLC), as well as by total phenolic and flavonoid contents. .... quantification (LOQ) according to a previously.

  16. Technical improvement of ATE system of Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xingbao; Xiong Jingchuan; Liang Qiaohong

    2009-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the content of SO 4 2- in Steam Generator significantly increased beyond the criteria after the use of the condensate treatment (ATE) system in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant Phase I, technical improvement have been conducted on the sizes of the fore cation bed and the mixed bed, water distributing devices, ion exchange resins and separation facility. The effectiveness for the ion exchange of the mixed bed is improved, the resolved substance of cation resin is decreased; it is more impossible for fragments and powder which would lead high SO 4 2- content in Steam Generator. Finally, the quality of the steam-water could be improved and ensured. (authors)

  17. Mercury in mercury(II)-spiked soils is highly susceptible to plant bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodák, Michal; Urík, Martin; Matúš, Peter; Kořenková, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal phytotoxicity assessments usually use soluble metal compounds in spiked soils to evaluate metal bioaccumulation, growth inhibition and adverse effects on physiological parameters. However, exampling mercury phytotoxicity for barley (Hordeum vulgare) this paper highlights unsuitability of this experimental approach. Mercury(II) in spiked soils is extremely bioavailable, and there experimentally determined bioaccumulation is significantly higher compared to reported mercury bioaccumulation efficiency from soils collected from mercury-polluted areas. Our results indicate this is not affected by soil sorption capacity, thus soil ageing and formation of more stable mercuric complexes with soil fractions is necessary for reasonable metal phytotoxicity assessments.

  18. [Minor components in food plants--II. Triterpenoid saponins from Ullucus tuberosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, A; Rastrelli, L; Saturnino, P; Schettino, O

    1991-12-01

    The present work deals with the isolation and characterization of triterpenoid saponins from Ullucus tuberosus. This class of natural products can account at least in part for unpalatability of the tubers of the plant. Two saponins were isolated 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-epihederagenine and 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1"-- 2')-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanoate.

  19. Renewable energy in pakistan: part-II mini/micro hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Part-1 of this series dealt with Wind-Energy Prospects in Pakistan. This second part gives a brief account Mini/Micro Hydro-Power Plants in Pakistan. Hydropower is well-known throughout the world and currently contributes 6-7% of total world energy-production and 20% of total world electricity generation. Most of the hydro-plants are usually designed for higher generation capacity than that which could be needed to utilize the average water-flows. Small hydro-plants are another potential source of energy among the non-conventional energy sources, which can reduce the load on conventional-energy production. Small hydropower technology is today a mature and proven technology. Civil works and installation of equipment involve simple process, which offer good opportunity to local people for employment and use locally available materials Nevertheless a small decentralized hydel plant, based on natural waterfalls is a very desirable option for geographically remote, but naturally suitable locations which are otherwise far from the national physical infrastructure. The development of Mini/Micro hydel stations in these areas, with isolated, thinly clustered, population, is a very appropriate solution to meet power-needs of such areas for lighting as well as cottage industry. The unique feature of these installations is the participation of local community to the optimum extent. The entire civil works, the intake system, power channel, forebay, penstock and power house building, as well as labour is provided by the inhabitants voluntarily. While maximum use is made of stone, with minimum use of cement, the generator, distribution wires, etc., need to be arranged from the market. The turbine is manufactured using indigenous materials. The installation-cost per KW is relatively low i.e. Rs. 25,000/- as compared to large-scale installations. There could of course be variations, in the installation-cost, depending on the market prices of the material. (author)

  20. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae

    2008-10-01

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained

  1. TSSPlant: a new tool for prediction of plant Pol II promoters

    KAUST Repository

    Shahmuradov, Ilham A.

    2017-01-13

    Our current knowledge of eukaryotic promoters indicates their complex architecture that is often composed of numerous functional motifs. Most of known promoters include multiple and in some cases mutually exclusive transcription start sites (TSSs). Moreover, TSS selection depends on cell/tissue, development stage and environmental conditions. Such complex promoter structures make their computational identification notoriously difficult. Here, we present TSSPlant, a novel tool that predicts both TATA and TATA-less promoters in sequences of a wide spectrum of plant genomes. The tool was developed by using large promoter collections from ppdb and PlantProm DB. It utilizes eighteen significant compositional and signal features of plant promoter sequences selected in this study, that feed the artificial neural network-based model trained by the backpropagation algorithm. TSSPlant achieves significantly higher accuracy compared to the next best promoter prediction program for both TATA promoters (MCC≃0.84 and F1-score≃0.91 versus MCC≃0.51 and F1-score≃0.71) and TATA-less promoters (MCC≃0.80, F1-score≃0.89 versus MCC≃0.29 and F1-score≃0.50). TSSPlant is available to download as a standalone program at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/download/.

  2. TSSPlant: a new tool for prediction of plant Pol II promoters

    KAUST Repository

    Shahmuradov, Ilham A.; Umarov, Ramzan; Solovyev, Victor V.

    2017-01-01

    Our current knowledge of eukaryotic promoters indicates their complex architecture that is often composed of numerous functional motifs. Most of known promoters include multiple and in some cases mutually exclusive transcription start sites (TSSs). Moreover, TSS selection depends on cell/tissue, development stage and environmental conditions. Such complex promoter structures make their computational identification notoriously difficult. Here, we present TSSPlant, a novel tool that predicts both TATA and TATA-less promoters in sequences of a wide spectrum of plant genomes. The tool was developed by using large promoter collections from ppdb and PlantProm DB. It utilizes eighteen significant compositional and signal features of plant promoter sequences selected in this study, that feed the artificial neural network-based model trained by the backpropagation algorithm. TSSPlant achieves significantly higher accuracy compared to the next best promoter prediction program for both TATA promoters (MCC≃0.84 and F1-score≃0.91 versus MCC≃0.51 and F1-score≃0.71) and TATA-less promoters (MCC≃0.80, F1-score≃0.89 versus MCC≃0.29 and F1-score≃0.50). TSSPlant is available to download as a standalone program at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/download/.

  3. Multilivel interfaces for power plant control rooms II: A preliminary design space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Events that are unfamiliar to operators and that have not been anticipated by designers pose the greatest threat to system safely in nuclear power plants. The abstraction hierarchy has been proposed as a representation frame-work that can be adopted to design interfaces that support operators in dealing with these unanticipated events. It consists of a multilevel representation format that represents a plant in terms of both physical and functional constraints. In a companion article, the work that has been done on this topic in academia, industry, and research laboratories was reviewed. On the basis of the results of that review, this article proposes a preliminary design space for multilevel interfaces based on the abstraction hierarchy. This space serves several worthwhile purposes: providing a unified framework within which to compare and contrast previous and future work in this area, providing a coherent research agenda by identifying some of the dimensions that can be meaningfully manipulated and evaluated in future experiments, and finally, serving as an input design by outlining the various decisions that need to be made in developing multilevel interfaces and the different options that are currently available for each of those decisions. Consequently this article should be of interest to researchers, designers, and regulators concerned with nuclear power-plant control rooms

  4. Identification of functional groups of Opuntia ficus-indica involved in coagulation process after its active part extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaouine, Omar; Bourven, Isabelle; Khalil, Fouad; Baudu, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica that belongs to the Cactaceae family and is a member of Opuntia kind has received increasing research interest for wastewater treatment by flocculation. The objectives of this study were (i) to provide more information regarding the active constituents of Opuntia spp. and (ii) to improve the extracting and using conditions of the flocculant molecules for water treatment. A classic approach by jar test experiments was used with raw and extracted material by solubilization and precipitation. The surface properties of solid material were characterized by FTIR, SEM, zeta potential measurement, and surface titration. The splitting based on the solubility of the material with pH and the titration of functional groups completed the method. The optimal pH value for a coagulation-flocculation process using cactus solid material (CSM) was 10.0 and a processing rate of 35 mg L -1 . The alkaline pH of flocculation suggests an adsorption mechanism with bridging effect between particles by water-soluble extracted molecules. To validate this mechanism, an extraction water was carried out at pH = 10 (optimum of flocculation) and the solution was acidified (pH = 7) to allow precipitation of so considered active flocculant molecules. The strong flocculant property of this extract was verified, and titration of this solution showed at least one specific pKa of 9.0 ± 0.6. This pKa corresponds to phenol groups, which could be assigned to lignin and tannin.

  5. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  6. Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    PAREKH, Jigna; JADEJA, Darshana; CHANDA, Sumitra

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus epidermidis A...

  7. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  8. Hydrogeological modelling of the eastern region of Areco river locally detailed on Atucha I and II nuclear power plants area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattone, Natalia I.; Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2009-01-01

    Water flow behaviour of Pampeano aquifer was modeled using Visual Mod-flow software Package 2.8.1 with the assumption of a free aquifer, within the region of the Areco river and extending to the rivers of 'Canada Honda' and 'de la Cruz'. Steady state regime was simulated and grid refinement allows obtaining locally detailed calculation in the area of Atucha I and II Nuclear power plants, in order to compute unsteady situations as the consequence of water flow variations from and to the aquifer, enabling the model to study the movement of possible contaminant particles in the hydrogeologic system. In this work the effects of rivers action, the recharge conditions and the flow lines are analyzed, taking always into account the range of reliability of obtained results, considering the incidence of uncertainties introduced by data input system, the estimates and interpolation of parameters used. (author)

  9. Improved HYLIFE-II heat transport system and steam power plant: Impact on performance and cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Lee, Ying T.

    1992-12-01

    The HYLIFE-II conceptual design has evolved and improved continually over the past four years to its present form. This paper describes the latest FY92 versions, Reference Case H1 (nominally 1 GWe net output) and the Enhanced Case HE (nominally 2 GWe net output), which take advantage of improvements in the tritium management system to eliminate the intermediate loop and the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX's). The improvements in the heat transport system and the steam power plant are described and the resulting cost reductions are evaluated. The new estimated cost of electricity (in 1990 dollars) is 6.6 cents/kWh for Reference Case H1 and 4.7 cents/kWh for the Enhanced Case

  10. Organization and safety culture in Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Unified management of ANA and CNV has resulted in an organizational and functional change in both Plant managements that has affected the structure of the original organizations and the interrelations with the other Corporate Managements. In this process, as indicated in the ANAV Strategic Plan, improving the safety culture is one of the primary objectives of the company, and to this end internal actions have been taken that have basically affected: the structure of the Organization, the Management's commitment, the learning capability, enhanced internal communication and development of human factors-related issues. (Author)

  11. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex-Plant part II: Staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper very briefly describes criticality investigations for nuclear weapon dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. The investigations performed were for pit staging, and build on previous criticality calculations for single pits. The KENO and MCNP computer models were used for pit and container combinations. Scenarios were based on administrative limits and actual or potential physical conditions in the facilities. Essentially all of the pit configurations modeled were subcritical by a substantial amount. It was concluded that a critical configuration involving pit/container combinations is not credible

  12. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig–wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A.; Underhill, J. G.; Cruaud, A.; Hossaert-McKey, M.; Johnson, S. D.; Tolley, K. A.; Kjellberg, F.; van Noort, S.; Proffit, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combining biogeographic, ecological, morphological, molecular and chemical data, we document departure from strict specialization in the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. We show that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and Elisabethiella socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa. Up to two morphologically distinct lineages were found to co-occur locally in the southern African region. Wasps belonging to a single lineage were frequently the main regional pollinators of several Ficus species. In South Africa, two sister lineages, E. stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis, pollinate Ficus natalensis but only E. stuckenbergi also regularly pollinates Ficus burkei. The two wasp species co-occur in individual trees of F. natalensis throughout KwaZulu-Natal. Floral volatile blends emitted by F. natalensis in KwaZulu-Natal were similar to those emitted by F. burkei and different from those produced by other African Ficus species. The fig odour similarity suggests evolutionary convergence to attract particular wasp species. The observed pattern may result from selection for pollinator sharing among Ficus species. Such a process, with one wasp species regionally pollinating several hosts, but several wasp species pollinating a given Ficus species across its geographical range could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association. PMID:22130605

  13. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency plans, volume II: criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A critical review of existing Canadian and international nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency plans, evaluation criteria, and approaches has been conducted to provide AECB staff with information which can be used to assess the adequacy of NPP on-site emergency response plans. The results of this work are published in two volumes. Volume I, Basis Document, provides the reasons why certain requirements are in place. It also gives comprehensive references to various standards.Volume II, Criteria, contains the criteria which relate to on-site actions and their integration with control room activities and the roles of off-site responsible organizations. The recommended criteria provide information on what is required, and not on how to accomplish the requirements. The licensees are given the latitude to decide on the methods and processes needed to meet the requirements. The documents do not address NPP off-site plans and response capability, or the control room emergency operating procedures and response capability. This report contains only Volume II: Criteria. 55 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Baseline susceptibility of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from California to select insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Gispert, Carmen; Castle, Steven J

    2012-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, 20 populations of Planococcus ficus (Signoret), from Coachella and San Joaquin Valleys of California were measured in the laboratory for susceptibility to buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methomyl, and imidacloprid. Toxicity was assessed using a petri dish bioassay technique for contact insecticides and by a systemic uptake technique for imidacloprid. Mixed life stages were tested for susceptibility to all insecticides except for buprofezin, which was measured against early and late instars (first, second, and third). Dose-response regression lines from the mortality data established LC50 and LC99 values by both techniques. Responses of populations from the two geographical locations to all five insecticides varied, in some cases significantly. Variations in susceptibility to each insecticide among sample sites showed a sevenfold difference for buprofezin, 11-fold to chlorpyrifos, ninefold to dimethoate, 24-fold to methomyl, and 8.5-fold to imidacloprid. In spite of susceptibility differences between populations, baseline toxicity data revealed that all five insecticides were quite effective based on low LC50s. Chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound to Planococcus ficus populations as shown by lowest LC50s. Buprofezin was toxic to all immature stages but was more potent to first instars. The highest LC99 estimated by probit analysis of the bioassay data of all 20 populations for each compound was selected as a candidate discriminating dose for use in future resistance monitoring efforts. Establishment of baseline data and development of resistance monitoring tools such as bioassay methods and discriminating doses are essential elements of a sustainable management program for Planococcus ficus.

  15. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuramirah Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively, and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1% and eugenol (8.1%, while α-humulene (5.5% and germacrene D (7.7% were dominant in F. deltoidea. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63–2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven

  16. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-12-05

    In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum . Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea . The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains

  17. The effect of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica in a mouse model of diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Torres, Nimbe; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Noriega, Lilia G; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Leal-Díaz, Ana M; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Márquez-Mota, Claudia; Ordaz, Guillermo; Chavez-Santoscoy, Rocío A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-03-01

    A diet rich in polyphenols can ameliorate some metabolic alterations associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a plant rich in isorhamnetin glycosides and is highly consumed in Mexico. The purpose of this research was to determine the metabolic effect of an OFI extract on a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and in isolated pancreatic islets. OFI extract was added to a high fat (HF) diet at a low (0.3%) or high (0.6%) dose and administered to C57BL/6 mice for 12 weeks. Mice fed the HF diet supplemented with the OFI extract gained less body weight and exhibited significantly lower circulating total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to those fed the HF diet alone. The HF-OFI diet fed mice presented lower glucose and insulin concentration than the HF diet fed mice. However, the HF-OFI diet fed mice tended to have higher insulin concentration than control mice. The OFI extract stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, associated with increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA content. Furthermore, the OFI extract improved glucose tolerance, and additionally increased energy expenditure. These metabolic improvements were associated with reduced adipocyte size, increased hepatic IRS1 tyr-608 and S6 K thr-389 phosphorylation. OFI isorhamnetin glycosides also diminished the hepatic lipid content associated with reduced mRNA expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and lipogenic enzymes and increased mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation. Overall, the OFI extract prevented the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with diet-induced obesity.

  18. Structure and Principal Components Analyses Reveal an Intervarietal Fusion in Malaysian Mistletoe Fig (Ficus deltoidea Jack Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birifdzi Zimisuhara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure and biodiversity of the medicinal plant Ficus deltoidea have rarely been scrutinized. To fill these lacunae, five varieties, consisting of 30 F. deltoidea accessions were collected across the country and studied on the basis of molecular and morphological data. Molecular analysis of the accessions was performed using nine Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR markers, seven of which were detected as polymorphic markers. ISSR-based clustering generated four clusters supporting the geographical distribution of the accessions to some extent. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient implied the existence of low diversity (0.50–0.75 in the studied population. STRUCTURE analysis showed a low differentiation among the sampling sites, while a moderate varietal differentiation was unveiled with two main populations of F. deltoidea. Our observations confirmed the occurrence of gene flow among the accessions; however, the highest degree of this genetic interference was related to the three accessions of FDDJ10, FDTT16 and FDKT25. These three accessions may be the genetic intervarietal fusion points of the plant’s population. Principal Components Analysis (PCA relying on quantitative morphological characteristics resulted in two principal components with Eigenvalue >1 which made up 89.96% of the total variation. The cluster analysis performed by the eight quantitative characteristics led to grouping the accessions into four clusters with a Euclidean distance ranged between 0.06 and 1.10. Similarly, a four-cluster dendrogram was generated using qualitative traits. The qualitative characteristics were found to be more discriminating in the cluster and PCA analyses, while ISSRs were more informative on the evolution and genetic structure of the population.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  20. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  1. sub-chronic administration of aqueous leaf extract of ficus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    pharmaceuticals (Sanganuwan, 2009). Despite the acknowledged importance of medicinal plants to global economy and local household economies, their use are generally poorly ... Kano, but later authenticated with voucher number. 1446 at herbarium unit of Biological Sciences. Department, Ahmadu Bello University ...

  2. Beznau II nuclear power plant: Expertise on NOK's request for the removal of the time limitation for the operation licence; KKW Beznau II: Gutachten zum Gesuch der NOK um Aufhebung der Befristung der Betriebsbewilligung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    The Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) is the Swiss authority responsible for nuclear safety and protection against radioactivity in nuclear power plants. It has to examine the request of the North-East Swiss Power Corporation (NOK) concerning the removal of the operational time limitation for the Beznau-II reactor (KKB-II). In the present report HSK reviews the enterprise management and the safety of KKB-II on the basis of the results of the Periodic Safety Review. The Beznau nuclear power plant exhibits a very high degree of technical and organisational safety. During the past 10 years the plant has been operated in a safe manner. At the same time the plant has been improved and this guarantees that the mechanisms of ageing degradation are systematically identified and that measures can be taken that are possibly necessary. Under such conditions, the safety of KKB-II can be guarantied at all times. As a result of the management of quality, environmental and working safety conditions, the correct application and the continuous improvement of all processes important to safety are ensured. With these measures KKB has shown that safety is given priority over and against all other working goals. The examination by HSK of the Periodic Safety Review has shown that, in the past, KKB has applied modernisation measures independent of the licensing situation of the two reactor blocks. These modernisation measures largely contribute to the fact that the HSK examination did not reveal any significant safety deficiencies. Other improvement measures allow risk reduction or can bee seen as an adaptation to experience gained and to the state of the technological art. In conclusion, HSK states that no safety-relevant facts have been found which could prevent the removal of the time limitation on the operational licence for KKB-II. From the point of view of HSK, KKB-II fulfils the conditions for the safe continuation of operation

  3. Beryllium and growth. II. The effect of beryllium on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether beryllium could replace magnesium in a growing organism. This was stimulated by the several known growth effects of beryllium in animals and by the fact that beryllium apparently competes with magnesium for animal alkaline phosphatases. The following findings are noted: (1) beryllium can reduce the magnesium requirement of plants by some 60% within a certain range of magnesium deficiency. (2) The residual obligatory magnesium requirements is probably accounted for by chlorophyll since beryllium appears to have no primary effect on chlorophyll or chlorophyll production. (3) The pH of the nutrient solution is critical: at acid pH's, beryllium is highly toxic, and growth increase due to beryllium only appears at initial pH's above 11.2, although this initial pH rapidly falls to neutrality during the experimental period. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (II) Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of intensity- and time-based seismic risk assessments of a sample nuclear power plant (NPP) to demonstrate the risk-assessment methodology proposed in its companion paper. The intensity-based assessments include three sets of sensitivity studies to identify the impact of the following factors on the seismic vulnerability of the sample NPP, namely: (1) the description of fragility curves for primary and secondary components of NPPs, (2) the number of simulations of NPP response required for risk assessment, and (3) the correlation in responses between NPP components. The time-based assessment is performed as a series of intensity-based assessments. The studies illustrate the utility of the response-based fragility curves and the inclusion of the correlation in the responses of NPP components directly in the risk computation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Active tectonics and Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (NW Himalaya, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Grasemann, Bernhard; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Preh, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Baspa River is one of the most important tributaries to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). Its catchment is 1116 km2 in size, ranges from c. 6400 m asl to 1770 m asl and contains India's largest private hydroelectric facility, the 300 MW Baspa II. Geologically, the hydroelectric installation is located in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline, just above the active Karcham Normal Fault, which is reactivating the Early Miocene Main Central Thrust, one of the principal Himalayan faults. The area is seismically active and mass-movements are common. Around 8200 yrs BP the Baspa was dammed by a rock-avalanche dam, leading to the formation of the originally c. 260 m deep palaeo-lake Sangla palaeo-lake. Detailed sedimentological investigations and radiocarbon dating indicate that the palaeo-lake was completely filled with sediments until c. 5100 yrs BP. This makes the Sangla palaeo-lake to a very rare example of a mass-movement dam with very long duration and its lacustrine sediments represent a valuable archive for geological processes and environmental proxies within the Baspa catchment during the c. 3100 years of its existence - which are the aim of our study. At least 5 levels of soft-sediment deformation have been recorded in the exposed part of the lacustrine sediments of Sangla palaeo-lake, including brecciated laminae, overturned laminae, folds, faults and deformation bands, separated by undeformed deposits. They are interpreted as seismites, indicating at least 5 earthquakes within 2500 years strong enough to cause liquefaction. The 300 MW Baspa II hydro-electric power plant has been built exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. This data show that the Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the

  6. Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica flowers maceration on quality and on heat stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imène; BenAmira, Amal; Khemakem, Ibtihel; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2017-05-01

    This study was focused on the evaluation of the quality and the oxidative stability of olive oil added with Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. Two different amounts of O. ficus - indica flowers were considered 5 and 15% (w/w). The olive oils were evaluated towards their quality, fatty acids profile, total phenol contents and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry. The oxidative stability was also monitored by employing the Rancimat and the oven test based on accelerating the oxidation process during storage. The addition of O. ficus - indica flowers induced an increase in free acidity values and a variation in fatty acids profile of olive oils but values remained under the limits required for an extra-virgin olive oil. The obtained olive oils were nutritionally enriched due to the increase in their phenols content. The oxidative stability was generally improved, mainly in olive oil enriched with 5% Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. These findings proved that this enriched olive oil could be considered as a product with a greater added value.

  7. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  8. The European Research on Severe Accidents in Generation-II and -III Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Van Dorsselaere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three organisations from 22 countries network their capacities of research in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues on severe accidents in existing and future water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPP. After a first project in the 6th Framework Programme (FP6 of the European Commission, the SARNET2 project, coordinated by IRSN, started in April 2009 for 4 years in the FP7 frame. After 2,5 years, some main outcomes of joint research (modelling and experiments by the network members on the highest priority issues are presented: in-vessel degraded core coolability, molten-corium-concrete-interaction, containment phenomena (water spray, hydrogen combustion…, source term issues (mainly iodine behaviour. The ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS to predict the NPP SA behaviour, capitalizes in terms of models the knowledge produced in the network: a few validation results are presented. For dissemination of knowledge, an educational 1-week course was organized for young researchers or students in January 2011, and a two-day course is planned mid-2012 for senior staff. Mobility of young researchers or students between the European partners is being promoted. The ERMSAR conference is becoming the major worldwide conference on SA research.

  9. PENGARUH RUANG TUMBUH TERHADAP RESPON PERTUMBUHAN DAN PERKEMBANGAN TANAMAN MERANTI MERAH (Shorea pauciflora King. DAN NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adistina Fitriani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The results showed that the arrangement of growing space T1, T2 and T1 + T2 combinations, each of which can increase the high growth 143.7% (172.30 cm, 37.1% (96.9 cm and 105.7 % (145.40 cm, stem diameter width of 110.0% (18.30 mm, 34.7% (11.0 mm and 123.3% (18.29 mm and 142.6% canopy ( 181, 45 cm, 36.9% (102.4 cm and 106.6% (154.55 cm than the control (T0 to plant the meranti merah (Shorea stenoptera Burk.. The space to grow this type of Meranti merah (Shorea stenoptera King Age 5 years have shown that treatment with a combination of vertical and horizontal (T3 showed best in order to enhance the growth of stem diameter, equal 118.2% (3.0 cm than in the control (T0. The height of the plants in T1 and T2, and T3 have shown increased 55.6% growth, respectively at 133.3% and 66.7% compared to control (T0. Bandwidth test vintage Meranti merah (Shorea selanica Bl cultivation of clippings from shoots in the treatment of broad lines of 2 m, 3 m and 4 m is still the original data (0 months show a consistent altitude is 45.5 cm, 6 cm and 46, 47.7 cm. Growing requirements nyawai (Ficus variegata Blum. In KHDTK Kintap in some areas with B-type, red soil climate yellow podzólicos (FA, the texture of sandy clay with drain if - so, solum shallow soil ( 1 m, the pH of 4 to 5.5 soil with an elevation of 50 metres on the level of the sea - 433 meters of altitude in the Valley and the slope (flat topography - tracks (> 45% on the State of the type of vegetation in the mix rare density (natural vegetation. Tree species associated with nyawai (Duabanga moluccana, Macaranga spp, Shorea spp, Trema sp., and Anthocephalus cadamba. Related plant species are under cylindica grass, vines, shrubs, narrow leaved (leaves ribbon, among others, ferns, nettles and some types of grass. Keywords : growing space, growth, meranti merah,  nyawai

  10. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  11. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Vieyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS. Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid.

  12. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  13. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier

  16. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  17. Thermal tolerance, net CO2 exchange and growth of a tropical tree species, Ficus insipida, cultivated at elevated daytime and nighttime temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus; Krause, Barbara; Virgo, Aurelio

    2013-06-15

    Global warming and associated increases in the frequency and amplitude of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, may adversely affect tropical rainforest plants via significantly increased tissue temperatures. In this study, the response to two temperature regimes was assessed in seedlings of the neotropical pioneer tree species, Ficus insipida. Plants were cultivated in growth chambers at strongly elevated daytime temperature (39°C), combined with either close to natural (22°C) or elevated (32°C) nighttime temperatures. Under both growth regimes, the critical temperature for irreversible leaf damage, determined by changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence, was approximately 51°C. This is comparable to values found in F. insipida growing under natural ambient conditions and indicates a limited potential for heat tolerance acclimation of this tropical forest tree species. Yet, under high nighttime temperature, growth was strongly enhanced, accompanied by increased rates of net photosynthetic CO2 uptake and diminished temperature dependence of leaf-level dark respiration, consistent with thermal acclimation of these key physiological parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  19. Mobility problems at the KNK II shut-down systems, cause investigations and valuation in comparison with the experience at other plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.

    1992-12-01

    During the operation of the second core of the fast test reactor KNK II the shutdown systems showed repeatedly problems with their mobility, which also caused to be reported events. The present report gives a summary description of the events in chronological order. The investigations to remove the mobility problems and the resulting design modifications are described together with the comments of the licensing authorities on the way to the restart of the plant. The results of the post-irradiation investigations in the hot cells and of sodium-chemical investigations are also described. In addition to the comparison of the events at the KNK plant itself and a review of the experiences at comparable plants it will be shown that all known cases of mobility problems did only influence the availability of the plant but that the safe shut-down of the plant was never at risk [de

  20. Spatial and temporal dynamics of water in the root environment of potted plants on a flooded bench fertigation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Raats, P.A.C.; Baas, R.; Challa, H.; Kabat, P.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between evapotranspiration of potted Ficus benjamina plants on a flooded bench fertigation system and the distribution of water in the root zone was studied in detail for a range of fertigation schedules. The physical characteristics of the peat-based potting medium were described

  1. Enhancement of organizational resilience in light of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident (4). Consideration of nurturing attitude to achieve the safety-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Kyoko; Yoshizawa, Atsufumi; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear plant accident has been examined aiming at clarifying the factors influencing responding which is one of the four cornerstones of resilience engineering. Among the causal factors of responding, such as attitude, skill, health and environment, particular attention has been paid on the role of attitude. In addition, the case of Tokai Dai-ni nuclear plant, which was the success case despite tsunami attack, and the case of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant have been examined focusing on preparatory actions taken prior to the tsunami attack. Through the comparative examinations, attitudes of several kinds have been identified as key factors contributing to enhance organizational resilience. Moreover, the importance of safety-II concept proposed in conjunction with the methodology of resilience engineering has been clearly exemplified. As a whole, it can be concluded that the methodology of resilience engineering and the concept of safety-II are quite effective when utilized with the structured model. (author)

  2. Failure analysis of leakage on titanium tubes within heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant. Part II: Mechanical degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Z.G. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yuan, J.Z. [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Haiyan, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-01-15

    Serious failure incidents like clogging, quick thinning, and leakage frequently occurred on lots of titanium tubes of heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant in China. In the Part I of the whole failure analysis study with totally two parts, factors mainly involving three kinds of electrochemical corrosions were investigated, including galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and hydrogen-assisted corrosion. In the current Part II, through microscopically analyzing the ruptures on the leaked tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), another four causes dominantly lying in the aspect of mechanical degradation were determined - clogging, erosion, mechanical damaging, and fretting. Among them, the erosion effect was the primary one, thus the stresses it exerted on the tube wall were also supplementarily evaluated by finite element method (FEM). Based on the analysis results, the different degradation extents and morphologies by erosion on the tubes when they were clogged by different substances such as seashell, rubber debris, and sediments were compared, and relevant mechanisms were discussed. Finally, countermeasures were put forward as well. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Sequential charged-particle and neutron activation of Flibe in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Tobin, M.T.; Vujic, J.L.; Sanz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most radionuclide generation/depletion codes consider only neutron reactions and assume that charged particles, which may be generated in these reactions, deposit their energy locally without undergoing further nuclear interactions. Neglect of sequential charged-particle (x,n) reactions can lead to large underestimation in the inventories of radionuclides. PCROSS code was adopted for use with the ACAB activation code to enable calculation of the effects of (x,n) reactions upon radionuclide inventories and inventory-related indices. Activation calculations were made for Flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 ) coolant in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. For pure Flibe coolant, it was found that (x,n) reactions dominate the residual contact dose rate at times of interest for maintenance and decommissioning. For impure Flibe, however, radionuclides produced directly in neutron reaction dominate the contact dose rate and (x,n) reactions do not make a significant contribution. Results demonstrate potential importance of (x,n) reactions and that the relative importance of (x,n) reactions varies strongly with the composition of the material considered. Future activation calculations should consider (x,n) reactions until a method for pre-determining their importance is established

  4. A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Rik; Hontelez, Jan; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Bisseling, Ton; Limpens, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Temperature variation on the Mediterranean Sea by the exploitation of the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant; Variacion de temperatura en el mar mediterraneo por la explotacion de la C.N. de Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal Romero, M.; Ribes Hernandez, G.; Esparza Martin, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the compliance with the Resolution of 7th February MAH/285/2007 Departament de Medi Ambient I Habitatge de la Generalitat de Catalunya establishing discharges limits to the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, the section that references the thermal rise. The study area include about 1.5 km coastline, which is located in the vicinity of the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant.

  6. IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of root-extracts of Ficus benghalensis (Banyan) in memory, anxiety, muscle co-ordination and seizure in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Dipesh Raj; Rauniar, G P

    2016-11-03

    Ficus benghalensis L. (Banyan) is a commonly found tree in Eastern Nepal. Its different plant parts are used for various neurological ailments. This study was performed in mice to see its effects in various neuropharmacological parameters. Passive-avoidance (memory), Open-field (anxiety), Pentobarbital-induced Sleep potentiation (sleep), Rota-rod (muscle-co-ordination), Pentylenetetrazol-Induced and Maximal Electroshock Seizure Tests were performed. Sample size was calculated using G*Power 3.1.9.2. Aqueous root extracts (Soxhlet method) of Ficus benghalensis 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with negative and positive controls were used. The experimental results were represented as Mean ± SD. P-value was set at test was appropriately used. Passive-avoidance test showed 200 mg/kg group spent significantly less. Time (0.00s + 0.00s) in shock-zone than Normal Saline-group (9.67 s + 14.36 s, P = 0.000) or Diazepam-group (41.07 s + 88.24 s, P = 0.000). Open-field test showed 200 mg/kg group spent significantly longer Time (24.77 s + 12.23 s) in central-square than either Normal Saline group (15.08 s + 6.81 s, P = 0.000) or Diazepam-group (15.32 s + 5.12 s, P = 0.000). In Rota-rod test, 200 mg/kg group fell off the rod significantly (P = 0.000) earlier (33.01 s + 43.61 s) than both Normal Saline (>120 s) and Diazepam (62.07 s + 43.83 s) PTZ model showed that 100 mg/kg significantly (P = 0.004) delayed seizure-onset (184.40s + 36.36 s) compared to Normal Saline (101.79 s + 22.81 s), however, in MES model 200 mg/kg significantly (P = 0.000) prolonged tonic hind-limb extension (17.57 s + 2.15 s) compared to Normal Saline (13.55 s + 2.75 s) or Phenytoin (00.00s + 00.00s). Aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis have memory-enhancing, anxiolytic, musclerelaxant, and seizure-modifying effect.

  9. A DNA Barcode-Based RPA Assay (BAR-RPA) for Rapid Identification of the Dry Root of Ficus hirta (Wuzhimaotao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Enwei; Liu, Qianqian; Ye, Haoting; Li, Fang; Chao, Zhi

    2017-12-18

    Background: Wuzhimaotao (the dry root of Ficus hirta ) is used as both medicine and food ingredient by the locals in areas around Nanling Mountains of China. Due to its very similar external morphologies with Duanchangcao (the root of Gelsemium elegans , which contains gelsemine that is extremely neurotoxic) and the associated growth of these two plants, incidents of food poisoning and even death frequently occur, resulting from the misuse of Duanchangcao as Wuzhimaotao. The aim of this study is to develop a fast, even, on-spot approach to identification of Wuzhimaotao. Methods: We used DNA barcode-based recombinase polymerase amplification (BAR-RPA) with species-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA of F. hirta. BAR-RPA reaction time and temperature were optimized and the specificity and sensitivity of BAR-RPA species-specific primers were assessed. Results: This technique showed a high specificity and sensitivity to amplify the genomic DNA of F. hirta and allowed for rapid amplification (within 15 min) of the ITS region under a constant and mild temperature range of 37-42 °C without using thermocyclers. Conclusions: The BAR-RPA assay with a fast DNA extraction protocol provides a simple, energy-saving, and rapid method for identification of Wuzhimaotao in both laboratory and field settings.

  10. A DNA Barcode-Based RPA Assay (BAR-RPA for Rapid Identification of the Dry Root of Ficus hirta (Wuzhimaotao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwei Tian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wuzhimaotao (the dry root of Ficus hirta is used as both medicine and food ingredient by the locals in areas around Nanling Mountains of China. Due to its very similar external morphologies with Duanchangcao (the root of Gelsemium elegans, which contains gelsemine that is extremely neurotoxic and the associated growth of these two plants, incidents of food poisoning and even death frequently occur, resulting from the misuse of Duanchangcao as Wuzhimaotao. The aim of this study is to develop a fast, even, on-spot approach to identification of Wuzhimaotao. Methods: We used DNA barcode-based recombinase polymerase amplification (BAR-RPA with species–specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the rDNA of F. hirta. BAR-RPA reaction time and temperature were optimized and the specificity and sensitivity of BAR-RPA species–specific primers were assessed. Results: This technique showed a high specificity and sensitivity to amplify the genomic DNA of F. hirta and allowed for rapid amplification (within 15 min of the ITS region under a constant and mild temperature range of 37–42 °C without using thermocyclers. Conclusions: The BAR-RPA assay with a fast DNA extraction protocol provides a simple, energy-saving, and rapid method for identification of Wuzhimaotao in both laboratory and field settings.

  11. Phytochemical characterization of different prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) cultivars and botanical parts: UHPLC-ESI-MSn metabolomics profiles and their chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Legua, Pilar; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-06-01

    Prickly pear is an important source of bioactive compounds. However, a comprehensive characterization of the phytochemical profile of its aerial botanical parts, considering genotypic differences, has not been conducted. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of four botanical parts (fruit pulp and skin, and young and adult cladodes) of six cultivars. Analysis was carried out by using two non-targeted UHPLC-ESI-MS n experimental conditions and assisted with multivariate analysis to facilitate data interpretation. Up to 41 compounds, mainly (poly)phenolic molecules, were identified and quantified, 23 compounds being reported for the first time in Opuntia ficus-indica. Phenolic composition varied significantly depending on the part of the plant. Betalains were detected only in the fruit of a red cultivar. This study provided novel insights in terms of identification of bioactives and thorough characterization of botanical parts of prickly pears. This information may be used for the development of prickly pear-derived products with high levels of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes: Role of process parameters on hydrochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maurizio; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Fiori, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes are a potential source of solid biofuel from marginal, dry land. Experiments assessed the effects of temperature (180-250°C), reaction time (0.5-3h) and biomass to water ratio (B/W; 0.07-0.30) on chars produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that the three process parameters are critically important to hydrochar solid yield, while B/W drives energy yield. Heating value increased together with temperature and reaction time and was maximized at intermediate B/W (0.14-0.20). Microscopy shows evidence of secondary char formed at higher temperatures and B/W ratios. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric data, microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggest that calcium oxalate in the raw biomass remains in the hydrochar; at higher temperatures, the mineral decomposes into CO 2 and may catalyze char/tar decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  15. Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pathania

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated carbon was developed from Ficus carica bast (FCBAC. The experiments were carried out to explore methylene blue (MB uptake by FCBAC. The influence of various experimental factors such as contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature and pH of dye solution was investigated. The adsorption equilibrium was represented with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir and Tempkin equations were found to have the correlation coefficient value in good agreement. Adsorption of MB onto FCBAC followed pseudo second order kinetics. The calculated values of ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° were found to be 21.55 kJ/mol, 76.24 J/mol K and −1.55 kJ/mol, respectably. Adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  16. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bianchini

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23°27’S and 51°15’W, Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  17. Aspects of pollination and floral development in Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baijnath

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available A unique obligatory symbiosis exists between Ficus capensis Thunb., and its pollinator, Ceratosolen capensis Grandi. Flowers from both aerial and geocarpic syconia may be pollinated and produce seeds. Females of C. capensis possess specialized mesothoracic pockets in which pollen is transferred from ripening syconia to receptive ones. A second primary sycophile, Sycophaga cyclostigma Waterston, appears to be ineffective in pollination.Several secondary sycophiles oviposit through the syconial wall. Strong sexual dimorphism exists in most sycophilous wasps. All female flowers have the potential to produce either seeds or galls and variation is merely one of gross morphology. Flowering is distinctly asynchronous. Seeds are dispersed by various fruit predators and germinate very easily under warm humid conditions.

  18. Adsorption studies on fruits of Gular (Ficus glomerata): Removal of Cr(VI) from synthetic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Rifaqat A.K.; Rehman, Fouzia

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of Cr(VI) was studied in batch system using fruits of Ficus glomerata as adsorbent. The effect of temperature, pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration and time was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate surface morphology and active functional groups present on the adsorbent surface. Thermodynamic parameters like free energy change (ΔG 0 ), enthalpy (ΔH 0 ) and entropy (ΔS 0 ) indicate the spontaneous, endothermic and increased randomness nature of Cr(VI) adsorption. Equilibrium data were fitted well with Langmuir isotherm at 50 deg. C. The magnitude of mean free energy indicates chemical nature of adsorption. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 23.1 mg g -1 respectively. The applicability of the adsorbent has been demonstrated by removing Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater.

  19. Final environmental statement. Final addendum to Part II: Manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems. DOCKET-STN--50-437

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This Addendum to Part II of the Final Environmental Statement related to manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems (OPS), NUREG-0056, issued September 1976, was prepared by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The staff's basic evaluation is presented in NUREG-0056. The current Addendum provides further consideration of a number of topics discussed in NUREG-0056, particularly additional consideration of shore zone siting at estuarine and ocean regions. This Summary and Conclusions recapitulates and is cumulative for Part II of the FES and the current Addendum. Augmentations to the Summary and Conclusions presented in Part II of the FES and arising from the evaluations contained in this Addendum are italicized

  20. Vulnerability Assessment of the nuclear power plant Vandellos II before a tornado; Evaluacion de vulnerabilidad de C.N. Vandellos II ante tornado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Encabo, J.; Vaz-Romero, A.; Moran, M. A.; Roch, M.; Nicolas, P.; Barrera, N.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of vulnerability to tornado event Vandellos II NPP. To do this, we have evaluated all structures (buildings), security systems and components to the installation of wind stresses, depression and impact of projectiles, generated by a tornado on the site.

  1. Diversification and spatial structuring in the mutualism between Ficus septica and its pollinating wasps in insular South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lillian Jennifer; Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Conchou, Lucie; Cruaud, Astrid; Gonzales, Regielene; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Kjellberg, Finn

    2017-08-29

    Interspecific interactions have long been assumed to play an important role in diversification. Mutualistic interactions, such as nursery pollination mutualisms, have been proposed as good candidates for diversification through co-speciation because of their intricate nature. However, little is known about how speciation and diversification proceeds in emblematic nursery pollination systems such as figs and fig wasps. Here, we analyse diversification in connection with spatial structuring in the obligate mutualistic association between Ficus septica and its pollinating wasps throughout the Philippines and Taiwan. Ceratosolen wasps pollinating F. septica are structured into a set of three vicariant black coloured species, and a fourth yellow coloured species whose distribution overlaps with those of the black species. However, two black pollinator species were found to co-occur on Lanyu island. Microsatellite data on F. septica indicates the presence of three gene pools that broadly mirrors the distribution of the three black clades. Moreover, receptive fig odours, the specific message used by pollinating wasps to locate their host tree, varied among locations. F. septica and its black pollinator clades exhibited similar geographic structuring. This could be due originally to geographic barriers leading to isolation, local adaptation, and finally co-structuring. Nevertheless, the co-occurrence of two black pollinator species on Lanyu island suggests that the parapatric distribution of the black clades is now maintained by the inability of migrating individuals of black pollinators to establish populations outside their range. On the other hand, the distribution of the yellow clade strongly suggests an initial case of character displacement followed by subsequent range extension: in our study system, phenotypic or microevolutionary plasticity has allowed the yellow clade to colonise hosts presenting distinct odours. Hence, while variation in receptive fig odours

  2. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  3. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  4. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659 The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Silva Souto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, as plântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based on bovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  5. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar ben Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  7. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Anouar Ben; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  8. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncib, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect. PMID:29376078

  10. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  11. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75. Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.. Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines.

  12. Evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants in Bogor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danniswari, Dibyanti; Nasrullah, Nizar

    2017-10-01

    Certain plants are called stranglers (hemiepiphyte) because they grow on host trees and slowly choking the host, which often results in the host’s death. The existence of strangler plants on roadside greenbelt trees is quite common in Bogor, but they may cause tree’s failure and threaten users’ safety. To prevent such hazard, evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants is important. This study was directed to analyse the vegetation of strangler plants in Bogor, to assess the damage caused by stranglers, and to compose strangled trees maintenance recommendations. This study was conducted in March to May 2014 by doing survey at five major roads in Bogor, which were Jalan Ahmad Yani, Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Pemuda, Jalan Semeru, and Jalan Juanda. The results showed that strangler species found in Bogor are Ficus benjamina, Ficus glauca, Ficus elastica, and Schefflera actinophylla. The most common species in Bogor is F. benjamina. Host trees that tend to be preferred by strangler plants are trees with large trunk, many branches, and medium to high height. The maintenance for every strangled tree is different according to the damage level, mild to severe damage could be treated by strangler root cutting to tree logging, respectively.

  13. Changes in Respiratory Mitochondrial Machinery and Cytochrome and Alternative Pathway Activities in Response to Energy Demand Underlie the Acclimation of Respiration to Elevated CO2 in the Invasive Opuntia ficus-indica1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Blanc-Betes, Elena; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Azcon-Bieto, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Studies on long-term effects of plants grown at elevated CO2 are scarce and mechanisms of such responses are largely unknown. To gain mechanistic understanding on respiratory acclimation to elevated CO2, the Crassulacean acid metabolism Mediterranean invasive Opuntia ficus-indica Miller was grown at various CO2 concentrations. Respiration rates, maximum activity of cytochrome c oxidase, and active mitochondrial number consistently decreased in plants grown at elevated CO2 during the 9 months of the study when compared to ambient plants. Plant growth at elevated CO2 also reduced cytochrome pathway activity, but increased the activity of the alternative pathway. Despite all these effects seen in plants grown at high CO2, the specific oxygen uptake rate per unit of active mitochondria was the same for plants grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Although decreases in photorespiration activity have been pointed out as a factor contributing to the long-term acclimation of plant respiration to growth at elevated CO2, the homeostatic maintenance of specific respiratory rate per unit of mitochondria in response to high CO2 suggests that photorespiratory activity may play a small role on the long-term acclimation of respiration to elevated CO2. However, despite growth enhancement and as a result of the inhibition in cytochrome pathway activity by elevated CO2, total mitochondrial ATP production was decreased by plant growth at elevated CO2 when compared to ambient-grown plants. Because plant growth at elevated CO2 increased biomass but reduced respiratory machinery, activity, and ATP yields while maintaining O2 consumption rates per unit of mitochondria, we suggest that acclimation to elevated CO2 results from physiological adjustment of respiration to tissue ATP demand, which may not be entirely driven by nitrogen metabolism as previously suggested. PMID:17660349

  14. Physiological studies on photochemical oxidant injury in rice plants. II. Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on ozone injury and ethylene production in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Nakamura, H.; Ota, Y.

    1981-12-01

    In order to determine the effect of ABA on ozone injury to rice plants, ethylene production, rate of chlorophyll retention and ozone-sensitivity of rice plants pretreated with ABA solution were investigated. The experiments were carried out in pots using rice plants at the 7-8 leaf stage. The results obtained are summarized as follows: ethylene production by the leaf blades exposed to ozone increased with the increase in the dosage of ozone; ethylene production was higher in cv. Nihonbare which was more sensitive to ozone than in cv. Tongil; pre-treatment with ABA solution one hour before ozone treatment reduced ethylene production by the leaf blades exposed to ozone; and the rate of chlorophyll retention decreased following injury, but increased remarkably by the pre-treatment with ABA solution. In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that ozone injury of rice plants can be reduced by the pre-treatment with ABA solution. 28 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  15. Inulin in Medicinal Plants II : Determination of Inulin in Medicinal Plants by High-Performance Gel Chromatography - Seasonal Variations in Inulin Content

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 長世; 三野, 芳紀; NAGAYO, OTA; YOSHIKI, MINO; 大阪薬科大学; 大阪薬科大学; Osaka College of Pharmacy; Osaka College of Pharmacy

    1980-01-01

    A high-performance gel chromatographic procedure for the analysis of inulin in medicinal plants (0.001% for 1% absorption) was established by combining gel chromatography(TSK-G3000PW with distilled water as a mobile phase) with colorimetry (HCl-resorcin reaction). Quantitative studies on inulin contents in medicinal plants of the Gampanulaceae and Compositae families in various growth stages was performed according to the present method. In general, inulin contents of the underground parts de...

  16. Development of a quantitative assay amenable for high-throughput screening to target the type II secretion system for new treatments against plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nini; Zielke, Ryszard A; Vining, Oliver B; Azevedo, Mark D; Armstrong, Donald J; Banowetz, Gary M; McPhail, Kerry L; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2013-09-01

    Plant-pathogenic bacteria are the causative agents of diseases in important agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The severe economic burden of these diseases requires seeking new approaches for their control, particularly because phytopathogenic bacteria are often resistant to available treatments. The type II secretion (T2S) system is a key virulence factor used by major groups of phytopathogenic bacteria. The T2S machinery transports many hydrolytic enzymes responsible for degradation of the plant cell wall, thus enabling successful colonization and dissemination of the bacteria in the plant host. The genetic inactivation of the T2S system leads to loss of virulence, which strongly suggests that targeting the T2S could enable new treatments against plant-pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, we have designed and optimized an assay to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the T2S system. This assay uses a double parametric output: measurement of bacterial growth and the enzymatic activity of cellulase, which is secreted via the T2S pathway in our model organism Dickeya dadantii. The assay was evaluated by screening natural extracts, culture filtrates isolated from rhizosphere bacteria, and a collection of pharmaceutically active compounds in LOPAC(1280). The calculated Z' values of 0.63, 0.63, and 0.58, respectively, strongly suggest that the assay is applicable for a high-throughput screening platform.

  17. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  18. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Outline specifications of cogeneration plant; continued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Specifications are presented for the electrical equipment, site preparation, building construction and mechanical systems for a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota campus. This power plant will supply steam and electrical power to a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  19. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Preliminary design of cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    The preliminary design of a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota is described. This coal-fired plant will produce steam and electric power for a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  20. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part II: One-cycle PLE in determining total amount of analyte in plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is recognised as one of the most effective sample preparation methods. Despite the enhanced extraction power of PLE, the full recovery of an analyte from plant material may require multiple extractions of the same sample. The presented investigations show the possibility of estimating the true concentration value of an analyte in plant material employing one-cycle PLE in which plant samples of different weight are used. The performed experiments show a linear dependence between the reciprocal value of the analyte amount (E*), extracted in single-step PLE from a plant matrix, and the ratio of plant material mass to extrahent volume (m(p)/V(s)). Hence, time-consuming multi-step PLE can be replaced by a few single-step PLEs performed at different (m(p)/V(s)) ratios. The concentrations of rutin in Sambucus nigra L. and caffeine in tea and coffee estimated by means of the tested procedure are almost the same as their concentrations estimated by multiple PLE.

  1. Metabolite profiling of enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented forms of Opuntia ficus-indica and their effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Woon; Kim, Dae-Eung; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jung, Kyung-Hoon; Hurh, Byung-Serk; Kwon, Oh Wook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation of natural products is emerging as an important processing method and is attracting a lot of attention because it may have the advantage of having a new biological function. In this study, fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica were enzymatically hydrolyzed and then fermented with two species of yeast. We identified novel prominent markers in enzymatically hydrolyzed O. ficus-indica (EO) and fermented O. ficus-indica (FO) samples by using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also evaluated the effect of EO and FO on photoaging of skin cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation. We identified the major fermented metabolite in the FO as ferulic acid. Our in vitro study indicated that FO significantly enhanced the concentration of pro-collagen type 1 than the EO, by increasing the TGF-β1 production.

  2. Exotic woody plant invaders of the Transvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance o ;f exotic, woody plant invaders were recorded in 60% of the quarter degree squares in the study area. Sixty-one invaders were encountered o f which the most important and aggressive were Acacia dealbaia, Populus spp.,  Melia azedarach, Opuntia ficus-indica, Salix babylonica and  Acacia mearnsii. Invasion patterns are discussed and an attempt is made to correlate distribution with environmental factors. Attention is drawn to the areas of greatest invasion and the areas that are liable to show the greatest expansion in the future.

  3. Biochemical studies on the effect of fluoride on higher plants. II. The effect of fluoride on sucrose-synthesizing enzymes from higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S F; Miller, G W

    1963-01-01

    A study was initiated to characterize the properties of partially purified phosphoglucomutase, uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase and uridine diphosphate glucose-fructose transglucosyalse, from various plant sources, with respect to activation by metal ions and inhibition by fluoride. Of the three enzymes studied, only phosphoglucomutase was very sensitive to fluoride. It is likely that the inhibition of sucrose synthesis in fluoride-fumigated plants might be due to the inhibition of phosphoglucomutase, which plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. However, at present, there is insufficient evidence to show the inhibition of phosphoglucomutase in vivo by fumigation with hydrogen fluoride.

  4. Density of vibrational States of the light-harvesting complex II of green plants studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Renger, G; Lechner, R E

    2004-01-01

    Results of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments are reported for the solubilized trimeric light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) in the temperature range from 5 to 100 K. Two incident neutron wavelengths of 2.0 ( similar to 20 meV) and 5.1 A ( similar to 3.2 meV) corresponding to elastic energy resolutions of DeltaE = 0.920 meV and DeltaE = 0.093 meV, respectively, are employed to study INS spectra of LHC II for both neutron energy loss and gain. Solubilized LHC II and D//2O-containing buffer solution are investigated separately in order to properly subtract the contribution of the solvent. The inelastic part of the scattering function S(Q, omega) derived for the LHC II protein resembles the well-known "Boson-peak" and is characterized by a maximum at about 2.5 meV and a strongly asymmetric line shape with a slight tailing toward higher energy transfers. Analysis of the momentum transfer dependence of S(Q, omega) reveals that both the elastic and inelastic contributions to S(Q, omega) e...

  5. Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Mario; Carletti, Fabio; Gambino, Giuditta; Tutone, Marco; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Sardo, Pierangelo; Almerico, Anna Maria; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-26

    Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 μmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.

  6. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV) of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o) were found to be more effective (Pacetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.

  7. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevine Kamga Silihe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg and methanol (50 mg/kg extracts significantly (p < 0.001 reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%, total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively, average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  8. Indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats: Protective roles of Spondias mombin and Ficus exasperata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed Sabiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the quantitative polyphenolic constituents and gastroprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Spondias mombin and Ficus exasperata against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Ulceration was induced by a single oral administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body weight. Wistar rats were pretreated with esomeprazole (reference drug at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, S. mombin or F. exasperata at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 days prior to ulcer induction. At the end of the experiment, gastric secretions and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. We observed that the significantly increased (p < 0.05 ulcer index, gastric volume, malondialdehyde level and pepsin activity were effectively reduced following treatment with S. mombin and F. exasperata. The extracts also markedly attenuated the reduced activity of superoxide dismutase as well as pH and mucin content in the ulcerated rats. These findings are indicative of gastroprotective and antioxidative potentials of the extracts which is also evident in the degree of % inhibition against ulceration. The available data in this study suggest that the extracts of S. mombin and F. exasperata proved to be capable of ameliorating indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration and the probable mechanisms are via antioxidative and proton pump inhibition.

  9. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7±5.0%, resp. without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4±5.7% equating the indomethacin effects (69.5±5.3%. Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  11. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  13. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  14. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of enzymatic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Friji, Marwa; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2018-02-15

    In this study, pectin was isolated from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes after removing mucilage using the xylanase and cellulase. The process variables were optimized by the Box Behnken design with three factors at three levels. The optimal extraction condition obtained was: liquid to solid (LS), cellulase to xylanase and enzymes to matter ratios of 22ml/g, 2:1U/U and 4U/g, respectively. The simulated extraction yield of 17.91% was validated by the experimental result (16.67±0.30). The enzyme-extracted pectin from OFI cladodes (EAEPC) was low methylated, with a high uronic acid content, a water and oil holding capacity of 5.42g/g and 1.23g/g, respectively, a good foam and emulsion stability and important DPPH radical scavenging activity. Both the OFI cladodes and enzymatic process present promising alternatives to traditional sources and extraction processes of pectin, respectively. EAEPC thus represents a promising additive in food industries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

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    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  17. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X 1 ), microwave power (X 2 ), pH (X 3 ) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X 4 ) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X 1 =2.15min; X 2 =517W; X 3 =2.26 and X 4 =2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-diabetic Activity of Tabat Barito Leafs (Ficus deltoidea, Jack Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Agus Cahyanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea, Jack leaf is believed could be used to treat diabetes. But more scientific data are needed. The aim of this study is to investigate  antidiabetic activity of  Tabat Barito extract by glucose tolerance method. The treatment was given in three doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW and two controls using aquoeus and glibenklamid.  Tabat barito extract was obtained by maceration and made into dry extract with addition of starch. The result showed that chemical compound of the ethanol extract were fenolic and saponin. The extract showed effects in lowering blood sugar levels with glucose tolerance methods at 30 to 60 minutes. Blood glucose levels of mice treated with the extract extract ranged between 132.60 to 258.00 mg/dL , glibenklamide ranged from 130.20 to 144.60 mg/dL, and aqua ranged between 227.60 to 260.20 mg/dL. The percentage decrease in blood sugar levels compared to controls is 32.54%.

  1. KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGI SERTA PERKEMBANGAN FIG NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blume DI KEBUN RAYA CIBODAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Astho Pramono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nyawai (Ficus variegata Blume merupakan salah satu jenis pohon yang memiliki prospek yang baik untuk hutan tanaman. Informasi tentang aspek biologi reproduksinya masih terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik morfologi bunga dan buah nyawai, serta tahapan perkembangan fig. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Raya Cibodas, Jawa Barat. Kegiatan penelitian meliputi: 1 pengamatan morfologi bunga dan buah, dan 2 pengamatan perkembangan fig. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik morfologi fig nyawai yang dijumpai di Kebun Raya Cibodas, memiliki variasi yang tinggi dalam hal ukuran dan warna. Berdasarkan karakteristik morfologi bunga, secara individual ditemui dua tipe pohon yang mencirikan sebagai pohon menghasilkan bunga jantan dan penghasil bunga betina. Perbedaan antara tahap bunga, buah muda, dan buah matang tidak dapat dibakukan berdasarkan karakteristik morfologi eksternal dari fig. Tingkat kematangan buah nyawai dapat dilakukan dengan membelah fig. Nyawai tahap kuncup bunga berakhir sekitar 6-11 hari setelah munculya tunas fig, dan tahap bunga berakhir 11-26 hari. Perkembangan kuncup bunga menjadi buah yang matang memakan waktu sekitar 2-3 bulan. Hasil penelitian menyarankan untuk tidak mengumpulkan benih dari fig yang berukuran kecil, meskipun mereka memiliki karakteristik fisik fig yang matang.

  2. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Swi-Bea; Wu, Ming-Chang; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hwang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-11-30

    Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was approximately 70%. It decreased to approximately 27% in the control group and reduced slightly to approximately 67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

  3. Glycemic index and glycemic load in the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Salas, María de Jesús; Novelo-Huerta, Hilda Irene; De León-Salas, Marcela Alejandra; Sánchez-Murillo, Mayra Elisa; Mata-Obregón, María Del Carmen; Garza-Juárez, Aurora de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that support the clinical usage of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the prevention of chronic disease. To determine the GI and GL of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. An analytic, transversal study was made involving 25 healthy volunteers accepted by an informed consent with a normal body mass index, glucose, glycoside hemoglobin, cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The homogeneity of the population was evaluated with anthropometrical and biochemical data using principal component analysis (PCA). The equivalent of 50 g of carbohydrates test food (tuna) and 50 g of dextrose as food standard was provided for the measure of the glucose curve. The GI was determined by calculating the area under the curve by the triangulation method. The CG was reported as the product of IG by carbohydrate loading provided. The IG of the tuna was 48.01 ± 17.4, classified as low, while the CG was 24.0 ± 8.7 rated as high. The chemometric analysis by PCA showed that the selection of the normal population for determining the IG, it is important to consider the values of cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  4. Optimization of Ficus deltoidea Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction by Box-Behnken Statistical Design

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    L. J. Ong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, sonication time, and solvent-to-sample ratio on Ficus deltoidea leaves was investigated using ultrasound-assisted extraction by response surface methodology (RSM. Total phenolic content (TPC of F. deltoidea extracts was identified using Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g. Box-Behnken statistical design (BBD was the tool used to find the optimal conditions for maximum TPC. Besides, the extraction yield was measured and stated in percentage. The optimized TPC attained was 455.78 mg GAE/g at 64% ethanol concentration, 10 minutes sonication time, and 20 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio whereas the greatest extraction yield was 33% with ethanol concentration of 70%, sonication time of 40 minutes, and solvent-to-material ratio at 40 mL/g. The determination coefficient, R2, for TPC indicates that 99.5% capriciousness in the response could be clarified by the ANOVA model and the value of 0.9681 of predicted R2 is in equitable agreement with the 0.9890 of adjusted R2. The present study shows that ethanol water as solvent, a short time of 10 minutes, and adequate solvent-to-sample ratio (20 mL/g are the best conditions for extraction.

  5. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector

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    V. P. Veerapur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract (FRE and water extract (FRW of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS•-, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79. Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy γ-radiation resulted in a significant (P < 0.001 decrease in the percentage of micronucleated binuclear V79 cells. Maximum radioprotection was observed at 20 μg/ml of FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P < 0.01 when cells were treated with optimum dose of FRE (20 μg/ml 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.

  6. PENGGUNAAN MIKORIZA DAN PUPUK NPK DALAM PEMBIBITAN NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blume

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    NFN Danu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan bahan baku  untuk industri pengolahan kayu dan serat dari tahun ke tahun semakin meningkat, sedangkan pasokan bahan baku dari hutan alam semakin menurun, akibatnya terjadi kelangkaan bahan baku industri pengolahan kayu dan pulp. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan pengembangan hutan tanaman yang memadai. Tanaman nyawai (Ficus variegata Blume  merupakan jenis alternatif prioritas dalam pembangunan hutan tanaman penghasil kayu. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan pengembangan hutan tanaman nyawai adalah penggunaan bibit bermutu, karena bibit yang berkualitas akan menghasilkan tegakan dengan tingkat produktivitas tinggi. Pengadaan bibit nyawai bermutu dapat melalui teknik perbanyakan generatif maupun vegetatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan kombinasi pemupukan dan mikoriza yang tepat untuk menghasilkan bibit nyawai yang berkualitas. Buah nyawai dikumpulkan dari Kebun Raya Cibodas (Cianjur. Lokasi Penelitian di persemaian Nagrak. Perkecambahan dilakukan dengan menabur benih pada bak kecambah yang berisi media yang telah disterilkan. Media penyapihan menggunakan tanah sub soil ditambah mikoriza: tanpa mikoriza (C0, Glomus sp. (C1, Acaulospora sp. (C2 dan dosis NPK sebanyak : 0,0 g (P0, 0,5 g/polybag (P1, 1,0 g/poybag (P2. Pengadaan bibit nyawai dapat menggunakan campuran media tanah subsoil + 30 % serbuk sabut kelapa (coco peat +10 % arang sekam padi (v/v, CMA Glomus sp dan Acaulospora sp mampu berkolonisasi dengan akar bibit nyawai. Pemberian pupuk NPK 0,5 – 1,0 gram per polybag dapat meningkatkan serapan hara P.

  7. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of tolerance to soil acidity among crop plants. II. Tolerance to high levels of aluminum and manganese. Comparative plant nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Hayakawa, Y

    1975-01-01

    Research was conducted by growing various species of plants in solutions containing high concentrations of manganese or aluminum. A comparison was made of the tolerance of these plants to low pH and to the manganese and aluminum. In addition, the element content of the plants was compared. Plants high in calcium were found to have an intermediate tolerance to high concentrations of manganese and aluminum. Gramineae had a high tolerance to these elements and to low pH. They also accumulated high levels of these elements. Legumes had a high tolerance to manganese and aluminum and to low pH. However, they also accumulated high levels of these elements. Legumes had a high tolerance to manganese and aluminum and to low pH. However, they also accumulated high levels of these elements. Cruciferae had a low tolerance to the elements and to low pH. They contained low levels of manganese and aluminum. Chenopodiaceae had a low tolerance to the elements as well as low element contents. However, they were highly tolerant to low pH.

  9. TRIPS (THYSANOPTERA ASOCIADOS A AGALLAS DE Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE EN LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE COLOMBIA GALL THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA OF Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE IN CENTRAL REGION OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sepúlveda Cano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia han sido utilizados ampliamente árboles de Ficus benjamina como ornamentales en zonas verdes urbanas. En los últimos años, se ha observado en estas plantas un incremento en los síntomas de ataque de trips (hojas plegadas y necrosadas; pero a pesar de ello, es poco lo que se conoce sobre las especies que se encuentran presentes. Por esta razón, se realizó un reconocimiento de la entomofauna en varias ciudades del país, encontrando las especies de trips Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (fitófago y Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (depredador, ambas reportadas por primera vez para Colombia. Adicionalmente, se recolectó el chinche depredador Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton asociado a estas agallas. Se presentan las diagnosis de las dos especies de trips apoyadas en fotografías de microscopía electrónica, con el ánimo de mostrar en detalle la morfología de estos insectosThe ficus tree Ficus benjamina has been introduced in Colombia as an ornamental in urban settings. In the last years an increment on symptoms of thrips attack (rolled and necrotic leaves have been more evident; however, little is known about the species of thrips causing such damage. This work is a preliminary survey in several cities of Colombia. The species of thrips resgistered were: Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (phytophagous and Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (predator. Also was found a predatory true bug Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton associated with the galls produced by thrips. Some SEM photographs are present to show morphology details of two species of thrips associated with this tree.

  10. Poliploidização em berinjela (Solanum melongena L.: II - Observações em plantas resultantes de tratamentos com colquicina Polyploidization in egg-plant (Solanum melongena L.: II - Observation in plants resulting from colchicine treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available As observações de diversos caracteres morfológicos em plantas de berinjela (Solatium melongena L. provenientes de tratamentos com colquicina levaram à separação de razoável número de possíveis poliplóides. O número de cromossomos determinado em células-mães de pólen revelou a existência de plantas tetraplóides e plantas quiméricas, além das normais diplóides. Numa amostra representando os diferentes tratamentos, encontrou-se uma associação quase perfeita entre a natureza tetraplóide ou quimérica da planta e a irregularidade do tamanho do pólen; tal associação não foi encontrada quando se analisou a quantidade de pólen vazio. Os frutos tetraplóides obtidos produziram sementes maiores e em número bem menor que os diplóides de pesos equivalentes.The observations on several morphological characteristics made on plants derived from treatments of seed with colchicine in the egg-plant (Solatium melongena L. led to separation of a reasonable number of possible polyploids. Chromosome number determined in P.M.C. indicated the existence of tetraploid plants, chimeric plants at level 24-48 and at level 48-96 beside the diploid normal ones. In a certain number of plants representing the different treatments, it was found an almost perfect association between tetraploidy and chimeric condition of the plants at one side and irregular size of the pollen at the other side; such an association was not found when the amount of empty pollen was analysed. The tetraploid fruits produced low number of seeds which were not uniform in size but were larger and in general heavier than the diploid ones.

  11. Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (India, NW Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Ch.; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    300 MW Baspa II is India's largest private hydroelectric facility, located at the Baspa River which is an important left-hand tributary to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). In this valley the Sangla palaeo-lake has been dammed around 8200 yr BP behind a rock-avalanche dam and Baspa II is located exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. Sedimentological and geomorphological investigations of the lacustrine sediments have been used to reconstruct environmental changes during >2500 years of its existence. The Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the Baspa catchment estimated from the volume and duration of deposition of the exposed lake sediments are at 0.7-1.0 mm yr-1, almost identical with the modern erosion rates calculated from river gauge data from Baspa II. Several charcoal layers and charcoal pieces from the uppermost palaeo-lake levels around 5000 cal yr BP might be related to woodland clearance and they possibly represent one of the oldest evidences for human presence in the Baspa Valley during Neolithic time.

  12. User's manual for the BNW-II optimization code for dry/wet-cooled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.J.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Wiles, L.E.

    1978-05-01

    This volume provides a listing of the BNW-II dry/wet ammonia heat rejection optimization code and is an appendix to Volume I which gives a narrative description of the code's algorithms as well as logic, input and output information.

  13. Antiprotozoal Screening of 60 South African plants, and the identification of the Antitrypanosomal Germacranolides Schkuhrin I and II

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available , and the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones schkuhrin I and II from S. pinnata, and cynaropicrin from V. mespilifolia were identified, with IC(sub)50 values of 0.9, 1.5, and 0.23 µM, respectively....

  14. Effects of compost media on growth and flowering of parviflorous garden pansy (Viola x wittrockiana Gams.. Part II. Plant flowering and decorative value

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    Agnieszka Zawadzińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies was to determine the effects of media containing composts from sewage sludge and potato pulp on the flowering and decorative value of 'Butterfly Yellow with Blotch' parviflorous pansy. In the experiment 14 potting media, including 12 media made of 4 composts, were tested. The percentage of compost mixed with sphagnum peat was 25%, 50% and 75%. The components of particular composts were as follows: I - municipal sewage sludge 70% and straw 30%; II - municipal sewage sludge 70% and sawdust 30%; III - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and straw 30%; IV - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and sawdust 30%. Two control potting media were used: 1 - sphagnum peat with Osmocote Exact Lo-Start at the dose 5 g×dm-3 and 2 - sphagnum peat with Azofoska at the dose 2.5 g×dm-3. There was no top-dressing during cultivation. The pansies for whose cultivation a slow-release fertiliser was used turned out to have most flowers, but the plants cultivated in compost with peat at the ratio 1:1 had equally abundant flowering. At the generative stage, the pansies in control media were the most decorative and those growing in 25% of compost I, 75% of compost II and 50% of compost III and IV. On the basis of plant valuation scale, quality assessment and the abundance of flowering it was found that the media containing 50% of composts were optimal for pansy cultivation.

  15. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Heer

    Full Text Available Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km. Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>>permuted RST was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea, and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012. Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

  16. cDNA cloning of a novel gene codifying for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase from Ficus carica and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomás González

    2011-11-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (β-LCY) is the key enzyme that modifies the linear lycopene molecule into cyclic β-carotene, an indispensable carotenoid of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Owing to its antioxidant activity, it is commercially used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, as well as an additive in foodstuffs. Therefore, β-carotene has a large share of the carotenoidic market. In this study, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to obtain and clone a cDNA copy of the gene Lyc-β from Ficus carica (Lyc-β Fc), which codes for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY). Expression of this gene in Escherichia coli produced a single polypeptide of 56 kDa of weight, containing 496 amino acids, that was able to cycle both ends of the lycopene chain. Amino acid analysis revealed that the protein contained several conserved plant cyclase motifs. β-LCY activity was revealed by heterologous complementation analysis, with lycopene being converted to β-carotene as a result of the enzyme's action. The β-LCY activity of the expressed protein was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identification of the β-carotene. The lycopene to β-carotene conversion rate was 90%. The experiments carried out in this work showed that β-LYC is the enzyme responsible for converting lycopene, an acyclic carotene, to β-carotene, a bicyclic carotene in F. carica. Therefore, by cloning and expressing β-LCY in E. coli, we have obtained a new gene for β-carotene production or as part of the biosynthetic pathway of astaxanthin. So far, this is the first and only gene of the carotenoid pathway identified in F. carica. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  17. Analysis of L-citrulline and L-arginine in Ficus deltoidea leaf extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Aisha, Abdalrahim F. A.; Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids. Objective: The aim was to develop a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection that involves precolumn derivatisation with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of two amino acids L-citrulline and L-arginine in FD leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: An isocratic elution program consisting of methanol: acetonitrile: Water at 45:45:10 v/v (solvent A) and 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (solvent B) at A: B v/v ratio of 80:20 on Zorbax Eclipse C18 SB-Aq column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) were used. The flow rate was set at 1 ml/min and detection was carried out at 338 nm with 30 min separation time. Results: Good linearity for L-citrulline and L-arginine was obtained in the range 0.1-1000 μg/ml at R2 ≥ 0.998. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for both L-citrulline and L-arginine were 1 and 5 μg/ml, respectively. The average of recoveries was in the range 94.94-101.95%, with relative standard deviation (%RSD) less than 3%. Intra- and inter-day precision was in the range 96.36-102.43% with RSD less than 2%. Conclusion: All validation parameters of the developed method indicate the method is reliable and efficient for simultaneous determination of L-citrulline and L-arginine for routine analysis of FD. PMID:25598632

  18. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part II: Plants with hepato-, neuro-, nephro- and immunotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    A tremendous surge of public interest in natural therapies has been reported in the past several decades in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, edible wild-growing plants whose use had long been associated with poverty and famine have also gained in popularity among people in developed countries. An important fraction of herbal products evade all control measures and are generally perceived as safe. However, this may not always be true. It is important to recognize that some plants are not associated with acute toxicity but rather produce more insidious problems, which develop only with long-term exposure. In this review, we continue a systematic analysis of the subacute and chronic toxicity associated with the use of herbal preparations. The hepato-, neuro-, nephro- and immunotoxicity of plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe are discussed in some detail. The basic concepts regarding the molecular mechanisms implicated in their nonacute toxicity and their pathophysiological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics are included. Among others, we discuss the hepatotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, the nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid, the lathyrism associated with neurotoxin swainsonine, thiamine depletion and thyroid dysfunction of herbal cause, and finally address also the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-unit inertial fusion plants based on HYLIFE-II, with shared heavy-ion RIA driver and target factory, producing electricity and hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.; Moir, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-05

    Following is a modification of the IFEFUEL systems code, called IFEFUEL2, to treat specifically the HYLIFE-II target chamber concept. The same improved Recirculating Induction Accelerator (RIA) energy scaling model developed recently by Bieri is used in this survey of the economics of multi-unit IFE plants producing both electricity and hydrogen fuel. Reference cases will assume conventional HI-indirect target gains for a 2 mm spot, and improved HYLIFE-II BoP models as per Hoffman. Credits for improved plant availability and lower operating costs due to HYLIFE-II`s 30-yr target chamber lifetime are included, as well as unit cost reductions suggested by Delene to credit greater {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} benefits for the duplicated portions of a multi-unit plant. To illustrate the potential impact of more advanced assumptions, additional {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} cases will consider the possible benefits of an MHD + Steam BoP, where direct MHD conversion of plasma from baseball-size LiH target blanket shells is assumed to be possible in a new (as yet undesigned) liquid Flibe-walled target chamber, together and separately, with advanced, higher-gain heavy-ion targets with Fast Ignitors. These runs may help decide the course of a possible future {open_quotes}HYLIFE-III{close_quotes} IFE study. Beam switchyard and final focusing system costs per target chamber are assumed to be consistent with single-sided illumination, for either {open_quotes}conventional{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} indirect target gain assumptions. Target costs are scaled according to the model by Woodworth. In all cases, the driver energy and rep rate for each chosen number of target chambers and total plant output will be optimized to minimize the cost of electricity (CoE) and the associated cost of hydrogen (CoH), using a relationship between CoE and CoH to be presented in the next section.

  20. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  1. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  2. Organisation on Photosystem I and Photosystem II in red alga Cyanidium caldarium: encounter of cyanobacterial and higher plant concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gardian, Zdenko; Bumba, Ladislav; Schrofel, A.; Herbstová, Miroslava; Nebesářová, Jana; Vácha, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1767, č. 6 (2007), s. 725-731 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170603; GA ČR GP310/07/P115; GA ČR GA206/06/0364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Photosystem I * Photosystem II Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.835, year: 2007

  3. Reliability analysis for the safety injection (SI) system of the Doel I - II power plant in case of a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meester, P. de; Poucet, A.

    1978-01-01

    An assement is made for the failure probability of the safety injection system of the Doel power plant. The SI system is composed of three subsystems: high pressure, low pressure and accumulator system. For each subsystem a fault tree is constructed and these fault trees are evaluated by a computer code which calculates the mean system failure probability and the error bounds. (author)

  4. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan

  5. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation

  6. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation.

  7. Safety Assessment for Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants: Methodology and Application to the Analysis of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO Conceptual Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Gomez del Rio, J.

    2001-06-01

    Although the safety and environmental (S & E) characteristics of fusion energy have long been emphasized, these benefits are not automatically achieved. To maximize the potential S & E attractiveness of the inertial fusion energy (IFE), analyses must be performed early in the designs so that lessons can be learned and intelligent decisions made. In this work we have introduced for the first time heat transfer and thermal-hydraulics calculations as part of a state-of-the-art set of codes and libraries in order to establish an updated methodology for IFE safety analysis. We have focused our efforts primarily on two IFE power plant conceptual designs: HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO. To some degree, these designs represent the extremes in IFE power plant designs. Also, a preliminary safety assessment has been performed for a generic target fabrication facility producing various types of targets and using various production techniques. Although this study cannot address all issues and hazards posed by an IFE power plant, it advances our understanding of radiological safety of such facilities. This will enable better comparisons between IFE designs and competing technologies from the safety point of view.

  8. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  9. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Bayoudh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fig mosaic disease (FMD is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L. orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29 and 80.0% (12/15 of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more. Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV (20.7%, Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV (17.25%, Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV (3.45%, and Fig cryptic virus (FCV (55.17%. A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI, Soltani (SNI, Bither Abiadh (BA, and Assafri (ASF via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%.

  10. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Condensed tannins from Ficus virens as tyrosinase inhibitors: structure, inhibitory activity and molecular mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Chen

    Full Text Available Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 μg/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 μg/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents.

  12. Physical-chemical characteristics of figs (Ficus carica) preready to submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Lima, Roberta B.; Modlo, Debora M.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Fig (Ficus carica) is the fruit of the fig tree, original of Mediterranean, has fleshy and succulent pulp, besides being sweetened slightly. It is very appreciated for dessert. The immature form (green) can be used for make a sweet home-made. The aim of the present work was irradiate samples of fruits of pre-ready green fig, seeking the increase of the useful shelf-life. The samples were washed, made hygienic and submitted the cooking by a period of 15 minutes, after the cooking they were put in an drainer to expect cooling the fruits and after that process they were wrapped in plastic sack of 15x30cm and sealed in a manual sealing and stored at 8 deg C in a OBD camera for 7 days. Later samples were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control); 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, under a rate of dose of 0.601 kGy/h, in a Gammacell-220 irradiator and stored by 24 hours to 8 deg C in OBD. Each treatment was consisted with 3 repetitions with 10 fruits each. The samples were appraised, immediately after the irradiation, as for the parameters pH, soluble solids content, color peel, color pulp, texture, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and total carotenoids. The statistical analysis of the results was accomplished, through outline entirely randomized by test F for variance analysis and when significant compared by Tuckey test. By the obtained results was concluded that there was not significant difference between the treatments and the control. After four days the samples presented microbiological contamination, they went desecrated. (author)

  13. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present report is the in-containment instrumentation and control (I and C) cables. The report presents, in two volumes, results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Management of Ageing of In-containment Instrumentation and Control cables. Part I, Volume 1 presents information on current methods for assessing and managing ageing degradation of Instrumentation and Control cables in real NPP environments prepared by the CRP team. An important complement of this information is user perspectives on the application of these methods which are presented in Part II, Volume 1. Volume 2 contains annexes supporting the guidance of Volume 1 with more detailed information and examples provided by individual CRP participants. For a quick overview, readers should see Section 8 of Part I, Volume 1, which describes a systematic ageing management programme for Instrumentation and Control cables utilizing methods presented in the report; Section 9 of Part I, Volume 1, which presents CRP conclusions and recommendations; and Part II providing the application guidance from the user's perspective

  15. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  16. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees, Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission, phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  17. Demonstration of an automated electromanometer for measurement of solution in accountability vessels in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamonouchi, T.; Fukuari, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Suyama, N.; Uchida, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the results of an operational field test of the automated electromanometer system installed at the input accountability vessel (251V10) and the plutonium product accountability vessel (266V23) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. This system has been in use since September 1979 when it was installed in the PNC plant by BNL as part of Task-E, one of the thirteen tasks, in the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX) program. The first report on the progress of this task was published by S. Suda, et al., in the Proceedings of the INMM 22nd Annual Meeting. In this paper, further results of measurement and data analysis are shown. Also, the reliability and applicability of this instrument for accountability, safeguards, and process control purposes are investigated using the data of 106 batches for 251V10 and 40 batches for 266V23 obtained during two campaigns in 1981. There were small but significant differences relative to the plant's measurements for both vessels of 251V10 and 266V23; however, the difference for 251V10 was slightly decreased in the latest vessel calibration. Initially, there were many spurious signals originating with the raw data caused by a software error in the system. However, almost normal conditions were obtained after corrections of the program were made

  18. Development of Intelligent Database Program for PSI/ISI Data Management of Nuclear Power Plant (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Un Su; Park, Ik Keun; Um, Byong Guk; Lee, Jong Po; Han, Chi Hyun

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper, we have discussed the intelligent Windows 95-based data management program(IDPIN) which was developed for effective and efficient management of large amounts of pre-/in-service inspection(PSI/ISI) data of Kori nuclear power plants. The IDPIN program enables the prompt extraction of previously conducted PSI/ISI conditions and results so that the time-consuming data management, painstaking data processing and analysis of the past are avoided. In this study, the intelligent Windows based data management program(WS-IDPIN) has been developed as an effective data management of PSI/ISI data for the Wolsong nuclear power plants. The WS-IDPIN program includes the modules of comprehensive management and analysis of PSI/ISI results, statistical reliability assessment program of PSI/ISI results(depth and length sizing performance etc), standardization of UT report form and computerization of UT results. In addition, the program can be further developed as a unique PSI/ISI data management expert system which can be part of the PSI/ISI total support system for Korean nuclear power plants

  19. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained.

  20. Premature attraction of pollinators to inaccessible figs of Ficus altissima: a search for ecological and evolutionary consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Adult life spans of only one or two days characterise life cycles of the fig wasps (Agaonidae that pollinate fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae. Selection is expected to favour traits that maximise the value of the timing of encounters between such mutualistic partners, and fig wasps are usually only attracted to their hosts by species- and developmental-stage specific volatiles released from figs at the time when they are ready to be entered, oviposited in and pollinated. We found that Ficus altissima is exceptional, because it has persistent tight-fitting bud covers that prevent its Eupristina altissima pollinator (and a second species of 'cheater' agaonid from entering its figs for several days after they start to be attracted. We examined the consequences of delayed entry for the figs and fig wasps and tested whether delayed entry has been selected to increase adult longevity. We found that older pollinators produced fewer and smaller offspring, but seed production was more efficient. Pollinator offspring ratios also varied depending on the age of figs they entered. The two agaonids from F. altissima lived slightly longer than six congeners associated with typical figs, but this was explainable by their larger body sizes. Delayed entry generates reproductive costs, especially for the pollinator. This opens an interesting perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators and on the nature of mutualistic interactions in general.

  1. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a hybrid origin of the figs (Moraceae: Ficus) that are endemic to the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Junko; Azuma, Hiroshi; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Chou, Lien-Siang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2012-04-01

    The Ogasawara Islands are oceanic islands and harbor a unique endemic flora. There are three fig species (Ficus boninsimae, F. nishimurae and F. iidaiana) endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, and these species have been considered to be closely related to Ficus erecta, and to have diverged within the islands. However, this hypothesis remains uncertain. To investigate this issue, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships of the Ogasawara figs and their close relatives occurring in Japan, Taiwan and South China based on six plastid genome regions, nuclear ITS region and two nuclear genes. The plastid genome-based tree indicated a close relationship between the Ogasawara figs and F. erecta, whereas some of the nuclear gene-based trees suggested this relationship was not so close. In addition, the phylogenetic analyses of the pollinating wasps associated with these fig species based on the nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytB genes suggested that the fig-pollinating wasps of F. erecta are not sister to those of the Ogasawara figs These results suggest the occurrence of an early hybridization event(s) in the lineage leading to the Ogasawara figs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  3. The use of a natural coagulant (Opuntia ficus-indica) in the removal for organic materials of textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Ambrosio, Elizangela; de Almeida, Cibele Andrade; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoli; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; Garcia, Juliana Carla

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the activity of the coagulant extracted from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) in the process of coagulation/flocculation of textile effluents. Preliminary tests of a kaolinite suspension achieved maximum turbidity removal of 95 % using an NaCl extraction solution. Optimization assays were conducted with actual effluents using the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken experimental design. The responses of the variables FeCl3, dosage, cactus dosage, and pH in the removal of COD and turbidity from both effluents were investigated. The optimum conditions determined for jeans washing laundry effluent were the following: FeCl3 160 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 2.60 mg L(-1), and pH 5.0. For the fabric dyeing effluent, the optimum conditions were the following: FeCl3 640 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 160 mg L(-1), and pH 6.0. Investigation of the effects of the storage time and temperature of the cactus O. ficus-indica showed that coagulation efficiency was not significantly affected for storage at room temperature for up to 4 days.

  4. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioactives in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems possess potent antioxidant and pro-apoptotic activities through COX-2 involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Soh, Soon Yil; Shin, Juha; Cho, Chi-Woung; Choi, Young Hee; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2015-10-01

    Bioactives extracted from cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems were investigated for their chemopreventive activities using human cancer cells in vitro. The bioactives present in crude extracts were detected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among all the extracts, such as hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20), the MeOH extract had the highest amount of polyphenolic compounds and the acetone extract exhibited the most potent effect at scavenging the 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(•+) ) radical. In addition, most of the extracts, with the exception of hexane, exhibited significant cytotoxicity in human SW480 colon and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Overall, the SW480 cells were more sensitive than the MCF7 cells to the cytotoxic effect of the O. ficus-indica extracts (OFEs). Cell death by OFE treatment caused significant inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in both SW480 and MCF7 cell lines. However, degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was significantly increased by OFE only in the MCF7 cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the health-benefit roles, including anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities as well as pro-apoptotic effects, of bioactive compounds in OFEs, suggesting a chemopreventive role in human cancer cells. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. cladodes against UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Imbimbo, Paola; Silipo, Alba; Bonina, Andrea; Rizza, Luisa; Piccoli, Renata; Monti, Daria Maria; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-12-15

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. is known for its beneficial effects on human health, but still little is known on cladodes as a potent source of antioxidants. Here, a direct, economic and safe method was set up to obtain water extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes rich in antioxidant compounds. When human keratinocytes were pre-treated with the extract before being exposed to UVA radiations, a clear protective effect against UVA-induced stress was evidenced, as indicated by the inhibition of stress-induced processes, such as free radicals production, lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. Moreover, a clear protective effect against apoptosis in pre-treated irradiated cells was evidenced. We found that eucomic and piscidic acids were responsible for the anti-oxidative stress action of cladode extract. In conclusion, a bioactive, safe, low-cost and high value-added extract from Opuntia cladodes was obtained to be used for skin health/protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-03-30

    The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Methods and Model Development for Coupled RELAP5/PARCS Analysis of the Atucha-II Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of CNA-II, several tasks were required. Methods and models were developed in several areas. HELIOS lattice models were developed and benchmarked against WIMS/MCNP5 results generated by NA-SA. Cross-sections for the coupled RELAP5/PARCS calculation were extracted from HELIOS within the GenPMAXS framework. The validation of both HELIOS and PARCS was performed primarily by comparisons to WIMS/PUMA and MCNP for idealized models. Special methods were developed to model the control rods and boron injection systems of CNA-II. The insertion of the rods is oblique, and a special routine was added to PARCS to treat this effect. CFD results combined with specialized mapping routines were used to model the boron injection system. In all cases there was good agreement in the results which provided confidence in the neutronics methods and modeling. A coupled code benchmark between U of M and U of Pisa is ongoing and results are still preliminary. Under a LOCA transient, the best estimate behavior of the core appears to be acceptable.

  11. Methods and Model Development for Coupled RELAP5/PARCS Analysis of the Atucha-II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, A.M.; Collins, B.S.; Xu, Y.; Downar, Th.J.; Madariaga, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of CNA-II, several tasks were required. Methods and models were developed in several areas. HELIOS lattice models were developed and benchmarked against WIMS/MCNP5 results generated by NA-SA. Cross-sections for the coupled RELAP5/PARCS calculation were extracted from HELIOS within the Gen PMAXS framework. The validation of both HELIOS and PARCS was performed primarily by comparisons to WIMS/PUMA and MCNP for idealized models. Special methods were developed to model the control rods and boron injection systems of CNA-II. The insertion of the rods is oblique, and a special routine was added to PARCS to treat this effect. CFD results combined with specialized mapping routines were used to model the boron injection system. In all cases there was good agreement in the results which provided confidence in the neutronics methods and modeling. A coupled code benchmark between U of M and U of Pisa is ongoing and results are still preliminary. Under a LOCA transient, the best estimate behavior of the core appears to be acceptable

  12. Influence of Olea europea L. and Ficus Carrica L. fine root activity on the K biodisponibility and clay mineralogy of the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mouas-Bourbia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of fine root activity of Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L. of soil in its immediate vicinity (in the so-called rhizosphere zone. The study was conducted on two stations in Northern Algeria: Guendoul and Bouira. Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L. roots significantly modified some chemical properties of rhizosphere soil. Increases of soil carbon, KNH4+ and KHNO3- were observed in the Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L rhizosphere soil at both stations. Bulk and rhizosphere soil clay mineralogy was similar. Interstratified illite-smectite, smectite-illite and illite were predominant in the clay fraction. Chlorite and kaolinite were less represented. The decomposition of XRD diffractograms of two soil clay fractions using the Decomp program revealed that Olea europea L. roots promote nK+ storage in interlayer position. Indeed, the lower abscissa position of the gravity center (cg of the X-ray patterns, the peak displacement of clays populations PCI, I/S, S/I toward illite peak position indicates an increase of “illite-like” layer content in the vicinity of Olea europea L. roots. Olea europea L. roots appeared to have more influence on the rhizosphere soil than Ficus carrica L. roots probably because of its higher root biomass and the greater activity of the tree in winter (contrary to Ficus Carrica L., Olea europea L. keep their leaves in winter. The two species underground activity seems to be well reflected in their respective rhizosphere.

  13. The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica juice supplementation on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, and biochemical markers following yo-yo Intermittent recovery test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouloud, Aloui; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a flavonoid-rich fresh fruit juice on cardiovascular, oxidative stress, and biochemical parameters during the yo-yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). Twenty-two healthy males subjects participated in this study divided into two groups: An experimental group (EG: n  = 11) who consumed the antioxidant supplement and a control group (CG: n  = 11). All participants performed two test sessions at 07:00 hr before and after 2 weeks of supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica juice. Blood samples were taken before (P1) and immediately (P2) after the YYIRT. Our results showed that following the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ● ) test, the Opuntia ficus-indica juice has an antioxidant capacity for capturing free radicals ( p  Opuntia ficus-indica juice before and immediately after YYIRT. However, no significant effect on HDL ( p  > .05), GLC ( p  > .05) levels nor the SBP and DBP ( p  > .05) was observed after supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The supplementation leads to an improvement on YYIRT performance (The total distance covered during the YYIRT, V O 2max , VMA) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Opuntia ficus-indica juice has a potent antioxidant activity that reduces total and LDL-cholesterol with only a moderate lowering of HDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress. Moreover, supplementation decreases muscle damage caused by the endurance exercise.

  14. Food plant diversity as broad-Scale Determinant of Avian Frugivore Richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    from niche assembly mechanisms (e.g. coevolutionary adaptations to fruit size, fruit colour or vertical stratification of fruit presentation) or, alternatively, from stochastic speciation-extinction processes. In any case, the close relationship between species richness of Ficus and avian frugivores......The causes of variation in animal species richness at large spatial scales are intensively debated. Here, we examine whether the diversity of food plants, contemporary climate and energy, or habitat heterogeneity determine species richness patterns of avian frugivores across sub-Saharan Africa....... Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, whereas the influences of variables related to water-energy and habitat heterogeneity are mainly...

  15. Assay and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris of plant cell wall type-II membrane anchored glycosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Egelund, Jack; Damager, Iben

    2009-01-01

    .011 to 0.013 U (1 U = 1 nmol conversion of substrate * min(-1) * microl medium(-1)) similar to those of RGXT1 and RGXT2 expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect Sf9 cells. In summary, the data presented suggest that Pichia is an attractive host candidate for expression of plant glycosyltransferases.......Two Arabidopsis xylosyltransferases, designated RGXT1 and RGXT2, were recently expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect cells and by use of the free sugar assay shown to catalyse transfer of D-xylose from UDP-alpha-D-xylose to L-fucose and derivatives hereof. We have now examined expression...

  16. Quality assurance of civil works during the construction of the nuclear power plant Unit II Angra dos Reis in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellessen, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The lecture summarizes the structure of the applied Quality Assurance Manual, which is subdivided into three sections: (1) Quality Assurance Program, (2) General Proceedings and (3) Inspection Programs. Since the power plant was designed according to DIN standards but supervision and construction are being performed following ASTM or Brazilian standards, the Quality Assurance Manual and the Quality Assurance organization were developed specifically for the Angra-Site. The applied system is illustrated by practical examples of pile foundations. Quality Assurance supervision and flow charts showing the interaction of the quality control organization. (orig.)

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems

  18. Participation of C.N. Vandellos II as a pilot plant in the PWROG PA-ASC-1084 project about analysis and distribution of hydrogen in the containment buildings annexes; Participacion de C. N. Vandellos II como planta piloto en el proyecto del PWROG PA-ASC-1084 sobre analisis y distribucion del hidrogeno en edificios anexos a la Contencion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fukushima accident has demonstrated that hydrogen outside the Containment building, due to its potential combustion or explosion, may result in loss of mitigation equipment, thus hindering the recovery of the plant. This reality has been treated in the framework of Stress Tests that are being developed at European level, and the Spanish nuclear power plants should evaluate this potential risk according to the specific design of each plant. The aim of this paper is to introduce this hydrogen problem and to present the main developments of the Vandellos II NPP experience as pilot plant in the project that PWROG is developing to analyze the potential risk of hydrogen in the Containment outbuildings.

  19. Plant-Derived Antimalarial Agents: New Leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-Alkaloidal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde Braga de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still the most destructive and dangerous parasitic infection in many tropical and subtropical countries. The burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for new, more affordable and accessible antimalarial agents possessing original modes of action. Natural products have played a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs to treat human diseases, and this fact anticipates that new antimalarial leads may certainly emerge from tropical plant sources. This present review covers most of the recently-published non-alkaloidal natural compounds from plants with antiplasmodial and antimalarial properties, belonging to the classes of terpenes, limonoids, flavonoids, chromones, xanthones, anthraquinones, miscellaneous and related compounds, besides the majority of papers describing antiplasmodial crude extracts published in the last five years not reviewed before. In addition, some perspectives and remarks on the development of new drugs and phytomedicines for malaria are succinctly discussed.

  20. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  1. I. Identification and characterization of dasheen mosaic virus in Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) in California. II. New approaches for detecting plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositratana, W.

    1985-01-01

    Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) with symptoms of mild stunting, chlorosis, leaf distortion and mosaic, were observed in Southern California. Flexuous rods (ca. 750 nm) were detected in leaf dip and partially purified preparations. Dasheen mosac virus (DMV) was identified as the causal agent on the basis of host range, morphology and reaction with DMV antiserum in immunodouble diffusion and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) tests. Tetragonia expansa was found to be a new host of this virus. Surveys indicate that DMV is not widespread in cultivars of A. commutatum in Southern California. The virus was purified from leaves of seedling Philodendron selloum by clarification with CCl 4 , CHCl 3 , and Triton X-100, precipitation with PEG-8000 and centrifugation in either Cs 2 SO 4 -sucrose cushion gradients or Cs 2 SO 4 equilibrium density gradients. Purified virions formed a single UV-absorbing infectious band with densities of 1.31 and 1.245 g/ml in CsCl 2 and Cs 2 SO 4 equilibrium density gradients, respectively, and a sedimentation coefficient of 154 S as determined by a linear-log sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Dasheen mosaic virus has a plus-sense ssRNA with the M.W. of 3.2 x 10 6 under denaturing conditions. Molecular hybridization analysis using 3 H-complementary DNA specific to DMV-Ca RNA showed that DMV-Ca isolate was more closely related to DMV-Fiji isolate than to DMV-Fla isolate, and was very distantly related to ZYMV, TEV. PeMoC and PVY

  2. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Volume II. The environment (Deliverable No. 27). [Baseline environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The proposed site of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant (IFGDP) is located on a small peninsula extending eastward into Lake McKeller from the south shore. The peninsula is located west-southwest of the City of Memphis near the confluence of Lake McKeller and the Mississippi River. The environmental setting of this site and the region around this site is reported in terms of physical, biological, and human descriptions. Within the physical description, this report divides the environmental setting into sections on physiography, geology, hydrology, water quality, climatology, air quality, and ambient noise. The biological description is divided into sections on aquatic and terrestrial ecology. Finally, the human environment description is reported in sections on land use, demography, socioeconomics, culture, and visual features. This section concludes with a discussion of physical environmental constraints.

  3. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.3 associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.A.3, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the classification of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  4. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC safety topic VII-2 associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the ESF system control logic and design for the Dresden Station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VII-2, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the ESF system control logic and design for the Dresden Station Unit II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  5. Phase II confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works

  6. Assessing the relative importance of isolated Ficus trees to insectivorous birds in an Indian human-modified tropical landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bregman, Tom P.

    2017-01-01

    The destruction of forest for agricultural expansion has created a vast estate of human-modified land in tropical regions. One group of organisms that are particularly vulnerable to the loss of forest habitat are insectivorous birds. Despite this, few conservation strategies have been identified...... for this group in human-modified landscapes. We survey the use of 104 isolated trees by insectivorous birds in rural Assam, India. We used an information theoretic model comparison approach to determine the important variables driving insectivorous bird diversity within these isolated trees. Our work...... demonstrates that the conservation of large trees in human-modified landscapes may play an important role in maintaining bird diversity and ecological function beyond the forest edge. More specifically, we found that isolated Ficus trees hold assemblages with particularly high insectivore abundance, richness...

  7. Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill): anatomy, physiology and chemical composition with emphasis on its biofunctional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aguilar, Rosa Isela; Bosquez-Molina, Elsa; Bautista-Baños, Silvia; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) is native to Mesoamerica and marketed in different forms such as fresh, frozen or pre-cooked. Worldwide, this vegetable is recognized for its pharmaceutical actions, including its antioxidant, diuretic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties, as well as their antiviral and antispermatogenic effects. However, not all of these properties have been associated with its chemical composition; therefore, this review aims to present and integrate information available on the physiology and anatomy of cactus stem and its chemical composition, focusing on some of the many factors that determine its biofunctionality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Opuntia ficus-indica Extract as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in 1 M HCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Flores-De los Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal as green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution has been investigated by using weight loss tests, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis were performed. The inhibitor concentrations used ranged from 0 to 300 ppm at 25, 40, and 60°C. Results indicated the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration and decreases with the temperature, and the inhibitor acted as a cathodic-type inhibitor which is physically absorbed onto the steel surface. In fact, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating monolayer adsorption. The presence of heteroatoms such as C, N, and O and OH groups were responsible for the corrosion inhibition.

  9. Figs Are More Than Fallback Foods: The Relationship between Ficus and Cebus in a Tropical Dry Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel A. Parr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies on primate feeding ecology, figs (Ficus spp. are characterized as fallback foods, utilized only when preferred sources of food are unavailable. However, for white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus living in northwestern Costa Rica, figs are a consistently important resource and may increase groupwide energy intake. We investigated whether visits to figs affect ranging and behavioural patterns of capuchins. Although daily range length and average travel speed do not differ on days when fig trees are visited, capuchins spend more time in directed travel and more time stationary on “fig days”. Capuchins also increase time spent foraging for fruit and decrease time spent foraging for invertebrates on days when figs trees are visited. Capuchins experience higher energy intake and lower energy output on “fig” days. Thus, the patterns of foraging for figs support an energy-maximization strategy and constitute an important nutritional resource for capuchins.

  10. Substratos renováveis na produção de mudas de Ficus enormis proveniente de jardim clonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar substratos renováveis à base de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC e fibra de coco (FC sobre o enraizamento e qualidade final de mudas de Ficus enormis Mart. ex Miq. via estaquia caulinar de plantas provenientes de jardim clonal. Foram avaliados seis substratos: comercial (controle, composto por casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, fibra de coco (FC e vermiculita (S1; 100% FC (S2; 100% CAC (S3; 50% FC e 50% CAC (S4; 30% (FC e 70% CAC (S5; 70% FC e 30% CAC (S6. O substrato comercial (S1 e as composições com maior proporção de FC apresentam qualificação superior para a produção de mudas de F. enormis.

  11. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  12. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9

  13. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transformation system can be used to express a transgene in a member of the Cactaceae.Nós demonstramos a expressão transiente do gene GUS nas células do meristema apical de Opuntia ficus-indica. A introdução do DNA nas células foi realizada através de um sistema de biolística PDS-1000He da Bio-Rad Laboratories. Para transformação, partículas de tungstenio com diâmetro de 1,3 µm foram cobertas com DNA e a distância entre o disco das partículas e o tecido alvo foi de 7,5cm, a pressão de tiro foi 1200 psi. Esta é a primeira demonstração que o sistema de biolística de transformação pode ser usado para a expressão de transgenes nas cactáceas.

  14. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid-rich concentrate recovered from Opuntia ficus-indica juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A; Nunes, S L; Poejo, J; Mecha, E; Serra, A T; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Bronze, M R; Duarte, C M M

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Opuntia ficus indica juice was explored as a potential source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients towards intestinal inflammation. An adsorption separation process was used to produce a natural flavonoid-rich concentrate (FRC) from Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The FRC effect (co- or pre-incubation) on induced-oxidative stress and induced-inflammation was evaluated in human Caco-2 cells. The main constituents identified and present in the extract are flavonoids (namely isorhamnetins and their derivatives such as isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnose-rutinoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside) and phenolic acids (such as ferulic, piscidic and eucomic acids). Our results showed that co-incubation of FRC with the stress-inducer attenuates radicals production in a much more significant manner than pre-incubation. These results suggest that FRC compounds which cannot pass the cell membrane freely (isorhamnetin derivatives) have an ability to inhibit the formation of H2O2-induced radicals in the surrounding environment of intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity of FRC (co-incubation) for suppressing (at the extracellular level) free radicals chain initiation or propagation reaction was probably related with a more pronounced reduction in protein oxidation. A similar response was observed in the inflammatory state, where a marked decrease in IL-8 secretion and blocked degradation of IκBα was achieved for FRC co-incubation. Simultaneously, treatment with FRC significantly reduces NO and TNF-α expression and modulates apparent permeability in Caco-2 cells. In these cases, no significant differences were found between pre- and co-incubation treatments suggesting that bioavailable phenolics, such as ferulic, eucomic and piscidic acids and isorhamnetin, act at the intracellular environment.

  15. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, respectively. Also maximum protease and CMCase production were reported at pH 9 and pH 10, respectively. The enzymes possessed a good stability over a pH range of 8-10, expressed their maximum activities at pH10 and temperature range of 30-50 °C, expressed their maximum activities at 50 °C. Ions of Hg2+, Fe2+ and Ag+ showed a stimulatory effect on protease activity and ions of Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Ag+ caused enhancement of CMCase activity. The enzymes were stable not only towards the nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Tween 80 but also the strong anionic surfactant, SDS. Moreover, the enzymes were not significantly inhibited by EDTA or cystein. Concerning biotechnological applications, the enzymes retained (51-97% of their initial activities upon incubation in the presence of commercials detergents for 1 h. The potential use of the produced enzymes in the degradation of human hair and cotton fabric samples were also assessed.

  16. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartar Aurélien

    2010-06-01

    a cytosolic function. GSIIB sequences were absent in vascular plants where the duplication of GSIIE replaced the function of GSIIB. Conclusions Phylogenetic evidence suggests GSIIB in Chloroplastida evolved by HGT, possibly after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Thus while multiple GS isoenzymes are common among members of the Chloroplastida, the isoenzymes may have evolved via different evolutionary processes. The acquisition of essential enzymes by HGT may provide rapid changes in biochemical capacity and therefore be favored by natural selection.

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05) on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin) were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05) of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The highest

  18. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Filannino

    Full Text Available Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05 on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05 of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05 higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The

  19. In vitro Inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Constituents on Human Liver Glucuronidation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, Zulhilmi; Ismail, Sabariah; Zulkiffli, Mohd Halimhilmi; Afandi, Atiqah; Haron, Munirah

    2017-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza are commonly consumed as herbal medicines. However their effects on human liver glucuronidation activity are not yet evaluated. In this study, we evaluate the inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and their constituents on human liver glucuronidation activity. Herbal extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts) and their constituents were incubated with human liver microsomes with the addition of UDPGA to initiate the reaction. Working concentrations of herbal extracts and their constituents ranged from 10 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL and 10 μM to 300 μM respectively. IC50 was determined by monitoring the decrement of glucuronidation activity with the increment of herbal extracts or phytochemical constituent's concentrations. All herbal extracts inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity in range of 34.69 μg/mL to 398.10 μg/mL whereas for the constituents, only xanthorrhizol and curcumin (constituents of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ) inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity with IC50 of 538.50 and 32.26 μM respectively. In the present study, we have proved the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to interfere with in vitro glucuronidation process in human liver microsomes. This study documented the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to inhibit human liver glucuronidation activity which may affect the metabolism of therapeutic drugs or hazardous toxicants that follow the same glucuronidation pathway. Abbreviations used: UGT: Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase; 4-MU: 4-methylumbelliferone; IC50: Half Maximal Inhibitory Concentration; Km: Michaelis constant; Vmax: Maximum velocity.

  20. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.