WorldWideScience

Sample records for plants detailed analysis

  1. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  2. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  3. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  4. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results.

  5. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  6. A detailed analysis of entropy production and improvement of the thermodynamic cycle of an adsorption refrigerating plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunev, B. N.; Safonov, M. S.

    2006-07-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of an adsorption refrigerating plant with closed loops for a working substance and auxiliary liquid heat carrier has been carried out in application to the adsorption pair “water-CaCl2 impregnated into the pores of a silica gel.” Using the obtained periodic solutions of the system of energy-balance equations for the heat carrier and the sorbent layer, the most thermodynamically effective modes of operation of the refrigerating plant have been determined as functions of governing parameters. The entropy production in various modules of the plant is calculated, and the main sources of entropy generation are revealed. This made it possible to suggest an improved scheme of an adsorption refrigerating cycle with regenerative heat exchangers connected at the inlet and outlet from the adsorbers. The possibility of a considerable increase in the coefficient of thermodynamic efficiency in such a system has been justified.

  7. Detailed analysis of a RCRA landfill for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this detailed analysis is to provide a preliminary compilation of data, information, and estimated costs associated with a RCRA landfill alternative for UNC Disposal Site. This is in response to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) comment No. 6 from their review of a {open_quotes}Feasibility Study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.{close_quotes}

  8. Detailed analysis of isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine in surface soil around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-04-01

    In March 2011, there was an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and a lot of radionuclides were discharged into the environment, resulting from a powerful earthquake and tsunami. Considering the impact on human health, the radiation dosimetry is the most important for Iodine-131 among radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the release of radionuclides. However, Iodine-131 cannot be detected after several months owing to its short half-life (8 days). Cesium-137 was also leaked out from the FDNPP and this can be detected now. But this did not identically act with Iodine-131 and be suitable for the reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution at the initial stage. Since Iodine-129 (half-life: 1.57E7 yrs) can be detected in the future and it act chemically identically with Iodine-131, the reconstruction by Iodine-129 analysis is important. For this reconstruction, it is necessary to know the isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine (129I/131I) released from the FDNPP. In this study, the Iodine-129 concentration was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in several surface soil samples collected around the FDNPP for which the Iodine-131level had already been determined. Soil samples were put into a U8 standard vessel after being roughly homogenized and dried. Then, samples were homogenized again more completely and several grams were taken for Iodine-129 measurement. Each sample was combusted in a quartz tube and outgas was trapped in alkali solution. An aliquot was taken from the trap solution for the determination of the Iodine-127 concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The iodine carrier was added to the trap solution, from which the iodine fraction was purified by solvent extraction and back extraction. Finally, silver iodide precipitation was obtained by adding silver nitrate solution. After dried, the precipitation was mixed with niobium powder and pressed into a cathode for the target

  9. Baseline design of an OTEC pilot plantship. Volume A. Detailed report. [Performance analysis of OTEC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J. F.; Richards, D.; Perini, L. L.

    1979-05-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of the Johns Hopkins University has engineered a baseline design of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plantship. The work was sponsored jointly by the Department of Energy and the US Maritime Administration of the Department of Commerce. The design, drawings, specifications, supporting calculations, and narrative documentation are available through APL for use by the Government and industry for the acquisition of a pilot OTEC system. The baseline design features a platform that is configured to produce up to 20 MW(e) (net) power, using low-cost folded-tube aluminum heat exchangers, while it grazes slowly in tropical waters where the thermal gradient is greatest and the ocean environment is least severe. The design was developed by a team of contractors whose capabilities provided a systems approach to the design process. The work is documented in three volumes. Volume A is the Detailed report, which develops the design rationale, summarizes important calculations, outlines areas for future work, and presents a study of system costs. Volumes B and C, respectively, contain the engineering drawings and specifications.

  10. Baca geothermal demonstration project. Power plant detail design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant document presents the design criteria and detail design for power plant equipment and systems, as well as discussing the rationale used to arrive at the design. Where applicable, results of in-house evaluations of alternatives are presented.

  11. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  12. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  13. The PEC reactor. Safety analysis: Detailed reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In the safety-analysis of the PEC Brasimone reactor (Italy), attention was focused on the role of plant-incident analysis during the design stage and the conclusions reached. The analysis regarded the following: thermohydraulic incidents at full power; incidents with the reactor shut down; reactivity incidents; core local faults; analysis of fuel-handling incidents; engineered safeguards and passive safety features; coolant leakage and sodium fires; research and development studies on the seismic behaviour of the PEC fast reactor; generalized sodium fire; severe accidents, accident sequences with shudown; reference accident. Both the theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrated the adequacy of the design of the PEC fast reactor, aimed at minimizing the consequences of a hypothetical disruptive core accident with mechanical energy release. It was shown that the containment barriers were sized correctly and that the residual heat from a disassembled core would be removed. The re-evaluation of the source term emphasized the conservative nature of the hypotheses assumed in the preliminary safety analysis for calculating the risk to the public.

  14. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: I. The Macromolecular Components of the Walls of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells with a Detailed Analysis of the Pectic Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, K W; Keegstra, K; Bauer, W D; Albersheim, P

    1973-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers dealing with the structure of cell walls isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). These studies have been made possible by the availability of purified hydrolytic enzymes and by recent improvements in the techniques of methylation analysis. These techniques have permitted us to identify and quantitate the macromolecular components of sycamore cell walls. These walls are composed of 10% arabinan, 2% 3,6-linked arabinogalactan, 23% cellulose, 9% oligo-arabinosides (attached to hydroxyproline), 8% 4-linked galactan, 10% hydroxyproline-rich protein, 16% rhamnogalacturonan, and 21% xyloglucan.The structures of the pectic polymers (the neutral arabinan, the neutral galactan, and the acidic rhamnogalacturonan) were obtained, in part, by methylation analysis of fragments of these polymers which were released from the sycamore walls by the action of a highly purified endopolygalacturonase. The data suggest a branched arabinan and a linear 4-linked galactan occurring as side chains on the rhamnogalacturonan. Small amounts or pieces of a xyloglucan, the wall hemicellulose, appear to be covalently linked to some of the galactan chains. Thus, the galactan appears to serve as a bridge between the xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan components of the wall.The rhamnogalacturonan consists of an alpha-(1 --> 4)-linked galacturonan chain which is interspersed with 2-linked rhamnosyl residues. The rhamnosyl residues are not randomly distributed in the chain but probably occur in units of rhamnosyl- (1 --> 4)-galacturonosyl- (1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl. This sequence appears to alternate with a homogalacturonan sequence containing approximately 8 residues of 4-linked galacturonic acid. About half of the rhamnosyl residues are branched, having a substituent attached to carbon 4. This is likely to be the site of attachment of the 4-linked galactan.The hydroxyprolyl oligo-arabinosides of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein

  15. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  16. Spectangular - Spectral Disentangling For Detailed Chemical Analysis Of Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Disentangling of spectra helps to improve the orbit parameters and allows detailed chemical analysis. Spectangular is a GUI program written in C++ for spectral disentangling of spectra of SB1 and SB2 systems. It is based on singular value decomposition in the wavelength space and is coupled to an orbital solution.The results are the component spectra and the orbital parameters.

  17. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  18. Solar Pilot Plant Phase I, detailed design report: thermal storage subsystem research experiment. CDRL Item No. 8 (Approved)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-17

    The Thermal Storage Subsystem Research Experiment is designed to give maximum information for evaluating the design, performance, and operating parameters of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. The experiment is summarized, and the experiment components detail design and integration are described. The experiment test and operation is described which is designed to collect engineering data to allow the design, performance, and operational characteristics to be specified for the Pilot Plant. Appended are: design documentation; pressure drop calculations; materials studies for thermal energy storage; flow charts for data acquisition and control; condenser detail design; instrumentation error analysis; logic diagrams for the control system; literature survey to evaluate the two-phase forced convection heat transfer; and the vaporizer performance model. (LEW)

  19. Thermal and mechanical analysis for the detailed model using submodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuh, Jung Eui; Kang, Chul Hyung; Park, Jeong Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    A very big model is required for the TM analysis for HLRW repository, and also very small size of mesh is needed to simulate precisely main parts of analysis, e.g., canister, buffer, etc. However, it is practically impossible due to high memory size and computing time. In this report, a submodel concept in ABAQUS is used to handle this difficulty. A submodel concept is the part interested only is performed detailed modelling and this result is used as a boundary condition of full scale model. To follow this kind of computation procedure temperature distribution in buffer and canister could be computed precisely. This approach can be applied to TM analysis of buffer and canister, or a finite size of repository. 12 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  20. Detailed analysis of Balmer lines in cool dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, P S; Allende-Prieto, C; Kochukhov, O P; Piskunov, N; O'Mara, B J

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of H alpha and H beta spectra in a sample of 30 cool dwarf and subgiant stars is presented using MARCS model atmospheres based on the most recent calculations of the line opacities. A detailed quantitative comparison of the solar flux spectra with model spectra shows that Balmer line profile shapes, and therefore the temperature structure in the line formation region, are best represented under the mixing length theory by any combination of a low mixing-length parameter alpha and a low convective structure parameter y. A slightly lower effective temperature is obtained for the sun than the accepted value, which we attribute to errors in models and line opacities. The programme stars span temperatures from 4800 to 7100 K and include a small number of population II stars. Effective temperatures have been derived using a quantitative fitting method with a detailed error analysis. Our temperatures find good agreement with those from the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) near solar metallicity but show diffe...

  1. Solar Pilot Plant Phase I, detailed design report: collector subsystem research experiment. CDRL Item No. 6 (Approved)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-31

    The configurations of the experimental heliostat, power and control system, and support elements for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are described, and the analytical and experimental determination of performance parameters is discussed. A system analysis is presented, including demonstration of pointing accuracy by error analysis, and demonstration of loop performance by simulation. Engineering model test plans are given that are to evaluate subassemblies, processes, and procedures as well as provide insight into best tests for heliostat subsystem testing. Mirror module test data are analyzed. A comprehensive test plan for the experimental model is presented. Appended are: a heliostat power consumption analysis; collector subsystem research experiment detail specification; structural analysis; solar image analysis; computer and software information; breadboard test data; simulation of the heliostat control loop; mirror module reflectance measurements; plywood frame fixed focus mirror module test data; techniques for redirected image characterization; performance of a meteorological measuring system; and heliostat design data. (LEW)

  2. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis of the ZEM-3 Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are critical to the investigation of all thermoelectric systems. Therefore, it stands that the measurement uncertainty must be well understood to report ZT values which are accurate and trustworthy. A detailed uncertainty analysis of the ZEM-3 measurement system has been performed. The uncertainty analysis calculates error in the electrical resistivity measurement as a result of sample geometry tolerance, probe geometry tolerance, statistical error, and multi-meter uncertainty. The uncertainty on Seebeck coefficient includes probe wire correction factors, statistical error, multi-meter uncertainty, and most importantly the cold-finger effect. The cold-finger effect plagues all potentiometric (four-probe) Seebeck measurement systems, as heat parasitically transfers through thermocouple probes. The effect leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A thermal finite element analysis allows for quantification of the phenomenon, and provides an estimate on the uncertainty of the Seebeck coefficient. The thermoelectric power factor has been found to have an uncertainty of +9-14 at high temperature and 9 near room temperature.

  3. Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth in Ship Structural Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leheta Heba W.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure avoidance is a goal that can be achieved only if the fatigue design is an integral part of the original design program. The purpose of fatigue design is to ensure that the structure has adequate fatigue life. Calculated fatigue life can form the basis for meaningful and efficient inspection programs during fabrication and throughout the life of the ship. The main objective of this paper is to develop an add-on program for the analysis of fatigue crack growth in ship structural details. The developed program will be an add-on script in a pre-existing package. A crack propagation in a tanker side connection is analyzed by using the developed program based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM and finite element method (FEM. The basic idea of the developed application is that a finite element model of this side connection will be first analyzed by using ABAQUS and from the results of this analysis the location of the highest stresses will be revealed. At this location, an initial crack will be introduced to the finite element model and from the results of the new crack model the direction of the crack propagation and the values of the stress intensity factors, will be known. By using the calculated direction of propagation a new segment will be added to the crack and then the model is analyzed again. The last step will be repeated until the calculated stress intensity factors reach the critical value.

  4. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER outboard blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Tim, E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, Andrew; Sawan, Mohamed; Marriott, Edward; Wilson, Paul [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, Michael; Bullock, James [Formerly, Fusion Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis was performed on detailed CAD models placed in a 40 degree model of ITER. • The regions examined include BM09, the upper ELM coil region (BM11–13), the neutral beam (NB) region (BM13–16), and BM18. • The results show that VV nuclear heating exceeds limits in the NB and upper ELM coil regions. • The results also show that the level of He production in parts of BM18 exceeds limits. • These calculations are being used to modify the design of the ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: In the ITER design, the blanket modules (BM) provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40 degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM09, BM16 near the heating neutral beam injection (HNB) region, BM11–13 near the upper ELM coil region, and BM18. For the BM16 HNB region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by up to 80%. For the BM11–13 region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 45%. For BM18, the results show that He production does not meet the limit necessary for re-welding. The results presented in this work are being used by the ITER Organization Blanket and Tokamak Integration groups to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  5. Detailed Analysis of the Interoccurrence Time Statistics in Seismic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Aizawa, Yoji

    2017-02-01

    The interoccurrence time statistics of seismiciry is studied theoretically as well as numerically by taking into account the conditional probability and the correlations among many earthquakes in different magnitude levels. It is known so far that the interoccurrence time statistics is well approximated by the Weibull distribution, but the more detailed information about the interoccurrence times can be obtained from the analysis of the conditional probability. Firstly, we propose the Embedding Equation Theory (EET), where the conditional probability is described by two kinds of correlation coefficients; one is the magnitude correlation and the other is the inter-event time correlation. Furthermore, the scaling law of each correlation coefficient is clearly determined from the numerical data-analysis carrying out with the Preliminary Determination of Epicenter (PDE) Catalog and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Catalog. Secondly, the EET is examined to derive the magnitude dependence of the interoccurrence time statistics and the multi-fractal relation is successfully formulated. Theoretically we cannot prove the universality of the multi-fractal relation in seismic activity; nevertheless, the theoretical results well reproduce all numerical data in our analysis, where several common features or the invariant aspects are clearly observed. Especially in the case of stationary ensembles the multi-fractal relation seems to obey an invariant curve, furthermore in the case of non-stationary (moving time) ensembles for the aftershock regime the multi-fractal relation seems to satisfy a certain invariant curve at any moving times. It is emphasized that the multi-fractal relation plays an important role to unify the statistical laws of seismicity: actually the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Weibull distribution are unified in the multi-fractal relation, and some universality conjectures regarding the seismicity are briefly discussed.

  6. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, T.D., E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Sawan, M.E.; Marriott, E.P.; Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, M.; Bullock, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In ITER, the blanket modules (BM) are arranged around the plasma to provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. As a part of the BM design process, nuclear analysis is required to determine the level of nuclear heating, helium production, and radiation damage in the BM. Additionally, nuclear heating in the VV is also important for assessing the BM design. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40-degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM01, the neutral beam injection (NB) region, and the upper port region. For BM01, the results show that He production meets the limit necessary for re-welding, and the VV heating behind BM01 is acceptable. For the NBI region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by a factor of two. For the upper port region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 20%. The results presented in this work are being used to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  7. Detailed analysis of structure and particle trajectories in sheared suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey; Katyal, Bhavana

    1999-11-01

    The structure and particle dynamics of sheared suspensions of hard spheres over a range of shear strength to Brownain motion (Péclet number, Pe) have been studied by detailed analysis of extended sampling of Stokesian Dynamics simulations of simple shear. The emphasis is upon large Pe. The structure has been analyzed by decomposition of the pair distribution function, g(r), into spherical harmonics; the harmonics are a complete set for the decompositon. The results indicate a profound and very marked change in structure due to shearing. It is shown that as Pe increases, the structure is increasingly distorted from teh equilibrium spherical symmetry and the number of harmonics required to recompose the original data to within an arbitrary accuracy increases, and this variation depends upon particle fraction. We present information on the content of the dominant harmonics as a function of radial distance for a pair, and interpret the results in terms of preferred directions in the material. Dynamic particle trajectories at time scales long relative to that used for the Brownian step are analyzed in a novel fashion by simple differential geometric measures, such as root mean square path curvature and torsion. Preliminary results illustrate that the path variation from mean flow correlates with the particle stress.

  8. Thermohydraulic incidents at full power (safety analysis detailed report no. 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, attention is focused on the role of plant-incident analysis during the design stage and the conclusions reached regarding safety. This class of incidents includes sequences arising from the breakdown or anomalous behaviour of components or from errors in plant operation that have repercussions on the process of the system involved and the related systems. The sequences of possible relevance to safety are those which stress the active and passive protection (containment barriers). As these stresses are below the design-basis limits, they have no consequences in terms of radioactivity release. This report illustrates in greater detail the analysis that led to this conclusion, with particular reference to reactor events that have significant consequences on the first barrier (fuel cladding). Thermohydraulic incidents at full power are examined here.

  9. Energy Issues In Mobile Telecom Network: A Detailed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balagangadhar Rao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel and Conventional energy costs are increasing at twice the growth rate of revenues of Mobile Telecom Network infrastructure industry. There is an urgent need to reduce the Operating Expenditure (OPEX in this front. While bridging the rural and urban divide, Telecom Operators should adopt stronger regulations for climate control by reducing the Green house gases like CO2.This strengthens the business case for renewable energy technology usage. Solutions like Solar, Fuel Cells, Wind, Biomass, and Geothermal can be explored and implemented in the arena of energy starving Telecom sector. Such sources provide clean and green energy. They are free and infinitely available. These technologies which use the natural resources are not only suitable for stand alone applications but also have long life span. Their maintenance cost is quite minimal. Most important advantage of the use of these natural resources is to have a low Carbon foot print. These are silent energy sources. Out of these, Solar-based solutions are available as Ground (or Tower mounted variants. Hybrid Technology solutions like Solar-Solar, Solar-DCDG (Direct Current Diesel Generators or Solar-battery bank are to be put into use in order to cut down the OPEX (Operating Expenditure. Further, a single Multi Fuel Cell can also be used, which can run on Ethanol/Bio Fuel/Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG/Pyrolysis oil. Also, storage solutions like Lithium ion batteries reduce the Diesel Generator run hours, offering about fifty percent of savings in operating expenditure front. A detailed analysis is made in this paper in respect of the Energy requirements of Mobile Telecom Network; Minimising the Operating Costs by the usage of the technologies that harvest Natural resources; Sharing the Infrastructure by different Operators and bringing Energy efficiency by adopting latest Storage back up technologies.

  10. Analysis of Common Fatigue Details in Steel Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玲; 潘际炎; 潘际銮

    2004-01-01

    Generally, the number of fatigue cycles, the range of the repeated stresses, and the type of the structural details are the key factors affecting fatigue in large-scale welded structures. Seven types of structure details were tested using a 2000-kN hydraulic-pressure-servo fatigue machine to imitate fatigue behavior in modern steel-truss-structures fabricated using thicker welded steel plates and integral joint technology. The details included longitudinal edge welds, welded attachment affecting detail, integral joint, and weld repairs on plate edges. The fatigue damage locations show that the stress (normal or shear), the shape, and the location of the weld start and end points are three major factors reducing the fatigue strength. The test results can be used for similar large structures.

  11. Economics derived from detailed and definitive design of Superior's Circlar Grate Retort for an 18,000 BPD oil shale demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilley, D.F.; Fishback, J.W.

    1983-04-01

    Superior Oil Company has continued efforts to reduce to practice the Superior retorting technology as applied to oil shale. From February 1981 to October 1982, Superior has participated in a cost sharing agreement with the Department of Energy for detailed design of the Superior Circular Grate Retort, definitive design of retort ancillaries, auxiliaries and offsites, and mining, and for capital and operating cost estimates for a nominal 18,000 BPD oil shale plant. The terms, detailed design and definitive design, are defined. The design documents are described in sufficient detail to render an overview to the reader of the basis used for project cost estimates and economic analysis.

  12. Detailed analysis of observed antiprotons in cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Davoudifar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the origin of antiprotons observed in cosmic rays (above the atmosphere is analyzed in details. We have considered the origin of the primaries, (which their interactions with the interstellar medium is one of the most important sources of antiprotons is a supernova type II then used a diffusion model for their propagation. We have used the latest parameterization for antiproton production cross section in pp collisions (instead of well known parameterization introduced by Tan et al. as well as our calculated residence time for primaries. The resulted intensity shows the secondary antiprotons produced in pp collisions in the galaxy, have a high population as one can not consider an excess for extragalactic antiprotons. Also there is a high degree of uncertainty in different parameters.

  13. Cutting costs through detailed probabilistic fire risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz; Huser, Asmund; Vianna, Savio [Det Norske Veritas PRINCIPIA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new procedure for calculation of fire risks to offshore installations has been developed. The purposes of the procedure are to calculate the escalation and impairment frequencies to be applied in quantitative risk analyses, to optimize Passive Fire Protection (PFP) arrangement, and to optimize other fire mitigation means. The novelties of the procedure are that it uses state of the art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models to simulate fires and radiation, as well as the use of a probabilistic approach to decide the dimensioning fire loads. A CFD model of an actual platform was used to investigate the dynamic properties of a large set of jet fires, resulting in detailed knowledge of the important parameters that decide the severity of offshore fires. These results are applied to design the procedure. Potential increase in safety is further obtained for those conditions where simplified tools may have failed to predict abnormal heat loads due to geometrical effects. Using a field example it is indicated that the probabilistic approach can give significant reductions in PFP coverage with corresponding cost savings, still keeping the risk at acceptable level. (author)

  14. Detailed analysis of turbulent flows in air curtains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaramillo, Julian E.; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Castro, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent entrainment, an air curtain should provide a jet with low turbulence level, and enough momentum to counteract pressure differences across the opening. Consequently, the analysis of the discharge plenum should be taken into consideration. Hence, the main object of this paper is to

  15. Detailed analysis of turbulent flows in air curtains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaramillo, Julian E.; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Castro, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent entrainment, an air curtain should provide a jet with low turbulence level, and enough momentum to counteract pressure differences across the opening. Consequently, the analysis of the discharge plenum should be taken into consideration. Hence, the main object of this paper is to

  16. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  17. A Detailed Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of DQ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, P; Fontaine, G

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs based on improved model atmosphere calculations. In particular, we revise the atmospheric parameters of the trigonometric parallax sample of Bergeron, Leggett, & Ruiz, and discuss the astrophysical implications on the temperature scale and mean mass, as well as the chemical evolution of these stars. We also analyze 40 new DQ stars discovered in the first data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis confirms that effective temperatures derived from model atmospheres including carbon are significantly lower than the temperatures obtained from pure helium models. Similarly the mean mass of the trigonometric parallax sample, = 0.62 Mo, is significantly lower than that obtained from pure helium models, = 0.73 Mo, and more consistent with the spectroscopic mean mass of DB stars, = 0.59 Mo, the most likely progenitors of DQ white dwarfs. We find that DQ stars form a remarkably well defined sequence in a ...

  18. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  19. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: detailed projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H.; Groncki, P.J.; Kleeman, P.; Lukachinski, J.

    1979-10-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward restructuring the energy system in order to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. Results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51105 and BNL--51128). 11 references, 3 figures, 61 tables.

  20. Detailed Equivalent VSC-HVDC Modelling for Time Domain Harmonic Stability Studies in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert;

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed equivalent modelling approach of the modular multi-level cascaded converter (MMCC) voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) in electromagnetic transient programs (EMTPs). The presented MMCC model will be evaluated based on comparison with the ......This paper presents a detailed equivalent modelling approach of the modular multi-level cascaded converter (MMCC) voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) in electromagnetic transient programs (EMTPs). The presented MMCC model will be evaluated based on comparison...... generators in service, as this is known to influence the harmonic stability in OWPPs. The paper demonstrates the necessity of the inclusion of a detailed equivalent model of the HVDC converter for harmonic stability studies in the time domain. By implementation of active filtering in the converters...

  1. 78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and Planning Division, Export-Import Bank of... public of its intent to conduct a detailed economic impact analysis regarding a loan guarantee to support the export of U.S.-manufactured Boeing 787 wide-body passenger aircraft to an airline in China. Export...

  2. Uromyces appendiculatus infection in BTH-treated bean plants: ultrastructural details of a lost fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Dario; Iriti, Marcello; Pigni, Massimo; Vannini, Candida; Faoro, Franco

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms of BTH [benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester]-induced resistance against bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus have been explored in Phaseolus vulgaris by light and transmission electron microscopy, following the infection progression in plants challenged 7 days after treatment. While BTH did not affect uredospore germination and fungal penetration in the substomatal cavity, a first impairment to the colonization appeared evident about 48-96 h after inoculation, with alterations of infection hypha structure and reduction in mycelium expansion. No differences were found in this phase regarding the formation and ultrastructure of haustoria in untreated and BTH-treated plants, except for the deposition of electron-opaque material in the extrahaustorial matrix of the latter. A second and decisive impairment in fungal progression was observed at 7-10 days after inoculation when host cell penetrated, or in close contact with the fungal hyphae, were impregnated by phenolic compounds. The same was observed in fungal walls, particularly around haustoria, thus hampering the biotrophic habitus of the fungus and further mycelium spreading. This, in turn, prevented the evasion of fungal reproductive structures, the uredinia, and the appearance of visible symptoms. No particular ultrastructural alterations were observed in most of the penetrated cells, even at late stages of infection, indicating that BTH treatment does not induce host cells to respond with a hypersensitive reaction (HR). A parallel time course of the expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene, the key enzyme for the synthesis of phenylpropanoidic phytoalexins and many other phenolics, has shown that PAL mRNA is strongly and persistently transcripted in BTH-treated plants since the 6th h after treatment, though no apparent ultrastructural alterations were detectable up to some days after pathogen challenging. This indicates that BTH, at the employed

  3. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  4. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  5. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  6. Parametric Variation for Detailed Model of External Grid in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myagkov, Vladimir; Petersen, Lennart; Laza, Burutxaga

    2014-01-01

    given for a range of harmonic orders. Harmonic studies are carried out with these two different representations and their results are compared subsequently, giving information about the specifity of data that is required for assessing the worst case resonances. This analysis provides the basis...

  7. A case study in behavioral analysis, synthesis and attention to detail: social learning of food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2012-06-01

    Philip Teitelbaum's focus on detailed description of behavior, the interplay of analysis and synthesis in experimental investigations and the importance of converging lines of evidence in testing hypotheses has proven useful in fields distant from the physiological psychology that he studied throughout his career. Here we consider the social biasing of food choice in Norway rats as an instance of the application of Teitelbaum's principles of behavioral analysis and synthesis and the usefulness of convergent evidence as well as the contributions of detailed behavioral analysis of social influences on food choice to present understanding of both sensory processes and memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A detailed 3D finite element analysis of the peeling behaviour of a gecko spatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, R.A.; Holl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed finite element analysis of the adhesion of a gecko spatula. The gecko spatulae form the tips of the gecko foot hairs that transfer the adhesional and frictional forces between substrate and foot. The analysis is based on a parameterised description of the 3D geometry o

  9. Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Abstract. Four medicinal plants including Ranunculus arvensis, Equisetum ravens, Carathamus lanatus and Fagonia critica were used for the study.

  10. Analysis of Dynamic Interactions between Different Drivetrain Components with a Detailed Wind Turbine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartschat, A.; Morisse, M.; Mertens, A.; Wenske, J.

    2016-09-01

    The presented work describes a detailed analysis of the dynamic interactions among mechanical and electrical drivetrain components of a modern wind turbine under the influence of parameter variations, different control mechanisms and transient excitations. For this study, a detailed model of a 2MW wind turbine with a gearbox, a permanent magnet synchronous generator and a full power converter has been developed which considers all relevant characteristics of the mechanical and electrical subsystems. This model includes an accurate representation of the aerodynamics and the mechanical properties of the rotor and the complete mechanical drivetrain. Furthermore, a detailed electrical modelling of the generator, the full scale power converter with discrete switching devices, its filters, the transformer and the grid as well as the control structure is considered. The analysis shows that, considering control measures based on active torsional damping, interactions between mechanical and electrical subsystems can significantly affect the loads and thus the individual lifetime of the components.

  11. Detailed analysis for a control rod worth of the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Tetsuo; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan, Xing; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    GTHTR300 is composed of a simplified and economical power plant based on an inherent safe 600 MWt reactor and a nearly 50% high efficiency gas turbine power conversion cycle. GTHTR300 core consist of annular fuel region, center and outer side reflectors because of cooling it effectively in depressurized accident conditions, and all control rods are located in both side reflectors of annular core. As a thermal neutron spectrum is strongly distorted in reflector regions, an accurate calculation is especially required for the control rod worth evaluation. In this study, we applied the detailed Monte Carlo calculations of a full core model, and confirmed that our design method has enough accuracy. (author)

  12. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Electrical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the electrical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  13. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Purchased equipment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the purchased equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  14. Detailed Behavior Analysis for High Voltage Bidirectional Flyback Converter Driving DEAP Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    flyback based converter has been implemented. The parasitic elements have serious influence for the operation of the converter, especially in the high output voltage condition. The detailed behavior analysis has been performed considering the impact of the critical parasitic parameters. The converter has...

  15. 78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... UNITED STATES Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public... support the export of U.S.-manufactured Boeing 787 wide-body passenger aircraft to an airline in China... U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in this transaction could enable passenger route service within...

  16. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import....-manufactured Boeing 777 wide-body passenger aircraft that will be operated by an airline in Russia, which will... 1% or more of comparable wide-body seat capacity within the U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in...

  17. Detailed statistical analysis plan for the difficult airway management (DIFFICAIR) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin

    2014-01-01

    on the frequency of unanticipated difficult airway management.To prevent outcome bias and selective reporting, we hereby present a detailed statistical analysis plan as an amendment (update) to the previously published protocol for the DIFFICAIR trial. METHOD/DESIGN: The DIFFICAIR trial is a stratified, parallel...... trial by an a priori publication of a statistical analysis plan. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01718561....

  18. A testing method for the machine details state by means of the speckle image parameters analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malov, A. N.; Pavlov, P. V.; Neupokoeva, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Non destructive testing method, allowing to define a residual resource of power details of mechanical engineering designs under the analysis of registered speckle-image parameters, it is discussed. The "chessboard" algorithm based on calculation of correlation between the given speckle-image and the a chessboard image is considered. Experimental research results of an offered non destructive testing method are presented. It is established, that to increase in quantity of a power detail tests cycles there is an increase in roughness parameters that conducts to reduction of correlation factor between reference and to resultants the image at the given stage of test. Knowing of correlation factor change dynamics, it is possible to define a residual resource of power details while in exploitation.

  19. POEAS: Automated Plant Phenomic Analysis Using Plant Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer, Khader; Naika, Mahantesha Bn; Mathew, Oommen K; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2014-01-01

    Biological enrichment analysis using gene ontology (GO) provides a global overview of the functional role of genes or proteins identified from large-scale genomic or proteomic experiments. Phenomic enrichment analysis of gene lists can provide an important layer of information as well as cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes associated with gene lists. Plant phenomic enrichment analysis will be useful for performing new experiments to better understand plant systems and for the interpretation of gene or proteins identified from high-throughput experiments. Plant ontology (PO) is a compendium of terms to define the diverse phenotypic characteristics of plant species, including plant anatomy, morphology, and development stages. Adoption of this highly useful ontology is limited, when compared to GO, because of the lack of user-friendly tools that enable the use of PO for statistical enrichment analysis. To address this challenge, we introduce Plant Ontology Enrichment Analysis Server (POEAS) in the public domain. POEAS uses a simple list of genes as input data and performs enrichment analysis using Ontologizer 2.0 to provide results in two levels, enrichment results and visualization utilities, to generate ontological graphs that are of publication quality. POEAS also offers interactive options to identify user-defined background population sets, various multiple-testing correction methods, different enrichment calculation methods, and resampling tests to improve statistical significance. The availability of such a tool to perform phenomic enrichment analyses using plant genes as a complementary resource will permit the adoption of PO-based phenomic analysis as part of analytical workflows. POEAS can be accessed using the URL http://caps.ncbs.res.in/poeas.

  20. High-throughput Binary Vectors for Plant Gene Function Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Lei; Ping Zhao; Min-Jie Cao; Rong Cui; Xi Chen; Li-Zhong Xiong; Qi-Fa Zhang; David J. Oliver; Cheng-Bin Xiang

    2007-01-01

    A series of high-throughput binary cloning vectors were constructed to facilitate gene function analysis in higher plants. This vector series consists of plasmids designed for plant expression, promoter analysis, gene silencing,and green fluorescent protein fusions for protein localization. These vectors provide for high-throughput and efficient cloning utilizing sites for λ phage integrase/excisionase. In addition, unique restriction sites are incorporated in a multiple cloning site and enable promoter replacement. The entire vector series are available with complete sequence information and detailed annotations and are freely distributed to the scientific community for non-commercial uses.

  1. Detailed description and user`s manual of high burnup fuel analysis code EXBURN-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

    1997-11-01

    EXBURN-I has been developed for the analysis of LWR high burnup fuel behavior in normal operation and power transient conditions. In the high burnup region, phenomena occur which are different in quality from those expected for the extension of behaviors in the mid-burnup region. To analyze these phenomena, EXBURN-I has been formed by the incorporation of such new models as pellet thermal conductivity change, burnup-dependent FP gas release rate, and cladding oxide layer growth to the basic structure of low- and mid-burnup fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV. The present report describes in detail the whole structure of the code, models, and materials properties. Also, it includes a detailed input manual and sample output, etc. (author). 55 refs.

  2. Detailed atmospheric abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS 16559-2957

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, R E

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a detailed abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS16559-2957 with the aim of confirming its possible post-AGB nature. The star shows solar metallicity and our investigation of a large number of elements including CNO and 12C/13C suggests that this object has experienced the first dredge-up and it is likely still at RGB stage.

  3. Effect of explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy on brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1996-04-01

    Stratigraphic units of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room horizon includes various layers of halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, clay, and anhydrite. Current models, including those used in the WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, employ a ``composite stratigraphy`` approach in modeling. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact that an explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy around the repository may have on fluid flow compared to the simplified ``composite stratigraphy`` models currently employed. Sensitivity of model results to intrinsic permeability anisotropy, interbed fracturing, two-phase characteristic curves, and gas-generation rates were studied. The results of this study indicate that explicit representation of the stratigraphy maintains higher pressures and does not allow as much fluid to leave the disposal room as compared to the ``composite stratigraphy`` approach. However, the differences are relatively small. Gas migration distances are also different between the two approaches. However, for the two cases in which explicit layering results were considerably different than the composite model (anisotropic and vapor-limited), the gas-migration distances for both models were negligible. For the cases in which gas migration distances were considerable, van Genuchten/Parker and interbed fracture, the differences between the two models were fairly insignificant. Overall, this study suggests that explicit representation of the stratigraphy in the WIPP PA models is not required for the parameter variations modeled if ``global quantities`` (e.g., disposal room pressures, net brine and gas flux into and out of disposal rooms) are the only concern.

  4. Quantum chemical characterization of N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)acetohydrazide (HBAH): a detailed vibrational and NLO analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2014-01-03

    The molecular modeling of N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)acetohydrazide (HBAH) was carried out using B3LYP, CAMB3LYP and PBE1PBE levels of density functional theory (DFT). The molecular structure of HBAH was solved by means of IR, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies. In order to find the stable conformers, conformational analysis was performed based on B3LYP level. A detailed vibrational analysis was made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated, and the obtained energies displayed that charge transfer occurs in HBAH. NLO analysis indicated that HBAH can be used as an effective NLO material. NBO analysis also proved that charge transfer, conjugative interactions and intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions occur through HBAH. Additionally, major contributions from molecular orbitals to the electronic transitions were investigated theoretically.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  6. Relative urban ecosystem health assessment: a method integrating comprehensive evaluation and detailed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2010-12-01

    Regarding the basic roles of urban ecosystem health assessment (i.e., discovering the comprehensive health status, and diagnosing the limiting factors of urban ecosystems), the general framework integrating comprehensive evaluation and detailed analysis is established, from both bottom-up and top-down directions. Emergy-based health indicators are established to reflect the urban ecosystem health status from a biophysical viewpoint. Considering the intrinsic uncertainty and relativity of urban ecosystem health, set pair analysis is combined with the emergy-based indicators to fill the general framework and evaluate the relative health level of urban ecosystems. These techniques are favorable for understanding the overall urban ecosystem health status and confirming the limiting factors of concerned urban ecosystems from biophysical perspective. Moreover, clustering analysis is applied by combining the health status with spatial geographical conditions. Choosing 26 typical Chinese cities in 2005, relative comprehensive urban ecosystem health levels were evaluated. The higher health levels of Xiamen, Qingdao, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai are in particular contrast to those of Wuhan, Beijing, Yinchuan, and Harbin, which are relatively poor. In addition, the conditions of each factor and related indicators are investigated through set pair analysis, from which the critical limiting factors of Beijing are confirmed. According to clustering analysis results, the urban ecosystems studied are divided into four groups. It is concluded that the proposed framework of urban ecosystem health assessment, which integrates comprehensive evaluation and detailed analysis and is fulfilled by emergy synthesis and set pair analysis, can serve as a useful tool to conduct diagnosis of urban ecosystem health.

  7. Resolution requirements for monitor viewing of digital flat-panel detector radiographs: a contrast detail analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, Siegfried; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.; Peer, Regina; Gassner, Eva; Steingruber, Iris; Jaschke, Werner [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2003-02-01

    With the introduction of digital flat-panel detector systems into clinical practice, the still unresolved question of resolution requirements for picture archiving communication system (PACS) workstation monitors has gained new momentum. This contrast detail analysis was thus performed to define the differences in observer performance in the detection of small low-contrast objects on clinical 1K and 2K monitor workstations. Images of the CDRAD 2.0 phantom were acquired at varying exposures on an indirect-type digital flat-panel detector. Three observers evaluated a total of 15 images each with respect to the threshold contrast for each detail size. The numbers of correctly identified objects were determined for all image subsets. No significant difference in the correct detection ratio was detected among the observers; however, the difference between the two types of workstations (1K vs 2K monitors) despite less than 3% was significant at a 95% confidence level. Slight but statistically significant differences exist in the detection of low-contrast nodular details visualized on 1K- and 2K-monitor workstations. Further work is needed to see if this result holds true also for comparison of clinical flat-panel detector images and may, for example, exert an influence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray readings. (orig.)

  8. Statistical Analysis of Detailed 3-D CFD LES Simulations with Regard to CCV Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítek Oldřich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with statistical analysis of large amount of detailed 3-D CFD data in terms of cycle-to-cycle variations (CCVs. These data were obtained by means of LES calculations of many consecutive cycles. Due to non-linear nature of Navier-Stokes equation set, there is a relatively significant CCV. Hence, every cycle is slightly different – this leads to requirement to perform statistical analysis based on ensemble averaging procedure which enables better understanding of CCV in ICE including its quantification. The data obtained from the averaging procedure provides results on different space resolution levels. The procedure is applied locally, i.e., in every cell of the mesh. Hence there is detailed CCV information on local level – such information can be compared with RANS simulations. Next, volume/mass averaging provides information at specific locations – e.g., gap between electrodes of a spark plug. Finally, volume/mass averaging of the whole combustion chamber leads to global information which can be compared with experimental data or results of system simulation tools (which are based on 0-D/1-D approach.

  9. Detailed abundance analysis of a metal-poor giant in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ryde, N; Rich, R M; Thorsbro, B; Schultheis, M; Origlia, L; Chatzopoulos, S

    2016-01-01

    We report the first results from our program to examine the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster connected to SgrA*, with the goal of inferring the star formation and enrichment history of this system, as well as its connection and relationship with the central 100 pc of the bulge/bar system. We present the first high resolution (R~24,000), detailed abundance analysis of a K=10.2 metal-poor, alpha-enhanced red giant projected at 1.5 pc from the Galactic Center, using NIRSPEC on Keck II. A careful analysis of the dynamics and color of the star locates it at about 26 pc line-of-sight distance in front of the nuclear cluster. It probably belongs to one of the nuclear components (cluster or disk), not to the bar-bulge or classical disk. A detailed spectroscopic synthesis, using a new linelist in the K band, finds [Fe/H]~-1.0 and [alpha/Fe]~+0.4, consistent with stars of similar metallicity in the bulge. As known giants with comparable [Fe/H] and alpha enhancement are old, we conclude tha...

  10. Developments in remote sensing technology enable more detailed urban flood risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniss, A.; Tewkesbury, A.

    2009-04-01

    digital airborne sensors, both optical and lidar, to produce the input layer for surface water flood modelling. A national flood map product has been created. The new product utilises sophisticated modelling techniques, perfected over many years, which harness graphical processing power. This product will prove particularly valuable for risk assessment decision support within insurance/reinsurance, property/environmental, utilities, risk management and government agencies. However, it is not just the ground elevation that determines the behaviour of surface water. By combining height information (surface and terrain) with high resolution aerial photography and colour infrared imagery, a high definition land cover mapping dataset (LandBase) is being produced, which provides a precise measure of sealed versus non sealed surface. This will allows even more sophisticated modelling of flood scenarios. Thus, the value of airborne survey data can be demonstrated by flood risk analysis down to individual addresses in urban areas. However for some risks, an even more detailed survey may be justified. In order to achieve this, Infoterra is testing new 360˚ mobile lidar technology. Collecting lidar data from a moving vehicle allows each street to be mapped in very high detail, allowing precise information about the location, size and shape of features such as kerbstones, gullies, road camber and building threshold level to be captured quickly and accurately. These data can then be used to model the problem of overland flood risk at the scale of individual properties. Whilst at present it might be impractical to undertake such detailed modelling for all properties, these techniques can certainly be used to improve the flood risk analysis of key locations. This paper will demonstrate how these new high resolution remote sensing techniques can be combined to provide a new resolution of detail to aid urban flood modelling.

  11. Comparison of different computed radiography systems: Physical characterization and contrast detail analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Burani, Aldo; Acchiappati, Domenico [Servizio Fisica Sanitaria, ' ' Azienda USL di Modena' ' , 41100 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, 42123 Reggio Emilia (Italy); ' ' Azienda USL di Modena' ' , Ospedale di Sassuolo, 41049 Sassuolo (Italy); Servizio Fisica Sanitaria, ' ' Azienda USL di Modena' ' , 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: In this study, five different units based on three different technologies--traditional computed radiography (CR) units with granular phosphor and single-side reading, granular phosphor and dual-side reading, and columnar phosphor and line-scanning reading--are compared in terms of physical characterization and contrast detail analysis. Methods: The physical characterization of the five systems was obtained with the standard beam condition RQA5. Three of the units have been developed by FUJIFILM (FCR ST-VI, FCR ST-BD, and FCR Velocity U), one by Kodak (Direct View CR 975), and one by Agfa (DX-S). The quantitative comparison is based on the calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Noise investigation was also achieved by using a relative standard deviation analysis. Psychophysical characterization is assessed by performing a contrast detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images. Results: The most advanced units based on columnar phosphors provide MTF values in line or better than those from conventional CR systems. The greater thickness of the columnar phosphor improves the efficiency, allowing for enhanced noise properties. In fact, NPS values for standard CR systems are remarkably higher for all the investigated exposures and especially for frequencies up to 3.5 lp/mm. As a consequence, DQE values for the three units based on columnar phosphors and line-scanning reading, or granular phosphor and dual-side reading, are neatly better than those from conventional CR systems. Actually, DQE values of about 40% are easily achievable for all the investigated exposures. Conclusions: This study suggests that systems based on the dual-side reading or line-scanning reading with columnar phosphors provide a remarkable improvement when compared to conventional CR units and yield results in line with those obtained from most digital detectors for radiography.

  12. Business Management Simulations – a detailed industry analysis as well as recommendations for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Being exposed to serious games showed that some simulations widely vary in quality and learning outcome. In order to get to the bottom of best practices a detailed review of business management simulation literature was conducted. Additionally, an industry analysis was performed, by interviewing 17 simulation companies, testing a range of full and demo games, and conducting secondary research. The findings from both research efforts were then collated and cross-referenced against each other in order to determine three things: firstly, the practices and features used by simulation companies that have not yet been the subject of academic research; secondly, the most effective features, elements and inclusions within simulations that best assist in the achievement of learning outcomes and enhancement the user experience; and finally, ‘best practices’ in teaching a business management course in a university or company with the assistance of a simulation. Identified gaps in the current research were found to include the effectiveness of avatars, transparent pricing and the benefits of competing the simulation against other teams as opposed to the computer. In relation to the second and third objectives of the research, the findings were used to compile a business plan, with detailed recommendations for companies looking to develop a new simulation, and for instructors implementing and coordinating the use of a simulation in a business management context.

  13. Gyrokinetic turbulence: between idealized estimates and a detailed analysis of nonlinear energy transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Teaca, Bogdan; Told, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Using large resolution numerical simulations of GK turbulence, spanning an interval ranging from the end of the fluid scales to the electron gyroradius, we study the energy transfers in the perpendicular direction for a proton-electron plasma in a slab magnetic geometry. In addition, to aid our understanding of the nonlinear cascade, we use an idealized test representation for the energy transfers between two scales, mimicking the dynamics of turbulence in an infinite inertial range. For GK turbulence, a detailed analysis of nonlinear energy transfers that account for the separation of energy exchanging scales is performed. We show that locality functions associated with the energy cascade across dyadic (i.e. multiple of two) separated scales achieve an asymptotic state, recovering clear values for the locality exponents. We relate these exponents to the energy exchange between two scales, diagnostics that are less computationally intensive than the locality functions. It is the first time asymptotic locality...

  14. Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Loops: A Detailed Analysis of Propagation Speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Kiddie, G; Del Zanna, G; McIntosh, S W; Whittaker, I

    2012-01-01

    Quasi-periodic disturbances have been observed in the outer solar atmosphere for many years now. Although first interpreted as upflows (Schrijver et al. (1999)), they have been widely regarded as slow magnetoacoustic waves, due to observed velocities and periods. However, recent observations have questioned this interpretation, as periodic disturbances in Doppler velocity, line width and profile asymmetry were found to be in phase with the intensity oscillations (De Pontieu et al. (2010),Tian1 et al. (2011))}, suggesting the disturbances could be quasi-periodic upflows. Here we conduct a detailed analysis of the velocities of these disturbances across several wavelengths using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analysed 41 examples, including both sunspot and non sunspot regions of the Sun. We found that the velocities of propagating disturbances (PDs) located at sunspots are more likely to be temperature dependent, whereas the velocities of PDs at non sun...

  15. Detailed string stability analysis for bi-directional optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亮

    2015-01-01

    The class of bi-directional optimal velocity models can describe the bi-directional looking effect that usually exists in the reality and is even enhanced with the development of the connected vehicle technologies. Its combined string stability condition can be obtained through the method of the ring-road based string stability analysis. However, the partial string stability about traffic fluctuation propagated backward or forward was neglected, which will be analyzed in detail in this work by the method of transfer function and its H∞norm from the viewpoint of control theory. Then, through comparing the conditions of combined and partial string stabilities, their relationships can make traffic flow be divided into three distinguishable regions, displaying various combined and partial string stability performance. Finally, the numerical experiments verify the theoretical results and find that the final displaying string stability or instability performance results from the accumulated and offset effects of traffic fluctuations propagated from different directions.

  16. Detailed analysis of distraction induced by in-vehicle verbal interactions on visual search performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumitsu Shinohara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined the negative effect of in-vehicle verbal interaction on visual search performance. Twenty participants performed a primary visual search task and a secondary verbal interaction task concurrently. We found that visual search performance deteriorated when the secondary task involving memory retrieval and speech production was performed concurrently. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the reaction time as a function of set size revealed that the increased reaction time was attributed not to the slowing of inspecting each item but to the increased processing time other than the inspection of each visual item, possibly due to task switching between the primary visual search task and the secondary verbal task. These findings have implications for providing information from in-vehicle information devices while reducing the risk of driver distraction.

  17. Detailed Performance Analysis of the 10-Kw CNRS-Promes Dish/Stirling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinalter, W.; Ulmer, S.; Heller, P.; Rauch, T.; Gineste, J. M.; Ferriere, A.; Nepveu, F.

    2006-07-01

    The CNRS-Promes dish/Stirling system was erected in June 2004 as the last of three country reference units built in the Envirodish project, partly financed by the German ministry of environment. It represents the latest development step of the EuroDish system with many improved components. With a measured peak of 11 kW electrical output power it is also the best performing system so far. The measurement campaign to determine the optical and thermodynamic efficiency of the system is presented. The optical quality of the concentrator and the energy input to the power conversion unit was measured with a classical flux-mapping system using a Lambertian target and a CCD camera system. For the thermodynamic analysis all the data necessary for a complete energy balance around the Stirling engine, i.e. efficiency of the Stirling motor, the cavity and the receiver as well as the parasitic losses were measured or approximated by calculations. Such a detailed performance analysis helps to quantify all significant losses of the system and to identify the most rewarding future improvements. (Author)

  18. Detailed exploration of the endothelium: parameterization of flow-mediated dilation through principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Frangi, Alejandro F; Garcia, Daniel; Boisrobert, Loïc; Frangi, Andres G; Pascual, Isaac

    2007-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors (CVRF), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is increasingly used to explore it. In this test, artery diameter changes after post-ischaemic hyperaemia are classically quantified using maximum peak vasodilation (FMDc). To obtain more detailed descriptors of FMD we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to diameter-time curves (absolute), vasodilation-time curves (relative) and blood-velocity-time curves. Furthermore, combined PCA of vessel size and blood-velocity curves allowed exploring links between flow and dilation. Vessel diameter data for PCA (post-ischaemic: 140 s) were acquired from brachial ultrasound image sequences of 173 healthy male subjects using a computerized technique previously reported by our team based on image registration (Frangi et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22 1458). PCA provides a set of axes (called eigenmodes) that captures the underlying variation present in a database of waveforms so that the first few eigenmodes retain most of the variation. These eigenmodes can be used to synthesize each waveform analysed by means of only a few parameters, as well as potentially any signal of the same type derived from tests of new patients. The eigenmodes obtained seemed related to visual features of the waveform of the FMD process. Subsequently, we used eigenmodes to parameterize our data. Most of the main parameters (13 out of 15) correlated with FMDc. Furthermore, not all parameters correlated with the same CVRF tested, that is, serum lipids (i.e., high LDL-c associated with slow vessel return to a baseline, while low HDL-c associated with a lower vasodilation in response to similar velocity stimulus), thus suggesting that this parameterization allows a more detailed and factored description of the process than FMDc.

  19. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  20. CFD Analysis and Design of Detailed Target Configurations for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Adam; Merzari, Elia; Sofu, Tanju; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-08-01

    High-fidelity analysis has been utilized in the design of beam target options for an accelerator driven subcritical system. Designs featuring stacks of plates with square cross section have been investigated for both tungsten and uranium target materials. The presented work includes the first thermal-hydraulic simulations of the full, detailed target geometry. The innovative target cooling manifold design features many regions with complex flow features, including 90 bends and merging jets, which necessitate three-dimensional fluid simulations. These were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+. Conjugate heat transfer was modeled between the plates, cladding, manifold structure, and fluid. Steady-state simulations were performed but lacked good residual convergence. Unsteady simulations were then performed, which converged well and demonstrated that flow instability existed in the lower portion of the manifold. It was established that the flow instability had little effect on the peak plate temperatures, which were well below the melting point. The estimated plate surface temperatures and target region pressure were shown to provide sufficient margin to subcooled boiling for standard operating conditions. This demonstrated the safety of both potential target configurations during normal operation.

  1. A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis of Cool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Tremblay, P -E; von Hippel, Ted; Bergeron, P; Harris, Hugh C; Munn, Jeffrey A; Williams, Kurtis A; Gates, Evalyn; Farihi, J

    2010-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 126 cool white dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our sample includes high proper motion targets selected using the SDSS and USNO-B astrometry and a dozen previously known ultracool white dwarf candidates. Our optical spectroscopic observations demonstrate that a clean selection of large samples of cool white dwarfs in the SDSS (and the SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope datasets) is possible using a reduced proper motion diagram and a tangential velocity cut-off (depending on the proper motion accuracy) of 30 km/s. Our near-infrared observations reveal eight new stars with significant absorption. We use the optical and near-infrared photometry to perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. More than 80% of the stars in our sample are consistent with either pure hydrogen or pure helium atmospheres. However, the eight stars with significant infrared absorption and the majority of the previously known ultra...

  2. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations.

  3. Quantitative analysis of protein turnover in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein turnover as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein turnover analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating turnover studies into wider system biology study of plants.

  4. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  5. Error estimation in plant growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gregorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme is presented for calculation of errors of dry matter values which occur during approximation of data with growth curves, determined by the analytical method (logistic function and by the numerical method (Richards function. Further formulae are shown, which describe absolute errors of growth characteristics: Growth rate (GR, Relative growth rate (RGR, Unit leaf rate (ULR and Leaf area ratio (LAR. Calculation examples concerning the growth course of oats and maize plants are given. The critical analysis of the estimation of obtained results has been done. The purposefulness of joint application of statistical methods and error calculus in plant growth analysis has been ascertained.

  6. Detailed specificity analysis of antibodies binding to modified histone tails with peptide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Ina; Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Brandt, Ole; Rathert, Philipp; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-02-01

    Chromatin structure is greatly influenced by histone tail post-translational modifications (PTM), which also play a central role in epigenetic processes. Antibodies against modified histone tails are central research reagents in chromatin biology and molecular epigenetics. We applied Celluspots peptide arrays for the specificity analysis of 36 commercial antibodies from different suppliers which are directed towards modified histone tails. The arrays contained 384 peptides from 8 different regions of the N-terminal tails of histones, viz. H3 1-19, 7-26, 16-35 and 26-45, H4 1-19 and 11-30, H2A 1-19 and H2B 1-19, featuring 59 post-translational modifications in many different combinations. Using various controls we document the reliability of the method. Our analysis revealed previously undocumented details in the specificity profile. Most of the antibodies bound well to the PTM they have been raised for, but some failed. In addition some antibodies showed high cross-reactivity and most antibodies were inhibited by specific additional PTMs close to the primary one. Furthermore, specificity profiles for antibodies directed towards the same modification sometimes were very different. The specificity of antibodies used in epigenetic research is an important issue. We provide a catalog of antibody specificity profiles for 36 widely used commercial histone tail PTM antibodies. Better knowledge about the specificity profiles of antibodies will enable researchers to implement necessary control experiments in biological studies and allow more reliable interpretation of biological experiments using these antibodies.

  7. Analysis of Detailed Energy Audits and Energy Use Measures of University Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the results of a detailed energy audit of the buildings of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Energy audits were performed with reference to the international scientific project. The article presents the methodology and results of detailed measurements of energy balance characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Oncology and Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals {Delta}T{sub image} from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For {Delta}T{sub image}=150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380{+-}9 ms for MV and 420{+-}12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms

  9. Plant stress analysis technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring vegetation is an active area of laser-induced fluorescence imaging (LIFI) research. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) is assisting in the transfer of the LIFI technology to the agricultural private sector through a market survey. The market survey will help identify the key eco-agricultural issues of the nations that could benefit from the use of sensor technologies developed by the Office of Science and Technology (OST). The principal region of interest is the Western Hemisphere, particularly, the rapidly growing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis of needs will assure that the focus of present and future research will center on economically important issues facing both hemispheres. The application of the technology will be useful to the agriculture industry for airborne crop analysis as well as in the detection and characterization of contaminated sites by monitoring vegetation. LIFI airborne and close-proximity systems will be evaluated as stand-alone technologies and additions to existing sensor technologies that have been used to monitor crops in the field and in storage.

  10. Detailed analysis of an Eigen quasispecies model in a periodically moving sharp-peak landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Armando G. M.

    2010-09-01

    The Eigen quasispecies model in a periodically moving sharp-peak landscape considered in previous seminal works [M. Nilsson and N. Snoad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 191 (2000)10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.191] and [C. Ronnewinkel , in Theoretical Aspects of Evolutionary Computing, edited by L. Kallel, B. Naudts, and A. Rogers (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001)] is analyzed in greater detail. We show here, through a more rigorous analysis, that results in those papers are qualitatively correct. In particular, we obtain a phase diagram for the existence of a quasispecies with the same shape as in the above cited paper by C. Ronnewinkel , with upper and lower thresholds for the mutation rate between which a quasispecies may survive. A difference is that the upper value is larger and the lower value is smaller than the previously reported ones, so that the range for quasispecies existence is always larger than thought before. The quantitative information provided might also be important in understanding genetic variability in virus populations and has possible applications in antiviral therapies. The results in the quoted papers were obtained by studying the populations only at some few genomes. As we will show, this amounts to diagonalizing a 3×3 matrix. Our work is based instead in a different division of the population allowing a finer control of the populations at various relevant genetic sequences. The existence of a quasispecies will be related to Perron-Frobenius eigenvalues. Although huge matrices of sizes 2ℓ , where ℓ is the genome length, may seem necessary at a first look, we show that such large sizes are not necessary and easily obtain numerical and analytical results for their eigenvalues.

  11. Morphological features and associated anomalies of schizencephaly in the clinical population: detailed analysis of MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, N. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California San Francisco, CA (United States); Tsutsumi, Y. [Department of Radiology, National Okura Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Barkovich, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Although they are well documented in autopsy series, the macroscopic features and associated anomalies of schizencephalies have not been described in detail in a large clinical population. To assess the macroscopic findings of schizencephaly and the prevalence of associated findings, we conducted a retrospective MR analysis of a group of patients with schizencephaly. The MR studies of 35 patients with schizencephaly were retrospectively reviewed. The images were examined for the location and size of the schizencephalic cleft, the presence and location of associated polymicrogyria, and the presence, location, and severity of other brain anomalies. A total of 54 schizencephalic clefts were seen in the 35 patients. These clefts were unilateral in 18 (51%) patients and bilateral in 17 (49%) patients; three clefts were identified in two patients. Nine clefts (17%) had fused lips and 45 had separated-lip clefts (83%). Polymicrogyria was present inside 23 clefts (43%), while subependymal heterotopias were present at the cleft orifice in 27 clefts (50%). Polymicrogyria was identified outside the cleft, both adjacent to and remote from the cleft, in 23 patients (66%). Abnormal cerebral white-matter signal intensity was present in seven patients (20%), while white-matter volume diminution was noted in all patients. Ventricular diverticula with mass effect, roofing membranes, remnant floors, and cord-like remnants were present in 12, 1, 11, and 3 patients, respectively. Our results show that the spectrum of macroscopic findings in schizencephaly includes fused-lip and separated-lip clefts, polymicrogyric and non-polymicrogyric cleft linings, cyst-like diverticula and membranous structures, and subependymal heterotopia at the cleft. Concomitant anomalies are polymicrogyria outside the cleft, white-matter diminution, septal and optic pathway anomalies, callosal anomalies and hippocampal anomalies. Unilateral and bilateral clefts occur in a nearly equal frequency in the clinical

  12. Landscape evolution reconstructions on Mars: a detailed analysis of lacustrine and fluvial terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Sandro; Pajola, Maurizio; Baratti, Emanuele; Mangili, Clara; Coradini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    Liquid water was flowing on the surface of Mars in the past, leaving behind a wide range of geomorphic features. The ancient major Martian water fluxes vanished about 3.5 Ga. Meteoritic impacts, wind-erosion, gravity-related phenomena, tectonic deformations and volcanic activities deeply altered the landforms during the ages. Hence, the reconstruction of water-shaped landscapes is often complicated. Fluvial and lacustrine terraces analysis and correlation is a useful approach to understand and reconstruct the past changes in Martian landscape evolution. These features are commonly used as reference for the top of water bodies on Earth, since they are void of the uncertainties or errors deriving from erosional or slumping processes that could have acted on the valley flanks or in the plateau, where the hydrological network was carved in. The study area is located in the western hemisphere of Mars, in the Memnonia quadrangle, between latitude 9° 10'-9° 50'South and longitude 167° 0'-167° 30' West and it constitutes a transition region between the southern highlands of Terra Sirenum and the northern lowlands of Lucus Planum. Many water-shaped features have already been described near the study area, the most prominent of them being the Ma'adim Vallis and the Mangala Valles system. Our results derive from the observations and the analysis of HRSC images (12.5 m spatial resolution) and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived from the MEX-HRSC (75 m resolution), that allow the identification of elevation differences up to the tens of meter scale. We were able to reconstruct six main evolutionary stages of a complex hydrologic systems consisting of two main palaeorivers (up to 5 km wide) connected one another by a palaeolake that formed within a meteor crater (~20 km diameter). On the basis of Earth analogs, these stages/terraces should have evolved during a long period of time, at least thousands years long. Furthermore, crater counting date back the deactivation of

  13. Detailed analysis of contrast-enhanced MRI of hands and wrists in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, Irvine (United States); University of California Medical Center, Department of Radiological Sciences R-140, Orange, CA (United States); Ashikyan, Oganes; Anavim, Arash; Shin, John [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, Irvine (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The objective was to perform detailed analysis of the involved soft tissues, tendons, joints, and bones in the hands and wrists of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We reviewed 23 contrast-enhanced MR imaging studies (13 hands and 10 wrists) in 10 patients with the clinical diagnosis of PsA. We obtained clinical information from medical records and evaluated images for the presence of erosions, bone marrow edema, joint synovitis, tenosynovitis, carpal tunnel, and soft tissue involvement. Two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed all images independently. Differences were resolved during a subsequent joint session. The average duration of disease was 71.3 months, ranging from 1 month to 25 years. Eight of the 10 wrists (80%) and 6 of the 13 hands demonstrated bone erosions. Bone marrow abnormalities were shown in 5 of the 10 wrists (50%) and 4 of the 14 hands (31%). Triangular fibrocartilage tears were seen in 6 of the 10 wrists (60%). Wrist and hand joint synovitis were present in all studies (67 wrist joints and 101 hand joints). Wrist soft tissue involvement was detected in 9 of the 10 wrists (90%) and hand soft tissue involvement was present in 12 of the 13 wrists (92%). Findings adjacent to the region of soft tissue involvement included synovitis (4 wrists) and tenosynovitis (3 wrists). Bone marrow edema adjacent to the region of soft tissue involvement was seen in one wrist. Bulge of the flexor retinaculum was seen in 4 of the 10 wrists (40%) and median nerve enhancement was seen in 8 of the 10 wrists (80%). Tenosynovitis was seen in all studies (all 10 of the hands and all 13 of the wrists). The 'rheumatoid' type of distribution of bony lesions was common in our study. Interobserver agreement for various findings ranged from 83% to 100%. Contrast-enhanced MRI unequivocally demonstrated bone marrow edema, erosions, tendon and soft-tissue disease, and median nerve involvement, with good interobserver reliability in patients with

  14. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo project in summer 2012. Data was collected from 22 July–18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ~ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to zero, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources, including postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 with NO2 and photolysis of HNO3, increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant extra daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity, with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2, in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. The effect of the missing HONO to OH radical production is also investigated and it is shown that the model needs to be constrained to measured HONO in order to accurately reproduce the OH radical measurements.

  15. Procedure for conducting a human-reliability analysis for nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B.J.; Swain, A.D.

    1983-05-01

    This document describes in detail a procedure to be followed in conducting a human reliability analysis as part of a probabilistic risk assessment when such an analysis is performed according to the methods described in NUREG/CR-1278, Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications. An overview of the procedure describing the major elements of a human reliability analysis is presented along with a detailed description of each element and an example of an actual analysis. An appendix consists of some sample human reliability analysis problems for further study.

  16. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school-based cluster randomised controlled trial protocol: detailed statistical analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Peters, Tim J; Howe, Laura D; Noble, Sian M; Kipping, Ruth R; Jago, Russell

    2013-07-24

    The Active For Life Year 5 (AFLY5) randomised controlled trial protocol was published in this journal in 2011. It provided a summary analysis plan. This publication is an update of that protocol and provides a detailed analysis plan. This update provides a detailed analysis plan of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the AFLY5 intervention. The plan includes details of how variables will be quality control checked and the criteria used to define derived variables. Details of four key analyses are provided: (a) effectiveness analysis 1 (the effect of the AFLY5 intervention on primary and secondary outcomes at the end of the school year in which the intervention is delivered); (b) mediation analyses (secondary analyses examining the extent to which any effects of the intervention are mediated via self-efficacy, parental support and knowledge, through which the intervention is theoretically believed to act); (c) effectiveness analysis 2 (the effect of the AFLY5 intervention on primary and secondary outcomes 12 months after the end of the intervention) and (d) cost effectiveness analysis (the cost-effectiveness of the AFLY5 intervention). The details include how the intention to treat and per-protocol analyses were defined and planned sensitivity analyses for dealing with missing data. A set of dummy tables are provided in Additional file 1. This detailed analysis plan was written prior to any analyst having access to any data and was approved by the AFLY5 Trial Steering Committee. Its publication will ensure that analyses are in accordance with an a priori plan related to the trial objectives and not driven by knowledge of the data. ISRCTN50133740.

  17. Acquisition and statistical analysis of reliability data for I and C parts in plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Byun, S. S.; Han, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lim, J. S.; Oh, S. J.; Park, K. Y.; Song, H. S. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This project has been performed in order to construct I and C part reliability databases for detailed analysis of plant protection system and to develop a methodology for analysing trip set point drifts. Reliability database for the I and C parts of plant protection system is required to perform the detailed analysis. First, we have developed an electronic part reliability prediction code based on MIL-HDBK-217F. Then we have collected generic reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system. Statistical analysis procedure has been developed to process the data. Then the generic reliability database has been constructed. We have also collected plant specific reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3,4 units. Plant specific reliability database for I and C parts has been developed by the Bayesian procedure. We have also developed an statistical analysis procedure for set point drift, and performed analysis of drift effects for trip set point. The basis for the detailed analysis can be provided from the reliability database for the PPS I and C parts. The safety of the KSNP and succeeding NPPs can be proved by reducing the uncertainty of PSA. Economic and efficient operation of NPP can be possible by optimizing the test period to reduce utility's burden. 14 refs., 215 figs., 137 tabs. (Author)

  18. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE56_DS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE56_DS01 Profiling by METALIGN and MS2T-based peak annotation The data matrix was ...in-house software written in Perl/Tk (‘N toolbox', Appendix S3). Detailed methods for processing and interpr

  19. Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessler, Reinhard; Smallwood, Sebastien A.; Veenvliet, Jesse V.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Peng, Su-Ping; Chakrabarty, Koushik; Groot-Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Wesseling, Evelyn; Kelsey, Gavin; Boddeke, Erik; Smidt, Marten P.; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons involved in Parkinson's disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic

  20. A detailed cost analysis of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, C.A.; Lintsen, B.M.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Habbema, J.D.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hakkaart, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide detailed information about costs of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment stages and to estimate the cost per IVF and ICSI treatment cycle and ongoing pregnancy. DESIGN: Descriptive micro-costing study. SETTING: Four Dutch IVF center

  1. Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessler, Reinhard; Smallwood, Sebastien A.; Veenvliet, Jesse V.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Peng, Su-Ping; Chakrabarty, Koushik; Groot-Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Wesseling, Evelyn; Kelsey, Gavin; Boddeke, Erik; Smidt, Marten P.; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons involved in Parkinson's disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic chara

  2. An Implementation and Detailed Analysis of the K-SVD Image Denoising Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Lebrun; Arthur Leclaire

    2012-01-01

    K-SVD is a signal representation method which, from a set of signals, can derive a dictionary able to approximate each signal with a sparse combination of the atoms. This paper focuses on the K-SVD-based image denoising algorithm. The implementation is described in detail and its parameters are analyzed and varied to come up with a reliable implementation.

  3. Exergoeconomic analysis of a cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert, Mehmet Selcuk [Yalova University, Energy Systems Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: msmert@yalova.edu.tr; Dilmac, Omer Faruk; Ozkan, Semra; Bolat, Esen [Yildiz Technical University Chemical Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: omerfarukdl@yahoo.com, email: ozkans@yildiz.edu.tr, email: ebolat@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Cogeneration, or combined heat and power, is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat generally in the form of steam or hot water. By capturing the excess heat, it uses thermal energy that would be wasted in a conventional power plant, provides high energy conversion efficiency, and also reduces emissions. Exergy analysis has been found to be an effective tool for predicting the efficiencies of system components and the total thermodynamic effectiveness of the system, as well as for highlighting possible improvements. By using both exergy concepts and economics, an exergoeconomic analysis is possible which helps designers to find ways to improve the performance of a system in a cost effective way. This study presents the exergoeconomic analysis of a cogeneration plant at Erdemir, Turkey. The mass, energy and exergy balances were done, and the exergoeconomic analysis of the plant, with a 39.5 MW electricity total net power and 20.83 kg/s steam production capacity, was also done.

  4. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Intra‑Operative Airway Management in Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma having Reduction and ... Clinical Parameters and Challenges of Managing Cervicofacial Necrotizing Fasciitis in a ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... Difficult airway management in a patient with giant malignant goitre scheduled for thyroidectomy - case report ... Airway Management Dilemma in a Patient with Maxillofacial Injury

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ... Sampling Plans for Monitoring Quality Control Process at a Plastic Manufacturing Firm in Nigeria: A Case Study

  8. A comparative quadrant analysis of turbulence in a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wusi; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.; Zhu, Weihong; van Hout, René; Katz, Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence in plant canopies has traditionally been validated using bulk statistical quantities such as mean velocity and variance profiles. However, turbulent exchanges between a plant canopy and the atmosphere are dominated by large-scale coherent structures, and therefore LES must also be validated using statistical tools that are sensitive to details of coherent structures. In this study, LES and measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) are compared near the top of the canopy by means of a quadrant-hole analysis of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity, and dissipation rate. The LES resolves coarse features of individual corn plants and uses the Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic subgrid model. At the measurement location, there is good agreement between the LES predictions and the field data in terms of most conditionally sampled quantities, confirming the applicability of LES for fundamental studies of vegetation-air interactions and coherent structures. The simulation results confirm that sweeps (the fourth-quadrant events) contribute the largest fraction of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity, and dissipation rate inside the plant canopy. The magnitudes of the vorticity and dissipation rate at the top of the canopy are highest in the first quadrant (rare events of outward interactions).

  9. Detailed study of the heat sink of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear plant; Etude detaillee de la source froide de la centrale de Saint-Laurent des Eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audrerie, Y

    1997-12-31

    This work is dedicated to a detailed study of the reliability of the heat sink of the nuclear plant which is situated on the banks of the Loire river. In the first part the requirements the heat sink has to comply with are reviewed, in the second part the various operating modes, the different procedures established to cope with the hazards of the river: icing up, frost, overflow, lowest water, choking are reported. This analysis highlights the good compliance of the heat sink with the specifications but some improvements about periodic testing are proposed. (A.C.)

  10. An Implementation and Detailed Analysis of the K-SVD Image Denoising Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lebrun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available K-SVD is a signal representation method which, from a set of signals, can derive a dictionary able to approximate each signal with a sparse combination of the atoms. This paper focuses on the K-SVD-based image denoising algorithm. The implementation is described in detail and its parameters are analyzed and varied to come up with a reliable implementation.

  11. Detailed Per-residue Energetic Analysis Explains the Driving Force for Microtubule Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoub, Ahmed T.; Mariusz Klobukowski; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are long filamentous hollow cylinders whose surfaces form lattice structures of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. They perform multiple physiological roles in eukaryotic cells and are targets for therapeutic interventions. In our study, we carried out all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for arbitrarily long microtubules that have either GDP or GTP molecules in the E-site of β-tubulin. A detailed energy balance of the MM/GBSA inter-dimer interaction energy per residue contributing to t...

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  13. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  14. Frontal Crash Analysis of a Fully Detailed Car Model Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Shan-Ling; Zhu Ping; Lin Zhong-Qin; Shi Yu-Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets up a highly detailed finite element model of a car for frontal crashworthiness applications, and then explains the characteristics of it. The geometry model is preprocessed by Hypermesh software. The finite element method solver program selected for the simulation is LS-DYNA. After the crash simulation is carefully analyzed, the frontal crash experiment is aimed to validate the finite element model. The simulation results are basically in agreement with the experimental results. The validation of the finite element model is crucial for the further research in optimization of the automotive structure or lightweighting of the vehicle.

  15. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  16. Dynamical Twisted Mass Fermions with Light Quarks: Simulation and Analysis Details

    CERN Document Server

    Boucaud, Ph; Farchioni, F; Frezzotti, R; Giménez, V; Herdoiza, G; Jansen, K; Lubicz, V; Michael, C; Münster, G; Palao, D; Rossi, G C; Scorzato, L; Shindler, A; Simula, S; Sudmann, T; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper [hep-lat/0701012] we presented precise lattice QCD results of our European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). They were obtained by employing two mass-degenerate flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In the present paper we give details on our simulations and the computation of physical observables. In particular, we discuss the problem of tuning to maximal twist, the techniques we have used to compute correlators and error estimates. In addition, we provide more information on the algorithm used, the autocorrelation times and scale determination, the evaluation of disconnected contributions and the description of our data by means of chiral perturbation theory formulae.

  17. Detailed statistical analysis plan for the target temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Winkel, Per; Cronberg, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    , and did not treat hyperthermia in the control groups. The optimal target temperature management (TTM) strategy is not known. To prevent outcome reporting bias, selective reporting and data-driven results, we present the a priori defined detailed statistical analysis plan as an update to the previously...

  18. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asnera; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweeded

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  19. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of the Antimicrobial Activities of Some Plants Used Traditionally in Ethiopia for the ... Antioxidant Activities of Three Rubus Species Growing in Ethiopia ... In Vivo Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Extracts of Rosa abyssinica ... L. Produces a Non-Sedating Anxiolytic Effect in Mice Models of Anxiety

  1. Detailed interrogation of trypanosome cell biology via differential organelle staining and automated image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many trypanosomatid protozoa are important human or animal pathogens. The well defined morphology and precisely choreographed division of trypanosomatid cells makes morphological analysis a powerful tool for analyzing the effect of mutations, chemical insults and changes between lifecycle stages. High-throughput image analysis of micrographs has the potential to accelerate collection of quantitative morphological data. Trypanosomatid cells have two large DNA-containing organelles, the kinetoplast (mitochondrial DNA and nucleus, which provide useful markers for morphometric analysis; however they need to be accurately identified and often lie in close proximity. This presents a technical challenge. Accurate identification and quantitation of the DNA content of these organelles is a central requirement of any automated analysis method. Results We have developed a technique based on double staining of the DNA with a minor groove binding (4'', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI and a base pair intercalating (propidium iodide (PI or SYBR green fluorescent stain and color deconvolution. This allows the identification of kinetoplast and nuclear DNA in the micrograph based on whether the organelle has DNA with a more A-T or G-C rich composition. Following unambiguous identification of the kinetoplasts and nuclei the resulting images are amenable to quantitative automated analysis of kinetoplast and nucleus number and DNA content. On this foundation we have developed a demonstrative analysis tool capable of measuring kinetoplast and nucleus DNA content, size and position and cell body shape, length and width automatically. Conclusions Our approach to DNA staining and automated quantitative analysis of trypanosomatid morphology accelerated analysis of trypanosomatid protozoa. We have validated this approach using Leishmania mexicana, Crithidia fasciculata and wild-type and mutant Trypanosoma brucei. Automated analysis of T. brucei

  2. Confirmatory analysis and detail design of the magnet system for mirror fusion test facility (MFTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatro, R.E.; Baldi, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    This summary covers the six individual reports delivered to the LLL MFTF program staff. They are: (1) literature survey (helium heat transfer), (2) thermodynamic analysis, (3) structural analysis, (4) manufacturing/producibility study, (5) instrumentation plan and (6) quality assurance report. (MOW)

  3. Primordial black holes as a novel probe of primordial gravitational waves II: detailed analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nakama, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Recently we have proposed a novel method to probe primordial gravitational waves from upper bounds on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs). When the amplitude of primordial tensor perturbations generated in the early universe is very large, they induce large scalar perturbations due to their second-order effects. If the amplitude of resultant scalar perturbations is too large at the moment of their horizon reenty, then PBHs are overproduced to a level that is inconsistent with a variety of existing observations constraining the abundance of PBHs. This consideration leads to upper bounds on the amplitude of primordial tensor perturbations on super-horizon scales. In contrast to our recent paper in which we only present simple estimations of the upper bounds from PBHs, in this paper, we present detailed derivations, by solving the Einstein equations for scalar perturbations induced at second order in tensor perturbations. We also derive an approximate formula for the probability density function of in...

  4. System Design of a Trusted SoC and Detailed Analysis of its Secure State Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Yang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the relevant criterion and principle for designing and evaluating various trusted computing chips, we have proposed a new trusted SoC chip, and have given the implementation of its basic functional modules. In detail, we have discussed the design of the trusted SoC security architecture and the main module functional modules such as microprocessor, cryptographic function module, security management module, input/output interface, along with the most important memory management unit. Moreover, we have discussed reliability of relevant parameters and transfer strategy for trusted root in chip development and application, together with the simulation and validation of corresponding functions. At last, we point out that one of the most important further research directions is the trusted measurement of dynamic data and software running in security environment.

  5. Detailed Analysis of Wheat Straw Node and Internode for their Prospective Efficient Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Seyed Hamidreza; Fan, Mizi; Zhou, Yonghui; AboMadyan, Omar

    2017-09-27

    In order to efficiently utilise wheat straw, the systematic examination of their cell wall components, chemical structures, morphology and relation to the physicochemical and mechanical properties is necessary. Detailing of node and internode signifies their different features and characteristics which can ultimately lead to their separated processing for enhanced efficiency and higher added-value bio-refinery. In this study, distinct variations were found amongst characteristics of node and internode, inner and outer surface. It was revealed that node has more extractives, Klason lignin and ash content than internode, higher contents of extractives and ash in the node are related to the thicker epidermis tissue. Hot-water followed by mild steam pre-treatment was used to examine the effects on the characteristics of wheat straw. The results showed: 1) reduced level of waxes and Si (weight %) from the outer surface, and 2) significantly lower (P < 0.05) extractives content in both internode and node.

  6. Model based, detailed fault analysis in the CERN PS complex equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Beharrell, M; Bouché, J M; Cupérus, J; Lelaizant, M; Mérard, L

    1995-01-01

    In the CERN PS Complex of accelerators, about a thousand of equipment of various type (power converters, RF cavities, beam measurement devices, vacuum systems etc...) are controlled using the so-called Control Protocol, already described in previous Conferences. This Protocol, a model based equipment access standard, provides, amongst other facilities, a uniform and structured fault description and report feature. The faults are organized in categories, following their gravity, and are presented at two levels: the first level is global and identical for all devices, the second level is very detailed and adapted to the peculiarities of each single device. All the relevant information is provided by the equipment specialists and is appropriately stored in static and real time data bases; in this way a unique set of data driven application programs can always cope with existing and newly added equipment. Two classes of applications have been implemented, the first one is intended for control room alarm purposes,...

  7. Detailed Per-residue Energetic Analysis Explains the Driving Force for Microtubule Disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T Ayoub

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are long filamentous hollow cylinders whose surfaces form lattice structures of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. They perform multiple physiological roles in eukaryotic cells and are targets for therapeutic interventions. In our study, we carried out all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for arbitrarily long microtubules that have either GDP or GTP molecules in the E-site of β-tubulin. A detailed energy balance of the MM/GBSA inter-dimer interaction energy per residue contributing to the overall lateral and longitudinal structural stability was performed. The obtained results identified the key residues and tubulin domains according to their energetic contributions. They also identified the molecular forces that drive microtubule disassembly. At the tip of the plus end of the microtubule, the uneven distribution of longitudinal interaction energies within a protofilament generates a torque that bends tubulin outwardly with respect to the cylinder's axis causing disassembly. In the presence of GTP, this torque is opposed by lateral interactions that prevent outward curling, thus stabilizing the whole microtubule. Once GTP hydrolysis reaches the tip of the microtubule (lateral cap, lateral interactions become much weaker, allowing tubulin dimers to bend outwards, causing disassembly. The role of magnesium in the process of outward curling has also been demonstrated. This study also showed that the microtubule seam is the most energetically labile inter-dimer interface and could serve as a trigger point for disassembly. Based on a detailed balance of the energetic contributions per amino acid residue in the microtubule, numerous other analyses could be performed to give additional insights into the properties of microtubule dynamic instability.

  8. Performance evaluation of a direct computed radiography system by means of physical characterization and contrast detail analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Borasi, Giovanni; Acchiappati, Domenico; Burani, Aldo

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the performance of a direct CR reader, named "FCR Velocity U Focused Phosphor (FP)". The system is based on a CsBr columnar structured crystal, and the system's read out is based on the "linescan technology" that employs a wide-view CCD. The system's physical performance was tested by means of a quantitative analysis, with calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Image quality was assessed by performing a contrast-detail analysis. The results are compared with those obtained with the well known CR system Fuji FCR XG5000, and the new one Kodak DirectView CR 975. For all the measurements the standard radiation quality RQA-5 was used. The relationship between signal amplitude and entrance air kerma is logarithmic for all the systems and the response functions were used to linearize the images before the MTF (edge method) and NPS calculations. The contrast detail analysis has been achieved by using the well known CDRAD phantom and a customized software designed for automatic computation of the contrast-detail curves. The three systems present similar MTFs, whereas the Fuji Velocity U FP system, thanks to its greater efficiency, has a better behavior in terms of NNPS, especially at low frequencies. That allows the system based on columnar phosphor to provide a better DQE. CDRAD analysis basically confirms that the structured phosphor used in the Velocity system improves the visibility of some details. This is especially true for medium and large details.

  9. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2). Detailed structure and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

    1997-11-01

    A light water reactor fuel behavior analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2) was developed as an improved version of FEMAXI-IV. Development of FEMAXI-IV has been already finished in 1992, though a detailed structure and input manual of the code have not been open to users yet. Here, the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied to FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), and the material properties adopted in the code are described in detail. In FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), programming bugs in previous FEMAXI-IV were eliminated, renewal of the pellet thermal conductivity was performed, and a model of thermal-stress restraint on FP gas release was incorporated. For facilitation of effective and wide-ranging application of the code, methods of input/output of the code are also described in detail, and sample output is included. (author)

  10. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE57_DS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE57_DS01 Analysis of metabolite accumulation patterns Quantitative data for metabo...lite accumulation in the seeds or seed coats of the 14 accessions or species were obtained by UPLC-TQMS. Pea

  11. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  13. Detailed Analysis of Early to Late-Time Spectra of Supernova 1993J

    CERN Document Server

    Matheson, T; Ho, L C; Barth, A J; Leonard, D C; Matheson, Thomas; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Leonard, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed study of line structure in early to late-time spectra of Supernova (SN) 1993J. Spectra during the nebular phase, but within the first two years after explosion, exhibit small-scale structure in the emission lines of some species, notably oxygen and magnesium, showing that the ejecta of SN 1993J are clumpy. On the other hand, a lack of structure in emission lines of calcium implies that the source of calcium emission is uniformly distributed throughout the ejecta. These results are interpreted as evidence that oxygen emission originates in clumpy, newly synthesized material, while calcium emission arises from material pre-existing in the atmosphere of the progenitor. Spectra spanning the range 433-2454 days after the explosion show box-like profiles for the emission lines, clearly indicating circumstellar interaction in a roughly spherical shell. This is interpreted within the Chevalier & Fransson (1994) model for SNe interacting with mass lost during prior stellar winds. At very late...

  14. Selection Metric for Photovoltaic Materials Screening Based on Detailed-Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Beatrix; Kirchartz, Thomas; Lany, Stephan; Rau, Uwe

    2017-08-01

    The success of recently discovered absorber materials for photovoltaic applications has been generating increasing interest in systematic materials screening over the last years. However, the key for a successful materials screening is a suitable selection metric that goes beyond the Shockley-Queisser theory that determines the thermodynamic efficiency limit of an absorber material solely by its band-gap energy. In this work, we develop a selection metric to quantify the potential photovoltaic efficiency of a material. Our approach is compatible with detailed balance and applicable in computational and experimental materials screening. We use the complex refractive index to calculate radiative and nonradiative efficiency limits and the respective optimal thickness in the high mobility limit. We compare our model to the widely applied selection metric by Yu and Zunger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 068701 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.068701] with respect to their dependence on thickness, internal luminescence quantum efficiency, and refractive index. Finally, the model is applied to complex refractive indices calculated via electronic structure theory.

  15. Second-order hydrodynamics for fermionic cold atoms: Detailed analysis of transport coefficients and relaxation times

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Yuta; Kunihiro, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    We give a detailed derivation of the second-order (local) hydrodynamics for Boltzmann equation with an external force by using the renormalization group method. In this method, we solve the Boltzmann equation faithfully to extract the hydrodynamics without recourse to any ansatz. Our method leads to microscopic expressions of not only all the transport coefficients that are of the same form as those in Chapman-Enskog method but also those of the viscous relaxation times $\\tau_i$ that admit physically natural interpretations. As an example, we apply our microscopic expressions to calculate the transport coefficients and the relaxation times of the cold fermionic atoms in a quantitative way, where the transition probability in the collision term is given explicitly in terms of the $s$-wave scattering length $a_s$. We thereby discuss the quantum statistical effects, temperature dependence, and scattering-length dependence of the first-order transport coefficients and the viscous relaxation times: It is shown tha...

  16. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape.

  17. Detailed balance analysis of area de-coupled double tandem photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how layers of area de-coupled top and bottom cells in photovoltaic tandem modules can increase the efficiency of two-terminal tandem devices. The point of the area de-coupling is to allow the number of top cells to differ from the number of bottom cells. Within each of the layers, the cells can be horizontally series-connected and the layers can then be current- or voltage-matched with each other in a tandem module. Using detailed balance modeling, it is shown that two-terminal tandem modules of this type can achieve the same theoretical efficiency as stacks of independently operated cells, often referred to as four-terminal cells. Optimal ratios of the number of bottom cells to the number of top cells are calculated. Finally, it is shown that modules with a bottom layer consisting of 60 cells with a band gap of 1.11 eV, resembling standard silicon modules, offer sufficient resolution to optimize the number of top cells and achieve high efficiency over a large range of top cell band gaps. This result extends the list of materials that can be used as top cells in two-terminal tandem modules with silicon bottom cells.

  18. Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Roessler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA neurons involved in Parkinson’s disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic characterizations of such neurons are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the authenticity of iPSC-derived DA neurons obtained by established protocols. We FACS purified mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+ neurons derived from mouse iPSCs and primary mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+ neurons to analyze and compare their genetic and epigenetic features. Although iPSC-derived DA neurons largely adopted characteristics of their in vivo counterparts, relevant deviations in global gene expression and DNA methylation were found. Hypermethylated genes, mainly involved in neurodevelopment and basic neuronal functions, consequently showed reduced expression levels. Such abnormalities should be addressed because they might affect unambiguous long-term functionality and hamper the potential of iPSC-derived DA neurons for in vitro disease modeling or cell-based therapy.

  19. A Detailed Circuit Analysis of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Building 141 Detonator Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhall, D J; Wilson, M J; Wilson, J H

    2003-10-01

    A detailed electrical equivalent circuit of an as-built utility fault simulator is presented. Standard construction techniques for light industrial facilities were used to build a test-bed for evaluating utility power level faults into unintentional victims. The initial components or victims of interest are commercial detonators. Other possible candidates for fault response analyses include motors, power supplies, control systems, computers, or other electronic equipment. Measured Thevenin parameters of all interconnections provide the selected component values used in the model. Included in the model is an opening 10 HP motor circuit demonstrating voltage transients commonly seen on branch circuits from inductive loads common to industrial installations. Complex transmission lines were developed to represent real world transmission line effects possible from the associated branch circuits. To reduce the initial circuit stabilization delay a set of non-linear resistive elements are employed. The resulting model has assisted in confirming previous detonator safety work and supported the definition of critical parameters needed for continued safety assessment of victims to utility type power sources.

  20. Detailed analysis of the cell-inactivation mechanism by accelerated protons and light ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundrat, Pavel [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2006-03-07

    A detailed study of the biological effects of diverse quality radiations, addressing their biophysical interpretation, is presented. Published survival data for V79 cells irradiated by monoenergetic protons, helium-3, carbon and oxygen ions and for CHO cells irradiated by carbon ions have been analysed using the probabilistic two-stage model of cell inactivation. Three different classes of DNA damage formed by traversing particles have been distinguished, namely severe single-track lesions which might lead to cell inactivation directly, less severe lesions where cell inactivation is caused by their combinations and lesions of negligible severity that can be repaired easily. Probabilities of single ions forming these lesions have been assessed in dependence on their linear energy transfer (LET) values. Damage induction probabilities increase with atomic number and LET. While combined lesions play a crucial role at lower LET values, single-track damage dominates in high-LET regions. The yields of single-track lethal lesions for protons have been compared with Monte Carlo estimates of complex DNA lesions, indicating that lethal events correlate well with complex DNA double-strand breaks. The decrease in the single-track damage probability for protons of LET above approximately 30 keV {mu}m{sup -1}, suggested by limited experimental evidence, is discussed, together with the consequent differences in the mechanisms of biological effects between protons and heavier ions. Applications of the results in hadrontherapy treatment planning are outlined.

  1. Selection Metric for Photovoltaic Materials Screening Based on Detailed-Balance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lany, Stephan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blank, Beatrix [IEK5-Photovoltaics; Kirchartz, Thomas [IEK5-Photovoltaics; University of Duisburg-Essen; Rau, Uwe [IEK5-Photovoltaics

    2017-08-31

    The success of recently discovered absorber materials for photovoltaic applications has been generating increasing interest in systematic materials screening over the last years. However, the key for a successful materials screening is a suitable selection metric that goes beyond the Shockley-Queisser theory that determines the thermodynamic efficiency limit of an absorber material solely by its band-gap energy. In this work, we develop a selection metric to quantify the potential photovoltaic efficiency of a material. Our approach is compatible with detailed balance and applicable in computational and experimental materials screening. We use the complex refractive index to calculate radiative and nonradiative efficiency limits and the respective optimal thickness in the high mobility limit. We compare our model to the widely applied selection metric by Yu and Zunger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 068701 (2012)] with respect to their dependence on thickness, internal luminescence quantum efficiency, and refractive index. Finally, the model is applied to complex refractive indices calculated via electronic structure theory.

  2. Resolution requirements for monitor viewing of digital flat-panel detector radiographs: a contrast detail analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Siegfried; Steingruber, Iris; Gassner, Eva; Peer, Regina; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.

    2002-05-01

    Since the introduction of digital flat panel detectors into clinical routine the discussion on monitor specifications for primary soft copy reading has gained new impetus. Major concerns exist for viewing of tiny opacities such as pulmonary nodules. In this study CDRAD phantom images were acquired on a caesium iodid/amorphous silicon detector at varying exposure levels. Images were read three times by three observers on a clinical 1K and 2K monitor workstation. All typical workstation functions such as magnification and window/level setting were applied during image reading. Correct detection ratios were calculated according to the CDRAD evaluation manual. Observer ratings were highest for high dose exposure and 2K monitor reading. No significant difference was detected in the correct detection ratio of observers. However, the difference between the two types of workstations (1K versus 2K monitors) despite less than 3% was significant at a 95% confidence level. This is in good accordance with recently published clinical studies. However, further clinical work will be needed to strengthen this laboratory based impression. Given these subtle differences in low contrast detail detection on 1K and 2K clinical PACS workstation we should probably rethink the recommendations of various national boards for the use of 2K monitors.

  3. Detailed seismotectonic analysis of Sumatra subduction zone revealed by high precision earthquake location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagala, Ricardo Alfencius; Harjadi, P. J. Prih; Heryandoko, Nova; Sianipar, Dimas

    2017-07-01

    Sumatra was one of the most high seismicity regions in Indonesia. The subduction of Indo-Australian plate beneath Eurasian plate in western Sumatra contributes for many significant earthquakes that occur in this area. These earthquake events can be used to analyze the seismotectonic of Sumatra subduction zone and its system. In this study we use teleseismic double-difference method to obtain more high precision earthquake distribution in Sumatra subduction zone. We use a 3D nested regional-global velocity model. We use a combination of data from both of ISC (International Seismological Center) and BMKG (Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Indonesia). We successfully relocate about 6886 earthquakes that occur on period of 1981-2015. We consider that this new location is more precise than the regular bulletin. The relocation results show greatly reduced of RMS residual of travel time. Using this data, we can construct a new seismotectonic map of Sumatra. A well-built geometry of subduction slab, faults and volcano arc can be obtained from the new bulletin. It is also showed that at a depth of 140-170 km, there is many events occur as moderate-to-deep earthquakes, and we consider about the relation of the slab's events with volcanic arc and inland fault system. A reliable slab model is also built from regression equation using new relocated data. We also analyze the spatial-temporal of seismotectonic using b-value mapping that inspected in detail horizontally and vertically cross-section.

  4. Crucial role of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses in HRA. [Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.G.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses one major cause for large uncertainties in human reliability analysis (HRA) results, that is, an absence of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses. All too often this crucial step in the HRA process is done in a cursory fashion using word of mouth or written procedures which themselves may incompletely or inaccurately represent the human action sequences and human error vulnerabilities being analyzed. The paper examines the potential contributions these detailed analyses can make in achieving quantitative and qualitative HRA results which are: (1) creditable, that is, minimize uncertainty, (2) auditable, that is, systematically linking quantitative results and qualitative information from which the results are derived, (3) capable of supporting root cause analyses on human reliability factors determined to be major contributors to risk, and (4) capable of repeated measures and being combined with similar results from other analyses to examine HRA issues transcending individual systems and facilities. Based on experience analyzing test and commercial nuclear reactors, and medical applications of nuclear technology, an iterative process is suggested for doing detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses using documentation reviews, open-ended and structured interviews, direct observations, and group techniques. Finally, the paper concludes that detailed analyses done in this manner by knowledgeable human factors practitioners, can contribute significantly to the credibility, auditability, causal factor analysis, and combining goals of the HRA.

  5. Analysis of detailed aerodynamic field measurements using results from an aeroelastic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, J.G. [Energy Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Feigl, L. [Ecotecnia S. coop.c.l. (Spain); Rooij, R. van; Bruining, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    In this article an analysis is given of aerodynamic field measurements on wind turbine blades. The analysis starts with a consistency check on the measurements, by relating the measured local aerodynamic segment forces to the overall rotor loads. It is found that the results are very consistent. Moreover, a comparison is made between measured results and results calculated from an aeroelastic code. On the basis of this comparison, the aerodynamic modelling in the aeroelastic code could be improved. This holds in particular for the modelling of 3D stall effects, not only on the lift but also on the drag, and for the modelling of tip effects (author)

  6. Detailed analysis of the predictions of loop quantum cosmology for the primordial power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Agullo, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We provide an exhaustive numerical exploration of the predictions of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) with a post-bounce phase of inflation for the primordial power spectrum of scalar and tensor perturbations. We extend previous analysis by characterizing the phenomenologically relevant parameter space and by constraining it using observations. Furthermore, we characterize the shape of LQC-corrections to observable quantities across this parameter space. Our analysis provides a framework to contrast more accurately the theory with forthcoming polarization data, and it also paves the road for the computation of other observables beyond the power spectra, such as non-Gaussianity.

  7. Detailed Analysis of Solar Data Related to Historical Extreme Geomagnetic Storms: 1868 – 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefèvre, Laure; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Dumbović, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of historical Sun–Earth connection events in the context of the most extreme space weather events of the last ∼ 150 years is presented. To identify the key factors leading to these extreme events, a sample of the most important geomagnetic storms was selected based mainly on the well-...

  8. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE40_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tware without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by PowerFT ...SE40_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks Raw data files are converted to text file by MSGet sof

  9. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE41_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tware without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by PowerFT ...SE41_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks Raw data files are converted to text file by MSGet sof

  10. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE13_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE13_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  11. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE30_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE30_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  12. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE1_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE1_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C2) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  13. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE35_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE35_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  14. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE5_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE5_DS1 PowerGet analysis for annotation of peaks with MS/MS (A3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files

  15. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE10_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  16. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE29_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE29_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  17. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE8_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE8_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  18. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE31_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE31_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  19. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE33_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE33_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  20. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE7_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE7_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C4) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  1. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE12_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE12_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  2. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE36_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE36_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  3. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE6_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE6_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C4) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  4. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE12_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE12_DS1 PowerGet analysis for annotation of peaks with MS/MS (A3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text file

  5. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE16_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE16_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  6. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE14_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE14_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  7. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE17_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE17_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  8. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE27_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  9. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE17_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE17_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  10. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE4_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE4_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  11. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE13_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE13_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  12. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE14_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE14_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  13. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE11_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE11_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  14. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE4_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE4_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  15. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE9_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE9_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  16. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE12_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE12_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  17. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE16_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE16_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  18. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE9_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE9_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  19. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE10_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10_DS1 PowerGet analysis for annotation of peaks with MS/MS (A3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text file

  20. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE15_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE15_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C5) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  1. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE26_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  2. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE25_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  3. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE2_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE2_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C2) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  4. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE5_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE5_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  5. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE5_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE5_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  6. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE34_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE34_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  7. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE3_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE3_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C2) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  8. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE32_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE32_DS1 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  9. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE10_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  10. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE25_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  11. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE7_DS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE7_DS1 PowerGet analysis for annotation of peaks with MS/MS (A4) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files

  12. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE11_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE11_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Pow

  13. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE8_DS3 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE8_DS3 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (C3) Raw data files are converted to text... file by MSGet software without cut off value and peaks are extracted from the text files by Powe

  14. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE54_DS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ersion 4.0 (Waters) was used to control all instruments and calculate peak areas. The analytical error of th...is analysis using UPLCquadrupole MS is less than 10% (data not shown); thus, we did not perform an analytical replicate in this study. ...

  15. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE6_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE6_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B4) Raw data files are conver...rFT with parameters (intensity cut off in peak detection=20000, margin of ion grouping in peak detection=5,

  16. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE7_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE7_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B4) Raw data files are conver...rFT with parameters (intensity cut off in peak detection=20000, margin of ion grouping in peak detection=5,

  17. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE15_DS2 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE15_DS2 PowerGet analysis for detection of all peaks (B5) Raw data files are conve...erFT with parameters (intensity cut off in peak detection=30000, margin of ion grouping in peak detection=5,

  18. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  19. Draft genome sequence and detailed analysis of Pantoea eucrina strain Russ and implication for opportunistic pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Moghadam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pantoea is a predominant member of host-associated microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Pantoea eucrina strain Russ that was isolated from a trashcan at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK. The draft genome of Pantoea eucrina strain Russ consists of 3,939,877 bp of DNA with 3704 protein-coding genes and 134 RNA genes. This is the first report of a genome sequence of a member of Pantoea eucrina. Genomic analysis revealed metabolic versatility with genes involved in the metabolism and transport of all amino acids as well as glucose, fructose, mannose, xylose, arabinose and galactose, suggesting the organism is a versatile heterotroph. The genome also encodes an extensive secretory machinery including types I, II, III, IV, and Vb secretion systems, and several genes for pili production including the new usher/chaperone system (pfam 05,229. The implications of these systems for opportunistic pathogenesis are discussed.

  20. Technique for direct measurement of thermal conductivity of elastomers and a detailed uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, Matthew I.; Smith, Barton L.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2016-11-01

    High thermal conductivity thermal interface materials (TIMs) are needed to extend the life and performance of electronic circuits. A stepped bar apparatus system has been shown to work well for thermal resistance measurements with rigid materials, but most TIMs are elastic. This work studies the uncertainty of using a stepped bar apparatus to measure the thermal resistance and a tensile/compression testing machine to estimate the compressed thickness of polydimethylsiloxane for a measurement on the thermal conductivity, k eff. An a priori, zeroth order analysis is used to estimate the random uncertainty from the instrumentation; a first order analysis is used to estimate the statistical variation in samples; and an a posteriori, Nth order analysis is used to provide an overall uncertainty on k eff for this measurement method. Bias uncertainty in the thermocouples is found to be the largest single source of uncertainty. The a posteriori uncertainty of the proposed method is 6.5% relative uncertainty (68% confidence), but could be reduced through calibration and correlated biases in the temperature measurements.

  1. Detailed analysis of allergic cutaneous reactions to spinal cord stimulator devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry ZA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeshan Ahmed Chaudhry,1 Umer Najib,2 Zahid H Bajwa,3 W Carl Jacobs,4 Javed Sheikh,5 Thomas T Simopoulos61Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Robert C Byrd Health Sciences Center of West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 3Boston Headache Institute, Waltham, MA, USA; 4Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Allergy and Immunology, 6Department of Anesthesia, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brookline, MA, USAAbstract: The use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS devices to treat chronic, refractory neuropathic pain continues to expand in application. While device-related complications have been well described, inflammatory reactions to the components of these devices remain underreported. In contrast, hypersensitivity reactions associated with other implanted therapies, such as endovascular and cardiac rhythm devices, have been detailed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the clinical presentation and course of inflammatory reactions as well as the histology of these reactions. All patients required removal of the entire device after developing inflammatory reactions over a time course of 1–3 months. Two patients developed a foreign body reaction in the lead insertion wound as well as at the implantable pulse generator site, with histology positive for giant cells. One patient developed an inflammatory dermatitis on the flank and abdomen that resolved with topical hydrocortisone. “In vivo” testing with a lead extension fragment placed in the buttock resulted in a negative reaction followed by successful reimplantation of an SCS device. Inflammatory reactions to SCS devices can manifest as contact dermatitis, granuloma formation, or foreign body reactions with giant cell formation. Tissue diagnosis is essential, and

  2. Detailed Analysis of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Processes with Modern/High-Quality Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2007-01-01

    We examine, in detail, Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall processes using modernhigh quality satellite precipitation measurements. The focus here is on measurements derived from three NASA cloud and precipitation satellite missionslinstruments (TRMM/PR&TMI, AQUNAMSRE, and CLOUDSATICPR), and a fourth TRMM Project-generated multi-satellite precipitation measurement dataset (viz., TRMM standard algorithm 3b42) -- all from a period beginning in 1998 up to the present. It is emphasized that the 3b42 algorithm blends passive microwave (PMW) radiometer-based precipitation estimates from LEO satellites with infi-ared (IR) precipitation estimates from a world network of CEO satellites (representing -15% of the complete space-time coverage) All of these observations are first cross-calibrated to precipitation estimates taken from standard TRMM combined PR-TMI algorithm 2b31, and second adjusted at the large scale based on monthly-averaged rain-gage measurements. The blended approach takes advantage of direct estimates of precipitation from the PMW radiometerequipped LEO satellites -- but which suffer fi-om sampling limitations -- in combination with less accurate IR estimates from the optical-infrared imaging cameras on GEO satellites -- but which provide continuous diurnal sampling. The advantages of the current technologies are evident in the continuity and coverage properties inherent to the resultant precipitation datasets that have been an outgrowth of these stable measuring and retrieval technologies. There is a wealth of information contained in the current satellite measurements of precipitation regarding the salient precipitation properties of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Using different datasets obtained from the measuring systems noted above, we have analyzed the observations cast in the form of: (1) spatially distributed means and variances over the hierarchy of relevant time scales (hourly I diurnally, daily, monthly, seasonally I intra-seasonally, and inter

  3. Using a detailed inventory of a large wastewater treatment plant to estimate the relative importance of construction to the overall environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Serni; Corominas, Lluís; Rigola, Miquel; Poch, Manel; Comas, Joaquim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the relative contribution to the overall environmental impact of the construction phase compared to the operational phase for a large conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To estimate these environmental impacts, a systematic procedure was designed to obtain the detailed Life Cycle Inventories (LCI) for civil works and equipment, taking as starting point the construction project budget and the list of equipment installed at the Girona WWTP, which are the most reliable information sources of materials and resources used during the construction phase. A detailed inventory is conducted by including 45 materials for civil works and 1,240 devices for the equipment. For most of the impact categories and different life spans of the WWTP, the contribution of the construction phase to the overall burden is higher than 5% and, especially for metal depletion, the impact of construction reaches 63%. When comparing to the WWTP inventories available in Ecoinvent the share of construction obtained in this work is about 3 times smaller for climate change and twice higher for metal depletion. Concrete and reinforcing steel are the materials with the highest contribution to the civil works phase and motors, pumps and mobile and transport equipment are also key equipment to consider during life cycle inventories of WWTPs. Additional robust inventories for similar WWTP can leverage this work by applying the factors (kg of materials and energy per m(3) of treated water) and guidance provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a FBCC steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskin, Nurdil; Oezdemir, Koray [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical Univ., 34437 Istanbul (Turkey); Gungor, Afsin [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde Univ., 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the analysis of first and second laws of thermodynamics in a 7.7 MW steam power plant located in Torbali (Izmir, Turkey). It involves a fluidized bed, a waste heat boiler (WHB) and an economizer as subsystems. Fans, pumps, cyclone and chimney are also considered through the analysis as auxiliary systems in the thermal plant. The analysis is performed for the whole system and subsystems by considering the available energy balance. In this analysis which consists of a detailed fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC) model, the amount of irreversibilities occurring in the system is calculated at each location. Analysis results are compared with the test results obtained from the measurements at several locations in the system and good agreement is observed. These measured values are the temperatures at three levels in the FBCC and boiler, economizer exit temperatures as well as flue gas composition at the boiler exit and steam flow rate. The maximum error observed in temperature values and steam flow rate is about 3.03% and 4.03%, respectively. Through the developed and validated model, effects of excess air and ambient temperature on first and second law efficiency of the subsystems and overall system are investigated. The second-law analysis reveals that the FBCC has the largest irreversibility, with about 80.4% of the total system exergy loss. The FBCC temperature, first and second law efficiencies decrease 19.8%, 5.1% and 5.2%, respectively, as the excess air increases from 10% to 70%. Also steam flow rate decreases 5.1%. As the ambient temperature increases from 25 to 45 C, the FBCC temperature, system first and second law efficiencies increase 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.3%, respectively. (author)

  5. Detailed investigation of Long-Period activity at Campi Flegrei by Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, P.; De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; Falanga, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of seismic signals continuously recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the entire year 2006. The radiation pattern associated with the Long-Period energy release is investigated. We adopt an innovative Independent Component Analysis algorithm for convolutive seismic series adapted and improved to give automatic procedures for detecting seismic events often buried in the high-level ambient noise. The extracted waveforms characterized by an improved signal-to-noise ratio allows the recognition of Long-Period precursors, evidencing that the seismic activity accompanying the mini-uplift crisis (in 2006), which climaxed in the three days from 26-28 October, had already started at the beginning of the month of October and lasted until mid of November. Hence, a more complete seismic catalog is then provided which can be used to properly quantify the seismic energy release. To better ground our results, we first check the robustness of the method by comparing it with other blind source separation methods based on higher order statistics; secondly, we reconstruct the radiation patterns of the extracted Long-Period events in order to link the individuated signals directly to the sources. We take advantage from Convolutive Independent Component Analysis that provides basic signals along the three directions of motion so that a direct polarization analysis can be performed with no other filtering procedures. We show that the extracted signals are mainly composed of P waves with radial polarization pointing to the seismic source of the main LP swarm, i.e. a small area in the Solfatara, also in the case of the small-events, that both precede and follow the main activity. From a dynamical point of view, they can be described by two degrees of freedom, indicating a low-level of complexity associated with the vibrations from a superficial hydrothermal system. Our results allow us to move towards a full description of the complexity of

  6. Detailed analysis of complex single molecule FRET data with the software MASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Mélodie C. A. S.; Kowerko, Danny; Börner, Richard; Zelger-Paulus, Susann; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-04-01

    The processing and analysis of surface-immobilized single molecule FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) data follows systematic steps (e.g. single molecule localization, clearance of different sources of noise, selection of the conformational and kinetic model, etc.) that require a solid knowledge in optics, photophysics, signal processing and statistics. The present proceeding aims at standardizing and facilitating procedures for single molecule detection by guiding the reader through an optimization protocol for a particular experimental data set. Relevant features were determined from single molecule movies (SMM) imaging Cy3- and Cy5-labeled Sc.ai5γ group II intron molecules synthetically recreated, to test the performances of four different detection algorithms. Up to 120 different parameterizations per method were routinely evaluated to finally establish an optimum detection procedure. The present protocol is adaptable to any movie displaying surface-immobilized molecules, and can be easily reproduced with our home-written software MASH (multifunctional analysis software for heterogeneous data) and script routines (both available in the download section of www.chem.uzh.ch/rna).

  7. A detailed spectropolarimetric analysis of the planet hosting star WASP-12

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Elmasli, A; Haswell, C A; Holmes, S; Kochukhov, O; Shkolnik, E L; Shulyak, D V; Bohlender, D; Albayrak, B; Froning, C; Hebb, L

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of accurate stellar parameters is paramount in several fields of stellar astrophysics, particularly in the study of extrasolar planets, where often the star is the only visible component and therefore used to infer the planet's fundamental parameters. Another important aspect of the analysis of planetary systems is the stellar activity and the possible star-planet interaction. Here we present a self-consistent abundance analysis of the planet hosting star WASP-12 and a high-precision search for a structured stellar magnetic field on the basis of spectropolarimetric observations obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our results show that the star does not have a structured magnetic field, and that the obtained fundamental parameters are in good agreement with what was previously published. In addition we derive improved constraints on the stellar age (1.0-2.65 Gyr), mass (1.23-1.49 M/M0), and distance (295-465 pc). WASP-12 is an ideal object to look for pollution signatures in the stella...

  8. A detailed analysis of the productivity of solar home system in an Amazonian environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linguet, L. [Research Group on Renewable Energies (GRER), University of the French Antilles and French Guiana' s, Campus Saint-Denis, Avenue d' Estrees, 97337 Cayenne Cedex (France); Hidair, I. [University of the French Antilles and French Guiana' s, Campus Saint-Denis, Avenue d' Estrees, 97337 Cayenne Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    This paper discusses and analyses the productivity of solar home systems in isolated areas in French Guiana, a region characterized by specific human and environmental conditions. Its aim is a better understanding of the attitudes, expectations, and relationship of the users towards the solar home system. The data collected made it possible to make suggestions for adapting the photovoltaic systems to their environment by taking into account social, cultural, and geoclimatic specificities. Analysis of on-site productivity provides valuable information on energy profiles and types of use. Field surveys made it possible to associate users' perception of the energy production equipment and their degree of satisfaction with operating efficiency and on-site maintenance. This aspect is essential for analyzing the actual rate of use of the energy that is theoretically available. Parallel to these surveys, the results of the study carried out on the performance of the solar home systems made it possible to learn the quantitative aspects of the energy produced and consumed as well as the qualitative aspects of the parameters that condition the performance of the photovoltaic systems. After keyboarding, the subjective, qualitative as well as the quantitative variables were processed using a statistical analysis program in order to determine the correlations between them and to prepare the final conclusions. (author)

  9. Quantum analysis of a plant metacommunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşad Özkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of statistical methods have been frequently used in the area of ecology. Especially probability based analytic approaches have been become more popular in the ecological studies in recent years. On the other hand, the core of quantum is based on calculation of energy footprint by probability approach. That is why it has been expected that quantum analysis will have found a significant place in the ecological studies in the future. As a result, the book of quantum ecology written by László Orlóci Frsc made a profound contribution to enter within this process. This study aims at calculations of the potential energy footprints of specific processes including phylogeny, environmental mediation and emergent effects by using quantum analysis for a plant metacommunity. In this study, the fundamental formulate was based on Max Planck’s energy based entropy modified by László Orlóci Frsc. A plant metacommunity example includes 3 complexes taken from various slope positions of Yazılı Canyon Nature Park located in the Lake districts was subjected to quantum analysis. Energy structure parameters were calculated for each complex. Variations among the complexes’ H(cx energy footprints were found insignificant. Calculations at the level of catena was shown that potential energy footprint of phylogeny overwhelms the effect of slope position in the nH terms. However this is turned in favor of the slope position gradient when the H footprints are compared. In the study, stability values of the complexes were also calculated and, the highest instability value was found for the complex taken from valley bottom of the canyon.

  10. Detailed analysis of an endoreversible fuel cell : Maximum power and optimal operating temperature determination

    CERN Document Server

    Vaudrey, A; Lanzetta, F; Glises, R

    2009-01-01

    Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.

  11. Detailed investigation of the analysis conditions in the evaluation of bonded joints by cohesive zone models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, R. J. B.; Campilho, R. D. S. G.

    2017-05-01

    Cohesive Zone Models (CZM) are widely used for the strength prediction of adhesive joints. This work studies the influence of different conditions used in CZM simulations to model a thin adhesive layer in single-lap joints (SLJ) under a tensile loading, for an estimation of their influence on the strength prediction under diverse geometrical and material conditions. Adhesives ranging from brittle to highly ductile and overlap lengths (LO) between 12.5 and 50 mm were considered. Several damage initiation and growth criteria were tested. The analysis carried out in this work allowed to conclude that CZM is a powerful technique for strength prediction of bonded joints, provided that the modelling conditions are properly defined.

  12. Detailed Surface Analysis Of Incremental Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) Of Single-Crystal Niobium Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari D.; Tian, Hui; Trofimova, Olga; Reece, Charles E.

    2011-07-01

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on single crystal niobium samples/coupons housed in a stainless steel sample holder following the polishing recipe developed at Fermi Lab (FNAL) in 2011 \\cite{C. A. Cooper 2011}. Post CBP, the sample coupons were analyzed for surface roughness, crystal composition and structure, and particle contamination. Following the initial analysis each coupon was high pressure rinsed (HRP) and analyzed for the effectiveness of contamination removal. We were able to obtain the mirror like surface finish after the final stage of tumbling, although some defects and embedded particles remained. In addition, standard HPR appears to have little effect on removing embedded particles which remain after each tumbling step, although final polishing media removal was partially affected by standard/extended HPR.

  13. Detailed behavioral analysis as a window into cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Namy, Laura L

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that word learners can determine word-referent mappings by tracking co-occurrences across multiple ambiguous naming events. The current study addresses the mechanisms underlying this capacity to learn words cross-situationally. This replication and extension of Yu and Smith (2007) investigates the factors influencing both successful cross-situational word learning and mis-mappings. Item analysis and error patterns revealed that the co-occurrence structure of the learning environment as well as the context of the testing environment jointly affected learning across observations. Learners also adopted an exclusion strategy, which contributed conjointly with statistical tracking to performance. Implications for our understanding of the processes underlying cross-situational word learning are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature ... Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of ... Review of Climate Change and Health in Ethiopia: Status and Gap Analysis ... Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate ...

  16. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation.

  17. A detailed pathway analysis of the chemical reaction system generating the Martian vertical ozone profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Joachim W.; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher S.; Lehmann, Ralph; Grenfell, J. Lee; Patzer, A. Beate C.; Rauer, Heike; Yung, Yuk L.

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric chemical composition is crucial in determining a planet's atmospheric structure, stability, and evolution. Attaining a quantitative understanding of the essential chemical mechanisms governing atmospheric composition is nontrivial due to complex interactions between chemical species. Trace species, for example, can participate in catalytic cycles - affecting the abundance of major and other trace gas species. Specifically, for Mars, such cycles dictate the abundance of its primary atmospheric constituent, carbon dioxide (CO2), but also for one of its trace gases, ozone (O3). The identification of chemical pathways/cycles by hand is extremely demanding; hence, the application of numerical methods, such as the Pathway Analysis Program (PAP), is crucial to analyze and quantitatively exemplify chemical reaction networks. Here, we carry out the first automated quantitative chemical pathway analysis of Mars' atmosphere with respect to O3. PAP was applied to JPL/Caltech's 1-D updated photochemical Mars model's output data. We determine all significant chemical pathways and their contribution to O3 production and consumption (up to 80 km) in order to investigate the mechanisms causing the characteristic shape of the O3 volume mixing ratio profile, i.e. a ground layer maximum and an ozone layer at ∼50 km. These pathways explain why an O3 layer is present, why it is located at that particular altitude and what the different processes forming the near-surface and middle atmosphere O3 maxima are. Furthermore, we show that the Martian atmosphere can be divided into two chemically distinct regions according to the O(3P):O3 ratio. In the lower region (below approximately 24 km altitude) O3 is the most abundant Ox (= O3 + O(3P)) species. In the upper region (above approximately 24 km altitude), where the O3 layer is located, O(3P) is the most abundant Ox species. Earlier results concerning the formation of O3 on Mars can now be explained with the help of chemical

  18. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Rmi a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs. Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA encoding gene sequence (rDNA, related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence

  19. Detailed faecal fat analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: Exploring the possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koninck, Anne-Sophie; Nys, Karen; Vandenheede, Brent; Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Speeckaert, Marijn M; Delanghe, Joris R

    2016-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic determination of faecal fat is a simple and elegant alternative for the classical Van De Kamer approach. Besides quantification of the total amount of fat, analysis of the lipase hydrolysis efficiency (fatty acid/triglyceride ratio), fatty acid chain length and trans-unsaturated fatty acids could provide a better monitoring of dietary treatment. Stool samples (26 routine samples and 36 cystic fibrosis patients) were analysed with the Perkin Elmer Spectrum Two® spectrometer (3500-450cm(-1)). Fatty acid/triglyceride ratio was calculated using the absorbance ratio at 2855:1746cm(-1). To estimate lipase hydrolysis efficiency, sample ratios were compared with the ratio of butter and pure free fatty acids. Mean fatty acid chain length was calculated using the absorbance ratio at 2855:1709cm(-1). The absorbance at 966cm(-1) was used to trace the presence of trans-type unsaturated fatty acids. Butter showed a low fatty acid/triglyceride ratio (1.21) and pure free fatty acids a high fatty acid/triglyceride ratio (6.76). Mean fatty acid/triglyceride ratio of routine stool samples was 4.16±1.01. The applicability of fatty acid/triglyceride ratios was also tested in cystic fibrosis patients under treatment with a mean of 4.92±0.98. Relative absorbance contribution per carbon atom was 0.06 (ratio 1.06 for C18 standard, 0.91 for C16 standard). The mean ratio of the stool samples was 1.12 (mean acyl chain length of C19), with values ranging from 0.73 (C12) to 1.68 (C28). The presence of traceable amounts of trans-unsaturated fatty acids was also demonstrated. For the analysis of faecal material, FTIR provides unique information, difficult to obtain using other techniques. These findings offer perspectives for diet monitoring in patients with (non-)pancreatic malabsorption. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Detailed tail proteomic analysis of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) using an mRNA-seq reference database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Turan; Keskin, Ilknur; Dumlu, Seda Nilgün; Aytürk, Nilüfer; Avşaroğlu, Mahmut Erhan; Akgün, Emel; Öztürk, Gürkan; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık

    2017-01-01

    Salamander axolotl has been emerging as an important model for stem cell research due to its powerful regenerative capacity. Several advantages, such as the high capability of advanced tissue, organ, and appendages regeneration, promote axolotl as an ideal model system to extend our current understanding on the mechanisms of regeneration. Acknowledging the common molecular pathways between amphibians and mammals, there is a great potential to translate the messages from axolotl research to mammalian studies. However, the utilization of axolotl is hindered due to the lack of reference databases of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data. Here, we introduce the proteome analysis of the axolotl tail section searched against an mRNA-seq database. We translated axolotl mRNA sequences to protein sequences and annotated these to process the LC-MS/MS data and identified 1001 nonredundant proteins. Functional classification of identified proteins was performed by gene ontology searches. The presence of some of the identified proteins was validated by in situ antibody labeling. Furthermore, we have analyzed the proteome expressional changes postamputation at three time points to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of the regeneration process. Taken together, this work expands the proteomics data of axolotl to contribute to its establishment as a fully utilized model.

  1. A detailed study of α-relaxation in epoxy/carbon nanoparticles composites using computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Stergiou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites were fabricated based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, cured with triethylenetetramine (TETA and filled with: a high conductivity carbon black (CB and b amino-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The full dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA spectra, obtained for the thermomechanical characterization of the partially cured DGEBA/TETA/CB and water saturated DGEBA/TETA/MWCNT composites, reveal a complex behaviour as the α-relaxation appears to consist of more than one individual peaks. By employing some basic calculations along with an optimization procedure, which utilizes the pseudo-Voigt profile function, the experimental data have been successfully analyzed. In fact, additional values of sub-glass transition temperature (Ti corresponding to subrelaxation mechanisms were introduced besides the dominant process. Thus, the physical sense of multiple networks in the composites is investigated and the glass transition temperature Tg is more precisely determined, as the DMA α-relaxation peaks can be reconstructed by the accumulation of individual peaks. Additionally, a novel term, the index of the network homogeneity (IH, is proposed to effectively characterize the degree of statistical perfection of the network.

  2. Enhanced Ethanol and Biogas Production from Pinewood by NMMO Pretreatment and Detailed Biomass Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilouei, Hamid; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    N-Methyl morpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is an environmentally friendly and commercially applied cellulose solvent that is suggested for pretreatment of lignocelluloses to improve biofuel productions. However, the underlying mechanisms of the improvements have been poorly understood yet. In an attempt to investigate the mechanisms, pinewood powder and chips were pretreated with 85% (w/w) NMMO at 120°C for 1–15 h. The pretreatment improved ethanol production yield from 7.2% (g/g) for the untreated wood powder to 68.1–86.1% (g/g) and from 1.7% (g/g) for the untreated wood chips to 12.6–51.2% (g/g) of theoretical yield. Similarly, the biogas yields of untreated wood chips and powder were improved from 21 and 66 (mL/g volatile solids) by 3.5–6.8- and 2.6–3.4-folds, respectively. SEM micrographs indicated major increase in the wood porosity by the pretreatment, which would confirm increase in the water swelling capacity as well as enzyme adsorption. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed considerable reduction in the cellulose crystallinity by the pretreatment, while FTIR spectroscopy results indicated reduction of lignin on the wood surface by the pretreatment. PMID:25162014

  3. "What do you expect from physiotherapy?": a detailed analysis of goal setting in physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeb, Veronika; Staffoni, Liliana; Parry, Ruth; Pilnick, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Health care practice guidelines require physiotherapists to include patients in goal-setting. However, not much is known about how this process is accomplished in practice. The purpose of this study is to analyse patient-physiotherapist consultations and to identify how physiotherapists enquire about goals and how patients respond to these enquiries. 37 consenting patients and their physiotherapist from outpatient physiotherapy practice settings were videotaped. Conversation analysis was used to transcribe and analyse the data. In 11 cases, physiotherapists enquire explicitly about goals. Patients' responses indicate that problems can arise when therapists' questions treat it as expected that the patient has a goal already in mind, and has sufficient understanding about "physiotherapy-relevant" goals. Patients' difficulties with stating a goal are related to patients' knowledge to propose a goal and whether they treat consultations as one in which it is appropriate to claim knowledge about goals. Goal-setting is not a straightforward process. Practices that entail asking patients to state their goals neither take into consideration the fact that patients may not know what an achievable goal is nor do they consider so-called social reasons for patients not to make claims to their physiotherapist about what the goals should be. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients respond to explicit goal enquiries using an open question with delayed responses indicating some communication problem. Goal-setting should not be treated as a predetermined process, but as negotiated in consultations. Goal-setting is a complex interaction in which participants manage knowledge about goals.

  4. Power plant selection in a carbon constrained world the TERA (technoeconomic environmental risk analysis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Ogaji; Pericles Pilidis; Vishal Sethi

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing concern that current trends of consumption of natural resources cannot continue. It is imperative that major targeted investments are made into economical and reliable environment friendly propulsion and power solutions. Many novel and promising concepts are being proposed. The selection of the best candidates to pursue for investment becomes a very difficult choice.A detailed TERA (techno-economic environmental risk analysis) framework is described here to quantify risks and to compare and rank competing schemes on a formal and consistent basis. This technique is based on detailed and rigorous thermodynamic representations of power plants. A layer of environment, economic, weather and other models to describe the appropriate local conditions is superimposed to this.The outcome is a techno-economic environmental risk analysis framework with appropriate detail of each power plant as applied to the appropriate conditions. The results for each concept can then be compared and contrasted to make appropriate selections.

  5. Detailed transcriptomics analysis of the effect of dietary fatty acids on gene expression in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadi, Anastasia; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2012-03-19

    Fatty acids comprise the primary energy source for the heart and are mainly taken up via hydrolysis of circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. While most of the fatty acids entering the cardiomyocyte are oxidized, a small portion is involved in altering gene transcription to modulate cardiometabolic functions. So far, no in vivo model has been developed enabling study of the transcriptional effects of specific fatty acids in the intact heart. In the present study, mice were given a single oral dose of synthetic triglycerides composed of one single fatty acid. Hearts were collected 6 h thereafter and used for whole genome gene expression profiling. Experiments were conducted in wild-type and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α-/- mice to allow exploration of the specific contribution of PPARα. It was found that: 1) C18:3 had the most pronounced effect on cardiac gene expression. 2) The largest similarity in gene regulation was observed between C18:2 and C18:3. Large similarity was also observed between PPARα agonist Wy14643 and C22:6. 3) Many genes were regulated by one particular treatment only. Genes regulated by one particular treatment showed large functional divergence. 4) The majority of genes responding to fatty acid treatment were regulated in a PPARα-dependent manner, emphasizing the importance of PPARα in mediating transcriptional regulation by fatty acids in the heart. 5) Several genes were robustly regulated by all or many of the fatty acids studied, mostly representing well-described targets of PPARs (e.g., Acot1, Angptl4, Ucp3) but also including Zbtb16/PLZF, a transcription factor crucial for natural killer T cell function. 6) Deletion and activation of PPARα had a major effect on expression of numerous genes involved in metabolism and immunity. Our analysis demonstrates the marked impact of dietary fatty acids on gene regulation in the heart via PPARα.

  6. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Tiwari,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC can replace the heat recovery steam generator and the steam turbine of the conventionalcombined cycle plant. The exhaust energy of the topping gas turbine of existing combine cycle is sent to gas-air heat exchange, which heats the air in the secondary gas turbine cycle. In 1980’s the ABC was proposed as an alternative for the conventional steam bottoming cycle. In spite of the cost of reducing hardware installations it could achieve a thermal efficiency of 80%. The complete thermodynamic analysis of the system has been performed by using specially designed programme, enabling the variation of main independent variables. The result shows the gain in net work output as well as efficiency of combined cycle is 35% to 68%.

  8. Detailed analysis of gene polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke in South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina Yadav

    Full Text Available The burden of stroke is disproportionately high in the South Asian subcontinent with South Asian ethnicity conferring a greater risk of ischemic stroke than European ancestry regardless of country inhabited. While genes associated with stroke in European populations have been investigated, they remain largely unknown in South Asians. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of known genetic polymorphisms associated with South Asian ischemic stroke, and compared effect size of the MTHFR C677T-stroke association with effect sizes predicted from homocysteine-stroke association. Electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 for published case control studies investigating genetic polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke in South Asians. Pooled odds ratios (OR for each gene-disease association were calculated using a random-effects model. We identified 26 studies (approximately 2529 stroke cases and 2881 controls interrogating 33 independent genetic polymorphisms in 22 genes. Ten studies described MTHFR C677T (108 with TT genotype and 2018 with CC genotype -homocysteine relationship and six studies (735 stroke cases and 713 controls described homocysteine-ischemic stroke relationship. Risk association ORs were calculated for ACE I/D (OR 5.00; 95% CI, 1.17-21.37; p = 0.03, PDE4D SNP 83 (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.21-3.99; p = 0.01, PDE4D SNP 32 (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.01-2.45, p = 0.045 and IL10 G1082A (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09-1.91, p = 0.01. Significant association was observed between elevated plasma homocysteine levels and MTHFR/677 TT genotypes in healthy South Asians (Mean difference (ΔX 5.18 µmol/L; 95% CI 2.03-8.34: p = 0.001. Our results demonstrate that the genetic etiology of ischemic stroke in South Asians is broadly similar to the risk conferred in Europeans, although the dataset is considerably smaller and warrants the same clinical considerations for risk profiling.

  9. Plant databases and data analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is anticipated that the coming years will see the generation of large datasets including diagnostic markers in several plant species with emphasis on crop plants. To use these datasets effectively in any plant breeding program, it is essential to have the information available via public database...

  10. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  11. Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faied, D.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation Dohy Faied, Aurora Sanchez (on behalf of SSP08 VAPOR Project Team) Dohy.Faied@masters.isunet.edu While numerous global initiatives exist to address the potential hazards posed by volcanic eruption events and assess impacts from a civil security viewpoint, there does not yet exist a single, unified, international system of early warning and hazard tracking for eruptions. Numerous gaps exist in the risk reduction cycle, from data collection, to data processing, and finally dissemination of salient information to relevant parties. As part of the 2008 International Space University's Space Studies Program, a detailed gap analysis of the state of volcano disaster risk reduction was undertaken, and this paper presents the principal results. This gap analysis considered current sensor technologies, data processing algorithms, and utilization of data products by various international organizations. Recommendations for strategies to minimize or eliminate certain gaps are also provided. In the effort to address the gaps, a framework evolved at system level. This framework, known as VIDA, is a tool to develop user requirements for civil security in hazardous contexts, and a candidate system concept for a detailed design phase. VIDA also offers substantial educational potential: the framework includes a centralized clearinghouse for volcanology data which could support education at a variety of levels. Basic geophysical data, satellite maps, and raw sensor data are combined and accessible in a way that allows the relationships between these data types to be explored and used in a training environment. Such a resource naturally lends itself to research efforts in the subject but also research in operational tools, system architecture, and human/machine interaction in civil protection or emergency scenarios.

  12. Derivation of a quantitative minimal model from a detailed elementary-step mechanism supported by mathematical coupling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, O. S.; Kammerer, J.; Gorecki, J.; Lebiedz, D.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate experimental data increasingly allow the development of detailed elementary-step mechanisms for complex chemical and biochemical reaction systems. Model reduction techniques are widely applied to obtain representations in lower-dimensional phase space which are more suitable for mathematical analysis, efficient numerical simulation, and model-based control tasks. Here, we exploit a recently implemented numerical algorithm for error-controlled computation of the minimum dimension required for a still accurate reduced mechanism based on automatic time scale decomposition and relaxation of fast modes. We determine species contributions to the active (slow) dynamical modes of the reaction system and exploit this information in combination with quasi-steady-state and partial-equilibrium approximations for explicit model reduction of a novel detailed chemical mechanism for the Ru-catalyzed light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The existence of a minimum dimension of seven is demonstrated to be mandatory for the reduced model to show good quantitative consistency with the full model in numerical simulations. We derive such a maximally reduced seven-variable model from the detailed elementary-step mechanism and demonstrate that it reproduces quantitatively accurately the dynamical features of the full model within a given accuracy tolerance.

  13. Organization and Detailed Parcellation of Human Hippocampal Head and Body Regions Based on a Combined Analysis of Cyto- and Chemoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin; Van Hoesen, Gary W

    2015-10-15

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is one of the hottest regions in neuroscience because it is critical to learning, memory, and cognition, while being vulnerable to many neurological and mental disorders. With increasing high-resolution imaging techniques, many scientists have started to use distinct landmarks along the anterior-posterior axis of HF to allow segmentation into individual subfields in order to identify specific functions in both normal and diseased conditions. These studies urgently call for more reliable and accurate segmentation of the HF subfields DG, CA3, CA2, CA1, prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum. Unfortunately, very limited data are available on detailed parcellation of the HF subfields, especially in the complex, curved hippocampal head region. In this study we revealed detailed organization and parcellation of all subfields of the hippocampal head and body regions on the base of a combined analysis of multiple cyto- and chemoarchitectural stains and dense sequential section sampling. We also correlated these subfields to macro-anatomical landmarks, which are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Furthermore, we created three versions of the detailed anatomic atlas for the hippocampal head region to account for brains with four, three, or two hippocampal digitations. These results will provide a fundamental basis for understanding the organization, parcellation, and anterior-posterior difference of human HF, facilitating accurate segmentation and measurement of HF subfields in the human brain on MRI scans.

  14. Anti cancer activity on Graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jeno; Gnanam, R; Jayadeepa, R M; Arul, L

    2013-01-01

    Nature is the world's best chemist: Many naturally occurring compounds have very complicated structures that present great challenges to chemists wishing to determine their structures or replicate them. The plant derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. Their high ligand binding affinity to the target introduce the prospect of their use in chemo preventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Here, we present a research study on a medicinal plant, Graviola, a native of North America but rarely grown in India. It has a wide potent anticancerous agents coined as Acetogenins which play a key role towards many varieties of cancer, Acetogenins are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Potent leads were taken for the study through literature survey, major types of cancer targets were identified, the natureceuticals and the cancer protein were subjected to docking analysis, further with the help of the dock score and other descriptor properties top ranked molecules were collected, commercial drug was also selected and identified as a Test compound for the study. Later, the phytochemicals were subjected to toxicity analysis. Those screened compounds were then considered for active site analysis and to find the best binding site for the study. R Programming library was used to find the best leads. Phytochemicals such as Anonaine, Friedelin, Isolaureline, Annonamine, Anomurine, Kaempferol, Asimilobine, Quercetin, Xylopine were clustered and the highly clustered compounds such as Annonamine , Kaempferol termed to be a potential lead for the study. Further study on experimental analysis may prove the potentiality of these compounds. In the

  15. Some Analysis of Major Impact of Geothermal Fluid Components in Power Plant Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzăianu, A.; Csaki, I.; Moţoiu, P.; Leósson, K.; Serghiuţă, S.; Arnbjornsson, A.; Moţoiu, V.; Popescu, G.; Guðlaugsson, S.; Guðmundsson, D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results from a some analysis and major impact of geothermal fluid composition on the equipment in use in geothermal power plant. The structural analysis of material deposition improve the direct influenced of chemical composition of stem and waters included CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated in the molten phase and the deposits in the scales formed due to equipment. The steam turbine corrosion damage, particularly of blades, discs and pomps, has long been recognized as a leading causes of reduced availability in the geothermal power plant. The corrosion process depends on temperature, pressure, chemisty and vaporous carryover by diversity of impurity. The experimental analysis procedure involves characterization of the fluid geothermal composition. Detailed information about surfaces morphological modification of the power plant components are obtained by electron microprobe analysis EDX and SEM investigation. References selection are obtaining by X-ray diffractometer patterns of the specimen.

  16. Sources to the landscape - detailed spatiotemporal analysis of 200 years Danish landscape dynamics using unexploited historical maps and aerial photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Dupont, Henrik

    Historical cartographic material in the form of maps and aerial imagery remains one of the main data sources available to landscape scientists studying changes in land use and land cover. The use and analysis of such sources is widespread, and most contemporary scholars in the landscape sciences...... use historical maps and imagery to relate their findings to landscape history. Especially the recent transition from a landscape dominated by feudal societal structures to today’s urbanized landscapes with intensive agriculture, has been intensively studied. This approach in some cases suffers from...... or to the commercial photo series from the last 20 years. This poster outlines a new research project focusing on the potential of unexploited cartographic sources for detailed analysis of the dynamic of the Danish landscape between 1800 – 2000. The project draws on cartographic sources available in Danish archives...

  17. Sources to the landscape - detailed spatiotemporal analysis of 200 years Danish landscape dynamics using unexploited historical maps and aerial photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Dupont, Henrik

    Historical cartographic material in the form of maps and aerial imagery remains one of the main data sources available to landscape scientists studying changes in land use and land cover. The use and analysis of such sources is widespread, and most contemporary scholars in the landscape sciences...... use historical maps and imagery to relate their findings to landscape history. Especially the recent transition from a landscape dominated by feudal societal structures to today’s urbanized landscapes with intensive agriculture, has been intensively studied. This approach in some cases suffers from...... or to the commercial photo series from the last 20 years. This poster outlines a new research project focusing on the potential of unexploited cartographic sources for detailed analysis of the dynamic of the Danish landscape between 1800 – 2000. The project draws on cartographic sources available in Danish archives...

  18. Regional versus detailed velocity analysis to quantify hydrate and free gas in marine sediments : the south Shetland margin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinivella, U.; Loreto, M.F.; Accaino, F. [Inst. Nazionale di Oceanografia di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    The presence of gas hydrate and free gas within marine sediments, deposited along the South Shetland margin, offshore the Antarctic Peninsula, was confirmed by low and high resolution geophysical data, acquired during three research cruises in 1989-1990. Seismic data analysis has demonstrated the presence of a bottom simulating reflector that is very strong and continuous in the eastern part of the margin. This seismic dataset was used in the past to extract detailed velocity information of the shallow structures by using traditional tomographic inversion and jointly tomographic inversion and pre-stack depth migration tool. This paper presented a method to obtain a regional seismic velocity field and information about hydrate and free gas presence in the marine sediments, by using an improved method of the standard analysis of the pre-stack depth migration output. The velocity field was obtained with a layer stripping approach and tomographic inversion of the reflections observed in common image gathering. The paper presented the seismic data and regional and detailed velocity analysis. The results of residual semblance analyses were also presented. Gas phase concentrations were then discussed. The velocity analysis revealed the presence of three main layers characterizing the first kilometer of sediments below the sea floor. In addition, velocity models and related gas-phase sections showed that gas was concentrated in different parts of the profile than where the hydrate was concentrated. This observation confirmed that geological structures and sedimentary processes controlled the gas and hydrate distribution, as observed along other margins. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  20. Relay Feedback Analysis for Double Integral Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Double integral plants under relay feedback are studied. Complete results on the uniqueness of solutions, existence, and stability of the limit cycles are established using the point transformation method. Analytical expressions are also given for determining the amplitude and period of a limit cycle from the plant parameters.

  1. Quantitative Fluorimetric Analysis of Plant Nicotinamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽斌; 冯闻铮; 曹竹安; 刘进元

    2001-01-01

    Fluorimetry was used to measure the amount of nicotinamide in plant samples. The nicotinamide was extracted and purified from plant tissues with ethyl acetate; converted to the fluorescent derivative, N1-methylnicotinamide, by reacting with methyl iodide; and quantified according to its fluorescent strength. The nicotinamide in the leaf tissue of ten kinds of plants was measured, and the results showed that the nicotinamide content for different plants varied from 0. 1 to 3.0 μg/g of fresh leaf weight. In addition, the crossing value of the fluorescent strength and the nicotinamide amount demonstrated that the linear correlation coefficient generally reached 0. 997, with a detectable limit of 0. 02 mg/L and the relative standard deviation of less than 9%. The results suggested that this method of quantifying nicotinamide in plants is useful and beneficial for functional research.

  2. PlantPAN 2.0: an update of plant promoter analysis navigator for reconstructing transcriptional regulatory networks in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chi-Nga; Zheng, Han-Qin; Wu, Nai-Yun; Chien, Chia-Hung; Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chiang-Hsieh, Yi-Fan; Hou, Ping-Fu; Yang, Tien-Yi; Chang, Wen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins acting as critical regulators of gene expression. The Plant Promoter Analysis Navigator (PlantPAN; http://PlantPAN2.itps.ncku.edu.tw) provides an informative resource for detecting transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), corresponding TFs, and other important regulatory elements (CpG islands and tandem repeats) in a promoter or a set of plant promoters. Additionally, TFBSs, CpG islands, and tandem repeats in the conserve regions between similar gene promoters are also identified. The current PlantPAN release (version 2.0) contains 16 960 TFs and 1143 TF binding site matrices among 76 plant species. In addition to updating of the annotation information, adding experimentally verified TF matrices, and making improvements in the visualization of transcriptional regulatory networks, several new features and functions are incorporated. These features include: (i) comprehensive curation of TF information (response conditions, target genes, and sequence logos of binding motifs, etc.), (ii) co-expression profiles of TFs and their target genes under various conditions, (iii) protein-protein interactions among TFs and their co-factors, (iv) TF-target networks, and (v) downstream promoter elements. Furthermore, a dynamic transcriptional regulatory network under various conditions is provided in PlantPAN 2.0. The PlantPAN 2.0 is a systematic platform for plant promoter analysis and reconstructing transcriptional regulatory networks.

  3. Detailed Joint Region Analysis of the 7-Joint Ultrasound Score: Evaluation of an Arthritis Patient Cohort over One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohrndorf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the 7-joint ultrasound (US7 score by detailed joint region analysis of an arthritis patient cohort. Methods. The US7 score examines the clinically most affected wrist, MCP and PIP II, III, MTP II, and V joints for synovitis, tenosynovitis/paratenonitis, and erosions. Forty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA (84.4% and spondyloarthritis with polyarticular peripheral arthritis (PsA 13.3%; AS 2.2% with a median disease duration of 6.5 yrs (range 7.5 mths–47.6 yrs were included and examined at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after starting or changing therapy (DMARD/biologic. In this study, detailed US7 score joint region analysis was firstly performed. Results. The joint region analysis performed at baseline disclosed synovitis in 95.6% of affected wrists in the dorsal aspect by greyscale (GS US where Grade 2 (moderate was most often (48.9% detected. Palmar wrist regions presented Grade 1 (minor capsule elevation in 40% and Grade 2 (moderate synovitis in 37.8%. Tenosynovitis of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU tendon was found in 40%, with PD activity in 6.6%. Most of the erosions in MCP II were detected in the radial (68.9%, followed by the dorsal (48.9% and palmar (44.4% aspects. In MTP V, erosions were seen in 75.6% from lateral. Conclusions. Synovitis in GSUS was more often detected in the wrist in the dorsal than in the palmar aspect. ECU tendon involvement was frequent. Most erosions were found in the lateral scan of MTP V and the medial (radial scan of MCP II.

  4. GenoCAD Plant Grammar to Design Plant Expression Vectors for Promoter Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Anna; Wilson, Mandy L; Gruden, Kristina; Peccoud, Jean

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in prediction tools for discovery of new promoters and their cis-elements, there is a need to improve plant expression methodologies in order to facilitate a high-throughput functional validation of these promoters in planta. The promoter-reporter analysis is an indispensible approach for characterization of plant promoters. It requires the design of complex plant expression vectors, which can be challenging. Here, we describe the use of a plant grammar implemented in GenoCAD that will allow the users to quickly design constructs for promoter analysis experiments but also for other in planta functional studies. The GenoCAD plant grammar includes a library of plant biological parts organized in structural categories to facilitate their use and management and a set of rules that guides the process of assembling these biological parts into large constructs.

  5. Structural Studies of Medicago truncatula Histidinol Phosphate Phosphatase from Inositol Monophosphatase Superfamily Reveal Details of Penultimate Step of Histidine Biosynthesis in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-05-06

    The penultimate enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway catalyzes dephosphorylation of l-histidinol 1-phosphate (HOLP) into l-histidinol. The recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana plant-type histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) shares no homology with the two other HPP superfamilies known previously in prokaryotes and resembles myo-inositol monophosphatases (IMPases). In this work, identification of an HPP enzyme from a model legume, Medicago truncatula (MtHPP) was based on the highest sequence identity to A. thaliana enzyme. Biochemical assays confirmed that MtHPP was able to cleave inorganic phosphate from HOLP but not from d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate, the main substrate of IMPases. Dimers of MtHPP, determined by size exclusion chromatography, in the presence of CO2 or formaldehyde form mutual, methylene-bridged cross-links between Lys(158) and Cys(245) residues. Four high resolution crystal structures, namely complexes with HOLP (substrate), l-histidinol (product), and PO4 (3-) (by-product) as well as the structure showing the cross-linking between two MtHPP molecules, provide detailed structural information on the enzyme. Based on the crystal structures, the enzymatic reaction mechanism of IMPases is accustomed to fit the data for MtHPP. The enzymatic reaction, which requires Mg(2+) cations, is catalyzed mainly by amino acid residues from the N-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain, sharing little identity with IMPases, is responsible for the substrate specificity (i.e. allows the enzyme to distinguish between HOLP and d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate). Structural features, mainly the presence of a conserved Asp(246), allow MtHPP to bind HOLP specifically.

  6. Detailed finite element analysis of Darlington NGS feeder pipes with locally thinned regions below pressure minimum thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, I.; Stojakovic, M.; Li, M. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Pickering, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Feeder Pipes in CANDU nuclear stations are experiencing wall thinning due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) resulting in locally thinned regions in addition to general thinning. In Darlington NGS these locally thinned regions can be below pressure based minimum thickness (t{sub min}), required as per ASME Code Section III NB-3600 Equation (1). A methodology is presented to qualify the locally thinned regions under NB-3200 (NB-3213 and NB-3221) for internal pressure loading only. Detailed finite element models are used for internal pressure analysis using ANSYS v11.0. All other loadings such as deadweight, thermal and seismic loadings are qualified under NB-3600 using a general purpose piping stress analysis software. The piping stress analysis is based on average thickness equal to t{sub min} along with maximum values of ASME Code stress indices (Table NB-3681(a)-1). The requirement for the use of this methodology is that the average thickness of each cross-section with the locally thinned region shall be at least t{sub min}. The finite element analysis models are thinned to 0.75 t{sub min} (in increments of 0.05 t{sub min}) all-around the circumference in the straight section region allowing for flexible inspection requirements. Two different thicknesses of 1.10 t{sub min} and 1.30 t{sub min} are assigned to the bends. Thickness vs the allowable axial extent curves were developed for different types of feeder pipes in service. Feeders differ in pipe size, straight section length, bend angle and orientation. The stress analysis results show that all Darlington NGS outlet feeder pipes are fit for service with locally thinned regions up to 75% of the pressure based minimum thickness. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of finite element analysis in extending the useful life of degraded piping components. (author)

  7. HEAL G-C ICES, Phase II: detailed feasibility analysis and preliminary design. Final report, Stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    In this preliminary report for Phase II of Health Education Authority of Louisiana's (HEAL) ICES program, specific elements of the basic intitutional issues were readdressed, as requested by the U.S. Department of Energy. The draft environmental assessment was reassessed and updated. Thermal energy demand profiles for the major community sectors, i.e., the five institutions comprising the HEAL Complex, were refined on a month-by-month basis and resulted in establishing ICES plant systems design capacities of 121,500 pounds per hour demand and 418,175,000 pounds per year for steam; 10,000 tons demand and 38,885,000 ton-hours per year for cooling. From these values the concept of the plant was developed. The Phase I capital cost estimate was updated. Total capital cost is now indicated as $29,960,500. The Phase I operating cost estimate was updated, with that figure now $8,468,479. The Phase I financial analysis was updated, producing an estimated annual revenue level of $9,907,062.

  8. Understanding the structure of skill through a detailed analysis of Individuals' performance on the Space Fortress game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Tyler J; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach to the study of individual differences in acquired skilled performance in complex laboratory tasks based on an extension of the methodology of the expert-performance approach (Ericsson & Smith, 1991) to shorter periods of training and practice. In contrast to more traditional approaches that study the average performance of groups of participants, we explored detailed behavioral changes for individual participants across their development on the Space Fortress game. We focused on dramatic individual differences in learning and skill acquisition at the individual level by analyzing the archival game data of several interesting players to uncover the specific structure of their acquired skill. Our analysis revealed that even after maximal values for game-generated subscores were reached, the most skilled participant's behaviors such as his flight path, missile firing, and mine handling continued to be refined and improved (Participant 17 from Boot et al., 2010). We contrasted this participant's behavior with the behavior of several other participants and found striking differences in the structure of their performance, which calls into question the appropriateness of averaging their data. For example, some participants engaged in different control strategies such as "world wrapping" or maintaining a finely-tuned circular flight path around the fortress (in contrast to Participant 17's angular flight path). In light of these differences, we raise fundamental questions about how skill acquisition for individual participants should be studied and described. Our data suggest that a detailed analysis of individuals' data is an essential step for generating a general theory of skill acquisition that explains improvement at the group and individual levels.

  9. Evaluation of automatic exposure control performance in full-field digital mammography systems using contrast-detail analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez Castellanos, Ivan M.; Kaczmarek, Richard; Brunner, Claudia C.; de Las Heras, Hugo; Liu, Haimo; Chakrabarti, Kish

    2012-03-01

    Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) is increasingly replacing screen-film systems for screening and diagnosis of breast abnormalities. All FFDM systems are equipped with an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) which automatically selects technique factors to optimize dose and image quality. It is therefore crucial that AEC performance is properly adjusted and optimized to different breast thicknesses. In this work, we studied the AEC performance of three widely used FFDM systems using the CDMAM and QUART mam/digi phantoms. We used the CDMAM phantom to generate Contrast-Detail (C-D) curves for each AEC mode available in the FFDM systems under study for phantoms with equivalent X-Ray attenuation properties as 3.2 cm, 6 cm and 7.5 cm thick breasts. Generated C-D curves were compared with ideal C-D curves constructed using a metric referred to as the k-factor which is the product of the thickness and the diameter of the smallest correctly identified disks in the CDMAM phantom. Previous observer studies have indicated that k-factor values of 60 to 80 μm2 are particularly useful in demonstrating the threshold for object detectability for detectors used in digital mammography systems. The QUART mam/digi phantom was used to calculate contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values at different phantom thicknesses. The results of the C-D analysis and CNR measurements were used to determine limiting CNR values intended to provide a threshold for proper image quality assessment. The results of the Contrast-Detail analysis show that for two of the three evaluated FFDM systems, at higher phantom thicknesses, low contrast signal detectability gets worse. This agrees with the results obtained with the QUART mam/digi phantom, where CNR decreases below determined limiting CNR values.

  10. Investigation of the influence of design details on short implant biomechanics using colorimetric photoelastic analysis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Zielak

    Full Text Available Introduction : The clinical survival of a dental implant is directly related to its biomechanical behavior. Since short implants present lower bone/implant contact area, their design may be more critical to stress distribution to surrounding tissues. Photoelastic analysis is a biomechanical method that uses either simple qualitative results or complex calculations for the acquisition of quantitative data. In order to simplify data acquisition, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the investigation of biomechanics via correlation of the findings of colorimetric photoelastic analysis (stress transition areas; STAs of design details between two types of short dental implants under axial loads. Methods Implants were embedded in a soft photoelastic resin and axially loaded with 10 and 20 N of force. Implant design features were correlated with the STAs (mm2 of the colored fringes of colorimetric photoelastic analysis. Results Under a 10 N load, the surface area of the implants was directly related to STA, whereas under a 20 N load, the surface area and thread height were inversely related to STA. Conclusion A smaller external thread height seemed to improve the biomechanical performance of the short implants investigated.

  11. Exergy analysis of a MSF distillation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Nafiz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: nafiz@erciyes.edu.tr; Cengel, Yunus A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering/312, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, a large MSF distillation plant in the gulf area is analyzed thermodynamically using actual plant operation data. Exergy flow rates are evaluated throughout the plant, and the exergy flow diagram is prepared. The rates of exergy destruction and their percentages are indicated on the diagram so that the locations of highest exergy destruction can easily be identified. The highest exergy destruction (77.7%) occurs within the MSF unit, as expected, and this can be reduced by increasing the number of flashing stages. The exergy destruction in the pumps and motors account for 5.3% of the total, and this also can be reduced by using high efficiency motors and pumps. The plant is determined to have a second law efficiency of just 4.2%, which is very low. This indicates that there are major opportunities in the plant to reduce exergy destruction and, thus, the amount of electric and thermal energy supplied, making the operation of the plant more cost effective.

  12. 76 FR 66033 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are Quarantine Pests or Hosts of Quarantine Pests AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... pests and 107 taxa of plants for planting are hosts of 13 quarantine pests and therefore should be...

  13. 78 FR 41908 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are Quarantine Pests or Hosts of Quarantine Pests AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... plants for planting are quarantine pests or hosts of quarantine pests and, therefore, should be added...

  14. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R.; Giribone, P.; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  15. Large break loss-of-coolant accident analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Ban, Chang Hwan; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rongzhong; Yu, Hongxing [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, SC (China)

    1994-12-01

    Large break LOCA analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has been performed using realistic evaluation model which has been being developed by KAERI. RELAP5/MOD3/KAERI code, which is a modified version of RELAP5/MOD3, is coupled with CONTEMPT4/MOD5 and is used as a best estimate code to predict the thermal hydraulic behavior of the system. PCT uncertainty which stems from code uncertainty, plant application uncertainty, scaling uncertainty and PCT bias are discussed. Among them, plant application uncertainty is described in detail. The licensing PCT is calculated by adding all the uncertainties to the best-estimate PCT. The result indicates the Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has at least 37 deg C safety margin for large break LOCA. (Author) 10 refs., 47 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Benefits for Plants in Ant-Plant Protective Mutualisms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, Matthew D.; Bhotika, Smriti; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Andrade, Gilda V.; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; McKeon, C. Seabird; Osenberg, Craig W.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model) and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75) indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial) explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several questions to guide

  17. Benefits for plants in ant-plant protective mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Trager

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75 indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several

  18. Detailed analysis of two particle correlations in central Pb-Au collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonczyk, D.

    2006-07-01

    This thesis presents a two-particle correlation analysis of the fully calibrated high statistics CERES Pb+Au collision data at the top SPS energy, with the emphasis on the pion-proton correlations and the event-plane dependence of the correlation radii. CERES is a dilepton spectrometer at CERN SPS. After the upgrade, which improved the momentum resolution and extended the detector capabilities to hadrons, CERES collected 30 million Pb+Au events at 158 AGeV in the year 2000. A previous Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) analysis of pion pairs in a subset of these data, together with the results obtained at other beam energies, lead to a new freeze-out criterion [AAA+03]. In this work, the detailed transverse momentum and event-plane dependence of the pion correlation radii, as well as the pion-proton correlations, are discussed in the framework of the blast wave model of the expanding fireball. Furthermore, development of an electron drift velocity gas monitor for the ALICE TPC sub-detector is presented. The new method of the gas composition monitoring is based on the simultaneous measurement of the electron drift velocity and the gas gain and is sensitive to even small variations of the gas mixture composition. Several modifications of the apparatus were performed resulting in the final drift velocity resolution of 0.3 permille. (orig.)

  19. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  20. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Meersman

    Full Text Available The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts, and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts. Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

  1. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates

  2. Systematic Analysis of Small RNAs Associated with Human Mitochondria by Deep Sequencing: Detailed Analysis of Mitochondrial Associated miRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Lakshmi; Tomar, Dhanendra; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Singh, Arun Kumar; Singh, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are one of the central regulators of many cellular processes beyond its well established role in energy metabolism. The inter-organellar crosstalk is critical for the optimal function of mitochondria. Many nuclear encoded proteins and RNA are imported to mitochondria. The translocation of small RNA (sRNA) including miRNA to mitochondria and other sub-cellular organelle is still not clear. We characterized here sRNA including miRNA associated with human mitochondria by cellular fractionation and deep sequencing approach. Mitochondria were purified from HEK293 and HeLa cells for RNA isolation. The sRNA library was generated and sequenced using Illumina system. The analysis showed the presence of unique population of sRNA associated with mitochondria including miRNA. Putative novel miRNAs were characterized from unannotated sRNA sequences. The study showed the association of 428 known, 196 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HEK293 and 327 known, 13 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HeLa cells. The alignment of sRNA to mitochondrial genome was also studied. The targets were analyzed using DAVID to classify them in unique networks using GO and KEGG tools. Analysis of identified targets showed that miRNA associated with mitochondria regulates critical cellular processes like RNA turnover, apoptosis, cell cycle and nucleotide metabolism. The six miRNAs (counts >1000) associated with mitochondria of both HEK293 and HeLa were validated by RT-qPCR. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study demonstrating the associations of sRNA including miRNA with mitochondria that may regulate site-specific turnover of target mRNA important for mitochondrial related functions. PMID:22984580

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  4. Independent component analysis approach for fault diagnosis of condenser system in thermal power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajami Ali; Daneshvar Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    A statistical signal processing technique was proposed and verified as independent component analysis (ICA) for fault detection and diagnosis of industrial systems without exact and detailed model. Actually, the aim is to utilize system as a black box. The system studied is condenser system of one of MAPNA’s power plants. At first, principal component analysis (PCA) approach was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the real acquired data set and to identify the essential and useful ones. Then, the fault sources were diagnosed by ICA technique. The results show that ICA approach is valid and effective for faults detection and diagnosis even in noisy states, and it can distinguish main factors of abnormality among many diverse parts of a power plant’s condenser system. This selectivity problem is left unsolved in many plants, because the main factors often become unnoticed by fault expansion through other parts of the plants.

  5. Plant phenotyping: from bean weighing to image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Achim; Liebisch, Frank; Hund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenotyping refers to a quantitative description of the plant's anatomical, ontogenetical, physiological and biochemical properties. Today, rapid developments are taking place in the field of non-destructive, image-analysis -based phenotyping that allow for a characterization of plant traits in high-throughput. During the last decade, 'the field of image-based phenotyping has broadened its focus from the initial characterization of single-plant traits in controlled conditions towards 'real-life' applications of robust field techniques in plant plots and canopies. An important component of successful phenotyping approaches is the holistic characterization of plant performance that can be achieved with several methodologies, ranging from multispectral image analyses via thermographical analyses to growth measurements, also taking root phenotypes into account.

  6. A detailed X-ray investigation of {\\zeta} Puppis III. A spectral analysis of the whole RGS spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A; Nazé, Y

    2013-01-01

    Context. Zeta Pup is the X-ray brightest O-type star of the sky. This object was regularly observed with the RGS instrument aboard XMM-Newton for calibration purposes, leading to an unprecedented set of high-quality spectra. Aims. We have previously reduced and extracted this data set and combined it into the most detailed high-resolution X-ray spectrum of any early-type star so far. Here we present the analysis of this spectrum accounting for the presence of structures in the stellar wind. Methods. For this purpose, we use our new modeling tool that allows fitting the entire spectrum with a multi-temperature plasma. We illustrate the impact of a proper treatment of the radial dependence of the X-ray opacity of the cool wind on the best-fit radial distribution of the temperature of the X-ray plasma. Results. The best fit of the RGS spectrum of Zeta Pup is obtained assuming no porosity. Four plasma components at temperatures between 0.10 and 0.69 keV are needed to adequately represent the observed spectrum. Wh...

  7. LISSAT Analysis of a Generic Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H; Elayat, H A; O?Connell, W J; Szytel, L; Dreicer, M

    2007-05-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems for current and future plants in the nuclear power fuel cycle. The DOE is engaging several DOE National Laboratories in efforts applied to safeguards for chemical conversion plants and gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. As part of the development, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an integrated safeguards system analysis tool (LISSAT). This tool provides modeling and analysis of facility and safeguards operations, generation of diversion paths, and evaluation of safeguards system effectiveness. The constituent elements of diversion scenarios, including material extraction and concealment measures, are structured using directed graphs (digraphs) and fault trees. Statistical analysis evaluates the effectiveness of measurement verification plans and randomly timed inspections. Time domain simulations analyze significant scenarios, especially those involving alternate time ordering of events or issues of timeliness. Such simulations can provide additional information to the fault tree analysis and can help identify the range of normal operations and, by extension, identify additional plant operational signatures of diversions. LISSAT analyses can be used to compare the diversion-detection probabilities for individual safeguards technologies and to inform overall strategy implementations for present and future plants. Additionally, LISSAT can be the basis for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis of safeguards and design options. This paper will describe the results of a LISSAT analysis of a generic centrifuge enrichment plant. The paper will describe the diversion scenarios analyzed and the effectiveness of various safeguards systems alternatives.

  8. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  9. A meta-analysis of local adaptation in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosa Leimu

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is of fundamental importance in evolutionary, population, conservation, and global-change biology. The generality of local adaptation in plants and whether and how it is influenced by specific species, population and habitat characteristics have, however, not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, we examined published data on the outcomes of reciprocal transplant experiments using two approaches. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the performance of local and foreign plants at all transplant sites. In addition, we analysed frequencies of pairs of plant origin to examine whether local plants perform better than foreign plants at both compared transplant sites. In both approaches, we also examined the effects of population size, and of the habitat and species characteristics that are predicted to affect local adaptation. We show that, overall, local plants performed significantly better than foreign plants at their site of origin: this was found to be the case in 71.0% of the studied sites. However, local plants performed better than foreign plants at both sites of a pair-wise comparison (strict definition of local adaption only in 45.3% of the 1032 compared population pairs. Furthermore, we found local adaptation much more common for large plant populations (>1000 flowering individuals than for small populations (<1000 flowering individuals for which local adaptation was very rare. The degree of local adaptation was independent of plant life history, spatial or temporal habitat heterogeneity, and geographic scale. Our results suggest that local adaptation is less common in plant populations than generally assumed. Moreover, our findings reinforce the fundamental importance of population size for evolutionary theory. The clear role of population size for the ability to evolve local adaptation raises considerable doubt on the ability of small plant populations to cope with changing environments.

  10. NPWE model observer as a validated alternative for contrast detail analysis of digital detectors in general radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Peteghem, N.; Bosmans, H.; Marshall, N. W.

    2016-11-01

    To propose and validate a non-prewhitening with eye filter (NPWE) model observer as an alternative means of quantifying and specifying imaging performance for general radiography detectors, in a comparative study with contrast detail analysis and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Five different x-ray detectors were assessed, covering a range of detector technologies including powder computed radiography (CR), needle CR, and three indirect conversion flat panel digital radiography detectors (DR). For each detector, threshold contrast detail (c-d) detectability was measured using the Leeds TO20 test object. A tube voltage of 70 kV and 1 mm Cu added filtration was used and five target detector air kerma (DAK) levels were set, ranging from 0.625 µGy to 10 µGy. Three c-d images were acquired at the same DAK levels and these were scored by two observers. Presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using an edge method while contrast was measured with a 2 mm Al square of dimension 10  ×  10 mm. The normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was calculated at the target DAK values of the c-d images. The MTF, NNPS and contrast data were then used to calculate a detectability index (d‧) with the NPWE model and compared to the human observer c-d results. The standard quantitative means of evaluating detector performance i.e. DQE, was then calculated for each detector. A linear correlation was found between the logarithm of threshold contrast and the logarithm of d’ for all detectors, as DAK was increased. Furthermore, the absolute value of d‧ tracked threshold contrast between the five detectors, enabling the use of detectability to quantify image quality rather than the intrinsically subjective threshold contrast scored by human observers from c-d test object images. At 2.5 µGy target DAK, d’ followed the differences in DQE between the five detectors. The NPWE detectability index can be used an alternative parameter for the

  11. Detailed analysis of petroleum cuts by multidimensional gas chromatography; Analyse detaillee de coupes petrolieres par chromatographie en phase gazeuse multidimensionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendeuvre, C.

    2006-01-15

    The limitations of petroleum resources implying a better valorisation of crude oil through the optimisation of production, refinery and petrochemistry processes, as well as the environmental regulations have strengthened the necessity of more detailed characterisation of petroleum products. In order to take up this challenge, efficient analytical tools have to be developed. This work demonstrates that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) constitutes a major advance compared to GC owing to its improved resolution power and to the structured chromatograms indicating the polarity and the volatility of hydrocarbons. The principle of GCxGC is based on the analysis of a whole sample in two independent dimensions of separation achieved using two GC columns of different selectivities; between the two columns a modulator device samples, focuses and re-injects small portions of the effluent from the first column into the second one. Since its introduction in 1991, GCxGC has known a rapid growth and has received a wide acceptance by the analytical science community. The competitive situation has considerably evolved during this thesis with the introduction of commercial systems and the two first sessions of an international symposium dedicated to this technique (Volendam, 2003 and Atlanta, 2004). The key points of the thesis concern the development of a GCxGC prototype system using dual jets CO{sub 2} technology and a data processing program; the evaluation of a retention model allowing a rational choice of operating conditions; and the application of this technique to various and complex issues. Thus, effluents from petrochemistry, refinery or pollution areas have been analysed according to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and to their number of carbon atoms; a new method for obtaining distillation curves for each chemical group was also presented. Furthermore, the hyphenation of GCxGC with a specific sulphur detector revealed a great interest for

  12. Recent developments in fast spectroscopy for plant mineral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie evan Maarschalkerweerd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ideal fertilizer management to optimize plant productivity and quality is more relevant than ever, as global food demands increase along with the rapidly growing world population. At the same time, sub-optimal or excessive use of fertilizers leads to severe environmental damage in areas of intensive crop production. The approaches of soil and plant mineral analysis are briefly compared and discussed here, and the new techniques using fast spectroscopy that offer cheap, rapid and easy-to-use analysis of plant nutritional status are reviewed. The majority of these methods use vibrational spectroscopy, such as Visual-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR and to a lesser extent Ultraviolet (UV and Mid-Infrared (MIR spectroscopy. Advantages of and problems with application of these techniques are thoroughly discussed. Spectroscopic techniques considered having major potential for plant mineral analysis, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS are also described.

  13. Central receiver power plant: an environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, M.; Grether, D.

    1977-06-01

    The technical details of the central receiver design are reviewed. Socio-economic questions are considered including: market penetration, air industrial sector model, demands on industry, employment, effluents associated with manufacture of components, strains due to intensive construction, water requirements, and land requirements. The ecological effects in the vicinity of the central receiver plant site are dealt with, with emphasis on effects on land surface, mammals, and reptiles and amphibians. Climatological considerations are reviewed including: desert types, effects of surface albedo modification, effects of aerosols, effects on evaporation rates, the heliostat canopy, effects on turbulent transfer rates, effects on the wind profile, a model of convection about a central receiver plant, and a global scenario. Drawings of heliostat and plant design are included in appendices. (MHR)

  14. Automated phenotyping of plant shoots using imaging methods for analysis of plant stress responses - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplík, Jan F; Lazár, Dušan; Husičková, Alexandra; Spíchal, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of in-house plant phenotyping are providing a powerful new tool for plant biology studies. The self-constructed and commercial platforms established in the last few years, employ non-destructive methods and measurements on a large and high-throughput scale. The platforms offer to certain extent, automated measurements, using either simple single sensor analysis, or advanced integrative simultaneous analysis by multiple sensors. However, due to the complexity of the approaches used, it is not always clear what such forms of plant phenotyping can offer the potential end-user, i.e. plant biologist. This review focuses on imaging methods used in the phenotyping of plant shoots including a brief survey of the sensors used. To open up this topic to a broader audience, we provide here a simple introduction to the principles of automated non-destructive analysis, namely RGB, chlorophyll fluorescence, thermal and hyperspectral imaging. We further on present an overview on how and to which extent, the automated integrative in-house phenotyping platforms have been used recently to study the responses of plants to various changing environments.

  15. A detailed X-ray investigation of ζ Puppis. III. Spectral analysis of the whole RGS spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, A.; Rauw, G.; Nazé, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Context. ζ Pup is the X-ray brightest O-type star of the sky. This object was regularly observed with the RGS instrument onboard XMM-Newton for calibration purposes, which led to an unprecedented set of high-quality spectra. Aims: We have previously reduced and extracted this data set and integrated it into the most detailed high-resolution X-ray spectrum of any early-type star so far. Here we present the analysis of this spectrum, taking into account for the presence of structures in the stellar wind. Methods: For this purpose, we used our new modeling tool that allows fitting the entire spectrum with a multi-temperature plasma. We illustrate the impact of a proper treatment of the radial dependence of the X-ray opacity of the cool wind on the best-fit radial distribution of the temperature of the X-ray plasma. Results: The best-fit of the RGS spectrum of ζ Pup is obtained assuming no porosity. Four plasma components at temperatures between 0.10 and 0.69 keV are needed to adequately represent the observed spectrum. Whilst the hardest emission is concentrated between ~3 and 4 R∗, the softer emission starts already at 1.5 R∗ and extends to the outer regions of the wind. Conclusions: The inferred radial distribution of the plasma temperatures agrees rather well with theoretical expectations. The mass-loss rate and CNO abundances corresponding to our best-fit model also agree quite well with the results of recent studies of ζ Pup in the UV and optical domain. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  16. Computing the Stackelberg/Nash equilibria using the extraproximal method: Convergence analysis and implementation details for Markov chains games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trejo Kristal K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the extraproximal method for computing the Stackelberg/Nash equilibria in a class of ergodic controlled finite Markov chains games. We exemplify the original game formulation in terms of coupled nonlinear programming problems implementing the Lagrange principle. In addition, Tikhonov’s regularization method is employed to ensure the convergence of the cost-functions to a Stackelberg/Nash equilibrium point. Then, we transform the problem into a system of equations in the proximal format. We present a two-step iterated procedure for solving the extraproximal method: (a the first step (the extra-proximal step consists of a “prediction” which calculates the preliminary position approximation to the equilibrium point, and (b the second step is designed to find a “basic adjustment” of the previous prediction. The procedure is called the “extraproximal method” because of the use of an extrapolation. Each equation in this system is an optimization problem for which the necessary and efficient condition for a minimum is solved using a quadratic programming method. This solution approach provides a drastically quicker rate of convergence to the equilibrium point. We present the analysis of the convergence as well the rate of convergence of the method, which is one of the main results of this paper. Additionally, the extraproximal method is developed in terms of Markov chains for Stackelberg games. Our goal is to analyze completely a three-player Stackelberg game consisting of a leader and two followers. We provide all the details needed to implement the extraproximal method in an efficient and numerically stable way. For instance, a numerical technique is presented for computing the first step parameter (λ of the extraproximal method. The usefulness of the approach is successfully demonstrated by a numerical example related to a pricing oligopoly model for airlines companies.

  17. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the TIGR japonica Pseudomolecu...les kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  18. Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari Muhammad; Falak, Noreen; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jae Young; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Loake, Gary John; Ali, Asad; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development.

  19. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  20. Detailed analysis of the clinical effects of cell therapy for thoracolumbar spinal cord injury: an original study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alok Sharma,1 Nandini Gokulchandran,1 Hemangi Sane,2 Prerna Badhe,1 Pooja Kulkarni,2 Mamta Lohia,3 Anjana Nagrajan,3 Nancy Thomas3 1Department of Medical Services and Clinical Research, 2Department of Research and Development, 3Department of Neurorehabilitation, NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute, Surana Sethia Hospital and Research Centre, Chembur, Mumbai, India Background: Cell therapy is amongst the most promising treatment strategies in spinal cord injury (SCI because it focuses on repair. There are many published animal studies and a few human trials showing remarkable results with various cell types. The level of SCI determines whether paraplegia or quadriplegia is present, and greatly influences recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of the clinical effects and long-term safety of intrathecal administration of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, along with changes in functional independence and quality of life in patients with thoracolumbar SCI. Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of a clinical study in which a nonrandomized sample of 110 patients with thoracolumbar SCI underwent autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell transplantation intrathecally and subsequent neurorehabilitation, with a mean follow-up of 2 years ± 1 month. Changes on any parameters were recorded at follow-up. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and McNemar's test. Functional Independence Measure and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA scores were recorded, and a detailed neurological assessment was performed. Results: Overall improvement was seen in 91% of patients, including reduction in spasticity, partial sensory recovery, and improvement in trunk control, postural hypotension, bladder management, mobility, activities of daily living, and functional independence. A significant association of these symptomatic improvements with the cell therapy intervention was established

  1. Electric Energy Consumption of the Full Scale Research Biogas Plant “Unterer Lindenhof”: Results of Longterm and Full Detail Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jungbluth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work thoroughly evaluates the electric power consumption of a full scale, 3 × 923 m3 complete stirred tank reactor (CSTR research biogas plant with a production capacity of 186 kW of electric power. The plant was fed with a mixture of livestock manure and renewable energy crops and was operated under mesophilic conditions. This paper will provide an insight into precise electric energy consumption measurements of a full scale biogas plant over a period of two years. The results showed that a percentage of 8.5% (in 2010 and 8.7% (in 2011 of the produced electric energy was consumed by the combined heat and power unit (CHP, which was required to operate the biogas plant. The consumer unit agitators with 4.3% (in 2010 and 4.0% (in 2011 and CHP unit with 2.5% (in 2010 and 2011 accounted for the highest electrical power demand, in relation to the electric energy produced by the CHP unit. Calculations show that 51% (in 2010 and 46% (in 2011 of the total electric energy demand was due to the agitators. The results finally showed the need for permanent measurements to identify and quantify the electric energy saving potentials of full scale biogas plants.

  2. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Projet Production EPR 1, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  3. Economic analysis of large solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiss, Helmut; Nitsch, Joachim; Geyer, Michael

    1987-11-01

    The current status and future potential of solar-tower, parabolic-reflector/Stirling-engine, channel-collector, and photovoltaic solar power plants of capacity 10 MWe or more are discussed. Consideration is given to the geographic and technological limitations, initial investment and operating costs, presently operating facilities, market openings, and critical technological challenges controlling future expansion. Numerical data are presented in tables and graphs, and it is concluded that solar power production will soon become economically competitive. It is suggested that the channel collector, at present the most mature and cost-efficient technology, has the least potential for further improvement, and that parabolic/Stirling and photovoltaic systems are probably better suited to smaller applications than to large-scale commercial power production.

  4. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  5. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  6. Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a manually constructed alignment of nearly complete rRNA genes from most animal clades (371 taxa from ~33 of the ~36 metazoan phyla), expanded from the 197 sequences in a previous study. This thorough, taxon-rich alignment, available at http://www.wsu.edu/~jmallatt/research/rRNAalignment.html and in the Dryad Repository (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1v62kr3q), is based rigidly on the secondary structure of the SSU and LSU rRNA molecules, and is annotated in detail, including labeling of the erroneous sequences (contaminants). The alignment can be used for future studies of the molecular evolution of rRNA. Here, we use it to explore if the larger number of sequences produces an improved phylogenetic tree of animal relationships. Disappointingly, the resolution did not improve, neither when the standard maximum-likelihood method was used, nor with more sophisticated methods that partitioned the rRNA into paired and unpaired sites (stem, loop, bulge, junction), or accounted for the evolution of the paired sites. For example, no doublet model of paired-site substitutions (16-state, 16A and 16B, 7A-F, or 6A-C models) corrected the placement of any rogue taxa or increased resolution. The following findings are from the simplest, standard, ML analysis. The 371-taxon tree only imperfectly supported the bilaterian clades of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, and this problem remained after 17 taxa with unstably positioned sequences were omitted from the analysis. The problem seems to stem from base-compositional heterogeneity across taxa and from an overrepresentation of highly divergent sequences among the newly added taxa (e.g., sequences from Cephalopoda, Rotifera, Acoela, and Myxozoa). The rogue taxa continue to concentrate in two locations in the rRNA tree: near the base of Arthropoda and of Bilateria. The approximately uncertain (AU) test refuted the monophyly of Mollusca and of Chordata, probably due to long-branch attraction of the highly

  7. Strategic patent analysis in plant biotechnology: terpenoid indole alkaloid metabolic engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralpeix, Bruna; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2014-02-01

    The do-it-yourself patent search is a useful alternative to professional patent analysis particularly in the context of publicly funded projects where funds for IP activities may be limited. As a case study, we analysed patents related to the engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) metabolism in plants. We developed a focused search strategy to remove redundancy and reduce the workload without missing important and relevant patents. This resulted in the identification of approximately 50 key patents associated with TIA metabolic engineering in plants, which could form the basis of a more detailed freedom-to-operate analysis. The structural elements of this search strategy could easily be transferred to other contexts, making it a useful generic model for publicly funded research projects. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding.

  9. Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    27  DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication...Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE... graphic analysis was polished using diamond incrusted polishing pads. The polished sample was imaged using a Zeiss Stereo Discovery V20 mi- croscope

  10. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  11. Plant Phosphoproteomics: Analysis of Plasma Membrane Transporters by Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Rudashevskaya, Elena; Young, Clifford

    important physiological functions, such as stomata aperture, cell elongation, or cellular pH regulation. It is known that the activity of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation. Therefore, we first investigated the phosphorylation profile of plant H+-ATPase by enriching...... the phosphopeptides with optimized TiO2 and IMAC enrichment methods prior to MS analysis. We further investigated the global phosphorylation profile of the whole plant plasma membrane proteins using the combination of our recently established phosphopeptide enrichment method, Calcium phosphate precipitation......  Phosphorylation is a key regulatory factor in all aspects of eukaryotic biology including the regulation of plant membrane-bound transport proteins. To date, mass spectrometry (MS) has been introduced as powerful technology for study of post translational modifications (PTMs), including protein...

  12. Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System. Phase II: detailed feasibility analysis and preliminary design. Final report, Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the economic and environmental feasibility of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) based on a multifuel (gas, oil, treated solid wastes, and coal) design with which to serve any or all the institutions within the Louisiana Medical Complex in cooperation with the Health Education Authority of Louisiana (HEAL). In this context, a preliminary design is presented which consists of ICES plant description and engineering analyses. This demonstration system is capable of meeting 1982 system demands by providing 10,000 tons of air conditioning and, from a boiler plant with a high-pressure steam capacity of 200,000 lb/h, approximately 125,000 lb/h of 185 psig steam to the HEAL institutions, and at the same time generating up to 7600 kW of electrical power as byproduct energy. The plant will consist of multiple-fuel steam boilers, turbine generator, turbine driven chillers and necessary auxiliaries and ancillary systems. The preliminary design for these systems and for the building to house the central plant systems are presented along with equipment and instrumentation schedules and outline specifications for major components. Costs were updated to reflect revised data. The final preliminary cost estimate includes allowances for contingencies and escalation, as well as cost for the plant site and professional fees. This design is for a facility specifically with coal burning capability, recognizing that it is more capital-intensive than a gas/oil facility. In the opinion of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the relatively modest allocations made for scrubbing and ash removal involve less than is implied in standard industry (EPRI) cost increments of over 30% for these duties. The preliminary environmental assessment is included. (LCL)

  13. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  14. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  15. Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Bonnie G.; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Barry, Kathryn E.; Becklund, Kristen K.; Dale, Sarah; Gei, Maria G.; Keller, Adrienne B.; Lopez, Omar R.; Markesteijn, Lars; Mangan, Scott; Riggs, Charlotte E.; Rodríguez-Ronderos, María Elizabeth; Segnitz, R. Max; Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil properties beneath individual plants differ from those of neighbours by an average of 41%. Although the magnitudes of individual plant effects exhibit weak relationships with climate and latitude, they are significantly stronger in deserts and tundra than forests, and weaker in intensively managed ecosystems. The ubiquitous effects of plant individuals and species on local soil properties imply that individual plant effects have a role in plant–soil feedbacks, linking individual plants with biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26224711

  16. Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

    2013-05-01

    Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

  17. Recent insights into plant-virus interactions through proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello

    2012-10-05

    Plant viruses represent a major threat for a wide range of host species causing severe losses in agricultural practices. The full comprehension of mechanisms underlying events of virus-host plant interaction is crucial to devise novel plant resistance strategies. Until now, functional genomics studies in plant-virus interaction have been limited mainly on transcriptomic analysis. Only recently are proteomic approaches starting to provide important contributions to this area of research. Classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is still the most widely used platform in plant proteome analysis, although in the last years the application of quantitative "second generation" proteomic techniques (such as differential in gel electrophoresis, DIGE, and gel-free protein separation methods) are emerging as more powerful analytical approaches. Apparently simple, plant-virus interactions reveal a really complex pathophysiological context, in which resistance, defense and susceptibility, and direct virus-induced reactions interplay to trigger expression responses of hundreds of genes. Given that, this review is specifically focused on comparative proteome-based studies on pathogenesis of several viral genera, including some of the most important and widespread plant viruses of the genus Tobamovirus, Sobemovirus, Cucumovirus and Potyvirus. In all, this overview reveals a widespread repression of proteins associated with the photosynthetic apparatus, while energy metabolism/protein synthesis and turnover are typically up-regulated, indicating a major redirection of cell metabolism. Other common features include the modulation of metabolisms concerning sugars, cell wall, and reactive oxigen species as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The fine-tuning between plant development and antiviral defense mechanisms determines new patterns of regulation of common metabolic pathways. By offering a 360-degree view of protein modulation

  18. Comparing the Performance of Three Land Models in Global C Cycle Simulations: A Detailed Structural Analysis: Structural Analysis of Land Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashid [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD USA; Xia, Jianyang [School of Ecological and Environmental Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai China; Research Center for Global Change and Ecological Forecasting, East China Normal University; Hararuk, Oleksandra [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Leng, Guoyong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD USA; Asrar, Ghassem [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD USA; Luo, Yiqi [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA

    2016-04-01

    Land models are valuable tools to understand the dynamics of global carbon (C) cycle. Various models have been developed and used for predictions of future C dynamics but uncertainties still exist. Diagnosing the models’ behaviors in terms of structures can help to narrow down the uncertainties in prediction of C dynamics. In this study three widely used land surface models, namely CSIRO’s Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) with 9 C pools, Community Land Model (version 3.5) combined with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CLM-CASA) with 12 C pools and Community Land Model (version 4) (CLM4) with 26 C pools were driven by the observed meteorological forcing. The simulated C storage and residence time were used for analysis. The C storage and residence time were computed globally for all individual soil and plant pools, as well as net primary productivity (NPP) and its allocation to different plant components’ based on these models. Remotely sensed NPP and statistically derived HWSD, and GLC2000 datasets were used as a reference to evaluate the performance of these models. Results showed that CABLE exhibited better agreement with referenced C storage and residence time for plant and soil pools, as compared with CLM-CASA and CLM4. CABLE had longer bulk residence time for soil C pools and stored more C in roots, whereas, CLM-CASA and CLM4 stored more C in woody pools due to differential NPP allocation. Overall, these results indicate that the differences in C storage and residence times in three models are largely due to the differences in their fundamental structures (number of C pools), NPP allocation and C transfer rates. Our results have implications in model development and provide a general framework to explain the bias/uncertainties in simulation of C storage and residence times from the perspectives of model structures.

  19. Validation of the Cumberland Energyplex concept. Volumes 1 and 2. Executive summary and analysis detail. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhordar, P.M.; Chatterjee, A.K.; Clark, C.F.; Crooks, G.; Dore, J.S.; Martin, P.J.; Pierce, S.R.

    1979-06-01

    The definition and goal of the Energyplex, available and required resources, Energyplex elements and their economics, Energyplex products and markets, environmental residuals, electricity in Illinois, and have the goals are met are included. Elements of the Energyplex described are: ammonia from coal, synthetic natural gas plant, coal liquefaction, enhanced oil recovery, use of reject heat from power generation units, greenhouse environmental control, aquaculture, livestock enclosures, and corn refining and soybean oil and meal production. (MHR)

  20. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of secondary plant metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Lukasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2009-02-13

    Drugs, derived from medicinal plants, have been enjoying a renaissance in the last years. It is due to a great pharmacological potential of herbal drugs, as many natural compounds have been found to exhibit biological activity of wide spectrum. The introduction of whole plants, plant extracts, or isolated natural compounds has led to the need to create the analytical methods suitable for their analysis. The identification of isolated substances is relatively an easy task, but the analysis of plant extracts causes a lot of problems, as they are usually very complex mixtures. Chromatographic methods are one of the most popular techniques applied in the analysis of natural mixtures. Unfortunately the separation power of traditional, one-dimensional techniques, is usually inadequate for separation of more complex samples. In such a case the use of multidimensional chromatography is advised. Planar chromatography gives the possibility of performing two-dimensional separations with the use of one adsorbent with two different eluents or by using bilayer plates or graft thin-layer chromatography (TLC) technique; combinations of different multidimensional techniques are also possible. In this paper, multidimensional planar chromatographic methods, commonly applied in the analysis of natural compounds, were reviewed. A detailed information is given on the methodology of performing two-dimensional separations on one adsorbent, on bilayer plates, with the use of graft TLC and hyphenated methods. General aspects of multidimensionality in liquid chromatography are also described. Finally a reader will find a description of variable two-dimensional methods applied in the analysis of compounds, most commonly encountered in plant extracts. This paper is aimed to draw attention to the potential of two-dimensional planar chromatography in the field of phytochemistry. It may be useful for those who are interested in achieving successful separations of multicomponent mixtures by means

  1. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Baraza, A. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  2. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  3. Genomic analysis of plant chromosomes based on meiotic pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Chamma Davide

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the principles and applications of classical genomic analysis, with emphasis on plant breeding. The main mathematical models used to estimate the preferential chromosome pairing in diploid or polyploid, interspecific or intergenera hybrids are presented and discussed, with special reference to the applications and studies for the definition of genome relationships among species of the Poaceae family.

  4. Preprocessing and exploratory analysis of chromatographic profiles of plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Cruz-Juarez, L.; Bont, de D.; Hall, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of herbal extracts to compare samples from different origin is important for robust production and quality control strategies. This characterization is now mainly performed by analysis of selected marker compounds. Metabolic fingerprinting of full metabolite profiles of plant ex

  5. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  6. Potential of Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy for Plant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H.

    2008-11-01

    Various mid-infrared (MIR) and Raman spectroscopic methods applied to the analysis of valuable plant substances or quality parameters in selected horticultural and agricultural crops are presented. Generally, both spectroscopy techniques allow to identify simultaneously characteristic key bands of individual plant components (e.g. carotenoids, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids). In contrast to MIR methods Raman spectroscopy mostly does not need any sample pre-treatment; even fresh plant material can be analysed without difficulty because water shows only weak Raman scattering properties. In some cases a significant sensivity enhancement of Raman signals can be achieved if the exciting laser wavelength is adjusted to the absorption range of particular plant chromophores such as carotenoids (Resonance Raman effect). Applying FT-IR or FT Raman micro-spectroscopy the distribution of certain plant constituents in the cell wall can be identified without the need for any physical separation. Furthermore it is also possible to analyse secondary metabolites occurring in the cell vacuoles if significant key bands do not coincide with the spectral background of the plant matrix.

  7. In silico comparative analysis and expression profile of antioxidant proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, S; Pandey, B; Sharma, P; Narwal, S; Singh, R; Sharma, I; Chatrath, R

    2013-02-27

    The antioxidant system in plants is a very important defensive mechanism to overcome stress conditions. We examined the expression profile of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) using a bioinformatics approach. We explored secondary structure prediction and made detailed studies of signature pattern of antioxidant proteins in four plant species (Triticum aestivum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Brassica juncea). Fingerprinting analysis was done with ScanProsite, which includes a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures. Multiple sequence alignment of antioxidant proteins of the different plant species revealed a conserved secondary structure region, indicating homology at the sequence and structural levels. The secondary structure prediction showed that these proteins have maximum tendency for α helical structure. The sequence level similarities were also analyzed with a phylogenetic tree using neighbor-joining method. In the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and APX, three major families of signature were predominant and common; these were PKC_PHOSPHO_SITE, CK2_PHOSPHO_SITE and N-myristoylation site, which are functionally related to various plant signaling pathways. This study provides new strategies for screening of biomodulators involved in plant stress metabolism that will be useful for designing degenerate primers or probes specific for antioxidant. These enzymes could be the first line of defence in the cellular antioxidant defence pathway, activated due to exposure to abiotic stresses.

  8. The Economic Contribution of Canada's Colleges and Institutes. An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 2: Detailed Results by Gender and Entry Level of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to present the results of the economic impact analysis in detail by gender and entry level of education. On the data entry side, gender and entry level of education are important variables that help characterize the student body profile. This profile data links to national statistical databases which are already…

  9. Seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pentti Varpasuo

    2013-01-01

    The seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) begin with the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development for the site.The following steps are needed for the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development:a.the development of regional seismo-tectonic model with seismic source areas within 500 km radius centered to the site; b.the development of strong motion prediction equations;c.logic three development for taking into account uncertainties and seismic hazard quantification; d.the development of uniform hazard response spectra for ground motion at the site; e.simulation of acceleration time histories compatible with uniform hazard response spectra.The following phase two in seismic design of NPP structures is the analysis of structural response for the design ground motion.This second phase of the process consists of the following steps:a.development of structural models of the plant buildings; b.development of the soil model underneath the plant buildings for soil-structure interaction response analysis; c.determination of in-structure response spectra for the plant buildings for the equipment response analysis.In the third phase of the seismic design and analysis the equipment is analyzed on the basis of in-structure response spectra.For this purpose the structural models of the mechanical components and piping in the plant are set up.In large 3D-structural models used today the heaviest equipment of the primary coolant circuit is included in the structural model of the reactor building.In the fourth phase the electrical equipment and automation and control equipment are seismically qualified with the aid of the in-structure spectra developed in the phase two using large three-axial shaking tables.For this purpose the smoothed envelope spectra for calculated in-structure spectra are constructed and acceleration time is fitted to these smoothed envelope spectra.

  10. Transformation of elite white maize using the particle inflow gun and detailed analysis of a low-copy integration event

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available M37W was germinated between layers of absor- bent brown paper and cellulose wadding (Multa Seed). The seed- lings were planted in a soil mix consisting of red soil, rough sand and compost (1:1:1) and were watered daily with a soluble fertili- ser... phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) that confers herbicide resistance. PAT in- activates the herbicidal compound phosphinothricin (PPT) by acetylation. L-PPT is the active ingredient in several herbicide for- mulations, such as Basta? (Hoechst AG, Germany...

  11. Water imaging in living plant by nondestructive neutron beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, M. Tomoko [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Analysis of biological activity in intact cells or tissues is essential to understand many life processes. Techniques for these in vivo measurements have not been well developed. We present here a nondestructive method to image water in living plants using a neutron beam. This technique provides the highest resolution for water in tissue yet obtainable. With high specificity to water, this neutron beam technique images water movement in seeds or in roots imbedded in soil, as well as in wood and meristems during development. The resolution of the image attainable now is about 15um. We also describe how this new technique will allow new investigations in the field of plant research. (author)

  12. Genome-wide analysis of the NADK gene family in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NAD(H kinase (NADK is the key enzyme that catalyzes de novo synthesis of NADP(H from NAD(H for NADP(H-based metabolic pathways. In plants, NADKs form functional subfamilies. Studies of these families in Arabidopsis thaliana indicate that they have undergone considerable evolutionary selection; however, the detailed evolutionary history and functions of the various NADKs in plants are not clearly understood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a comparative genomic analysis that identified 74 NADK gene homologs from 24 species representing the eight major plant lineages within the supergroup Plantae: glaucophytes, rhodophytes, chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots and eudicots. Phylogenetic and structural analysis classified these NADK genes into four well-conserved subfamilies with considerable variety in the domain organization and gene structure among subfamily members. In addition to the typical NAD_kinase domain, additional domains, such as adenylate kinase, dual-specificity phosphatase, and protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domains, were found in subfamily II. Interestingly, NADKs in subfamily III exhibited low sequence similarity (∼30% in the kinase domain within the subfamily and with the other subfamilies. These observations suggest that gene fusion and exon shuffling may have occurred after gene duplication, leading to specific domain organization seen in subfamilies II and III, respectively. Further analysis of the exon/intron structures showed that single intron loss and gain had occurred, yielding the diversified gene structures, during the process of structural evolution of NADK family genes. Finally, both available global microarray data analysis and qRT-RCR experiments revealed that the NADK genes in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa show different expression patterns in different developmental stages and under several different abiotic/biotic stresses and hormone treatments, underscoring the

  13. Construction of transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa) dominantly producing astaxanthin fatty acid esters and detailed chemical analysis of generated carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hisashi; Maoka, Takashi; Osawa, Ayako; Hattan, Jun-Ichiro; Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Otomatsu, Toshihiko; Misawa, Norihiko

    2014-04-01

    The plastid genome of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Berkeley was site-specifically modified with the addition of three transgenes, which encoded β,β-carotenoid 3,3'-hydroxylase (CrtZ) and β,β-carotenoid 4,4'-ketolase (4,4'-oxygenase; CrtW) from a marine bacterium Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase from a marine bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain N81106. Constructed transplastomic lettuce plants were able to grow on soil at a growth rate similar to that of non-transformed lettuce cv. Berkeley and generate flowers and seeds. The germination ratio of the lettuce transformants (T0) (98.8%) was higher than that of non-transformed lettuce (93.1 %). The transplastomic lettuce (T1) leaves produced the astaxanthin fatty acid (myristate or palmitate) diester (49.2% of total carotenoids), astaxanthin monoester (18.2%), and the free forms of astaxanthin (10.0%) and the other ketocarotenoids (17.5%), which indicated that artificial ketocarotenoids corresponded to 94.9% of total carotenoids (230 μg/g fresh weight). Native carotenoids were there lactucaxanthin (3.8%) and lutein (1.3 %) only. This is the first report to structurally identify the astaxanthin esters biosynthesized in transgenic or transplastomic plants producing astaxanthin. The singlet oxygen-quenching activity of the total carotenoids extracted from the transplastomic leaves was similar to that of astaxanthin (mostly esterified) from the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis.

  14. Metabolomics and Cheminformatics Analysis of Antifungal Function of Plant Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat. Partial resistance to FHB of several wheat cultivars includes specific metabolic responses to inoculation. Previously published studies have determined major metabolic changes induced by pathogens in resistant and susceptible plants. Functionality of the majority of these metabolites in resistance remains unknown. In this work we have made a compilation of all metabolites determined as selectively accumulated following FHB inoculation in resistant plants. Characteristics, as well as possible functions and targets of these metabolites, are investigated using cheminformatics approaches with focus on the likelihood of these metabolites acting as drug-like molecules against fungal pathogens. Results of computational analyses of binding properties of several representative metabolites to homology models of fungal proteins are presented. Theoretical analysis highlights the possibility for strong inhibitory activity of several metabolites against some major proteins in Fusarium graminearum, such as carbonic anhydrases and cytochrome P450s. Activity of several of these compounds has been experimentally confirmed in fungal growth inhibition assays. Analysis of anti-fungal properties of plant metabolites can lead to the development of more resistant wheat varieties while showing novel application of cheminformatics approaches in the analysis of plant/pathogen interactions.

  15. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  16. Validation of a plant dynamics code for 4S - Test analysis of natural circulation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebe, F.; Horie, H.; Matsumiya, H. [Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A plant transient dynamics code for a sodium-cooled fast reactor was developed by Toshiba. The code is used to evaluate the safety performance of Super-Safe, Small, and Simple reactor (4S) for Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs), Design Basis Accident (DBA) and Beyond DBA (BDBA). The code is currently undergoing verification and validation (V and V). As one of the validation, test analysis of the Shutdown Heat Removal Test (SHRT)-17 performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-II was conducted. The SHRT-17 is protected loss of flow test. The purpose of this validation is to confirm capability of the code to simulate natural circulation behavior of the plant. As a result, good agreements are shown between the analytical results and the measured data which were available from instrumented subassembly. The detailed validation result of the natural circulation behavior is described in this paper. (authors)

  17. Heat-inducible RNAi for gene functional analysis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric; Galaud, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Controlling gene expression during plant development is an efficient method to explore gene function and RNA interference (RNAi) is now considered as a powerful technology for gene functional analysis. However, constitutive gene silencing cannot be used with genes involved in fundamental processes such as embryo viability or plant growth and alternative silencing strategies avoiding these limitations should be preferred. Tissue-specific and inducible promoters, able to control gene expression at spatial and/or temporal level, can be used to circumvent viability problems. In this chapter, after a rapid overview of the inducible promoters currently used for transgenic approaches in plants, we describe a method we have developed to study gene function by heat-inducible RNAi. This system is easy to use and complementary to those based on chemical gene inducer treatments and might be useful for both research and biotechnological applications.

  18. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    CERN Document Server

    Goupil, C; Khamsing, A; Apertet, Y; Bouteau, F; Mancuso, S; Patino, R; Lecoeur, Ph

    2015-01-01

    Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant's electrophysiological response. Therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  19. Research and development studies on the seismic behaviour of the PEC fast reactor (safety analysis detailed report no. 8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelli, A.; Forni, M.; Masoni, P.; Maresca, G.; Castoldi, A.; Muzzi, F. (ENEA, Rome (Italy); Ansaldo Spa, Genoa (Italy); ISMES Spa, Bergamo (Italy))

    1988-01-15

    This paper presents the main features and results of the numerical and experimental studies that were carried out by ENEA (Italian Commission for Alternative Energy Sources) for the seismic verification of the Italian PEC fast reactor test facility. More precisely, the paper focuses on the wide-ranging research and development programme that has been performed (and recently completed) on the reactor building, the reactor-block, the main vessel, the core and the shutdown system. The needs of these detailed studies are stressed and the feed-backs on the design, necessary safisfy the seismic safety requirements, are recalled. The general validity of the analyses in the framework of the research and development activities for nuclear reactor is also pointed out.

  20. A Detailed Analysis of Flavour-changing Decays of Top Quarks as a Probe of New Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Patra, Monalisa; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup

    2016-01-01

    If the LHC should fail to observe direct signals for new physics, it may become necessary to look for new physics effects in rare events such as flavour-changing decays of the top quark, which, in the Standard Model, are predicted to be too small to be observed. We set up the theoretical framework in which experimentally accessible results can be expected in models of new physics, and go on to discuss two models of supersymmetry -- one with conserved $R$-parity, and one without $R$-parity -- to illustrate how the flavour-changing signals are predicted in these models. In the latter case, there is a distinct possibility of detecting the rare decay $t \\to c + Z^0$ at the LHC. We also present a detailed set of very general formulae which can be used to make similar calculations in diverse models of new physics.

  1. Detailed analysis of flavor-changing decays of top quarks as a probe of new physics at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Patra, Monalisa; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup

    2016-07-01

    If the LHC should fail to observe direct signals for new physics, it may become necessary to look for new physics effects in rare events such as flavor-changing decays of the top quark, which, in the standard model, are predicted to be too small to be observed. We set up the theoretical framework in which experimentally accessible results can be expected in models of new physics, and go on to discuss two models of supersymmetry—one with conserved R -parity, and one without R -parity—to illustrate how the flavor-changing signals are predicted in these models. In the latter case, there is a distinct possibility of detecting the rare decay t →c +Z0 at the LHC. We also present a detailed set of very general formulas which can be used to make similar calculations in diverse models of new physics.

  2. Detailed analysis of the effects of stencil spatial variations with arbitrary high-order finite-difference Maxwell solver

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenti, H

    2015-01-01

    Due to discretization effects and truncation to finite domains, many electromagnetic simulations present non-physical modifications of Maxwell's equations in space that may generate spurious signals affecting the overall accuracy of the result. Such modifications for instance occur when Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) are used at simulation domain boundaries to simulate open media. Another example is the use of arbitrary order Maxwell solver with domain decomposition technique that may under some condition involve stencil truncations at subdomain boundaries, resulting in small spurious errors that do eventually build up. In each case, a careful evaluation of the characteristics and magnitude of the errors resulting from these approximations, and their impact at any frequency and angle, requires detailed analytical and numerical studies. To this end, we present a general analytical approach that enables the evaluation of numerical discretization errors of fully three-dimensional arbitrary order finite-differen...

  3. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides.

  4. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  5. Analysis and utilization of plant antioxidative mechanism by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seock-Yoon; Shin, Seung-Yung [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In an attempt to analysis the POD isoenzymes (swpa1, swpa2, swpa3, and swpn1) expression in response to gamma-irradiation in sweet potato. In suspension cells POD isoenzymes was highly expressed at 6 h postirradiation, and the transcript levels increased at 0 and 6 h at 50 Gy in plants. POD isoenzymes expression in response to irradiation appears not to be regulated in a different manner in cultured cells and plants. The gamma radiation-induced changes of proteins in tobacco suspension cells were investigated by SDS-PAGE. In tobacco cultured cells gamma irradiation did not significantly change the protein patterns. This indicates that the gamma irradiation-induced protein was not highly expressed or might be overlap with others. In the tobacco transgenic plants simultaneously expressing SOD and/or APX in chloroplast, the specific activities of SOD and APX of gamma-irradiated plants increased according to the dose of gamma-irradiation. These results indicate that antioxidative genes depends on antioxidative isoenzymes differently respond to gamma irradiation in transgenic tobacco plant lines. 35 refs., 9 figs. (Author)

  6. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  7. An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1 image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  8. Exergy analysis of a co-generation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdelji Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of traditional first-law analysis, based upon thermodynamic performance of process unit coupled with mass and energy balances, are not a serious limitation when dealing with familiar systems. However, when dealing with more uncongenial, complex ones, it provides incomplete insight for such evaluation. These limitations came from the fact that first-law analysis does not indicate the sources or magnitudes of entropy production, which is, by the second law, essential criterion for scaling losses. An evaluation of plant performance will usually require a comparison of the thermodynamic performance of process units with available data from existing plants. Therefore, exergy analysis is more than useful, providing information about magnitudes of losses and their distribution throughout the system as well. Such analysis is very thankful at the level of process units but applied on higher system levels e.g. the comparison of overall plant performance (total system or the performance of subsystems, represents the valuable method for indicating where research resources can be directed to best advantage.

  9. Radiation hormesis in plant - Analysis and utilization of plant antioxidative mechanism by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haeng Soon; Kwon, Seok Yoon; Shin, Seung Yung [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In the tobacco transgenic plants simultaneously expressing SOD and APX in chloroplast, the specific activities of SOD and APX (CA, AM, C/A, A/C) were much higher than in the transgenic plants expressing SOD (CuZnSOD, MnSOD) or APX alone, respectively. Plant growth was severely inhibited showing a well correlation with the dose of gamma-irradiation. In 70 Gy-irradiation, C/A plants showed a slight resistance to gamma radiation. The stAPX gene in tobacco was not as strongly affected by gamma irradiation. After irradiation, the stAPX transcript level decreased at 2 h, then slightly increased at 6 h and the level was maintained until 48 h. Catalase transcripts level decreased at the early time point but at the late time points the level slightly increased. The gamma radiation-induced changes of proteins in tobacco suspension cells were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In the gamma-irradiated cells, a few polypeptides of were newly synthesized, increased, and decreased by comparing total proteins from gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated tobacco suspension cells. With the isolation and analysis of these polypeptides, irradiation-induced proteins could be developed. 35 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  10. Growth analysis of soybean plants treated with plant growth regulators Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Domingos Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effect of plant growth regulators on soybean plant growth and chlorophyll content. In an experiment carried out in a greenhouse, soybean plants were cultivated (Glycine max (L. Merrill cv. BRS-184 in 10-liter pots containing soil from the arable layer, corrected and fertilized according to the soil analysis. The treatments used were: control; GA3 100mg.L-1; BAP 100mg.L-1; IBA 100mg.L-1; Stimulate® (IBA, GA3 and kinetin 20mL.L-1; mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 and mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 + BAP 100mg.L-1 + IBA 100mg.L-1. Treatments were applied three times at 30-day intervals. Six samplings were taken at 13-day intervals. The results indicated that the highest total dry weight value resulted from the application of IBA and Stimulate®, and that the application of mepiquat chloride in association with IBA and BAP reduced total dry matter production. The leaf area was smaller than the control in most treatments. The chlorophyll content and growth rate were slightly influenced by the treatments. The cytokinin treatment alone or in association with other plant growth regulators retained the chlorophyll content. RGR and NAR decreased from 99 days after sowing with the application of mepiquat chloride.

  11. Multiparametric analysis, sorting, and transcriptional profiling of plant protoplasts and nuclei according to cell type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David W; Janda, Jaroslav; Lambert, Georgina M

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been employed for the analysis of higher plants for approximately the last 30 years. For the angiosperms, ∼500,000 species, itself a daunting number, parametric measurements enabled through the use of flow cytometers started with basic descriptors of the individual cells and their contents, and have both inspired the development of novel cytometric methods that subsequently have been applied to organisms within other kingdoms of life, and adopted cytometric methods devised for other species, particularly mammals. Higher plants offer unique challenges in terms of flow cytometric analysis, notably the facts that their organs and tissues are complex three-dimensional assemblies of different cell types, and that their individual cells are, in general, larger than those of mammals.This chapter provides an overview of the general types of parametric measurement that have been applied to plants, and provides detailed methods for selected examples based on the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. These illustrate the use of flow cytometry for the analysis of protoplasts and nuclear DNA contents (genome size and the cell cycle). These are further integrated with measurements focusing on specific cell types, based on transgenic expression of Fluorescent Proteins (FPs), and on analysis of the spectrum of transcripts found within protoplasts and nuclei. These measurements were chosen in particular to illustrate, respectively, the issues encountered in the flow analysis and sorting of large biological cells, typified by protoplasts; how to handle flow analyses under conditions that require processing of large numbers of samples in which the individual samples contain only a very small minority of objects of interest; and how to deal with exceptionally small amounts of RNA within the sorted samples.

  12. Aftershock mechanisms from the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake: detailed analysis using full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietbrock, A.; Hicks, S. P.; Chagas, B.; Detzel, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since the earthquake rupture process is extremely heterogeneous, it is vital to understand how structural variations in the overriding plate and downgoing slab may control slip style along the subduction megathrust. The large-scale 3-D geometry of subduction plate boundaries is rapidly becoming well understood; however, the nature of any finer-scale structure along the plate interface remains elusive. A detailed study of earthquake source mechanisms along a megathrust region can shed light on the nature of fine-scale structures along the megathrust. The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck central Chile in 2010 is the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded. Following the earthquake, there was an international deployment of seismic stations in the rupture area, making this one of the best datasets of an aftershock sequence following a large earthquake. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to perform a detailed study of megathrust earthquake source mechanisms. Based on a high-resolution 3-D velocity model and robust earthquake locations [Hicks et al., 2014], we calculate regional moment tensors using the ISOLA software package [Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008]. We incorporate accelerometer recordings, important for constraining solutions of large earthquakes in the overriding plate. We also validate the robustness of our solutions by assessing the consistency of mechanisms with P-wave polarities observed at both onshore and offshore seismic stations, and compare them to already published solutions. We find that accurate earthquake locations are vital for the fine-scale interpretation of focal mechanisms, particularly for offshore events. Our results show that most moment tensor solutions with thrusting mechanisms have a nodal plane dipping parallel to the subducting plate interface. Interestingly, we also find earthquakes with normal faulting mechanisms lying along to the megathrust plate interface in the south of the rupture area. This finding suggests that megathrust

  13. Detailed Performance and Waiting-Time Predictability Analysis of Scheduling Options in On-Demand Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsmirat MohammadA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of on-demand video streams that can be supported concurrently is highly constrained by the stringent requirements of real-time playback and high transfer rates. To address this problem, stream merging techniques utilize the multicast facility to increase resource sharing. The achieved resource sharing depends greatly on how the waiting requests are scheduled for service. We investigate the effectiveness of the recently proposed cost-based scheduling in detail and analyze opportunities for further tunings and enhancements. In particular, we analyze alternative ways to compute the delivery cost. In addition, we propose a new scheduling policy, called Predictive Cost-Based Scheduling (PCS, which applies a prediction algorithm to predict future scheduling decisions and then uses the prediction results to potentially alter its current scheduling decisions. Moreover, we propose an enhancement technique, called Adaptive Regular Stream Triggering (ART, which significantly enhances stream merging behavior by selectively delaying the initiation of full-length video streams. We analyze the effectiveness of the proposed strategies in terms of their performance effectiveness and impacts on waiting-time predictability through extensive simulation. The results show that significant performance benefits as well as better waiting-time predictability can be attained.

  14. Shaping thin film growth and microstructure pathways via plasma and deposition energy: a detailed theoretical, computational and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bibhuti Bhusan; Han, Jeon Geon; Kersten, Holger

    2017-02-15

    Understanding the science and engineering of thin films using plasma assisted deposition methods with controlled growth and microstructure is a key issue in modern nanotechnology, impacting both fundamental research and technological applications. Different plasma parameters like electrons, ions, radical species and neutrals play a critical role in nucleation and growth and the corresponding film microstructure as well as plasma-induced surface chemistry. The film microstructure is also closely associated with deposition energy which is controlled by electrons, ions, radical species and activated neutrals. The integrated studies on the fundamental physical properties that govern the plasmas seek to determine their structure and modification capabilities under specific experimental conditions. There is a requirement for identification, determination, and quantification of the surface activity of the species in the plasma. Here, we report a detailed study of hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon (c-Si:H) processes to investigate the evolution of plasma parameters using a theoretical model. The deposition processes undertaken using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method are characterized by a reactive mixture of hydrogen and silane. Later, various contributions of energy fluxes on the substrate are considered and modeled to investigate their role in the growth of the microstructure of the deposited film. Numerous plasma diagnostic tools are used to compare the experimental data with the theoretical results. The film growth and microstructure are evaluated in light of deposition energy flux under different operating conditions.

  15. Details of Side Load Test Data and Analysis for a Truncated Ideal Contour Nozzle and a Parabolic Contour Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Two cold flow subscale nozzles were tested for side load characteristics during simulated nozzle start transients. The two test article contours were a truncated ideal and a parabolic. The current paper is an extension of a 2009 AIAA JPC paper on the test results for the same two nozzle test articles. The side load moments were measured with the strain tube approach in MSFC s Nozzle Test Facility. The processing techniques implemented to convert the strain gage signals into side load moment data are explained. Nozzle wall pressure profiles for separated nozzle flow at many NPRs are presented and discussed in detail. The effect of the test cell diffuser inlet on the parabolic nozzle s wall pressure profiles for separated flow is shown. The maximum measured side load moments for the two contours are compared. The truncated ideal contour s peak side load moment was 45% of that of the parabolic contour. The calculated side load moments, via mean-plus-three-standard-deviations at each nozzle pressure ratio, reproduced the characteristics and absolute values of measured maximums for both contours. The effect of facility vibration on the measured side load moments is quantified and the effect on uncertainty is calculated. The nozzle contour designs are discussed and the impact of a minor fabrication flaw in the nozzle contours is explained.

  16. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    distillation plant is investigated more closely with the purpose of elucidating essential decisions behind planning experiments, which are suitable for identifying models and constraints. The basis for analysis of optimal operation is the type of operation upon which an application focuses. In this paper...... and their influence upon the further decisions behind the experimental design. An energy-integrated distillation column, which may exhibit fold bifurcations, is used as a relevant example process....

  17. Meta analysis of pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) as rumniant feed.

    OpenAIRE

    López-Herrera, Michael; WingChing-Jones, Rodolfo; Rojas-Baurillón, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential use of pineapple by-products in the diet of ruminants. A compilation of data and subsequent statistical analysis was performed on globally published research up until 2013. The results were used to create a nutritional characterization of the pineapple organ by organ, including whole plant, stover (leaves, stem and ratoons), fruit crown, heart, skin and fruit pulp, stem and roots. This characterization aims to optimize its use in rumi...

  18. An Introductory Classroom Exercise on Protein Molecular Model Visualization and Detailed Analysis of Protein-Ligand Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeylaut-Palena, Andres, A.; de los Angeles Laborde, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A learning module for molecular level analysis of protein structure and ligand/drug interaction through the visualization of X-ray diffraction is presented. Using DeepView as molecular model visualization software, students learn about the general concepts of protein structure. This Biochemistry classroom exercise is designed to be carried out by…

  19. Using a detailed uncertainty analysis to adjust mapped rates of forest disturbance derived from Landsat time series data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Stehman, S.; Huang, C.; Healey, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest ecosystem process models require spatially and temporally detailed disturbance data to accurately predict fluxes of carbon or changes in biodiversity over time. A variety of new mapping algorithms using dense Landsat time series show great promise for providing disturbance characterizations at an annual time step. These algorithms provide unprecedented detail with respect to timing, magnitude, and duration of individual disturbance events, and causal agent. But all maps have error and disturbance maps in particular can have significant omission error because many disturbances are relatively subtle. Because disturbance, although ubiquitous, can be a relatively rare event spatially in any given year, omission errors can have a great impact on mapped rates. Using a high quality reference disturbance dataset, it is possible to not only characterize map errors but also to adjust mapped disturbance rates to provide unbiased rate estimates with confidence intervals. We present results from a national-level disturbance mapping project (the North American Forest Dynamics project) based on the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) with annual Landsat time series and uncertainty analyses that consist of three basic components: response design, statistical design, and analyses. The response design describes the reference data collection, in terms of the tool used (TimeSync), a formal description of interpretations, and the approach for data collection. The statistical design defines the selection of plot samples to be interpreted, whether stratification is used, and the sample size. Analyses involve derivation of standard agreement matrices between the map and the reference data, and use of inclusion probabilities and post-stratification to adjust mapped disturbance rates. Because for NAFD we use annual time series, both mapped and adjusted rates are provided at an annual time step from ~1985-present. Preliminary evaluations indicate that VCT captures most of the higher

  20. The detailed analysis of natural radionuclides dissolved in spa waters of the Kłodzko Valley, Sudety Mountains, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walencik-Łata, A; Kozłowska, B; Dorda, J; Przylibski, T A

    2016-11-01

    A survey was conducted to measure natural radioactivity in spa waters from the Kłodzko Valley. The main goal of this study was to determine the activity concentration of uranium, radium and radon isotopes in the investigated groundwaters. Samples were collected several times from 35 water intakes from 5 spas and 2 mineral water bottling plants. The authors examined whether the increased gamma radiation background, as well as the elevated values of radium and uranium content in reservoir rocks, have a significant impact on the natural radioactivity of these waters. The second objective of this research was to provide information about geochemistry of U, Ra, Rn radionuclides and the radiological and chemical risks incurred by ingestion of isotopes with drinking water. On the basis of results obtained, it is feasible to assess the health hazard posed by ingestion of natural radioactivity with drinking waters. Moreover, the data yielded by this research may be helpful in the process of verification of the application of these waters in balneotherapy. In addition, annual effective radiation doses resulting from the isotopes consumption were calculated on the basis of the evaluated activity concentrations. In dose assessment for uranium and radium isotopes, the authors provided values for different human age groups. The obtained uranium content in the investigated waters was compared with the currently valid regulations concerning the quality of drinking water. Based on the activity concentrations data, the activity isotopic ratios (234)U/(238)U, (226)Ra/(238)U, (222)Rn/(238)U, (222)Rn/(226)Ra and the correlations between radionuclides content were then examined. In brief, it may be concluded on the basis of the obtained results that radon solubility is inversely proportional to radium and uranium dissolution in environmental water circulation. The presented study allows conclusions to be drawn on the radionuclide circulation among different environmental biota: from

  1. Pantex Plant final safety analysis report, Zone 4 magazines. Staging or interim storage for nuclear weapons and components: Issue D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains a detailed description and evaluation of the significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) issues associated with the operations of the Pantex Plant modified-Richmond and steel arch construction (SAC) magazines in Zone 4. It provides (1) an overall description of the magazines, the Pantex Plant, and its surroundings; (2) a systematic evaluations of the hazards that could occur as a result of the operations performed in these magazines; (3) descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards; and (4) analyses of potential accidents and their associated risks.

  2. Understanding human factors in rail engineering: re-analysis of detailed, qualitative data on functions and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brendan; Wilsona, John R; Schock, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on the review and re-analysis of information that has been collected in earlier field studies on the functions and associated risks in rail engineering and maintenance. Two methods of Cognitive Work Analysis have been adapted and used to identify and represent important components of the rail engineering system and the situations in which activities occur. Additional classification exercises have been used to determine issues of strategic importance to the organisation, related to the functions and human factors risks in performing these functions. The effectiveness of the methods in this industrial context has been evaluated. Conclusions are drawn on how this type of approach can be used to produce relevant findings on the following: What the organisation knows about roles, functions and descriptions of tasks that are relevant for engineering and maintenance work; (2) the HF risks for today's (and unless things change), tomorrow's railway; (3) how this knowledge can help in determining organisational priorities for future work.

  3. Investigation of the influence of design details on short implant biomechanics using colorimetric photoelastic analysis: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Zielak, João César; Archetti, Felipe Belmonte; Scotton,Ricardo; Filietaz,Marcelo; Carmen Lucia Mueller STORRER; Giovanini,Allan Fernando; Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : The clinical survival of a dental implant is directly related to its biomechanical behavior. Since short implants present lower bone/implant contact area, their design may be more critical to stress distribution to surrounding tissues. Photoelastic analysis is a biomechanical method that uses either simple qualitative results or complex calculations for the acquisition of quantitative data. In order to simplify data acquisition, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the inv...

  4. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, linoleic acid, udder health, and vaccelenic acid. Only 5 fatty acids showed small correlations with these groups. Factor analysis suggested the existence of differences in the metabolic pathways for de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Δ(9)-desaturase products. An ANOVA of factor scores highlighted significant effects of the dairy farming system (traditional or modern), season, herd/date, parity, and days in milk. Factor behavior across levels of fixed factors was consistent with current knowledge. For example, compared with cows farmed in modern herds, those in traditional herds had higher scores for branched fatty acids, which were inversely associated with milk yield; primiparous cows had lower scores than older cows for de novo fatty acids, probably due to a larger contribution of lipids mobilized from body depots on milk fat yield. The statistical approach allowed us to reduce a large number of variables to a few latent factors with biological

  5. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  6. Patient factors associated with increased acute care costs of hip fractures: a detailed analysis of 402 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, R; Meier Fedeler, T; Eschbach, D; Hack, J; Bliemel, C; Ruchholtz, S; Bücking, B

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify patient factors associated with higher costs in hip fracture patients. The mean costs of a prospectively observed sample of 402 patients were 8853 €. The ASA score, Charlson comorbidity index, and fracture location were associated with increased costs. Fractures of the proximal end of the femur (hip fractures) are of increasing incidence due to demographic changes. Relevant co-morbidities often present in these patients cause high complication rates and prolonged hospital stays, thus leading to high costs of acute care. The aim of this study was to perform a precise cost analysis of the actual hospital costs of hip fractures and to identify patient factors associated with increased costs. The basis of this analysis was a prospectively observed single-center trial, which included 402 patients with fractures of the proximal end of the femur. All potential cost factors were recorded as accurately as possible for each of the 402 patients individually, and statistical analysis was performed to identify associations between pre-existing patient factors and acute care costs. The mean total acute care costs per patient were 8853 ± 5676 € with ward costs (5828 ± 4294 €) and costs for surgical treatment (1972 ± 956 €) representing the major cost factors. The ASA score, Charlson comorbidity index, and fracture location were identified as influencing the costs of acute care for hip fracture treatment. Hip fractures are associated with high acute care costs. This study underlines the necessity of sophisticated risk-adjusted payment models based on specific patient factors. Economic aspects should be an integral part of future hip fracture research due to limited health care resources.

  7. Analyzing PACS Usage Patterns by Means of Process Mining: Steps Toward a More Detailed Workflow Analysis in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, statistical analysis and techniques from process mining are employed to analyze interaction patterns originating from radiologists reading medical images in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Event logs from 1 week of data, corresponding to 567 cases of single-view chest radiographs read by 14 radiologists, were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that the numbers of commands and command types used by the radiologists per case only have a slightly positive correlation with the time to read a case (0.31 and 0.55, respectively). Further, one way ANOVA showed that the factors time of day, radiologist and specialty were significant for the number of commands per case, whereas radiologist was also significant for the number of command types, but with no significance of any of the factors on time to read. Applying process mining to the event logs of all users showed that a seemingly "simple" examination (single-view chest radiographs) can be associated with a highly complex interaction process. However, repeating the process discovery on each individual radiologist revealed that the initially discovered complex interaction process consists of one group of radiologists with individually well-structured interaction processes and a second smaller group of users with progressively more complex usage patterns. Future research will focus on metrics to describe derived interaction processes in order to investigate if one set of interaction patterns can be considered as more efficient than another set when reading radiological images in a PACS.

  8. Improving antibiotic prescribing for adults with community acquired pneumonia: Does a computerised decision support system achieve more than academic detailing alone? – a time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black James F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal method to encourage uptake of clinical guidelines in hospitals is not known. Several strategies have been suggested. This study evaluates the impact of academic detailing and a computerised decision support system (CDSS on clinicians' prescribing behaviour for patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP. Methods The management of all patients presenting to the emergency department over three successive time periods was evaluated; the baseline, academic detailing and CDSS periods. The rate of empiric antibiotic prescribing that was concordant with recommendations was studied over time comparing pre and post periods and using an interrupted time series analysis. Results The odds ratio for concordant therapy in the academic detailing period, after adjustment for age, illness severity and suspicion of aspiration, compared with the baseline period was OR = 2.79 [1.88, 4.14], p Conclusion Deployment of a computerised decision support system was associated with an early improvement in antibiotic prescribing practices which was greater than the changes seen with academic detailing. The sustainability of this intervention requires further evaluation.

  9. Energy engineering analysis, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Burlington, Iowa. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonik, D.M.

    1982-06-22

    This Energy Engineering Analysis consists of the main report, three appendices, and a summary of annual energy consumption on a per-building basis. The main report identifies the purpose of the study, describes the existing and anticipated energy use trends, and defines and summarizes specific energy conservation projects recommended to achieve the goals stated in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. Appendices I, II and III, and the Annual Energy Consumption Summary include building information, weather data, cost data, and detailed computer-generated and manual calculations for each individual project. The analysis will enable ammunition plant personnel to identify energy conservation measures and meet Army energy reduction goals. The report includes: Energy consumption by fuel type Energy consumption trends ECAM projects Other potential projects Quick-fix management form Description of analyzed buildings In addition, the Analysis is a detailed data base consisting of: An analysis of building energy use Energy Conservation Measures applied to each analyzed building to be improved A set of marked-up prints from the survey indicating the conditions when surveyed.

  10. Laser fluorometric analysis of plants for uranium exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, T.F.; Ward, F.N.; Erdman, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary test of biogeochemical exploration for locating uranium occurrences in the Marfa Basin, Texas, was conducted in 1978. Only 6 of 74 plant samples (mostly catclaw mimosa, Mimosa biuncifera) contained uranium in amounts above the detection limit (0.4 ppm in the ash) of the conventional fluorometric method. The samples were then analyzed using a Scintrex UA-3 uranium analyzer* * Use of trade names in this paper is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. - an instrument designed for direct analysis of uranium in water, and which can be conveniently used in a mobile field laboratory. The detection limit for uranium in plant ash (0.05 ppm) by this method is almost an order of magnitude lower than with the fluorometric conventional method. Only 1 of the 74 samples contained uranium below the detection limit of the new method. Accuracy and precision were determined to be satisfactory. Samples of plants growing on mineralized soils and nonmineralized soils show a 15-fold difference in uranium content; whereas the soils themselves (analyzed by delayed neutron activation analysis) show only a 4-fold difference. The method involves acid digestion of ashed tissue, extraction of uranium into ethyl acetate, destruction of the ethyl acetate, dissolution of the residue in 0.005% nitric acid, and measurement. ?? 1981.

  11. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis of plant cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuewen; Alonso, Ana P; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of plant cell wall synthesis pathways remains poorly understood. This has become a bottleneck in designing bioenergy crops. The goal of this study was to analyze the regulation of plant cell wall precursor metabolism using metabolic flux analysis based on dynamic labeling experiments. Arabidopsis T87 cells were cultured heterotrophically with (13)C labeled sucrose. The time course of ¹³C labeling patterns in cell wall precursors and related sugar phosphates was monitored using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry until steady state labeling was reached. A kinetic model based on mass action reaction mechanisms was developed to simulate the carbon flow in the cell wall synthesis network. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by fitting the model to the labeling time course data, cell wall composition, and synthesis rates. A metabolic control analysis was performed to predict metabolic regulations that may improve plant biomass composition for biofuel production. Our results describe the routes and rates of carbon flow from sucrose to cell wall precursors. We found that sucrose invertase is responsible for the entry of sucrose into metabolism and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase plays a dominant role in UDP-Gal synthesis in heterotrophic Aradidopsis cells under aerobic conditions. We also predicted reactions that exert strong regulatory influence over carbon flow to cell wall synthesis and its composition.

  12. PSIDD (2): A Prototype Post-Scan Interactive Data Display System for Detailed Analysis of Ultrasonic Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Roth, Don J.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the description of PSIDD(2), a post-scan interactive data display system for ultrasonic contact scan and single measurement analysis. PSIDD(2) was developed in conjunction with ASTM standards for ultrasonic velocity and attenuation coefficient contact measurements. This system has been upgraded from its original version PSIDD(1) and improvements are described in this article. PSIDD(2) implements a comparison mode where the display of time domain waveforms and ultrasonic properties versus frequency can be shown for up to five scan points on one plot. This allows the rapid contrasting of sample areas exhibiting different ultrasonic properties as initially indicated by the ultrasonic contact scan image. This improvement plus additional features to be described in the article greatly facilitate material microstructural appraisal.

  13. A Detailed Analysis of Visible Defects Formed in Commercial Silicon Thin-Film Modules During Outdoor Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Andreas; Johnston, Steve; Olivera-Pimentel, Guillermo; Siegloch, Max; Pieters, Bart; Rau, Uwe

    2016-11-21

    We analyzed defects in silicon thin-film tandem (a-Si:H/..mu..c-Si:H) modules from an outdoor installation in India. The inspection of several affected modules reveals that most of the defects -- which optically appear as bright spots -- were formed primarily nearby the separation and series connection laser lines. Cross-sectional SEM analysis reveals that the bright spots emerge due to electrical isolation, caused by a delamination of the cell from the front TCO in the affected area. In addition, the morphology of the a-Si:H top cell differs in the delaminated area compared to the surrounding unaffected area. We propose that these effects are potentially caused by an explosive and thermally triggered liberation of hydrogen from the a-Si:H layer. Electrical and thermal measurements reveal that these defects can impact the cell performance significantly.

  14. A Detailed Assessment of Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA) to Predict the Hydrodynamics of a Deep-V Planing Hull

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Thomas C; Judge, Carolyn Q; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Brucker, Kyle A; Wyatt, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years much progress has been made in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in its ability to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics associated with a deep-V monohull planing craft. This work has focused on not only predicting the hydrodynamic forces and moments, but also the complex multiphase free-surface flow field generated by a deep-V monohull planing boat at high Froude numbers. One of these state of the art CFD codes is Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA). NFA provides turnkey capabilities to model breaking waves around a ship, including both plunging and spilling breaking waves, the formation of spray, and the entrainment of air. NFA uses a Cartesian-grid formulation with immersed body and volume-of-fluid methods.

  15. A Detailed Numerical Analysis of Asymmetrical Density Distribution in Saturn's F ring During an Encounter with Prometheus

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, Phil J

    2013-01-01

    Saturn's rings, reminiscent of an early Solar System present a unique opportunity to investigate experimentally some mechanisms thought to be responsible for planet and planetesimal formation in protoplanetary discs. Here we extended the comparison of our numerical models of Prometheus encountering the F ring employing non-interacting and interacting particles. Higher resolution analysis revealed that the density increases known to exist at channel edges is more complex and localised than previously thought. Asymmetry between density increases on channel edges revealed that the channel edge facing way from Prometheus to be the most stable but with lowest maximum increases. However, on the channel edge facing Prometheus the interacting model showed large chaotic fluctuations in the maximum density of some clumps, much larger than those of the other channel. The likely cause of this asymmetry is a variance in localised turbulence introduced into the F ring by Prometheus. High resolution velocity dispersion maps...

  16. PGSB/MIPS PlantsDB Database Framework for the Integration and Analysis of Plant Genome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2017-01-01

    Plant Genome and Systems Biology (PGSB), formerly Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) PlantsDB, is a database framework for the integration and analysis of plant genome data, developed and maintained for more than a decade now. Major components of that framework are genome databases and analysis resources focusing on individual (reference) genomes providing flexible and intuitive access to data. Another main focus is the integration of genomes from both model and crop plants to form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny). Data exchange and integrated search functionality with/over many plant genome databases is provided within the transPLANT project.

  17. Bioinformatic Identification and Analysis of Extensins in the Plant Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wolfe, Richard; Welch, Lonnie R.; Domozych, David S.; Popper, Zoë A.; Showalter, Allan M.

    2016-01-01

    Extensins (EXTs) are a family of plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that are implicated to play important roles in plant growth, development, and defense. Structurally, EXTs are characterized by the repeated occurrence of serine (Ser) followed by three to five prolines (Pro) residues, which are hydroxylated as hydroxyproline (Hyp) and glycosylated. Some EXTs have Tyrosine (Tyr)-X-Tyr (where X can be any amino acid) motifs that are responsible for intramolecular or intermolecular cross-linkings. EXTs can be divided into several classes: classical EXTs, short EXTs, leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs), proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases (PERKs), formin-homolog EXTs (FH EXTs), chimeric EXTs, and long chimeric EXTs. To guide future research on the EXTs and understand evolutionary history of EXTs in the plant kingdom, a bioinformatics study was conducted to identify and classify EXTs from 16 fully sequenced plant genomes, including Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Physcomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Pinus taeda, Picea abies, Brachypodium distachyon, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Brassica rapa, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum, to supplement data previously obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. A total of 758 EXTs were newly identified, including 87 classical EXTs, 97 short EXTs, 61 LRXs, 75 PERKs, 54 FH EXTs, 38 long chimeric EXTs, and 346 other chimeric EXTs. Several notable findings were made: (1) classical EXTs were likely derived after the terrestrialization of plants; (2) LRXs, PERKs, and FHs were derived earlier than classical EXTs; (3) monocots have few classical EXTs; (4) Eudicots have the greatest number of classical EXTs and Tyr-X-Tyr cross-linking motifs are predominantly in classical EXTs; (5) green algae have no classical EXTs but have a number of long chimeric EXTs that are absent in

  18. Bioinformatic Identification and Analysis of Extensins in the Plant Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available Extensins (EXTs are a family of plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs that are implicated to play important roles in plant growth, development, and defense. Structurally, EXTs are characterized by the repeated occurrence of serine (Ser followed by three to five prolines (Pro residues, which are hydroxylated as hydroxyproline (Hyp and glycosylated. Some EXTs have Tyrosine (Tyr-X-Tyr (where X can be any amino acid motifs that are responsible for intramolecular or intermolecular cross-linkings. EXTs can be divided into several classes: classical EXTs, short EXTs, leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs, proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases (PERKs, formin-homolog EXTs (FH EXTs, chimeric EXTs, and long chimeric EXTs. To guide future research on the EXTs and understand evolutionary history of EXTs in the plant kingdom, a bioinformatics study was conducted to identify and classify EXTs from 16 fully sequenced plant genomes, including Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Physcomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Pinus taeda, Picea abies, Brachypodium distachyon, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Brassica rapa, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum, to supplement data previously obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. A total of 758 EXTs were newly identified, including 87 classical EXTs, 97 short EXTs, 61 LRXs, 75 PERKs, 54 FH EXTs, 38 long chimeric EXTs, and 346 other chimeric EXTs. Several notable findings were made: (1 classical EXTs were likely derived after the terrestrialization of plants; (2 LRXs, PERKs, and FHs were derived earlier than classical EXTs; (3 monocots have few classical EXTs; (4 Eudicots have the greatest number of classical EXTs and Tyr-X-Tyr cross-linking motifs are predominantly in classical EXTs; (5 green algae have no classical EXTs but have a number of long chimeric EXTs that are absent in

  19. Towards structural and functional analysis of the plant plasma membrane proton pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a proton pump essential for several physiological important processes in plants. Through the extrusion of protons from the cell, the PM H+-ATPase establishes and maintains a proton gradient used by proton coupled transporters and secondary active transport......, and regulation of H+-ATPases, key questions, in particular concerning the detailed interaction of regulator proteins with the H+-ATPases, remains answering that may require the use of new approaches. In this work the proton pump Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H+-ATPase isoform 2 has been reconstituted...... into soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers, also termed nanodiscs. Extensive analysis confirms the correct assembly and reconstitution of active proton pump into nanodiscs. The pump inserts as a monomer, which through activity analysis confirms this as the minimal functional unit of the plasma membrane H...

  20. Exergy analysis of thermoelectric power plants; Analisis exergetico de centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chejne J, Farid; Florez E, Whady F.; Ordonez R, Juan C.; Botero, G.; Edgar, A. [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Energia y Termodinamica

    1997-12-31

    An analysis of an electric energy generation plant based on first and second law of thermodynamics has been done. In this paper, a detailed approach to the concepts of quantity and quality of energy is presented. Usually, when energy is in an organized form (high quality energy like work), it does not degrade the environment, therefore, the associated cost to improve it is null. In contrast, the conversion process of unorganized energy (i.e. low quality such as heat), has an implicit impact on the surroundings. The analysis address the need for studying industrial processes having into account the availability or exergy in order to understand systems which degrade or destroy the quality of an energy resource. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: fchejne at janua.upb.edu.co

  1. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant’s electrophysiological response. therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP. This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii combustion of the fuel, and (iii heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  4. A Detailed Analysis of the Physical Conditions in the Infrared Dark Clouds in the Region IGGC 16/23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Tolls, Volker

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about why the star formation rate is low in the Galactic Center and Galactic Bar region of the Milky Way. Clump 2 is located at a distance of ~400 pc from the Galactic Center in the Galactic Bar region near the edge of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). Molecular clouds in this region are too distant to be influenced by the central black hole. However, despite of its location, Clump 2 is comprised of molecular clouds that show the same low star formation rate as those in the Galactic Center. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE and APEX dust continuum emission data, our measurements indicate that cores in the IGGC 16/23 region have dust masses and densities comparable to those of more typical star-forming molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. In addition, we analyzed Herschel HIFI high-J 12CO emission line observations supplemented by MOPRA molecular line observations. We find that the IGGC 16/23 region is composed of many smaller cores with different systemic velocities in the same line of sight advocating that additional analysis should be done to provide better constraints on the core sizes and masses to confirm that the core masses are below their virial masses and, thus, are not collapsing.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  5. A detailed numerical analysis of asymmetrical density distribution in Saturn's F ring during an encounter with Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's rings, reminiscent of an early Solar system present a unique opportunity to investigate experimentally some mechanisms thought to be responsible for planet and planetesimal formation in protoplanetary discs. Here, we extended the comparison of our numerical models of Prometheus encountering the F ring employing non-interacting and interacting particles. Higher resolution analysis revealed that the density increases known to exist at channel edges is more complex and localized than previously thought. Asymmetry between density increases on channel edges revealed that the channel edge facing way from Prometheus to be the most stable but with lowest maximum increases. However, on the channel edge facing Prometheus the interacting model showed large chaotic fluctuations in the maximum density of some clumps, much larger than those of the other channel. The likely cause of this asymmetry is a variance in localized turbulence introduced into the F ring by Prometheus. High-resolution velocity dispersion maps showed that there was a spatial link between the highest densities and the highest velocity dispersions in the interacting model. Thus, suggesting that the high velocity dispersion we see is the reason for the observed inhomogeneous distribution of fans (evidence of embedded moonlets) on some of the channel edges facing Prometheus.

  6. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jose D; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Polak, Joseph F; Budoff, Matthew J; Bluemke, David A

    2016-06-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included.

  7. Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Coutte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease Borrelia can infect humans and animals for months to years, despite the presence of an active host immune response. The vls antigenic variation system, which expresses the surface-exposed lipoprotein VlsE, plays a major role in B. burgdorferi immune evasion. Gene conversion between vls silent cassettes and the vlsE expression site occurs at high frequency during mammalian infection, resulting in sequence variation in the VlsE product. In this study, we examined vlsE sequence variation in B. burgdorferi B31 during mouse infection by analyzing 1,399 clones isolated from bladder, heart, joint, ear, and skin tissues of mice infected for 4 to 365 days. The median number of codon changes increased progressively in C3H/HeN mice from 4 to 28 days post infection, and no clones retained the parental vlsE sequence at 28 days. In contrast, the decrease in the number of clones with the parental vlsE sequence and the increase in the number of sequence changes occurred more gradually in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. Clones containing a stop codon were isolated, indicating that continuous expression of full-length VlsE is not required for survival in vivo; also, these clones continued to undergo vlsE recombination. Analysis of clones with apparent single recombination events indicated that recombinations into vlsE are nonselective with regard to the silent cassette utilized, as well as the length and location of the recombination event. Sequence changes as small as one base pair were common. Fifteen percent of recovered vlsE variants contained "template-independent" sequence changes, which clustered in the variable regions of vlsE. We hypothesize that the increased frequency and complexity of vlsE sequence changes observed in clones recovered from immunocompetent mice (as compared with SCID mice is due to rapid clearance of relatively invariant clones by variable region-specific anti-VlsE antibody responses.

  8. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  9. A project to improve the capabilities of minorities in energy fields and a cost benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara, T.S.; Jones, M. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    The project being reported in this document had three components: (1) a research project to carry out cost-benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant at Tuskegee University, (2) seminars to improve the high-technology capabilities of minority persons, and (3) a class in energy management. The report provides a background on the three components listed above. The results from the research on the ethyl alcohol plant, are discussed, along with the seminars, and details of the energy management class.

  10. A project to improve the capabilities of minorities in energy fields and a cost benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara, T.S.; Jones, M. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    The project being reported in this document had three components: (1) a research project to carry out cost-benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant at Tuskegee University, (2) seminars to improve the high-technology capabilities of minority persons, and (3) a class in energy management. The report provides a background on the three components listed above. The results from the research on the ethyl alcohol plant, are discussed, along with the seminars, and details of the energy management class.

  11. Flux analysis in plant metabolic networks: increasing throughput and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Björn H

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative information about metabolic networks has been mainly obtained at the level of metabolite contents, transcript abundance, and enzyme activities. However, the active process of metabolism is represented by the flow of matter through the pathways. These metabolic fluxes can be predicted by Flux Balance Analysis or determined experimentally by (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis. These relatively complicated and time-consuming methods have recently seen significant improvements at the level of coverage and throughput. Metabolic models have developed from single cell models into whole-organism dynamic models. Advances in lab automation and data handling have significantly increased the throughput of flux measurements. This review summarizes advances to increase coverage and throughput of metabolic flux analysis in plants.

  12. Analysis in environmental radioactivity around Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, again of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied form KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin NPPs and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  13. Impact of plant invasions on local arthropod communities: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive plants can have a major impact on local plant and animal communities. However, effects of plant invasions on arthropod communities and the potential drivers have rarely been studied. 2. We present a meta-analysis of 56 studies on the impact of plant invasions on abundance and richness of

  14. Impact of plant invasions on local arthropod communities: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive plants can have a major impact on local plant and animal communities. However, effects of plant invasions on arthropod communities and the potential drivers have rarely been studied. 2. We present a meta-analysis of 56 studies on the impact of plant invasions on abundance and richness of

  15. Diagnostics of subtropical plants functional state by cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Belous

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application example of statistical methods for data analysis on diagnosis of the adaptive capacity of subtropical plants varieties. We depicted selection indicators and basic physiological parameters that were defined as diagnostic. We used evaluation on a set of parameters of water regime, there are: determination of water deficit of the leaves, determining the fractional composition of water and detection parameters of the concentration of cell sap (CCS (for tea culture flushes. These settings are characterized by high liability and high responsiveness to the effects of many abiotic factors that determined the particular care in the selection of plant material for analysis and consideration of the impact on sustainability. On the basis of the experimental data calculated the coefficients of pair correlation between climatic factors and used physiological indicators. The result was a selection of physiological and biochemical indicators proposed to assess the adaptability and included in the basis of methodical recommendations on diagnostics of the functional state of the studied cultures. Analysis of complex studies involving a large number of indicators is quite difficult, especially does not allow to quickly identify the similarity of new varieties for their adaptive responses to adverse factors, and, therefore, to set general requirements to conditions of cultivation. Use of cluster analysis suggests that in the analysis of only quantitative data; define a set of variables used to assess varieties (and the more sampling, the more accurate the clustering will happen, be sure to ascertain the measure of similarity (or difference between objects. It is shown that the identification of diagnostic features, which are subjected to statistical processing, impact the accuracy of the varieties classification. Selection in result of the mono-clusters analysis (variety tea Kolhida; hazelnut Lombardsky red; variety kiwi Monty

  16. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  17. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-11-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  18. A clustering approach for the analysis of solar energy yields: A case study for concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; García-Barberena, Javier; Guisado, María Vicenta; Gastón, Martín

    2016-05-01

    The design of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSTP) systems requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the meteorology at the site of interest. Meteorological series are often condensed into one representative year with the aim of data volume reduction and speeding-up of energy system simulations, defined as Typical Meteorological Year (TMY). This approach seems to be appropriate for rather detailed simulations of a specific plant; however, in previous stages of the design of a power plant, especially during the optimization of the large number of plant parameters before a final design is reached, a huge number of simulations are needed. Even with today's technology, the computational effort to simulate solar energy system performance with one year of data at high frequency (as 1-min) may become colossal if a multivariable optimization has to be performed. This work presents a simple and efficient methodology for selecting number of individual days able to represent the electrical production of the plant throughout the complete year. To achieve this objective, a new procedure for determining a reduced set of typical weather data in order to evaluate the long-term performance of a solar energy system is proposed. The proposed methodology is based on cluster analysis and permits to drastically reduce computational effort related to the calculation of a CSTP plant energy yield by simulating a reduced number of days from a high frequency TMY.

  19. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  20. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  1. Development of RCM analysis software for Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jeong, Hyeong Jong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A software called KEPCO RCM workstation (KRCM) has been developed to optimize the maintenance strategies of Korean nuclear power plants. The program modules of the KRCM were designed in a manner that combines EPRI methodologies and KEPRI analysis technique. The KRCM is being applied to the three pilot system, chemical and volume control system, main steam system, and compressed air system of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. In addition, the KRCM can be utilized as a tool to meet a part of the requirements of maintenance rule (MR) imposed by U.S. NRC. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  2. Methods and tools for analysis and optimization of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen

    2000-09-01

    The most noticeable advantage of the introduction of the computer-aided tools in the field of power generation, has been the ability to study the plant's performance prior to the construction phase. The results of these studies have made it possible to change and adjust the plant layout to match the pre-defined requirements. Further development of computers in recent years has opened up for implementation of new features in the existing tools and also for the development of new tools for specific applications, like thermodynamic and economic optimization, prediction of the remaining component life time, and fault diagnostics, resulting in improvement of the plant's performance, availability and reliability. The most common tools for pre-design studies are heat and mass balance programs. Further thermodynamic and economic optimization of plant layouts, generated by the heat and mass balance programs, can be accomplished by using pinch programs, exergy analysis and thermoeconomics. Surveillance and fault diagnostics of existing systems can be performed by using tools like condition monitoring systems and artificial neural networks. The increased number of tools and their various construction and application areas make the choice of the most adequate tool for a certain application difficult. In this thesis the development of different categories of tools and techniques, and their application area are reviewed and presented. Case studies on both existing and theoretical power plant layouts have been performed using different commercially available tools to illuminate their advantages and shortcomings. The development of power plant technology and the requirements for new tools and measurement systems have been briefly reviewed. This thesis contains also programming techniques and calculation methods concerning part-load calculations using local linearization, which has been implemented in an inhouse heat and mass balance program developed by the author

  3. PlantPAN: Plant promoter analysis navigator, for identifying combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with distance constraint in plant gene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsien-Da

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of transcriptional regulation in plant genes is important area of research for plant scientists, following the mapping of various plant genomes, such as A. thaliana, O. sativa and Z. mays. A variety of bioinformatic servers or databases of plant promoters have been established, although most have been focused only on annotating transcription factor binding sites in a single gene and have neglected some important regulatory elements (tandem repeats and CpG/CpNpG islands in promoter regions. Additionally, the combinatorial interaction of transcription factors (TFs is important in regulating the gene group that is associated with the same expression pattern. Therefore, a tool for detecting the co-regulation of transcription factors in a group of gene promoters is required. Results This study develops a database-assisted system, PlantPAN (Plant Promoter Analysis Navigator, for recognizing combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with a distance constraint in sets of plant genes. The system collects the plant transcription factor binding profiles from PLACE, TRANSFAC (public release 7.0, AGRIS, and JASPER databases and allows users to input a group of gene IDs or promoter sequences, enabling the co-occurrence of combinatorial transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs within a defined distance (20 bp to 200 bp to be identified. Furthermore, the new resource enables other regulatory features in a plant promoter, such as CpG/CpNpG islands and tandem repeats, to be displayed. The regulatory elements in the conserved regions of the promoters across homologous genes are detected and presented. Conclusion In addition to providing a user-friendly input/output interface, PlantPAN has numerous advantages in the analysis of a plant promoter. Several case studies have established the effectiveness of PlantPAN. This novel analytical resource is now freely available at http://PlantPAN.mbc.nctu.edu.tw.

  4. Analysis of photovoltaic/thermal electric power plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluck, D.F.; Kelley, W.A.

    1979-03-01

    A conceptual definition and performance evaluation of a 100 megawatt (MW) hybrid photovoltaic/thermal electric power plant has been carried out. The concept utilizes the ability of gallium arsenide photovoltaic cells to achieve high conversion efficiency at high incident fluxes and elevated temperatures. Solar energy is focused by a field of steerable mirrors (heliostats) onto a tower mounted receiver whose outer surface is covered with gallium arsenide (AlGaAs/GaAs) solar cells and whose inner surface is a water boiler. The solar cells convert a fraction of the incident radiation into electrical energy, and the remaining energy is extracted at approximately 200/sup 0/C and used to power a Rankine cycle turbine generator (bottoming cycle). Water is used as the solar cell array coolant, as the thermodynamic working fluid, and as the thermal energy storage medium. Parametric studies were conducted to select conceptual design parameters and operational characteristics which imply the lowest levelized busbar electric energy costs. Parameters varied were collector area, condenser surface area, fan power, ambient temperature, and electric and thermal energy storage capacities. The report describes the concept, outlines the design analysis method, summarizes the parametric study results, and defines the selected plant configuration. The lowest levelized busbar electric energy generation cost, 70 mills/kilowatt-hr., was achieved with a relatively small collector area, 0.8 x 10/sup 6/ square meters, and no stored energy. A rough comparison of this combined power plant with a similar photovoltaic plant, operated at lower solar cell temperature and with no bottoming cycle, showed the busbar cost of electricity (BBEC) from the combined system to be approximately 9% lower.

  5. Phonetic Detail in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Freeze

    1987-01-01

    @@ In the course of teaching general phonetics and phonological analysis in the psat few years,l have found some phonetic detail which some native speakers as well as non-native speakers were unaware of. This subtle detail will be the focus of this presentation. Som e of this detail many of you will already be aware of because of your experience in learning, teaching, and thinking about English. If anything is new to you, I hope you might enjoy hearing about it even if it turns out not to be useful in your work.

  6. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Allani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS. This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System that integrates the parabolic trough into a fossil fired combined cycle, which allows a larger exergy potential of the fuel to be converted. b the HSTS (Hybrid Solar Tower System which uses high concentration optics (via a power tower generator and high temperature air receivers to drive the combined cycle power plant. In the latter case, solar energy is used at a higher exergy level as a heat source of the topping cycle. This paper presents the results of a thermoeconomic investigation of an ISCCS envisaged in Tunisia. The study is realized in two phases. In the first phase, a mixed approach, based on pinch technology principles coupled with a mathematical optimization algorithm, is used to minimize the heat transfer exergy losses in the steam generators, respecting the off design operating conditions of the steam turbine (cone law. In the second phase, an economic analysis based on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC approach was carried out for the configurations, which provided the best concepts during the first phase. A comparison of ISCCS with pure fossil fueled plants (CC+GT is reported for the same electrical power load. A sensitivity analysis based on the relative size of the solar field is presented.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  7. Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located near Paducah , Kentucky, under the same IAG and is reported under...Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Portsmouth, Ohio by David W. Sykora, Jennifer J. Davis Geotechnical Laboratory...PAPER Miscellaneous Paper GL-93-13 August 1993 Site-Specific Earthquke Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Portsmouth, Ohio by

  8. Grid connected Integrated Community Energy System: Phase II. Detailed feasibibility analysis and preliminary design. Final report, Stage 2. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The preliminary design and cost analysis of a proposed Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) to serve a multi-million square footage medical complex of the Health Education Authority of Louisiana are presented. This ICES is designed as a multi-fuel plant (coal or natural gas), operation is to begin in 1982, and the system will initially supply 40 x 10/sup 6/ kWh of electric power and 854 x 10/sup 0/ lbs of steam annually to meet the heating, refrigeration, and power demands of the complex. The total construction cost of the ICES is estimated as $35 million. (LCL)

  9. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    OpenAIRE

    Luchakivska Yu. S.; Komarnytskii I. K.; Kurchenko I. M.; Yurieva O. M.; Zhytkevich N. V.; Kuchuk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the sali...

  10. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL IN ENHANCING PHYTOREMEDIATION EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Piński; Katarzyna Hupert-Kocurek

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants in order to cleanup pollutants including xenobiotics and heavy metals from soil, water and air. Inoculation of plants with plant growth promoting endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria can enhance efficiency of phytoremediation. Genomic analysis of four plant-associated strains belonging to the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species revealed the presence of genes encoding proteins involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of phytopa...

  11. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant...

  12. Detailed Analysis of the Binding Mode of Vanilloids to Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type I (TRPV1) by a Mutational and Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshikazu; Ogawa, Kazuo; Warabi, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Takatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel and a multimodal sensor protein. Since the precise structure of TRPV1 was obtained by electron cryo-microscopy, the binding mode of representative agonists such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been extensively characterized; however, detailed information on the binding mode of other vanilloids remains lacking. In this study, mutational analysis of human TRPV1 was performed, and four agonists (capsaicin, RTX, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol) were used to identify amino acid residues involved in ligand binding and/or modulation of proton sensitivity. The detailed binding mode of each ligand was then simulated by computational analysis. As a result, three amino acids (L518, F591 and L670) were newly identified as being involved in ligand binding and/or modulation of proton sensitivity. In addition, in silico docking simulation and a subsequent mutational study suggested that [6]-gingerol might bind to and activate TRPV1 in a unique manner. These results provide novel insights into the binding mode of various vanilloids to the channel and will be helpful in developing a TRPV1 modulator. PMID:27606946

  13. RootGraph: a graphic optimization tool for automated image analysis of plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinhai; Zeng, Zhanghui; Connor, Jason N; Huang, Chun Yuan; Melino, Vanessa; Kumar, Pankaj; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2015-11-01

    This paper outlines a numerical scheme for accurate, detailed, and high-throughput image analysis of plant roots. In contrast to existing root image analysis tools that focus on root system-average traits, a novel, fully automated and robust approach for the detailed characterization of root traits, based on a graph optimization process is presented. The scheme, firstly, distinguishes primary roots from lateral roots and, secondly, quantifies a broad spectrum of root traits for each identified primary and lateral root. Thirdly, it associates lateral roots and their properties with the specific primary root from which the laterals emerge. The performance of this approach was evaluated through comparisons with other automated and semi-automated software solutions as well as against results based on manual measurements. The comparisons and subsequent application of the algorithm to an array of experimental data demonstrate that this method outperforms existing methods in terms of accuracy, robustness, and the ability to process root images under high-throughput conditions.

  14. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  15. LOCKE Detailed Specification Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Menezo, Lucia G; Gregorio, Jose-Angel

    2012-01-01

    This document shows the detailed specification of LOCKE coherence protocol for each cache controller, using a table-based technique. This representation provides clear, concise visual information yet includes sufficient detail (e.g., transient states) arguably lacking in the traditional, graphical form of state diagrams.

  16. Detail and survey radioautographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Wm.W.

    1949-04-19

    The much used survey or contact type of radioautograph is indispensible for a study of the gross distribution of radioactive materials. A detail radioautograph is equally indispensible. The radioautograph makes possible the determination of plutonium with respect to cells. Outlines of survey and detail techniques are given.

  17. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL IN ENHANCING PHYTOREMEDIATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Piński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants in order to cleanup pollutants including xenobiotics and heavy metals from soil, water and air. Inoculation of plants with plant growth promoting endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria can enhance efficiency of phytoremediation. Genomic analysis of four plant-associated strains belonging to the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species revealed the presence of genes encoding proteins involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of phytopathogens, biodegradation of xenobiotics, heavy metals resistance and plant-bacteria-environment interaction. The results of this analysis suggest great potential of bacteria belonging to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species in enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

  18. GIS Analysis Summary on CDMA Network Call Detailed Log%CDMA网络中用户通话记录的GIS分析概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智博

    2014-01-01

    Call Detailed Log in CDMA network can provide wireless info,user info and terminal info,.This paper summarythe GIS analysis methods (locating analysis,spatial analysis,and raster analysis) and their application environments.%CDMA无线网络中,主流厂商的无线设备都会生成用户的通话记录数据,如阿尔卡特朗讯公司的PCMD(Per Call Measure Data)和摩托罗拉公司的CDL(Call Detail Log)等。相比传统无线网络优化手段(DT、CQT)和性能统计指标(KPI)而言,用户通话记录能提供无线环境信息以及用户和终端属性,通过对其的分析和运用,已经在无线网络运维和优化工作中发挥了举足轻重的作用,并且还有相当深度的潜力有待挖掘。除了常规的统计学分析方法之外,在实际应用中基于GIS的分析方法越来越受到重视。本文概括总结了用户通话记录应用中的GIS定位分析、GIS空间分析和GIS栅格分析等方法,并对这些方法的业务应用场景做了归纳和总结。

  19. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of thermosolar plants; Analisis termodinamico de plantas termosolares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Felipe; Rojas, Armando [UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work we obtained the mathematical expressions to calculate the concentration area for parabolic trough and central tower solar systems in thermosolar plants. Thermodynamic analysis considering 1{sup s}t and 2{sup n}d laws were made for gas and steam energy conversion cycles joined to thermosolar plants. Economical analysis were made too. In this way, higher thermal efficiencies 57.4, 58, 57 y 58.1% and 2{sup n}d law efficiencies 76.6, 77.5, 76, y 77.6% were found with combined cycle and central tower solar system. However, the cheaper configuration (773.5 USD/MWh), found by the economic analysis, was the parabolic trough solar system with steam cycle. [Spanish] En este trabajo se determinan las expresiones matematicas para obtener el area de concentracion requerida en plantas termosolares de canal parabolico y de torre central combinadas con ciclos de generacion convencionales. Se realiza el analisis termodinamico con base en la primera y segunda ley a cada ciclo y asi mismo se efectua el analisis economico de dichos arreglos. Se encuentra que las mayores eficiencias termicas 57.4, 58, 57 y 58.1% y las eficiencias de 2 ley: 76.6, 77.5, 76, y 77.6% se tienen con sistema de torre central y ciclo combinado. El analisis economico expresa que el sistema solar con concentradores de canal parabolico con ciclos de vapor presenta el menor costo total de generacion (773.5 USD/MWh).

  1. Reliability analysis of a wastewater treatment plant using fault tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyoun, Masoud; Moradinejad, Saber

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of a wastewater treatment plant is a critical issue when the effluent is reused or discharged to water resources. Main factors affecting the performance of the wastewater treatment plant are the variation of the influent, inherent variability in the treatment processes, deficiencies in design, mechanical equipment, and operational failures. Thus, meeting the established reuse/discharge criteria requires assessment of plant reliability. Among many techniques developed in system reliability analysis, fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the popular and efficient methods. FTA is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed. In this study, the problem of reliability was studied on Tehran West Town wastewater treatment plant. This plant is a conventional activated sludge process, and the effluent is reused in landscape irrigation. The fault tree diagram was established with the violation of allowable effluent BOD as the top event in the diagram, and the deficiencies of the system were identified based on the developed model. Some basic events are operator's mistake, physical damage, and design problems. The analytical method is minimal cut sets (based on numerical probability) and Monte Carlo simulation. Basic event probabilities were calculated according to available data and experts' opinions. The results showed that human factors, especially human error had a great effect on top event occurrence. The mechanical, climate, and sewer system factors were in subsequent tier. Literature shows applying FTA has been seldom used in the past wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) risk analysis studies. Thus, the developed FTA model in this study considerably improves the insight into causal failure analysis of a WWTP. It provides an efficient tool for WWTP operators and decision makers to achieve the standard limits in wastewater reuse and discharge to the environment.

  2. Advanced Thermodynamic Analysis and Evaluation of a Supercritical Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tsatsaronis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A conventional exergy analysis can highlight the main components having high thermodynamic inefficiencies, but cannot consider the interactions among components or the true potential for the improvement of each component. By splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts, the advanced exergy analysis is capable of providing additional information to conventional exergy analysis for improving the design and operation of energy conversion systems. This paper presents the application of both a conventional and an advanced exergy analysis to a supercritical coal-fired power plant. The results show that the ratio of exogenous exergy destruction differs quite a lot from component to component. In general, almost 90% of the total exergy destruction within turbines comes from their endogenous parts, while that of feedwater preheaters contributes more or less 70% to their total exergy destruction. Moreover, the boiler subsystem is proven to have a large amount of exergy destruction caused by the irreversibilities within the remaining components of the overall system. It is also found that the boiler subsystem still has the largest avoidable exergy destruction; however, the enhancement efforts should focus not only on its inherent irreversibilities but also on the inefficiencies within the remaining components. A large part of the avoidable exergy destruction within feedwater preheaters is exogenous; while that of the remaining components is mostly endogenous indicating that the improvements mainly depend on advances in design and operation of the component itself.

  3. Statistical analysis of CSP plants by simulating extensive meteorological series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón, Manuel; Fernández, Carlos M.; Silva, Manuel; Moreno, Sara; Guisado, María V.; Bernardos, Ana

    2017-06-01

    The feasibility analysis of any power plant project needs the estimation of the amount of energy it will be able to deliver to the grid during its lifetime. To achieve this, its feasibility study requires a precise knowledge of the solar resource over a long term period. In Concentrating Solar Power projects (CSP), financing institutions typically requires several statistical probability of exceedance scenarios of the expected electric energy output. Currently, the industry assumes a correlation between probabilities of exceedance of annual Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) and energy yield. In this work, this assumption is tested by the simulation of the energy yield of CSP plants using as input a 34-year series of measured meteorological parameters and solar irradiance. The results of this work show that, even if some correspondence between the probabilities of exceedance of annual DNI values and energy yields is found, the intra-annual distribution of DNI may significantly affect this correlation. This result highlights the need of standardized procedures for the elaboration of representative DNI time series representative of a given probability of exceedance of annual DNI.

  4. Improved sample preparation for CE-LIF analysis of plant N-glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Bieke; Santens, Francis; Weterings, Koen; Van Damme, Els J M; Callewaert, Nico

    2011-12-01

    In view of glycomics studies in plants, it is important to have sensitive tools that allow one to analyze and characterize the N-glycans present on plant proteins in different species. Earlier methods combined plant-based sample preparations with CE-LIF N-glycan analysis but suffered from background contaminations, often resulting in non-reproducible results. This publication describes a reproducible and sensitive protocol for the preparation and analysis of plant N-glycans, based on a combination of the 'in-gel release method' and N-glycan analysis on a multicapillary DNA sequencer. Our protocol makes it possible to analyze plant N-glycans starting from low amounts of plant material with highly reproducible results. The developed protocol was validated for different plant species and plant cells.

  5. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroneos J. Christopher; Sakiltzis Christos; Rovas C. Dimitrios [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-09-30

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  6. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry R Jacob

    importantly, about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  7. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    , about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  8. A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleris, E; Thomas, A W; Kavaliers, M; Prato, F S

    2001-05-01

    The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg), as well as exposure to a non-pharmacological agent, a specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field (MAG) on open field behavior. We examined the duration, frequency and time course of various behaviors (i.e. exploration, walk, rear, stretch attend, return, groom, sit, spin turn, jump and sleep) exhibited by male mice in different regions of a novel open field. Both DZ and CDP consistently reduced the typical anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and wall-following (thigmotaxis), along with that of an additional new measure: 'returns', without producing any overall effects on total locomotion. The drugs also differed in their effects. CDP elicited a shift in the locomotor pattern from a 'high explore' to a 'high walk', while DZ mainly elicited alterations in sit and groom. The MAG treatment was repeated twice with both exposures reducing horizontal and vertical (rearing) activity and increasing grooming and spin turns. However, the anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and return were marginally reduced by only the first exposure. We conclude that a detailed ethological analysis of the OFT allows not only the detection of specific effects of drugs and non-pharmacological agents (i.e. pulsed magnetic field) on anxiety-like behaviors, but also permits the examination of non-specific effects, in particular those on general activity.

  9. Genome analysis methods - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered...ear Year of genome analysis Sequencing method Sequencing method Read counts Read counts Covered genome region Covered...otation method Number of predicted genes Number of predicted genes Genome database Genome database informati... License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Genome analysis... methods - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Fructooligosaccharides and fructans analysis in plants and food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkeblia, Noureddine

    2013-10-25

    Because fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and fructans are increasingly important in food and nutrition sciences, separation and analysis tools, in particular with the development of analytical chemistry, are slowly but rationally being developed for their separation and identification in plants, crops, and food products. Several chromatographic and other methods have been described to assess FOS and fructans, however, most of these methods are technically complicated, time-consuming and expensive. Although modern techniques have evolved tremendously, FOS and fructans analyses involve multiple and/or sequential extractions, chemical or biochemical polymers hydrolysis, and multiple chromatographic and/or other analytical runs to quantify these polymers. This paper aims to review and describe the different chromatographic techniques and other methods that are used to separate, analyze and quantify FOS and fructans.

  11. Analysis of histones and histone variants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Ila; Rai, Krishan Mohan; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Verandra; Singh, Mala; Ranjan, Amol; Lodhi, Niraj; Sawant, Samir V

    2012-01-01

    Histone proteins are the major protein components of chromatin - the physiologically relevant form of the genome (or epigenome) in all eukaryotic cells. For many years, histones were considered passive structural components of eukaryotic chromatin. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that dynamic association of histones and their variants to the genome plays a very important role in gene regulation. Histones are extensively modified during posttranslation viz. acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, etc., and the identification of these covalent marks on canonical and variant histones is crucial for the understanding of their biological significance. Different biochemical techniques have been developed to purify and separate histone proteins; here, we describe techniques for analysis of histones from plant tissues.

  12. Segregation Analysis on Genetic System of Quantitative Traits in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai Junyi

    2006-01-01

    Based on the traditional polygene inheritance model of quantitative traits,the author suggests the major gene and polygene mixed inheritance model.The model was considered as a general one,while the pure major gene and pure polygene inheritance model was a specific case of the general model.Based on the proposed theory,the author established the segregation analysis procedure to study the genetic system of quantitative traits of plants.At present,this procedure can be used to evaluate the genetic effect of individual major genes (up to two to three major genes),the collective genetic effect of polygene,and their heritability value.This paper introduces how to establish the procedure,its main achievements,and its applications.An example is given to illustrate the steps,methods,and effectiveness of the procedure.

  13. Latest developments on safety analysis methodologies at the Juzbado plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron-Cifuentes, Oscar; Ortiz-Trujillo, Diego; Blanco-Fernandez, Luis A. [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas S. A., Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant, Ctra. Salamanca-Ledesma, km. 26, 37015 Juzbado, Salamanca (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years the Juzbado Plant has developed and implemented several analysis methodologies to cope with specific issues regarding safety management. This paper describes the three most outstanding of them, so as to say, the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) project, the adaptation of the MARSSIM methodology for characterization surveys of radioactive contamination spots, and the programme for the Systematic Review of the Operational Conditions of the Safety Systems (SROCSS). Several reasons motivated the decision to implement such methodologies, such as Regulator requirements, operational experience and of course, the strong commitment of ENUSA to maintain the highest standards of nuclear industry on all the safety relevant activities. In this context, since 2004 ENUSA is undertaking the ISA project, which consists on a systematic examination of plant's processes, equipment, structures and personnel activities to ensure that all relevant hazards that could result in unacceptable consequences have been adequately evaluated and the appropriate protective measures have been identified. On the other hand and within the framework of a current programme to ensure the absence of radioactive contamination spots on unintended areas, the MARSSIM methodology is being applied as a tool to conduct the radiation surveys and investigation of potentially contaminated areas. Finally, the SROCSS programme was initiated earlier this year 2009 to assess the actual operating conditions of all the systems with safety relevance, aiming to identify either potential non-conformities or areas for improvement in order to ensure their high performance after years of operation. The following paragraphs describe the key points related to these three methodologies as well as an outline of the results obtained so far. (authors)

  14. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  15. Availability Analysis of Gas Turbines Used in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Francisco Martha de Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a complex system, such as a gas turbine, is strongly associated with its parts reliability and maintenance policy. That policy not only has influence on the parts’ repair time but also on the parts’ reliability affecting the system degradation and availability. This study presents a method for reliability and availability evaluation of gas turbines installed in an electric power station. The method is based on system reliability concepts, such as functional tree development, application of failure mode and effects analysis to identify critical components for improvement of system reliability, and reliability and maintainability evaluation based on a historical failure database. The method also proposes the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance concepts to improve complex system maintenance policies aimed at the reduction of unexpected failure occurrences in critical components. The method is applied to the analysis of two F series gas turbines, each with an output of 150 MW, installed in a 500 MW combined cycle power plant. The reliability and availability of the turbines are simulated based on a five-year failure database. The availability analysis shows different results for each turbine, one presenting 99% and the other 96% availability, indicating differences in their systems installation and operation.

  16. A proteomic strategy for global analysis of plant protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Uma K; Xiong, Yi; McBride, Zachary; Kihara, Daisuke; Xie, Jun; Hall, Mark C; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2014-10-01

    Global analyses of protein complex assembly, composition, and location are needed to fully understand how cells coordinate diverse metabolic, mechanical, and developmental activities. The most common methods for proteome-wide analysis of protein complexes rely on affinity purification-mass spectrometry or yeast two-hybrid approaches. These methods are time consuming and are not suitable for many plant species that are refractory to transformation or genome-wide cloning of open reading frames. Here, we describe the proof of concept for a method allowing simultaneous global analysis of endogenous protein complexes that begins with intact leaves and combines chromatographic separation of extracts from subcellular fractions with quantitative label-free protein abundance profiling by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to the crude cytosolic fraction of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using size exclusion chromatography, we identified hundreds of cytosolic proteins that appeared to exist as components of stable protein complexes. The reliability of the method was validated by protein immunoblot analysis and comparisons with published size exclusion chromatography data and the masses of known complexes. The method can be implemented with appropriate instrumentation, is applicable to any biological system, and has the potential to be further developed to characterize the composition of protein complexes and measure the dynamics of protein complex localization and assembly under different conditions.

  17. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program: Phase 4 A(3)I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software detailed design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Constantine, Betsy; Murray, Jerry; Neukom, Christian; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell

    1991-01-01

    The Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated suite of software components that constitutes a prototype workstation to aid designers in applying human factors principles to the design of complex human-machine systems. MIDAS is intended to be used at the very early stages of conceptual design to provide an environment wherein designers can use computational representations of the crew station and operator, instead of hardware simulators and man-in-the-loop studies, to discover problems and ask 'what if' questions regarding the projected mission, equipment, and environment. This document is the Software Product Specification for MIDAS. Introductory descriptions of the processing requirements, hardware/software environment, structure, I/O, and control are given in the main body of the document for the overall MIDAS system, with detailed discussion of the individual modules included in Annexes A-J.

  18. TRAC-P1: an advanced best estimate computer program for PWR LOCA analysis. I. Methods, models, user information, and programming details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is being developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) to provide an advanced ''best estimate'' predictive capability for the analysis of postulated accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). TRAC-Pl provides this analysis capability for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and for a wide variety of thermal-hydraulic experimental facilities. It features a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and associated internals; two-phase nonequilibrium hydrodynamics models; flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment; reflood tracking capability for both bottom flood and falling film quench fronts; and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The TRAC-Pl User's Manual is composed of two separate volumes. Volume I gives a description of the thermal-hydraulic models and numerical solution methods used in the code. Detailed programming and user information is also provided. Volume II presents the results of the developmental verification calculations.

  19. Download - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered...d 1 README README_e.html - 2 Registered plant list pgdbj_dna_marker_linkage_map_plant_species_list_en.zip (2...Policy | Contact Us Download - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Paducah , Kentucky by David W. Sykora, Jennifer J. Davis Geotechnical Laboratory Approved For Public Release...1993 Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Paducah , Kentucky by David W. Sykora, Jennifer J. Davis... Gaseous diffusion plants -- Kentucky -- Paducah . 3. Nuclear facilities - Kentucky -- Paducah . 1. Davis, Jennifer J. 11. United

  1. Analysis of synchronous and induction generators used at hydroelectric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; lagăr, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the operating electric generators (synchronous and induction) within a small capacity hydroelectric power plant. Such is treated the problem of monitoring and control hydropower plant using SCADA systems. Have been carried an experimental measurements in small hydropower plant for different levels of water in the lake and various settings of the operating parameters.

  2. Development of probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pests introduction for the EU territory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Robinet, C.; Hemerik, L.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Roques, A.; Werf, van der W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide EFSA with probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pest introduction for the EU territory through non-edible plant products or plants. We first provide a conceptualization of two types of pathway models. The individual based PM simulates an

  3. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  4. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  5. Proteomic analysis of an unsequenced plant--Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuse, Santosh; Harsha, H C; Kumar, Praveen; Acharya, Pradip Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Goel, Renu; Kumar, Ghantasala S Sameer; Raju, Rajesh; Prasad, T S Keshava; Slotta, Tracey; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2012-10-22

    Mangifera indica (Mango) is an important fruit crop in tropical countries with India being the leading producer in the world. Substantial research efforts are being devoted to produce fruit that have desirable characteristics including those that pertain to taste, hardiness and resistance to pests. Characterization of the genome and proteome of mango would help in the improvement of cultivars. As the mango genome has not yet been sequenced, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach followed by database searches of mango-derived ESTs and proteins along with proteins from six other closely related plant species to characterize its proteome. In addition to this, de novo sequencing followed by homology-based protein identification was also carried out. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango leaf proteome was performed using an accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This integrative approach enabled the identification of 1001 peptides that matched to 538 proteins. To our knowledge, this study is the first high-throughput analysis of mango leaf proteome and could pave the way for further genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of FDS 6 results for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvear, Daniel; Puente, Eduardo; Abreu, Orlando [Cantabria Univ., Santander (Spain). Group GIDAI - Fire Safety-Research and Technology; Peco, Julian [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    The Spanish standard ''Instruction IS-30, Rev. 1'' (February 21, 2013) allows the new approaches of risk informed performance based design (PBD) The Spanish standard ''Instruction IS-30, rev. 1'' (February 21, 2013) for demonstrating the safe shutdown capability in case of fire in nuclear power plants. In this sense, fire computer models have become an interesting tool to study real fire scenarios. Such models use a set of input parameters that define the features of the physical domain, material, radiation, turbulence, etc. This paper analyses the impact of the grid size and different sub-models of the fire simulation code FDS, version 6 with the objective to evaluate and define their relative weight in the final simulation results. For the grid size analysis, two different scale scenarios were selected, the bench scale test PENLIGHT and a large-scale test similar to Appendix B of NUREG - 1934 (17 m x 10 m x 4.6 m, with an ignition source of 2 MW and 16 cable trays). For the sub-model analysis, the PRS-INT4 real scale configuration of the INTEGRAL experimental campaign of the international OECD PRISME Project has been used. The results offer relevant data for users and show the critical parameters that must be selected properly to guarantee the quality of the simulations.

  7. Detailed functional characterization of glycosylated and nonglycosylated variants of malaria vaccine candidate PfAMA1 produced in Nicotiana benthamiana and analysis of growth inhibitory responses in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Edgue, Gueven; Kapelski, Stephanie; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Fendel, Rolf; Remarque, Edmond; Altmann, Friedrich; Maresch, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Pradel, Gabriele; Schillberg, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    One of the most promising malaria vaccine candidate antigens is the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1). Several studies have shown that this blood-stage antigen can induce strong parasite growth inhibitory antibody responses. PfAMA1 contains up to six recognition sites for N-linked glycosylation, a post-translational modification that is absent in P. falciparum. To prevent any potential negative impact of N-glycosylation, the recognition sites have been knocked out in most PfAMA1 variants expressed in eukaryotic hosts. However, N-linked glycosylation may increase efficacy by improving immunogenicity and/or focusing the response towards relevant epitopes by glycan masking. We describe the production of glycosylated and nonglycosylated PfAMA1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and its detailed characterization in terms of yield, integrity and protective efficacy. Both PfAMA1 variants accumulated to high levels (>510 μg/g fresh leaf weight) after transient expression, and high-mannose-type N-glycans were confirmed for the glycosylated variant. No significant differences between the N. benthamiana and Pichia pastoris PfAMA1 variants were detected in conformation-sensitive ligand-binding studies. Specific titres of >2 × 10(6) were induced in rabbits, and strong reactivity with P. falciparum schizonts was observed in immunofluorescence assays, as well as up to 100% parasite growth inhibition for both variants, with IC₅₀ values of ~35 μg/mL. Competition assays indicated that a number of epitopes were shielded from immune recognition by N-glycans, warranting further studies to determine how glycosylation can be used for the directed targeting of immune responses. These results highlight the potential of plant transient expression systems as a production platform for vaccine candidates.

  8. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  9. Molecular and biochemical analysis of symbiotic plant receptor kinase complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Douglas R; Riely, Brendan K

    2010-09-01

    DE-FG02-01ER15200 was a 36-month project, initiated on Sept 1, 2005 and extended with a one-year no cost extension to August 31, 2009. During the project period we published seven manuscripts (2 in review). Including the prior project period (2002-2005) we published 12 manuscripts in journals that include Science, PNAS, The Plant Cell, Plant Journal, Plant Physiology, and MPMI. The primary focus of this work was to further elucidate the function of the Nod factor signaling pathway that is involved in initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and in particular to explore the relationship between receptor kinase-like proteins and downstream effectors of symbiotic development. During the project period we have map-base cloned two additional players in symbiotic development, including an ERF transcription factor and an ethylene pathway gene (EIN2) that negatively regulates symbiotic signaling; we have also further characterized the subcellular distribution and function of a nuclear-localized symbiosis-specific ion channel, DMI1. The major outcome of the work has been the development of systems for exploring and validating protein-protein interactions that connect symbiotic receptor-like proteins to downstream responses. In this regard, we have developed both homologous (i.e., in planta) and heterologous (i.e., in yeast) systems to test protein interactions. Using yeast 2-hybrid screens we isolated the only known interactor of the nuclear-localized calcium-responsive kinase DMI3. We have also used yeast 2-hybrid methodology to identify interactions between symbiotic signaling proteins and certain RopGTPase/RopGEF proteins that regulate root hair polar growth. More important to the long-term goals of our work, we have established a TAP tagging system that identifies in planta interactions based on co-immuno precipitation and mass spectrometry. The validity of this approach has been shown using known interactors that either co-iummnoprecipate (i.e., remorin) or co

  10. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  11. In silico comparative analysis of SSR markers in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Maia Luciano C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adverse environmental conditions impose extreme limitation to growth and plant development, restricting the genetic potential and reflecting on plant yield losses. The progress obtained by classic plant breeding methods aiming at increasing abiotic stress tolerances have not been enough to cope with increasing food demands. New target genes need to be identified to reach this goal, which requires extensive studies of the related biological mechanisms. Comparative analyses in ancestral plant groups can help to elucidate yet unclear biological processes. Results In this study, we surveyed the occurrence patterns of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers for model plants. A total of 13,133 SSR markers were discovered using the SSRLocator software in non-redundant EST databases made for all eleven species chosen for this study. The dimer motifs are more frequent in lower plant species, such as green algae and mosses, and the trimer motifs are more frequent for the majority of higher plant groups, such as monocots and dicots. With this in silico study we confirm several microsatellite plant survey results made with available bioinformatics tools. Conclusions The comparative studies of EST-SSR markers among all plant lineages is well suited for plant evolution studies as well as for future studies of transferability of molecular markers.

  12. Detailed compositional analysis of the heavily polluted DBZ white dwarf SDSS J073842.56+183509.06: A window on planet formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, P; Fontaine, G; Bergeron, P; Melis, C; Bochanski, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model atmosphere analysis of the most metal contaminated white dwarf known, the DBZ SDSS J073842.56+183509.06. Using new high resolution spectroscopic observations taken with Keck and Magellan, we determine precise atmospheric parameters and measure abundances of 14 elements heavier than helium. We also report new Spitzer mid-infrared photometric data that are used to better constrain the properties of the debris disk orbiting this star. Our detailed analysis, which combines data taken from 7 different observational facilities (GALEX, Gemini, Keck, Magellan, MMT, SDSS and Spitzer) clearly demonstrate that J0738+1835 is accreting large amounts of rocky terrestrial-like material that has been tidally disrupted into a debris disk. We estimate that the body responsible for the photospheric metal contamination was at least as large Ceres, but was much drier, with less than 1% of the mass contained in the form of water ice, indicating that it formed interior to the snow line around its parent star....

  13. Characterization of the Detailed Relationships of the Key Variables in the Process of the Alkaline Sulfite Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In biomass pretreatment processes, both the properties of feedstock and process parameters play important roles in the yield of downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. More importantly, like many other industrial processes, the pretreatment system is multivariate and the variables in the system are inter-related to different extents, which means that studying the relationships of the key variables is of critical importance for the improvement of downstream enzymatic saccharification yield. In this work, two multivariate analysis methods of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Square (PLS were employed to characterize the detailed relationships of the key process variables of alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover. The results showed that the total alkali charge is positively correlated with the sugar content in pretreated biomass, lignin removal efficiency, and final sugar yield; pretreatment temperature has negative impact on the recovery of polysaccharides; and total alkali charge is more influential than other pretreatment process variables (such as Na2SO3/NaOH and temperature under the conditions studied.

  14. Prognostic Importance of Gleason 7 Disease Among Patients Treated With External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Detailed Biopsy Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Zumsteg, Zach; Ghadjar, Pirus; Pangasa, Misha; Pei, Xin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Fine, Samson W. [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of primary Gleason (pG) grade among a large cohort of Gleason 7 prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: From May 1989 to January 2011, 1190 Gleason 7 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with EBRT at a single institution. Of these patients, 613 had a Gleason 7 with a minimum of a sextant biopsy with nonfragmented cores and full biopsy core details available, including number of cores of cancer involved, percentage individual core involvement, location of disease, bilaterality, and presence of perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1-16 years). The prognostic implication for the following outcomes was analyzed: biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: The 8-year bRFS rate for pG3 versus pG4 was 77.6% versus 61.3% (P<.0001), DMFS was 96.8% versus 84.3% (P<.0001), and PCSM was 3.7% versus 8.1% (P=.002). On multivariate analysis, pG4 predicted for significantly worse outcome in all parameters. Location of disease (apex, base, mid-gland), perineural involvement, maximum individual core involvement, and the number of Gleason 3+3, 3+4, or 4+3 cores did not predict for distant metastases. Conclusions: Primary Gleason grade 4 independently predicts for worse bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM among Gleason 7 patients. Using complete core information can allow clinicians to utilize pG grade as a prognostic factor, despite not having the full pathologic details from a prostatectomy specimen. Future staging and risk grouping should investigate the incorporation of primary Gleason grade when complete biopsy core information is used.

  15. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ...

  16. A Detailed Analysis of the BR1 Locus Suggests a New Mechanism for Bolting after Winter in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana M; Emrani, Nazgol; Pfeiffer, Nina; Tiwari, Surya P; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J; Vogt, Sebastian H; Müller, Andreas E; Schilhabel, Markus; Jung, Christian; Grosse, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is a biennial, sucrose-storing plant, which is mainly cultivated as a spring crop and harvested in the vegetative stage before winter. For increasing beet yield, over-winter cultivation would be advantageous. However, bolting is induced after winter and drastically reduces yield. Thus, post-winter bolting control is essential for winter beet cultivation. To identify genetic factors controlling bolting after winter, a F2 population was previously developed by crossing the sugar beet accessions BETA 1773 with reduced bolting tendency and 93161P with complete bolting after winter. For a mapping-by-sequencing analysis, pools of 26 bolting-resistant and 297 bolting F2 plants were used. Thereby, a single continuous homozygous region of 103 kb was co-localized to the previously published BR1 QTL for post-winter bolting resistance (Pfeiffer et al., 2014). The BR1 locus was narrowed down to 11 candidate genes from which a homolog of the Arabidopsis CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR 73-I (CPSF73-I) was identified as the most promising candidate. A 2 bp deletion within the BETA 1773 allele of BvCPSF73-Ia results in a truncated protein. However, the null allele of BvCPSF73-Ia might partially be compensated by a second BvCPSF73-Ib gene. This gene is located 954 bp upstream of BvCPSF73-Ia and could be responsible for the incomplete penetrance of the post-winter bolting resistance allele of BETA 1773. This result is an important milestone for breeding winter beets with complete bolting resistance after winter.

  17. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PASSION FRUIT PLANTS FROM DIFFERENT PROPAGATION METHODS AND PLANTING SPACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERFFSON LUCAS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The passion fruit (Passiflora cincinnata Mast. is a perennial and drought resistant species that represents a new alternative crop for small farmers in rainfed conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the vegetative and physiological development of passion fruit plants derived from two propagation methods and grown at varied planting spacing. The experiment was conducted from January to June of 2012, in the Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (State University from Southwestern Bahia, in Brazil. It was carried out in a randomized block design under a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, which consisted of two propagation methods (cutting and seeds and three planting spacing distances within a row (1.5; 3.0 and 4.0 m, however, at same distance between rows (3.0 m, with four replicates and four plants per plot. Cuttings and seeds were sampled from adult plants pre-selected in native areas from Vitória da Conquista - BA, Brazil. Growth (stem diameter and leaf area and physiological parameters (leaf chlorophyll content, leaf water potential before dawn, relative water content and leaf gas exchange were assessed on the 90th, 120th and 150th day after transplanting of seedlings into the field (DAT. Based on our results, we concluded that despite plants propagated via cuttings showed most favorable water status, vegetative growth and photosynthetic capacity were lower whether compared to plants obtained from seeds.

  18. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring.

  19. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  20. QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOMEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT CAPPARIS APHYLA ROTH (CAPPARIDACEAE FROM AKOLA DISRICT, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin A Khandare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focus on preliminary analysis of Capparis aphyla Roth., (Caper plant from Akola District Maharashtra , India. The plant has tremendous ethnic medicinal value. Quantitative analysis of Capparis aphyla was done in various solvents. It showed presence of maximum phytoconstituents in aqueous extract. The major phytochemicals present in this plant include Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponin and Phenolic while steroids are not detected in any solvent system.

  1. QTL list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered...Policy | Contact Us QTL list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Production Analysis of Biogas Plant in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an agriculture production analysis of biogas plant in the Czech Republic and evaluates the effect of input-factors and their relevance. Cobb-Douglas functions for crop, livestock and total agriculture production are used. Econometric models are used for structure and magnitude determination of land and labour factors at individual farms, which lead to an increase of production defined in scenarios. Estimations are based on cross-section data. Results indicate statistical significance and the economically highest effect of land and fixed assets on the total agriculture production. The results of first period model show, that there is preferably a need for an increase of fixed assets when enlarging the livestock production. There is an increase of the importance of wages in total and livestock production in 2011 compared to 2010. The crop production is dependent on land are in the most, but the model must be rejected because of parameters intensity and economic justification. Quantification of relationships among variables can be used for planning of the whole production or its components.

  3. Exergetic analysis of a power plant using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert, Mehmet Selcuk [Yalova University, Energy Systems Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: msmert@yalova.edu.tr; Dilmac, Omer Faruk; Ozkan, Semra; Bolat, Esen [Yildiz Technical University Chemical Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: omerfarukdl@yahoo.com, email: ozkans@yildiz.edu.tr, email: ebolat@yildiz.edu.tr; Mert, Hatice Hande [Yalova University, Chemical and Process Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: hndmert@yalova.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Landfill gas production results from chemical reactions and anaerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic materials at the municipal waste facility as the putrescible materials begin to break down in the landfill. Using landfill gas in internal combustion engines to produce electricity helps in reducing emissions, protecting the environment and saving energy resources. In order to determine the real thermodynamic efficiency of the system and its components, an exergetic analysis of a power plant using landfill gas as fuel was studied in this article. The mass, energy, and exergy balances were done for each piece of equipment and, based on these parameters, exergy destructions and the improvement potential with respect to the landfill gas compressor and gas engine were determined. The results show that the total exergy destruction was 2305.54 kW, the exergy efficiencies were 85.83% and 40.50%, and the energy efficiencies were 94.40% and 45.61% for the landfill gas compressor and gas engine, respectively.

  4. Performance analysis and optimization of power plants with gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharati-Givi, Maryam

    The gas turbine is one of the most important applications for power generation. The purpose of this research is performance analysis and optimization of power plants by using different design systems at different operation conditions. In this research, accurate efficiency calculation and finding optimum values of efficiency for design of chiller inlet cooling and blade cooled gas turbine are investigated. This research shows how it is possible to find the optimum design for different operation conditions, like ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio. The simulated designs include the chiller, with varied COP and fogging cooling for a compressor. In addition, the overall thermal efficiency is improved by adding some design systems like reheat and regenerative heating. The other goal of this research focuses on the blade-cooled gas turbine for higher turbine inlet temperature, and consequently, higher efficiency. New film cooling equations, along with changing film cooling effectiveness for optimum cooling air requirement at the first-stage blades, and an internal and trailing edge cooling for the second stage, are innovated for optimal efficiency calculation. This research sets the groundwork for using the optimum value of efficiency calculation, while using inlet cooling and blade cooling designs. In the final step, the designed systems in the gas cycles are combined with a steam cycle for performance improvement.

  5. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and design of animal and plant-animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of a hierarchy in growth factors (defining, limiting and reducing growth factors), as developed for plant production has shown its usefulness in the analysis and design of plant production systems. This hierarchy presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of biophysical conditions in

  6. Genome Analysis of Conserved Dehydrin Motifs in Vascular Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Malik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins, a large family of abiotic stress proteins, are defined by the presence of a mostly conserved motif known as the K-segment, and may also contain two other conserved motifs known as the Y-segment and S-segment. Using the dehydrin literature, we developed a sequence motif definition of the K-segment, which we used to create a large dataset of dehydrin sequences by searching the Pfam00257 dehydrin dataset and the Phytozome 10 sequences of vascular plants. A comprehensive analysis of these sequences reveals that lysine residues are highly conserved in the K-segment, while the amino acid type is often conserved at other positions. Despite the Y-segment name, the central tyrosine is somewhat conserved, but can be substituted with two other small aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine or histidine. The S-segment contains a series of serine residues, but in some proteins is also preceded by a conserved LHR sequence. In many dehydrins containing all three of these motifs the S-segment is linked to the K-segment by a GXGGRRKK motif (where X can be any amino acid, suggesting a functional linkage between these two motifs. An analysis of the sequences shows that the dehydrin architecture and several biochemical properties (isoelectric point, molecular mass, and hydrophobicity score are dependent on each other, and that some dehydrin architectures are overexpressed during certain abiotic stress, suggesting that they may be optimized for a specific abiotic stress while others are involved in all forms of dehydration stress (drought, cold, and salinity.

  7. License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: ... PGDBj Registered plan... Policy | Contact Us License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods

  8. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  9. A protocol for plant macrofossil analysis of peat deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauquoy, D.; Hughes, P.; van Geel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of plant macrofossils can be used to reconstruct the development of the local vegetation on peatlands, and thus to elucidate successional processes. In the case of ombrotrophic peatlands, such analyses can also be used to generate palaeoclimate data. Identification of plant macrofossils in

  10. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  11. Analysis of genes contributing to plant-beneficial functions in Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and related Proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruto, Maxime; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Muller, Daniel; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-09-02

    The positive effects of root-colonizing bacteria cooperating with plants lead to improved growth and/or health of their eukaryotic hosts. Some of these Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) display several plant-beneficial properties, suggesting that the accumulation of the corresponding genes could have been selected in these bacteria. Here, this issue was targeted using 23 genes contributing directly or indirectly to established PGPR effects, based on genome sequence analysis of 304 contrasted Alpha- Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. Most of the 23 genes studied were also found in non-PGPR Proteobacteria and none of them were common to all 25 PGPR genomes studied. However, ancestral character reconstruction indicated that gene transfers -predominantly ancient- resulted in characteristic gene combinations according to taxonomic subgroups of PGPR strains. This suggests that the PGPR-plant cooperation could have established separately in various taxa, yielding PGPR strains that use different gene assortments. The number of genes contributing to plant-beneficial functions increased along the continuum -animal pathogens, phytopathogens, saprophytes, endophytes/symbionts, PGPR- indicating that the accumulation of these genes (and possibly of different plant-beneficial traits) might be an intrinsic PGPR feature. This work uncovered preferential associations occurring between certain genes contributing to phytobeneficial traits and provides new insights into the emergence of PGPR bacteria.

  12. Contrasting cascade effects of carnivores on plant fitness: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Koricheva, Julia

    2011-05-01

    1. Although carnivores indirectly improve plant fitness by decreasing herbivory, they may also decrease plant reproduction by disrupting plant-pollinator mutualism. The overall magnitude of the resulting net effect of carnivores on plant fitness and the factors responsible for the variations in strength and direction of this effect have not been explored quantitatively to date. 2. We performed a meta-analysis of 67 studies containing 163 estimates of the effects of carnivores on plant fitness and examined the relative importance of several potential sources of variation in carnivore effects. 3. Carnivores significantly increased plant fitness via suppression of herbivores and decreased fitness by consuming pollinators. The overall net effect of carnivores on plant fitness was positive (32% increase), indicating that effects via herbivores were stronger than effects via pollinators. 4. Parasitoids had stronger positive effect on plant fitness than predators. Active hunters increased plant fitness, whereas stationary predators had no significant effect, presumably because they were more prone to disrupt plant-pollinator mutualism. Carnivores with broader habitat domain had negative effects on plant fitness, whereas those with narrow habitat domain had positive effects. 5. Predator effects were positive for plants which offered rewards (e.g. extrafloral nectaries) and negative for plants which lacked any attractors. 6. This study adds new knowledge on the factors that determine the strength of terrestrial trophic cascades and highlights the importance of considering simultaneous contrasting interactions in the same study system. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  13. Design and Analysis of a Slope Voltage Control for a DFIG Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, J.; Kjær, P. C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses a detailed design of a wind power plant and turbine slope voltage control in the presence of communication delays for a wide short-circuit ratio range operation. The implemented voltage control scheme is based upon the secondary voltage control concept, which offers fast...

  14. Differentiating Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma from Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma, Mucinous Cystadenoma, and a Pseudocyst with Detailed Analysis of Cystic Features on CT Scans: a Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peijie; Mahyoub, Radfan; Lin, Xiaozhu; Chen, Kemin; Chai, Weimin; Xie, Jing [Rui Jin Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2011-04-15

    To determine whether or not detailed cystic feature analysis on CT scans can assist in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from serous cystadenoma (SCN), mucinous cystadenoma (MCN), and a pseudocyst. This study received Institutional Review Board approval and informed patient consent was waived. Electronic radiology and pathology databases were searched to identify patients with PDAC (n = 19), SCN (n = 26), MCN (n = 20) and a pseudocyst (n = 23) who underwent pancreatic CT imaging. The number, size, location, and contents of cysts, and the contour of the lesions were reviewed, in addition to the wall thickness, enhancement patterns, and other signs of pancreatic and peripancreatic involvement. Diagnosis was based on lesion resection (n = 82) or on a combination of cytological findings, biochemical markers, and tumor markers (n = 6). Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the results. A combination of the CT findings including irregular contour, multiple cysts, mural nodes, and localized thickening, had a relatively high sensitivity (74%) and specificity (75%) for differentiating PDAC from SCN, MCN, and pseudocysts (p < 0.05). Other CT findings such as location, greatest dimension, or the presence of calcification were not significantly different. The CT findings for PDAC are non-specific, but perhaps helpful for differentiation. PDAC should be included in the general differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms

  15. Detailed analysis of the density change on chest CT of COPD using non-rigid registration of inspiration/expiration CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Eunsol; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jeon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-14

    One objective was to evaluate the air trapping index (ATI), measured by inspiration/expiration CT, in COPD patients and nonsmokers. Another objective was to assess the association between the pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT parameters such as ATI or other indices, separately in the whole lung, in emphysema, and in hyperinflated and normal lung areas. One hundred and thirty-eight COPD patients and 29 nonsmokers were included in our study. The ATI, the emphysema index (EI), the gas trapping index (Exp -856) and expiration/inspiration ratio of mean lung density (E/Iratio of MLD) were measured on CT. The values of the whole lung, of emphysema, and of hyperinflated and normal lung areas were compared and then correlated with various PFT parameters. Compared with nonsmokers, COPD patients showed a higher ATI in the whole lung and in each lung lesion (all P < 0.05). The ATI showed a higher correlation than EI with FEF{sub 25-75%}, RV and RV/TLC, and was comparable to Exp -856 and the E/I ratio of MLD. The ATI of emphysema and hyperinflated areas on CT showed better correlation than the normal lung area with PFT parameters. Detailed analysis of density change at inspiration and expiration CT of COPD can provide new insights into pulmonary functional impairment in each lung area. (orig.)

  16. Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  17. First detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use Asteraceae crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Giorgi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var. scolymus Fiori, 1904 and leafy cardoon (C. cardunculus Linneaus, 1753 var. altilis De Candolle, 1838. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization In Suspension (FISHIS was applied to nuclei suspensions as a fast method for screening of labelling probes, before metaphase spread hybridization. Classic Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH on slide, using repetitive telomeric and ribosomal sequences and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs oligonucleotide as probes, identified homologous chromosome relationships and allowed development of molecular karyotypes for both varieties. The close phylogenetic relationship between globe artichoke and cardoon was supported by the very similar karyotypes but clear chromosomal structural variation was detected. In the light of the recent release of the globe artichoke genome sequencing, these results are relevant for future anchoring of the pseudomolecule sequence assemblies to specific chromosomes. In addition, the DNA content of the two crops has been determined by flow cytometry and a fast method for standard FISH on slide and methodological improvements for nuclei isolation are described.

  18. First detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use Asteraceae crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Debora; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Farina, Anna; Grosso, Valentina; Lucretti, Sergio; Gennaro, Andrea; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var. scolymus Fiori, 1904) and leafy cardoon (Cynara cardunculus Linneaus, 1753 var. altilis De Candolle, 1838). Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization In Suspension (FISHIS) was applied to nuclei suspensions as a fast method for screening of labelling probes, before metaphase spread hybridization. Classic Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) on slide, using repetitive telomeric and ribosomal sequences and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) oligonucleotide as probes, identified homologous chromosome relationships and allowed development of molecular karyotypes for both varieties. The close phylogenetic relationship between globe artichoke and cardoon was supported by the very similar karyotypes but clear chromosomal structural variation was detected. In the light of the recent release of the globe artichoke genome sequencing, these results are relevant for future anchoring of the pseudomolecule sequence assemblies to specific chromosomes. In addition, the DNA content of the two crops has been determined by flow cytometry and a fast method for standard FISH on slide and methodological improvements for nuclei isolation are described. PMID:27830052

  19. plantiSMASH: automated identification, annotation and expression analysis of plant biosynthetic gene clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautsar, Satria A.; Suarez Duran, Hernando G.; Blin, Kai

    2017-01-01

    of predicted biosynthetic enzyme-coding genes, and facilitates comparative genomic analysis to study the evolutionary conservation of each cluster. Applied on 48 high-quality plant genomes, plantiSMASH identifies a rich diversity of candidate plant BGCs. These results will guide further experimental...... exploration of the nature and dynamics of gene clustering in plant metabolism. Moreover, spurred by the continuing decrease in costs of plant genome sequencing, they will allow genome mining technologies to be applied to plant natural product discovery. The plantiSMASH web server, precalculated results...

  20. Combined approach based on principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis for investigating hyperspectral plant response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral (HS data represents an extremely powerful means for rapidly detecting crop stress and then aiding in the rational management of natural resources in agriculture. However, large volume of data poses a challenge for data processing and extracting crucial information. Multivariate statistical techniques can play a key role in the analysis of HS data, as they may allow to both eliminate redundant information and identify synthetic indices which maximize differences among levels of stress. In this paper we propose an integrated approach, based on the combined use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA, to investigate HS plant response and discriminate plant status. The approach was preliminary evaluated on a data set collected on durum wheat plants grown under different nitrogen (N stress levels. Hyperspectral measurements were performed at anthesis through a high resolution field spectroradiometer, ASD FieldSpec HandHeld, covering the 325-1075 nm region. Reflectance data were first restricted to the interval 510-1000 nm and then divided into five bands of the electromagnetic spectrum [green: 510-580 nm; yellow: 581-630 nm; red: 631-690 nm; red-edge: 705-770 nm; near-infrared (NIR: 771-1000 nm]. PCA was applied to each spectral interval. CDA was performed on the extracted components to identify the factors maximizing the differences among plants fertilised with increasing N rates. Within the intervals of green, yellow and red only the first principal component (PC had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained more than 95% of total variance; within the ranges of red-edge and NIR, the first two PCs had an eigenvalue higher than 1. Two canonical variables explained cumulatively more than 81% of total variance and the first was able to discriminate wheat plants differently fertilised, as confirmed also by the significant correlation with aboveground biomass and grain yield parameters. The combined

  1. Transcriptomics and molecular evolutionary rate analysis of the bladderwort (Utricularia, a carnivorous plant with a minimal genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Estrella Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba (bladderwort is remarkable in having a minute genome, which at ca. 80 megabases is approximately half that of Arabidopsis. Bladderworts show an incredible diversity of forms surrounding a defined theme: tiny, bladder-like suction traps on terrestrial, epiphytic, or aquatic plants with a diversity of unusual vegetative forms. Utricularia plants, which are rootless, are also anomalous in physiological features (respiration and carbon distribution, and highly enhanced molecular evolutionary rates in chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal sequences. Despite great interest in the genus, no genomic resources exist for Utricularia, and the substitution rate increase has received limited study. Results Here we describe the sequencing and analysis of the Utricularia gibba transcriptome. Three different organs were surveyed, the traps, the vegetative shoot bodies, and the inflorescence stems. We also examined the bladderwort transcriptome under diverse stress conditions. We detail aspects of functional classification, tissue similarity, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism, respiration, DNA repair, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Long contigs of plastid and mitochondrial genomes, as well as sequences for 100 individual nuclear genes, were compared with those of other plants to better establish information on molecular evolutionary rates. Conclusion The Utricularia transcriptome provides a detailed genomic window into processes occurring in a carnivorous plant. It contains a deep representation of the complex metabolic pathways that characterize a putative minimal plant genome, permitting its use as a source of genomic information to explore the structural, functional, and evolutionary diversity of the genus. Vegetative shoots and traps are the most similar organs by functional classification of their transcriptome, the traps expressing hydrolytic enzymes for prey

  2. Detail in architecture: Between arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulencin Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students’ bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its

  3. Illuminating plant biology: using fluorescent proteins for high-throughput analysis of protein localization and function in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Sylvester, Anne W; Jackson, David

    2010-03-01

    First discovered in jellyfish, fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been successfully optimized for use as effective biomarkers within living plant cells. When exposed to light, FPs fused to a protein or regulatory element will fluoresce, and non-invasively mark expression and protein localization, which allows for the in vivo monitoring of diverse cellular processes. In this review, we discuss how FP technology has evolved from small-scale analysis of individual genes to more high-throughput techniques for global expression and functional profiling in plants.

  4. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Tasks for ANAV NPPs in Support of Plant Operation and Control

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks aimed at supporting plant operation and control of nuclear power plants are an important issue for the Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellòs (ANAV). ANAV is the consortium that runs the Ascó power plants (2 units) and the Vandellòs-II power plant. The reactors are Westinghouse-design, 3-loop PWRs with an approximate electrical power of 1000 MW. The Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) thermal-hydraulic analysis team has jointly worked togeth...

  5. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchakivska Yu. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the salinity and osmotic stress tolerance by plant survival test in presence of NaCl and PEG in different concentrations. Results. Transgenic plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II gene (transcription proved for 60–100 % were obtained by agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic carrot plant extracts inhibited the growth of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria strains but exhibited no antifungal activity. Survival level of transgenic plants under the salinity and osmotic stress effect was definitely higher comparing to the untransgenic ones. The analysis of the photosynthetic pigment content in the transgenic carrot plants showed no significant difference of this parameter under salinity stress that may indicate a possible protective activity of the recombinant protein. Conclusions. The obtained in our study transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express the recombinant thaumatin II gene were characterized by antibacterial activity and increased tolerance to salinity and osmotic stress factors.

  6. Exergetic Analysis of a Novel Solar Cooling System for Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed exergetic analysis of a novel high-temperature Solar Assisted Combined Cycle (SACC power plant. The system includes a solar field consisting of innovative high-temperature flat plate evacuated solar thermal collectors, a double stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, pumps, heat exchangers, storage tanks, mixers, diverters, controllers and a simple single-pressure Combined Cycle (CC power plant. Here, a high temperature solar cooling system is coupled with a conventional combined cycle, in order to pre-cool gas turbine inlet air in order to enhance system efficiency and electrical capacity. In this paper, the system is analyzed from an exergetic point of view, on the basis of an energy-economic model presented in a recent work, where the obtained main results show that SACC exhibits a higher electrical production and efficiency with respect to the conventional CC. The system performance is evaluated by a dynamic simulation, where detailed simulation models are implemented for all the components included in the system. In addition, for all the components and for the system as whole, energy and exergy balances are implemented in order to calculate the magnitude of the irreversibilities within the system. In fact, exergy analysis is used in order to assess: exergy destructions and exergetic efficiencies. Such parameters are used in order to evaluate the magnitude of the irreversibilities in the system and to identify the sources of such irreversibilities. Exergetic efficiencies and exergy destructions are dynamically calculated for the 1-year operation of the system. Similarly, exergetic results are also integrated on weekly and yearly bases in order to evaluate the corresponding irreversibilities. The results showed that the components of the Joule cycle (combustor, turbine and compressor are the major sources of irreversibilities. System overall exergetic efficiency was around 48%. Average weekly solar collector

  7. Pretreatment of plant and soil samples: a problem in boron analysis. Part I. Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Possible sources of errors in the determination of boron in plant samples were examined. During drying and grinding neither loss nor contamination of boron was observed. It was found that boron was slightly lost when muffling at temperatures higher than 550/sup 0/C. The addition of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ prevented the loss but gave rise to incomplete ashing in many cases. Nitrate salts added in order to enhance oxidation gave rise to boron loss. Wet ashing should be done preferably in a concentrated sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid medium at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the shape of the digestion flask is important - long neck flasks are usually safe enough due to their condensating effects. Very high temperatures with foaming demand additional cooling condensors. Borosilicate glass can not be used. Extraction of plant samples with hydrochloric acid is a convenient alternative but no more than 75-94% of the total boron concentration in plants could be extracted.

  8. Analysis of Essential Elements for Plants Growth Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Njinga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of ten essential elements for plants growth in the Guinea savanna region of Niger State in Northern Nigeria have been identified in the soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show good agreement with certified or literature values within the agreed percentage range of ±2.35% to ±8.69%. However, the concentration distributions of the ten identified elements in the soil samples within the studied area for plants growth revealed the following: Fe (123.4 ppm, Mn (2100.7 ppm, K (5544.3 ppm, Al (54752.4 ppm, Ti (3082.9 ppm, Ca (4635 ppm, V (54.3 ppm, Na (857.5 ppm, Mg (13924.1 ppm, and Dy (12.1 ppm. A further analysis of the two fundamental soil physical parameters for healthy growth of some common crops like egusimelon, groundnut, rice, yams, soybeans, cassava, and potato analyzed in this work revealed a pH range of 4.0 pH–8.0 pH and a temperature range of 28.0°C to 29.3°C, which are optimal for plant nutrients availability in the soils within the study area.

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production on Waste Water Treatment Plants: Process Scheme, Operating Conditions and Potential Analysis for German and European Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pittmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP and a subsequent analysis of the production potential in Germany and the European Union (EU. Therefore, tests with different types of sludge from a WWTP were investigated regarding their volatile fatty acids (VFA production-potential. Afterwards, primary sludge was used as substrate to test a series of operating conditions (temperature, pH, retention time (RT and withdrawal (WD in order to find suitable settings for a high and stable VFA production. In a second step, various tests regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition to determine the influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were conducted. Experiments with a semi-continuous reactor operation showed that a short RT of 4 days and a small WD of 25% at pH = 6 and around 30 °C is preferable for a high VFA production rate (PR of 1913 mgVFA/(L×d and a stable VFA composition. A high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW was reached at lower substrate concentration, 20 °C, neutral pH-value and a 24 h cycle time. A final step a potential analysis, based on the results and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 19% of the 2016 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition, a profound estimation regarding the EU showed that in theory about 120% of the worldwide biopolymer production (in 2016 could be produced on European waste water treatment plants.

  10. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  11. [Recent advances in the analysis of gibberellins plant hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Lu, Minghua; Xu, Linfang; Xiao, Rui; Cai, Zongwei

    2015-08-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of phytohormones that exert profound and diverse effects on plant growth and development, such as seed germination and leaf expansion. Up to now, 136 members of GAs have been identified and recognized. All known GAs are diterpenoid acids with similar chemical structures, only double bonds, hydroxyl numbers and locations on gibberellin alkane skeleton are different. However, the content of GAs in plants is of ultra trace levels (usually at ng/g and even pg/g levels) with little ultraviolet (UV) absorption, no fluorescence and no distinguishing chemical characteristics. Moreover, the matrix of plant samples is complicated. Thus, quantification of GAs is always extremely difficult. Nowadays, the bottle necks for the study of GAs in plants are due to the lack of efficient sample preparation and sensitive detection techniques. This article reviews the analytical methods for determination of GAs in recent years, hoping to provide some references to develop new methods and techniques.

  12. Thermal analysis of solar biomass hybrid co-generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushika, N. D.; Mishra, Anuradha; Chakravarty, M. N.

    2005-12-01

    This article describes a co-generation plant based on the biogas being produced from the waste of distillery plant and highlights the possible configuration in which the plant can be hybridized with auxiliary solar energy source having the advantage of using financial incentives in several countries. In hybridization, the solar heat is used for heating the boiler feed water. The solar heat-generating unit consists of line focus parabolic trough collector, heat transportation system and heat delivery unit such as heat exchanger. The simulation model of heat and mass transfer processes in the solar field as well as the balance of the system is developed to investigate the technological feasibility of the concept in terms of plant yield and matching of subsystems.

  13. Performance Analysis of Supercritical Binary Geothermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dagdas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to generate electricity by utilizing medium-temperature geothermal sources in various closed cycles. These geothermal power plants are very important and valuable as they utilize the sources which have low exergy. In recent years, medium-temperature sources that are around 150°C are used widely for electricity generation. In this study, performance of a supercritical binary power plant, that uses such a geothermal source, is analyzed to find the optimum turbine inlet pressure that maximizes power generation. In this power plant different working fluids are analyzed to find the appropriate fluid that maximizes power generation and efficiency. The observed working fluids are R134a, isobutane, R404a, n-Butane, and R152a. The performance of the plant is calculated with these fluids separately and it is found that the best fluid for performance is R152a for pure fluid and R404a for mixture fluid.

  14. Performance analysis of heating plants equipped with condensing boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Schibuola, L.

    1986-01-01

    The behaviour of the condensing boilers is strictly bound to the temperature of the water coming back from the plant. This temperature depends on the control modes and on the meteorological conditions. The seasonal performance has been computed for a heating plant of a building equipped with a condensing boiler simulating the load at short time intervals through a suitable modification of TRNSYS. The study has been carried out in the climate of Padova. For other towns a rough estimate is proposed.

  15. A protocol for plant macrofossil analysis of peat deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mauquoy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of plant macrofossils can be used to reconstruct the development of the local vegetation on peatlands, and thus to elucidate successional processes. In the case of ombrotrophic peatlands, such analyses can also be used to generate palaeoclimate data. Identification of plant macrofossils in peat deposits is essential for accurate 14C dating. We present a brief overview of the sample pre-treatment procedure and available techniques for estimating macrofossil composition, and we recommend identification guides.

  16. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  17. In silico identification and analysis of phytoene synthase genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Zheng, Q S; Wei, Y P; Chen, J; Liu, R; Wan, H J

    2015-08-14

    In this study, we examined phytoene synthetase (PSY), the first key limiting enzyme in the synthesis of carotenoids and catalyzing the formation of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate in terpenoid biosynthesis. We used known amino acid sequences of the PSY gene in tomato plants to conduct a genome-wide search and identify putative candidates in 34 sequenced plants. A total of 101 homologous genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PSY evolved independently in algae as well as monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Our results showed that the amino acid structures exhibited 5 motifs (motifs 1 to 5) in algae and those in higher plants were highly conserved. The PSY gene structures showed that the number of intron in algae varied widely, while the number of introns in higher plants was 4 to 5. Identification of PSY genes in plants and the analysis of the gene structure may provide a theoretical basis for studying evolutionary relationships in future analyses.

  18. QTL Analysis for Plant Height with Molecular Markers in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jian-bing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yi-qin; SHI Yong-gang; ZHENG Yong-lian; LI Jian-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Plant height has become one of important agronomic traits with the increase of planting densityrecently and the rapid developments of molecular markers have provided powerful tools to localize importantagronomic QTL at the genomic level. The purposes of this investigation are to map plant height QTL with mo-lecular markers and to analyze their genetic effects in maize. An F2:3 population from an elite combination(Zong3 × 87-1) was utilized for evaluating plant height in two locations, Wuhan and Xiangfan, with a ran-domized complete block design. The mapping population included 266 F2:3 family lines. A genetic linkagemap, containing 150 SSR and 24 RFLP markers, was constructed, spanning a total of 2 531.6 cm with an av-erage interval of 14.5 cm. Totally 10 QTL affecting plant height were mapped on six different chromosomeswith the composite interval mapping. Seven of 10 QTL were detected in two locations. The contributions tophenotypic variations for the single QTL varied between 5.3 and 17.1%. Additive, partial dominance, domi-nance, and overdominance actions existed among all detected QTL affecting plant heights. A large number ofdigenic interactions for plant height were detected by two-way analyses of variance. 107 and 98 two-locus com-binations were found to be significant at a 0.01 probability level in two locations respectively. 23 of them weresimultaneously detected in both locations. They accounted for phenotypic variations of 4.5 -11%. It was no-ticed that a locus, umc1122, had digenic interactive effects with other four different loci for plant height,which distributed on three chromosomes. A few of plant height QTL was involved in significant digenic inter-actions, but most significant interactions occurred between markers that are not adjacent to mapped QTL.These results demonstrated that epistatic interactions might play an equal importance role as the single-locuseffects in determining plant height of maize.

  19. An economic toolkit for identifying the cost of emergency medical services (EMS) systems: detailed methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E Brooke; Garrison, Herbert G; Nichol, Graham; Maio, Ronald F; Lookman, Hunaid A; Sheahan, William D; Franz, Timothy R; Austad, James D; Ginster, Aaron M; Spaite, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. This includes a tool for calculating the cost of EMS (the "cost workbook") and detailed directions for determining cost (the "cost guide"). The 12-step process that was developed is consistent with current theories of health economics, applicable to prehospital care, flexible enough to be used in varying sizes and types of EMS systems, and comprehensive enough to provide meaningful conclusions. It was developed by an expert panel (the EMS Cost Analysis Project [EMSCAP] investigator team) in an iterative process that included pilot testing the process in three diverse communities. The iterative process allowed ongoing modification of the toolkit during the development phase, based upon direct, practical, ongoing interaction with the EMS systems that were using the toolkit. The resulting methodology estimates EMS system costs within a user-defined community, allowing either the number of patients treated or the estimated number of lives saved by EMS to be assessed in light of the cost of those efforts. Much controversy exists about the cost of EMS and whether the resources spent for this purpose are justified. However, the existence of a validated toolkit that provides a standardized process will allow meaningful assessments and comparisons to be made and will supply objective information to inform EMS and community officials who are tasked with determining the utilization of scarce societal resources.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EV-MOGA AND GODLIKE MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR RISK BASED OPTIMAL POWER SCHEDULING OF A VIRTUAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh S. Narkhede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made in this article to compare the performances of two multiobjective evolutionary algorithms namely ev-MOGA and GODLIKE. The performances of both are evaluated on risk based optimal power scheduling of virtual power plant. The risk based scheduling is proposed as a conflicting bi objective optimization problem with increased number of durations of day. Both the algorithms are elaborated in detail. Results based on the performance analysis are depicted at the end.

  1. Global detailed gravimetric geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 x 1-deg mean free-air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is plus or minus 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe and Australia.

  2. Consider the details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus; Hertzum, Morten

    2013-01-01

    levels of distance in our study. For revision time, the electronic whiteboard is slower on one subtask but there is no difference on another subtask. Participants prefer the electronic whiteboard. Given the font size of the electronic whiteboard, the inferior reading accuracy is unsurprising......Electronic whiteboards are replacing dry-erase whiteboards in many contexts. In this study we compare electronic and dry-erase whiteboards in emergency departments (EDs) with respect to reading distance and revision time. We find inferior reading accuracy for the electronic whiteboard at all three...... but the reduced possibilities for acquiring information at a glance when clinicians pass the whiteboard may adversely affect their overview. Conversely, the similar revision times for one subtask show that logon may be done quickly. We discuss how details such as font size and logon may impact the high-level...

  3. Phylogenetic meta-analysis of the functional traits of clonal plants foraging in changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Song, Yao-Bin; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Pan, Xu; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behavior, one of the adaptive strategies of clonal plants, has stimulated a tremendous amount of research. However, it is a matter of debate whether there is any general pattern in the foraging traits (functional traits related to foraging behavior) of clonal plants in response to diverse environments. We collected data from 97 published papers concerning the relationships between foraging traits (e.g., spacer length, specific spacer length, branch intensity and branch angle) of clonal plants and essential resources (e.g., light, nutrients and water) for plant growth and reproduction. We incorporated the phylogenetic information of 85 plant species to examine the universality of foraging hypotheses using phylogenetic meta-analysis. The trends toward forming longer spacers and fewer branches in shaded environments were detected in clonal plants, but no evidence for a relation between foraging traits and nutrient availability was detected, except that there was a positive correlation between branch intensity and nutrient availability in stoloniferous plants. The response of the foraging traits of clonal plants to water availability was also not obvious. Additionally, our results indicated that the foraging traits of stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to resource availability than those of rhizomatous plants. In consideration of plant phylogeny, these results implied that the foraging traits of clonal plants (notably stoloniferous plants) only responded to light intensity in a general pattern but did not respond to nutrient or water availability. In conclusion, our findings on the effects of the environment on the foraging traits of clonal plants avoided the confounding effects of phylogeny because we incorporated phylogeny into the meta-analysis.

  4. Suitability review of FMEA and reliability analysis for digital plant protection system and digital engineered safety features actuation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I. S.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, B. S.; Hwang, S. W.; Ryu, K. C. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    Of the many items that should be checked out during a review stage of the licensing application for the I and C system of Ulchin 5 and 6 units, this report relates to a suitability review of the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (DESFAS). In the reliability analysis performed by the system designer, ABB-CE, fault tree analysis was used as the main methods along with Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA). However, the present regulatory technique dose not allow the system reliability analysis and its results to be appropriately evaluated. Hence, this study was carried out focusing on the following four items ; development of general review items by which to check the validity of a reliability analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the reliability analysis for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS L development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of an FMEA, and the subsequent review of suitability of the FMEA for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of a fault tree analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the fault tree for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; an integrated review of the safety and reliability of the Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS based on the results of the various reviews above and also of a reliability comparison between the digital systems and the comparable analog systems, i.e., and analog Plant Protection System (PPS) and and analog Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS). According to the review mentioned above, the reliability analysis of Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS generally satisfies the review requirements. However, some shortcomings of the analysis were identified in our review such that the assumed test periods for several equipment were not properly incorporated in the analysis, and failures of some equipment were not included in the

  5. The Penicillin for the Emergency Department Outpatient treatment of CELLulitis (PEDOCELL) trial: update to the study protocol and detailed statistical analysis plan (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Fiona; Quirke, Michael; Gannon, Brenda; Plunkett, Sinead; Hayden, John; McCourt, John; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Eustace, Joseph; Deasy, Conor; Wakai, Abel

    2017-08-24

    Cellulitis is a painful, potentially serious, infectious process of the dermal and subdermal tissues and represents a significant disease burden. The statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the Penicillin for the Emergency Department Outpatient treatment of CELLulitis (PEDOCELL) trial is described here. The PEDOCELL trial is a multicentre, randomised, parallel-arm, double-blinded, non-inferiority clinical trial comparing the efficacy of flucloxacillin (monotherapy) with combination flucloxacillin/phenoxymethylpenicillin (dual therapy) for the outpatient treatment of cellulitis in the emergency department (ED) setting. To prevent outcome reporting bias, selective reporting and data-driven results, the a priori-defined, detailed SAP is presented here. Patients will be randomised to either orally administered flucloxacillin 500 mg four times daily and placebo or orally administered 500 mg of flucloxacillin four times daily and phenoxymethylpenicillin 500 mg four times daily. The trial consists of a 7-day intervention period and a 2-week follow-up period. Study measurements will be taken at four specific time points: at patient enrolment, day 2-3 after enrolment and commencing treatment (early clinical response (ECR) visit), day 8-10 after enrolment (end-of-treatment (EOT) visit) and day 14-21 after enrolment (test-of-cure (TOC) visit). The primary outcome measure is investigator-determined clinical response measured at the TOC visit. The secondary outcomes are as follows: lesion size at ECR, clinical treatment failure at each follow-up visit, adherence and persistence of trial patients with orally administered antibiotic therapy at EOT, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and pharmacoeconomic assessments. The plan for the presentation and comparison of baseline characteristics and outcomes is described in this paper. This trial aims to establish the non-inferiority of orally administered flucloxacillin monotherapy with orally administered flucloxacillin

  6. Rapid, combinatorial analysis of membrane compartments in intact plants with a multicolor marker set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldner, Niko; Dénervaud-Tendon, Valérie; Hyman, Derek L; Mayer, Ulrike; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Chory, Joanne

    2009-07-01

    Plant membrane compartments and trafficking pathways are highly complex, and are often distinct from those of animals and fungi. Progress has been made in defining trafficking in plants using transient expression systems. However, many processes require a precise understanding of plant membrane trafficking in a developmental context, and in diverse, specialized cell types. These include defense responses to pathogens, regulation of transporter accumulation in plant nutrition or polar auxin transport in development. In all of these cases a central role is played by the endosomal membrane system, which, however, is the most divergent and ill-defined aspect of plant cell compartmentation. We have designed a new vector series, and have generated a large number of stably transformed plants expressing membrane protein fusions to spectrally distinct, fluorescent tags. We selected lines with distinct subcellular localization patterns, and stable, non-toxic expression. We demonstrate the power of this multicolor 'Wave' marker set for rapid, combinatorial analysis of plant cell membrane compartments, both in live-imaging and immunoelectron microscopy. Among other findings, our systematic co-localization analysis revealed that a class of plant Rab1-homologs has a much more extended localization than was previously assumed, and also localizes to trans-Golgi/endosomal compartments. Constructs that can be transformed into any genetic background or species, as well as seeds from transgenic Arabidopsis plants, will be freely available, and will promote rapid progress in diverse areas of plant cell biology.

  7. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  8. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G. Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression.

  9. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  10. Analysis of tarnished plant bug movement using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the primary pest of cotton across the Midsouth of the United States. Movement into cotton fields occurs during the summer from other host plants, both cultivated and wild. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) has been used in other studies to ...

  11. Thermoeconomic Analysis Of a Gasification Plant Fed By Woodchips And Integrated With SOFC And STIG Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated biogas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for electric power generation. Basic plant layout consists of a gasification plant (GP), an SOFC and a retrofitted gas turbine with steam injection (STIG). Different system...

  12. Pinch analysis for efficient energy utilization in IGCC plants: Incorporation of contact economiser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, VA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinch analysis was used in this work to exploit the amount of energy available within integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. This work focuses on the steam path (subsystem) of IGCC power plants only. A case study on the Elcogas...

  13. A critical review on energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E analysis of thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing energy supply, demand has created an interest towards the plant equipment efficiency and the optimization of existing thermal power plants. Also, a thermal power plant dependency on fossil fuel makes it a little bit difficult, because of environmental impacts has been always taken into consideration. At present, most of the power plants are going to be designed by the energetic performance criterion which is based on the first law of thermodynamics. Sometimes, the system energy balance is not sufficient for the possible finding of the system imperfections. Energy losses taking place in a system can be easily determined by using exergy analysis. Hence, it is a powerful tool for the measurement of energy quality, thereby helps to make complex thermodynamic systems more efficient. Nowadays, economic optimization of plant is also a big problem for researchers because of the complex nature. At a viewpoint of this, a comprehensive literature review over the years of energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E analysis and their applications in thermal power plants stimulated by coal, gas, combined cycle and cogeneration system have been done thoroughly. This paper is addressed to those researchers who are doing their research work on 4-E analysis in various thermal power plants. If anyone extracts an idea for the development of the concept of 4-E analysis using this article, we will achieve our goal. This review also indicates the scope of future research in thermal power plants.

  14. Genome analysis of medicinal Ganoderma spp. with plant-pathogenic and saprotrophic life-styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kües, Ursula; Nelson, David R; Liu, Chang; Yu, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Jianqin; Wang, Xin-Cun; Sun, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a fungal genus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family and Polyporales order. Plant-pathogenic species in this genus can cause severe diseases (stem, butt, and root rot) in economically important trees and perennial crops, especially in tropical countries. Ganoderma species are white rot fungi and have ecological importance in the breakdown of woody plants for nutrient mobilization. They possess effective machineries of lignocellulose-decomposing enzymes useful for bioenergy production and bioremediation. In addition, the genus contains many important species that produce pharmacologically active compounds used in health food and medicine. With the rapid adoption of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, whole genome sequencing and systematic transcriptome analyses become affordable approaches to identify an organism's genes. In the last few years, numerous projects have been initiated to identify the genetic contents of several Ganoderma species, particularly in different strains of Ganoderma lucidum. In November 2013, eleven whole genome sequencing projects for Ganoderma species were registered in international databases, three of which were already completed with genomes being assembled to high quality. In addition to the nuclear genome, two mitochondrial genomes for Ganoderma species have also been reported. Complementing genome analysis, four transcriptome studies on various developmental stages of Ganoderma species have been performed. Information obtained from these studies has laid the foundation for the identification of genes involved in biological pathways that are critical for understanding the biology of Ganoderma, such as the mechanism of pathogenesis, the biosynthesis of active components, life cycle and cellular development, etc. With abundant genetic information becoming available, a few centralized resources have been established to disseminate the knowledge and integrate relevant data to support comparative genomic analyses of

  15. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  16. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  17. Assembly and comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an economic plant Salix suchowensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Willow is a widely used dioecious woody plant of Salicaceae family in China. Due to their high biomass yields, willows are promising sources for bioenergy crops. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequence of S. suchowensis with the length of 644,437 bp using Roche-454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing technologies. Base composition of the S. suchowensis mt genome is A (27.43%, T (27.59%, C (22.34%, and G (22.64%, which shows a prevalent GC content with that of other angiosperms. This long circular mt genome encodes 58 unique genes (32 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA genes, and 9 of the 32 protein-coding genes contain 17 introns. Through the phylogenetic analysis of 35 species based on 23 protein-coding genes, it is supported that Salix as a sister to Populus. With the detailed phylogenetic information and the identification of phylogenetic position, some ribosomal protein genes and succinate dehydrogenase genes are found usually lost during evolution. As a native shrub willow species, this worthwhile research of S. suchowensis mt genome will provide more desirable information for better understanding the genomic breeding and missing pieces of sex determination evolution in the future.

  18. Economic Analysis of Cikaso Mini Hydro Power Plant as a CDM Project for Increasing IRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irhan Febijanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy fueled power generations are few developed by private sector in Indonesia. High-cost investment and low electricity selling price to PT PLN as a single buyer is main barriers for private sector to involve in the development of renewable energy fueled power generations. In this project, the economic feasibility of Mini Hydro Power Plant of Cikaso with capacity of 5.3 MW, located at Sukabumi Regency, West Java province was assessed. This project utilized revenue generated from carbon market to increase the economic feasibility. Procedure to register the project to United Nation for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC as a Clean Development Mechanism project was explained in detail. Approved Consolidation Methodology (ACM 0002 Version 12.3.0 was used to calculate grid emission factor in Jawa-Bali-Madura the grid electricity system. It was calculated that the grid emission factor is 0.833 (t-CO2/MWh, and the carbon emission reduction generated for this project is 21,982 ton/year. From the analysis result, it can be proven that the additional revenue from carbon credit could increase the project IRR from 10.28% to 13.52%.

  19. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  20. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomita Devi, K., E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.