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Sample records for plants current protocols

  1. Massive transfusion protocols: current best practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yen-Michael S Hsu,1 Thorsten Haas,2 Melissa M Cushing1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs are established to provide rapid blood replacement in a setting of severe hemorrhage. Early optimal blood transfusion is essential to sustain organ perfusion and oxygenation. There are many variables to consider when establishing an MTP, and studies have prospectively evaluated different scenarios and patient populations to establish the best practices to attain improved patient outcomes. The establishment and utilization of an optimal MTP is challenging given the ever-changing patient status during resuscitation efforts. Much of the MTP literature comes from the trauma population, due to the fact that massive hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable trauma-related death. As we come to further understand the positive and negative clinical impacts of transfusion-related factors, massive transfusion practice can be further refined. This article will first discuss specific MTPs targeting different patient populations and current relevant international guidelines. Then, we will examine a wide selection of therapeutic products to support MTPs, including newly available products and the most suitable of the traditional products. Lastly, we will discuss the best design for an MTP, including ratio-based MTPs and MTPs based on the use of point-of-care coagulation diagnostic tools. Keywords: hemorrhage, MTP, antifibrinolytics, coagulopathy, trauma, ratio, logistics, guidelines, hemostatic

  2. Current Sterilization Protocols-An Orthodontic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Korath

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article focuses on the working principles of various methods of sterilization with an appraisalof their effects on orthodontic instruments. Additionally,contributory factors of instrument damage is enumerated to emphasis the importance of adhering to precise protocols and manufacturer recommendations as well as in alleviating some misconceptions about sterilization induced instrument damage.

  3. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  4. Plant regeneration protocol of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant regeneration protocol of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) - an important medicinal plant. ... Inclusion of 1.0 mg/l 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in the culture medium along with BA + Ads promoted a higher rate of shoot bud regeneration. Maximum mean number of shoot bud per explant (28.6) was achieved on the ...

  5. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS Mechanisms and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir V. Tavakoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition. The rapid development in this area requires clarity about best practices. Here we briefly introduce tACS and review the most compelling findings in the literature to provide a starting point for using tACS. We suggest that tACS protocols be based on functional brain mechanisms and appropriate control experiments, including active sham and condition blinding.

  6. Current fusion power plant design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Murphy, E.S.

    1976-09-01

    Nine current U.S. designs for fusion power plants are described in this document. Summary tabulations include a tenth concept, for which the design document was unavailable during preparation of the descriptions. The information contained in the descriptions was used to define an envelope of fusion power plant characteristics which formed the basis for definition of reference first commercial fusion power plant design. A brief prose summary of primary plant features introduces each of the descriptions contained in the body of this document. In addition, summary tables are presented. These tables summarize in side-by-side fashion, plant parameters, processes, combinations of materials used, requirements for construction materials, requirements for replacement materials during operation, and production of wastes

  7. Application of biodegradation screening protocol to contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Nakles, D.V.; Cushey, M.A.; Morgan, D.J.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Bioremediation (i.e., land treatment) has been demonstrated to be a viable option for treating a variety of soils contamianted with organics. Conventional treatability studies utilize soil microcosm experiments to evaluate the potential for bioremediation of specific contaminated soils. Unfortunately, soil microcosms take from 4- to 6-months to complete and do not fully exploit the current understanding of the bioremediation process. This paper describes a treatability protocol that investigates underlying mechanisms and can be completed in 2- to 3-months. It is believed that soil bioremediation is governed by the sequential processes of contanate desorption from the soil into the aqueous phase and subsequent oxidation by microorganisms. The relative importance of each process depends upon the contaminant and soil. Accordingly, the treatability protocol has three steps. In the first step, tests are performed to determine soil characteristics. In the second step, tests are performed to characterize the desorption of contaminants from the soil. In the third step, the potential for biological oxidaiton is evaluated with a soil-water slurry reactor that maximizes desorption and provides an optimum environment for microbial growth. This paper provides a thorough discussion of the laboratory protocol including the primary theoretical tenets which serve as its basis. Preliminary procedures and results are presented for soils contaminated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) wastes. Particular attention is focused on biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  8. Validation of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The communication network designed to transmit control and processing signals in digital Instrument and Control (I and C) systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), should provide a high level of safety and reliability. There are different features between the communication networks of NPPs and other commercial communication networks. Safety and reliability are the most important factors in the communication networks of an NPP rather than efficiency which are important factors of a commercial communication network design. To develop Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant, We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT). And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol(Nuclear power plant Safety Communication Protocol : NSCP) for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications. NSCP is the communication protocol designed for a safety-grade control network in the nuclear power plant. In this report, we had specified NSCP protocol by FDT(Formal Description Technique) and established validation procedures based on the validation methodology. It was confirmed specification error, major function's validity and reachability of NSCP by performing simulation and the validation process using Telelogic Tau tool

  9. Two mini-preparation protocols to DNA extraction from plants with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... samples to process and it is also a non expensive protocol. This method also ... because many of those chemicals inhibit PCR reactions. (Pandey et al., 1996) ... Spin at 15,000 rpm for 15 min and wash the DNA pellet with 1.2 ml ... Protocol: To 200 mg frozen and ground tissue plant material, add 900 µl of.

  10. Development of protocols to inventory or monitor wildlife, fish, or rare plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Vesely; Brenda C. McComb; Christina D. Vojta; Lowell H. Suring; Jurai Halaj; Richard S. Holthausen; Benjamin Zuckerberg; Patricia M. Manley

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this technical guide (hereafter referred to as the Species Protocol Technical Guide) is to provide guidelines for developing inventory and monitoring (I&M) protocols for wildlife, fish, and rare plants (WFRP) using the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service technical guide format.

  11. Current experience with nuclear power plant simulators and analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, A.

    1998-01-01

    Topics of a Specialist Meeting are presented on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation (Espoo, Finland). They dealt with the need for maintaining expertise, training and education, control rooms and operator support tools, simulators as tools for plant safety analysis. The major conclusions of the payers and the meeting are discussed. (R.P.)

  12. SDL-Based Protocol Validation for the Integrated Safety Communication Network in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-hun; Kim, Dong-hoon; Lee, Dong-young; Park, Sung-woo

    2006-01-01

    The communication protocol in nuclear power plants needs to be validated systematically to avoid the critical situation that may be caused by its own faults. We establish the methodology to validate the protocol designed for the Integrated Safety Communication Networks (ISCN) of Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS). The ISCN protocol is specified using the formal description technique called the SDL. The validation of ISCN protocol is done via the Simulator and Validator, both of which are main functions provided by the SDL

  13. A protocol for plant macrofossil analysis of peat deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauquoy, D.; Hughes, P.; van Geel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of plant macrofossils can be used to reconstruct the development of the local vegetation on peatlands, and thus to elucidate successional processes. In the case of ombrotrophic peatlands, such analyses can also be used to generate palaeoclimate data. Identification of plant macrofossils in

  14. Plant cell engineering: current research, application and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunqing; Liu Luxiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current status of basic research in plant cell engineering, highlighted the application of embryo culture, double haploid (DH) technology, protoplast culture and somatic hybridization, somaclonal variation, rapid propagation, and bio-products production of plant-origin, and t he prospects. (authors)

  15. Current protocols in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Boraks, George; Patil, Shekar Gowda; Aljabab, Abdulsalam S; Merkx, M A W; Carrozzo, Marco; Brennan, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a debilitating condition of oral cavity which has significant potential for malignant transformation. In spite of over 20 years of research, the pathogenesis of the condition is still obscure and no single management modality is effective. Many OSMF treatment protocols have been proposed to alleviate the signs and symptoms of the disorder and there is overwhelming evidence that as areca nut is primary cause, stopping its use may have a considerable effect on symptoms rather than reversing pre-existing fibrosis. We present a review of the current protocols for managing OSMF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of a standard communication protocol for an emergency situation management in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol, E-mail: charleskim@kaeri.re.k [Integrated Risk Assessment Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [Integrated Risk Assessment Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hanjeom; Kim, Yoon Joong [YGN Nuclear Power Division Training Center, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, 517 Kyemari, Hongnong-eup, Yeongkwang-gun, Chonnam 513-880 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Correct communication between main control room (MCR) operators is an important factor in the management of emergency situations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). For this reason, a standard communication protocol for the management of emergency situations in NPPs has been developed, with the basic direction of enhancing the safety of NPPs and the standardization of communication protocols. To validate the newly developed standard communication protocol, validation experiments with 10 licensed NPP MCR operator teams was performed. From the validation experiments, it was found that the use of the standard communication protocol required more time, but it can contribute to the enhancement of the safety of NPPs by an operators' better grasp of the safety-related parameters and a more efficient and clearer communication between NPP operators, while imposing little additional workloads on the NPP MCR operators. The standard communication protocol is expected to be used to train existing NPP MCR operators without much aversion, as well as new operators.

  17. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Generally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the plant growth directly by either assisting in resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. Various studies have documented the increased health and productivity of different plant species by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under both normal and stressed conditions. The plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals which destabilize the agro-ecosystems. This review accentuates the perception of the rhizosphere and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under the current perspectives. Further, explicit outlooks on the different mechanisms of rhizobacteria mediated plant growth promotion have been described in detail with the recent development and research. Finally, the latest paradigms of applicability of these beneficial rhizobacteria in different agro-ecosystems have been presented comprehensively under both normal and stress conditions to highlight the recent trends with the aim to develop future insights.

  18. Plant DNA Detection from Grasshopper Guts: A Step-by-Step Protocol, from Tissue Preparation to Obtaining Plant DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Avanesyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions.

  19. Analysis of harmonic current interaction in an industrial plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Kling, W.L.; Timens, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of current transients caused by the operation of a nearby device in an industrial plant is presented in the paper. The source of current transients in the factory lighting system was traced to the operation of the nearby six-pulse AC/DC converter. To determine the nature of the

  20. Plant regeneration protocol of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyana Sir

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Inclusion of 1.0 mg/l 1-naphthalene acetic acid. (NAA) in the culture medium along with BA + Ads ... The plant is distributed throughout tropical India and Sri. Lanka and is commonly known as Kalmegh. ..... Government of India, New Delhi for providing financial assistance under PG-teaching HRD program.

  1. On the network protocol performance evaluation for large scale communication system of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. S.; Lee, T. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, D. H.; Ku, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    Computer technology has been dramatically advanced and it is now natural to apply digital network technology into nuclear plants. Communication architecture for nuclear plant defines the coordination of safety reactor control, balance of plant, subsystem utilities, and plant monitoring functions, and how they are connected and their user interface to guarantee plant performance and guarantee safety requirements. Therefore, to implement a digital network for control and monitoring systems of advanced nuclear plant needs systematic design and evaluation procedures because of responsive and hard real-time process characteristics of nuclear plant. In this paper, we evaluate several digital network protocols in terms of network delay, link failure effects to hard real-time requirements with full scale traffic

  2. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of seismic research being conducted in Japan and describes USNRC efforts to understand Japanese seismic practice. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants is descried in JEAG 4601-1987, ''Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The USNRC has sponsored BNL to translate this document into English. Efforts are underway to study and understand JEAG 4601-1987 and make the translation more readily available in the United States

  3. Protocol converter for serial communication between digital rectifier controllers and a power plant SCADA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the protocol converter INT-485-MBRTU, developed for serial communication between the thyristor rectifier (based on the proprietary protocol "INT-CPD-05", according to standard RS-485 and the SCADA system (based on protocol "Modbus RTU", of the same standard in the thermal power plant "Nikola Tesla B1". Elementary data on industrial communication protocols and communication gateways were provided. The basic technical characteristics of the "Omron" programmable logic controller CJ series were described, as well as the developed device INT-485-MBRTU. Protocol converters with two versions of communication software were tested, differing only in one control word, intended for a forced successive change of communication sequences, in opposite to automatic sequence relieve. The device iNT-485-MBRTU, with the program for forced successive change of communication sequences, demonstrated the reliability of data transfer of 100 %, in a sample of approximately 480 messages. For nearly the same sample, the same protocol converter, with a version of the program without any type of message identifiers, transferred less than 60 % of the foreseen data. During multiple sixty-hour tests, the reliability of data transfer of at least 99.9979% was recorded, in 100% of the analysed cases, and for a sample of nearly 96,000 pairs of the send and receive messages. We analysed the results and estimated the additional possibilities for application of the INT-485-MBRTU protocol converter.

  4. Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papillo, V.A.; Vitaglione, P.; Graziani, G.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both

  5. CHIP: Commodity based Hazard Identification Protocol for emerging diseases in plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.; Swanenburg, M.; Galen, van M.A.; Hoek, Maarten; Rau, M.L.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Benninga, J.; Ge, L.; Breukers, M.L.H.

    2012-01-01

    This project comprised the development of a commodity-based hazard identification protocol for biological hazards in plants and animals as a decision support tree programmed in Excel. The content of the decision tree is based on the results of a systematic review of pest and pathogen

  6. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...... of full scale converter type wind turbines may be utilized to alter voltage imbalance at the point of connection and further into the grid, in turn changing the resultant negative sequence current flow in the grid. The effects of such control actions have been analyzed and discussed through theoretical...

  7. A modified protocol for myocardial perfusion SPECT using natural plant extracts for enbancement of biliorg excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2003-01-01

    For good quality of myocardial perfusion images, an approximately 30 min to 1 hour of waiting time after radiopharmaceutical injection of fatty meal are asked of the patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the shortening of waiting time after radiopharmaceutical injection and improvement of image quality using natural plant extracts that promote bile excretion. Ten volunteers participated in protocol 1 (7 men, 3 women; mean age, 24.1±2.4 years) and protocol 2 (8 men, 2 women; mean age, 26.1±2.9 years), respectively. For the modified method of both protocols, subjects took natural plant extracts 15 minutes before the first injection of 99m Tc MIBI without taking fatty meals. Control (Conventional) methods were performed with intake of a fatty meal 20 to 30 minutes after 99m Tc MIBI injection. As the results of protocol 1 and 2, the ratio of myocardial to lung ratio were not different between modified and conventional method. Liver to lung ratio of modified method showed significantly lower value than that of conventional method. In modified method, myocardial to liver ratio was higher persistently. In protocol 2, natural plant extracts took before the first injection of 99m Tc MIBI exerted accelerating effect of excretion of bile juice into intestine until the end of examination. These results represent that natural plant extracts for facilitation of bile excretion before injection of 99m Tc MIBI may provide better quality of myocardial perfusion images without the need for preparations such as ingestion of fatty meal within the 2 hours compared with conventional method

  8. Pediatric Renal Transplantation: Focus on Current Transition Care and Proposal of the "RISE to Transition" Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Rupesh; Wang, Joseph; Krishnappa, Vinod; Ferris, Maria

    2018-01-16

    The transition from pediatric to adult medical services is an important time in the life of an adolescent or young adult with a renal transplant. Failure of proper transition can lead to medical non-adherence and subsequent loss of graft and/or return to dialysis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and survey to assess the challenges and existing practices in transition of renal transplant recipient children to adult services, and to develop a transition protocol. We conducted a literature review and performed a survey of pediatric nephrologists across the United States to examine the current state of transition care. A structured transition protocol was developed based on these results. Our literature review revealed that a transition program has a positive impact on decline in renal function and acute rejection episodes, and may improve long-term graft outcomes in pediatric kidney transplant patients. With a response rate of 40% (60/150) from nephrologists in 56% (49/87) of centers, our survey shows inconsistent use of validated tools despite their availability, inefficient communication between teams, and lack of use of dedicated clinics. To address these issues, we developed the "RISE to Transition" protocol, which relies on 4 competency areas: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits. The transition program decreases acute graft rejection episodes, and the main challenges in transition care are the communication gap between health care providers and inconsistent use of transition tools. Our RISE to transition protocol incorporates transition tools, defines personnel, and aims to improve communication between teams.

  9. Analysis of 213 currently used rehabilitation protocols in foot and ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Christian G; Grechenig, Stephan; Frankewycz, Borys; Ernstberger, Antonio; Nerlich, Michael; Krutsch, Werner

    2015-10-01

    Fractures of the ankle, hind- and midfoot are amongst the five most common fractures. Besides initial operative or non-operative treatment, rehabilitation of the patients plays a crucial role for fracture union and long term functional outcome. Limited evidence is available with regard to what a rehabilitation regimen should include and what guidelines should be in place for the initial clinical course of these patients. This study therefore investigated the current rehabilitation concepts after fractures of the ankle, hind- and midfoot. Written rehabilitation protocols provided by orthopedic and trauma surgery institutions in terms of recommendations for weight bearing, range of motion (ROM), physiotherapy and choice of orthosis were screened and analysed. All protocols for lateral ankle fractures type AO 44A1, AO 44B1 and AO 44C1, for calcaneal fractures and fractures of the metatarsal as well as other not specific were included. Descriptive analysis was carried out and statistical analysis applied where appropriate. 209 rehabilitation protocols for ankle fractures type AO 44B1 and AO 44C1, 98 for AO 44A1, 193 for metatarsal fractures, 142 for calcaneal fractures, 107 for 5(th) metatarsal base fractures and 70 for 5(th) metatarsal Jones fractures were evaluated. The mean time recommended for orthosis treatment was 6.04 (SD 0.04) weeks. While the majority of protocols showed a trend towards increased weight bearing and increased ROM over time, the best consensus was noted for weight bearing recommendations. Our study shows that there exists a huge variability in rehabilitation of fractures of the ankle-, hind- and midfoot. This may be contributed to a lack of consensus (e.g. missing publication of guidelines), individualized patient care (e.g. in fragility fractures) or lack of specialization. This study might serve as basis for prospective randomized controlled trials in order to optimize rehabilitation for these common fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Develter, Wim; Bosmans, Hilde; Zanca, Federica

    2017-11-01

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI vol of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI vol of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI vol values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for standard protocols. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for fast-speed scanning protocols. • For organ-based TCM schemes, the 3D-TCM information is necessary for accurate dosimetry. • At identical CTDI vol , the fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. • Lung dose was higher in XCare than standard protocol at identical CTDI vol .

  11. Approach to integrate current safeguards measures with additional protocol requirements at national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.

    2001-01-01

    Peru adhered to the Additional Protocol in March 2000 which was also approved by the Congress in May 2001. After approval by law the obligations derived from this Additional Protocol will be in force after 180 days. After the signing of the Protocol an approach was designed to help better fulfill these requirements in an integrated way with the previous measures. As first stage, a review of the current state of safeguards was undertaken. Under the current agreement (an INFCIRC/153 type agreement) the reporting is less complicated and inexpensive to be carried out because these reports include only the declared nuclear material and the features of declared facilities where the nuclear material is used. No other related facility or material or activity needs to be declared. In Peru there are only two MBAs where low enriched uranium (LEU) is used and the record system includes general ledgers, inventory records and operational books. The results of national inspections and copies of reports and communications sent to the IAEA are also kept in this system. Under the agreement and subsidiary arrangements material balance reports (MBR), physical inventory listings (PIL) and inventory change reports (ICR) are prepared and submitted to the IAEA at scheduled periods. The MBR and PIL reports are sent after yearly regular inspections carried out by the IAEA. The ICR is sent just every time when an import or export of nuclear material is made. The time devoted to carry out all of these activities is not so extensive for both the State System for Accountability and Control (SSAC) and the users because of the limited nuclear activities in the country. Because of the characteristics and limited quantities of nuclear material the efforts for inspection and reporting activities are few. Another subject under review was the procedure for controlling the imports of nuclear material. Under the current agreement this subject was not a problem, as all of the radioactive and nuclear

  12. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Develter, Wim [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Zanca, Federica [University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI{sub vol} of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI{sub vol} of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI{sub vol} values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. (orig.)

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation for depression in Alzheimer's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Zui; Yokoi, Yuma

    2017-06-19

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease frequently elicit neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as cognitive deficits. Above all, depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease but antidepressant drugs have not shown significant beneficial effects on it. Moreover, electroconvulsive therapy has not ensured its safety for potential severe adverse events although it does show beneficial clinical effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be the safe alternative of neuromodulation, which applies weak direct electrical current to the brain. Although transcranial direct current stimulation has plausible evidence for its effect on depression in young adult patients, no study has explored it in older subjects with depression in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we present a study protocol designed to evaluate the safety and clinical effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on depression in Alzheimer's disease in subjects aged over 65 years. This is a two-arm, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial, in which patients and assessors will be blinded. Subjects will be randomized to either an active or a sham transcranial direct current stimulation group. Participants in both groups will be evaluated at baseline, immediately, and 2 weeks after the intervention. This study investigates the safety and effect of transcranial direct current stimulation that may bring a significant impact on both depression and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and may be useful to enhance their quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02351388 . Registered on 27 January 2015. Last updated on 30 May 2016.

  14. Neuroimaging in dementia and Alzheimer's disease: Current protocols and practice in the Republic of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, I.; Butler, M.-L.; Ciblis, A.; McNulty, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neuroimaging plays an essential supportive role in the diagnosis of dementia, assisting in establishing the dementia subtype(s). This has significant value in both treatment and care decisions and has important implications for prognosis. This study aims to explore the development and nature of neuroimaging protocols currently used in the assessment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: An online questionnaire was designed and distributed to lead radiography personnel working in computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) departments (n = 94) in both hospital-based and out-patient imaging centres in the Republic of Ireland. Results: Response rates for each modality ranged from 42 to 44%. CT, MRI, and PET were used to specifically diagnose dementia or AD by 43%, 40% and 50% of responding centres respectively. Of these, dementia-specific neuroimaging protocols were utilised in 33%, 50% and 100% of CT, MRI and PET centres respectively, with the remainder using either standard or other non-specific protocols. Both radiologists and clinical specialist radiographers participated in the development of the majority of protocols. The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines were most commonly referenced as informing protocol development, however, none of the MRI respondents were able to identify any guidelines used to inform MR protocol development. Conclusion: Currently there is no consensus in Ireland on optimal dementia/AD neuroimaging protocols, particularly for PET and MRI. Similarly the use of validated and published guidelines to inform protocols is not universal. - Highlights: • We examined the nature of neuroimaging protocols for dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Ireland. • Dementia or Alzheimer's disease-specific protocols were used by between 33 and 100% of centres depending on modality. • Stated dementia-specific protocols were identical for CT whereas

  15. Current Status of QA For Nuclear Power Plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Hitohiko

    1986-01-01

    It is the current status of QA and our QA experiences with nuclear power plants against the background of the Japanese social and business environment. Accordingly, in 1972, 'The Guidance for Quality Assurance in Construction of Nuclear Power Plants' based on U. S. 10CEF50 Appendix B, was published by the Japan Electric Association. 'Jug-4101 The Guide for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants' has been prepared by referring to the IAEA QA code. The Guide has been accepted by the Japanese nuclear industry and applied to the QA programs of every organization concerned therewith. The Japanese approach to higher quality will naturally be different from that of other countries because of Japan's cultural, social, and economic conditions. Even higher quality is being aimed at through the LWR Improvement and Standardization Program and coordinated quality assurance efforts

  16. Current USAEC seismic requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The principal seismic and geologic considerations which guide the USAEC in its evaluation of the suitability of proposed sites for nuclear power plants and plant design bases are set forth as design criteria in the AEC regulatory guides. The basic requirements of seismic design and analysis for seismic Category I structures, components, and systems important to public safety have been established in the USAEC regulatory guides and Code of Federal Regulations. It is pointed out that the current state-of-art techniques, best available technology, and additional studies in the field of earthquake engineering can be utilized to resolve seismic concerns. The seismic design requirements for nuclear plants to withstand postulated earthquakes can be standardized and this will be a significant milestone in the continuation of the Nuclear Standardization Program. (author)

  17. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements......, wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe...... faults, causing low voltages at the point of common coupling. As a consequence, a new wind turbine current controller for operation during faults is proposed. It is shown that to achieve the maximum transfer of reactive current at the point of common coupling, a strategy for optimal setting of the active...

  18. A Protocol for Rapid, Measurable Plant Tissue Culture Using Stem Disc Meristem Micropropagation of Garlic ("Allium Sativum L.")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Gerry; Jones, Meriel

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the mass propagation of plants. Problems with existing techniques, such as slow growth and contamination, have restricted the practical work in plant tissue culture carried out in schools. The new protocol using garlic meristematic stem discs explained in this article addresses many of…

  19. Protocol for audit of current Filipino practice in rehabilitation of stroke inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B; Dizon, Janine Margarita R; Grimmer, Karen; Estrada, Myrna S; Liao, Lauren Anne S; Malleta, Anne-Rochelle D; Tan, Ma Elena R; Marfil, Vero; Versales, Cristina S; Suarez, Jimah L; So, Kleon C; Uyehara, Edgardo D

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading medical conditions in the Philippines. Over 500,000 Filipinos suffer from stroke annually. Provision of evidence-based medical and rehabilitation management for stroke patients has been a challenge due to existing environmental, social, and local health system issues. Thus, existing western guidelines on stroke rehabilitation were contextualized to draft recommendations relevant to the local Philippine setting. Prior to fully implementing the guidelines, an audit of current practice needs to be undertaken, thus the purpose of this audit protocol. A clinical audit of current practices in stroke rehabilitation in the Philippines will be undertaken. A consensus list of data items to be captured was identified by the audit team during a 2-day meeting in 2012. These items, including patient demographics, type of stroke, time to referral for rehabilitation management, length of hospital stay, and other relevant descriptors of stroke management were included as part of the audit. Hospitals in the Philippines will be recruited to take part in the audit activity. Recruitment will be via the registry of the Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine, where 90% of physiatrists (medical doctors specialized in rehabilitation medicine) are active members and are affiliated with various hospitals in the Philippines. Data collectors will be identified and trained in the audit process. A pilot audit will be conducted to test the feasibility of the audit protocol, and refinements to the protocol will be undertaken as necessary. The comprehensive audit process will take place for a period of 3 months. Data will be encoded using MS Excel(®). Data will be reported as means and percentages as appropriate. Subgroup analysis will be undertaken to look into differences and variability of stroke patient descriptors and rehabilitation activities. This audit study is an ambitious project, but given the "need" to conduct the audit to identify "gaps" in current

  20. Current approaches to nuclear power plant life management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, T.; Tajima, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Koyama, M.

    2002-01-01

    extracted additional maintenance measures and incorporated them into their long-term maintenance plans, thereby reinforcing their current maintenance activities. Considering the latest information including domestic and overseas operating experiences and knowledge of academics and experts consigned by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of the METI reviewed and studied the technical evaluation and long-term maintenance plans of these electric utility companies. This paper describes the outlines of the NISA's report and related activities on current approaches to cope with the ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan. (Note) In 2001, the MITI was reorganized to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). (author)

  1. Protocol for audit of current Filipino practice in rehabilitation of stroke inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Suarez CB

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consuelo B Gonzalez-Suarez,1–3 Janine Margarita R Dizon,2,3 Karen Grimmer,3 Myrna S Estrada,4 Lauren Anne S Liao,1 Anne-Rochelle D Malleta,5 Ma Elena R Tan,6 Vero Marfil,6 Cristina S Versales,1 Jimah L Suarez,5 Kleon C So,1 Edgardo D Uyehara6 1University of Santo Tomas Hospital, University of Santo Tomas, 2University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines; 3International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, City East Campus, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4De La Salle University Hospital, Cavite, Dasmariñas, 5Philippine Orthopedic Center, 6Veterans’ Memorial Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines Background: Stroke is one of the leading medical conditions in the Philippines. Over 500,000 Filipinos suffer from stroke annually. Provision of evidence-based medical and rehabilitation management for stroke patients has been a challenge due to existing environmental, social, and local health system issues. Thus, existing western guidelines on stroke rehabilitation were contextualized to draft recommendations relevant to the local Philippine setting. Prior to fully implementing the guidelines, an audit of current practice needs to be undertaken, thus the purpose of this audit protocol.Methods: A clinical audit of current practices in stroke rehabilitation in the Philippines will be undertaken. A consensus list of data items to be captured was identified by the audit team during a 2-day meeting in 2012. These items, including patient demographics, type of stroke, time to referral for rehabilitation management, length of hospital stay, and other relevant descriptors of stroke management were included as part of the audit. Hospitals in the Philippines will be recruited to take part in the audit activity. Recruitment will be via the registry of the Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine, where 90% of physiatrists (medical doctors specialized in rehabilitation medicine are active members and are affiliated

  2. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar

  4. An investigation into current protocols and radiographer opinions on contrast extravasation in Irish CT departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, N.; McNulty, J.P.; Foley, S.J.; Kelly, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodinated contrast extravasation is a serious complication associated with intravenous administration in radiology. Departmental protocols and the radiographer's approach on both prevention techniques and treatment will affect the prevalence of extravasation, and the eventual outcome for the patient when it does occur. Aims: To examine contrast extravasation protocols in place in Irish CT departments for alignment with European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) Guidelines (2014); to establish radiographer's opinions on contrast extravasation; and to examine radiographer adherence to protocols. Methods: Contrast extravasation protocols from a purposively selected sample of CT departments across Ireland (n = 6) were compared to ESUR guidelines, followed by an online survey of CT radiographers practicing in the participating centres. Results: All participating CT departments (n = 5) had written protocols in place. High risk patients, such as elderly or unconscious, were identified in most protocols, however, children were mentioned in just one protocol and obese patients were not specified in any. The response rate of CT radiographers was 23% (n = 24). 58% (n = 14) of respondents indicated that contrast extravasation was more likely during CTA examinations. While high levels of confidence in managing extravasation were reported, suggested treatment approaches, and confidence in same, was more variable. Clinical workload in CT departments was also identified as a factor impacting on patient care and management. Conclusion: While contrast extravasation protocols were generally in line with ESUR Guidelines, high risk patients may not be getting sufficient attention. More radiographer awareness of patient monitoring needs, particularly in busy departments with a heavy workload may also reduce extravasation risk, and improve management of same. - Highlights: • Irish protocols on contrast extravasation are generally in line with

  5. Current production costs in various power plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weible, H.

    1977-01-01

    The costs of producing electric power were evaluated for flowing water power plants, storage and pumped storage power plants, bituminous coal power plants, heating oil power plants (fired with heavy heating oil), natural gas-fired power plants, gas turbines, pressurized water reactors, and boiling water reactors. The calculational methods used for evaluating costs and the input data for methods used for the KOSKON and KOSKERN computer programs are described. It is emphasized that the calculations are examples to indicate the possible effects of the cost program and are only as valid as the input data. (JSR)

  6. Current experience with central-station nuclear cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    In considering the potential of the HTGR for nuclear cogeneration, a logical element for investigation is the recent history of nuclear cogeneration experience. Little is found in recent literature; however, the twin nuclear cogeneration plant at Midland is nearing completion and this milestone will no doubt be the basis for a number of reports on the unique cogeneration facility and operating experiences with it. Less well known in the US is the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in Ontario, Canada. Originally designed to cogenerate steam for heavy water production, the Bruce facility is the focus of a major initiative to create an energy park on the shores of Lake Huron. To obtain an improved understanding of the status and implications of current nuclear cogeneration experience, GCRA representatives visited the Ontario Hydro offices in Toronto and subsequently toured the Midland site near Midland, Michigan. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the results of those visits and to develop a series of conclusions regarding the implications for HTGR cogeneration concepts

  7. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron H Fronk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included.

  8. Noctuidae-induced plant volatiles: current situation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanusa Rodrigues Horas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noctuids are phytophagous lepidopterans with some species causing significant damage to agriculture. The host plants, in turn, have developed defense mechanisms to cope with them, for instance chemical defenses. In this study we review the literature on plant volatiles induced by noctuids, and discuss the methodologies used to induce the production of volatiles that are usually employed in plant defense mechanisms. Future prospects involving this line of research in pest control are also discussed.

  9. A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasschau, Margaret; Sherman, Kathleen; Haider, Lamia; Frontario, Ariana; Shaw, Michael; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Charvet, Leigh

    2015-12-26

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that uses low amplitude direct currents to alter cortical excitability. With well-established safety and tolerability, tDCS has been found to have the potential to ameliorate symptoms such as depression and pain in a range of conditions as well as to enhance outcomes of cognitive and physical training. However, effects are cumulative, requiring treatments that can span weeks or months and frequent, repeated visits to the clinic. The cost in terms of time and travel is often prohibitive for many participants, and ultimately limits real-world access. Following guidelines for remote tDCS application, we propose a protocol that would allow remote (in-home) participation that uses specially-designed devices for supervised use with materials modified for patient use, and real-time monitoring through a telemedicine video conferencing platform. We have developed structured training procedures and clear, detailed instructional materials to allow for self- or proxy-administration while supervised remotely in real-time. The protocol is designed to have a series of checkpoints, addressing attendance and tolerability of the session, to be met in order to continue to the next step. The feasibility of this protocol was then piloted for clinical use in an open label study of remotely-supervised tDCS in multiple sclerosis (MS). This protocol can be widely used for clinical study of tDCS.

  10. Plants in aquatic ecosystems: current trends and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O’Hare, Matthew T.; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Asaeda, Takashi; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Chambers, Patricia A.; Clayton, John S.; Elger, Arnaud; Ferreira, Teresa M.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Gunn, Iain D.M.; Gurnell, Angela M.; Hellsten, Seppo; Hofstra, Deborah E.; Li, Wei; Mohr, Silvia; Puijalon, Sara; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Willby, Nigel J.; Wood, Kevin A.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic plants fulfil a wide range of ecological roles, and make a substantial contribution to the structure, function and service provision of aquatic ecosystems. Given their well-documented importance in aquatic ecosystems, research into aquatic plants continues to blossom. The 14th International

  11. Plant DNA detection from grasshopper guts: A step-by-step protocol, from tissue preparation to obtaining plant DNA sequences1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesyan, Alina

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. • Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA) gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. • Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions. PMID:25202604

  12. Wind Plant Preconstruction Energy Estimates. Current Practice and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Understanding the amount of energy that will be harvested by a wind power plant each year and the variability of that energy is essential to assessing and potentially improving the financial viability of that power plant. The preconstruction energy estimate process predicts the amount of energy--with uncertainty estimates--that a wind power plant will deliver to the point of revenue. This report describes the preconstruction energy estimate process from a technical perspective and seeks to provide insight into the financial implications associated with each step.

  13. Current problems associated with nuclear plant construction contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Raffaele.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of nuclear electricity generating programmes has brought to the fore the problems associated with construction of this type of power plant. The paper analyses the contracts for such construction and describes the most common, the turnkey contract. The present tendency is to limit the scope of turnkey contracts to the nuclear system or simply to the reactor and this is especially common in advanced nuclear countries such as the US, Canada, Japan, UK and France, and this is also the case in Italy where the question of contracting nuclear plants is debated. In Germany the power utilities hold a large number of shares in the manufacturing industry and the turnkey contract is therefore more economically attractive. A detailed description of the contracting procedure is provided, including the suppliers' and purchasers' responsibilities, plant commissioning tests and handing over of the plant to the operator. (NEA) [fr

  14. Current status and research of plant space mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xinmian

    2011-01-01

    Plant space mutation breeding and discussed themechanism of plant space mutagenesis. The variations of organisms were induced by the comprehensive effects of high vacuum, microgravity,incense radiat ion and so on. The application of space mutation breeding and inheritance in specially good grmplasm material in China were well summarized. The prospects of space mutat ion breeding was described. The space mutagenesis will provided a new way for the future breeding. (author)

  15. The Current Working Conditions in Ugandan Apparel Assembly Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Tebyetekerwa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present rapid shift of industrialization from developed to developing countries requires developing countries to understand issues related to work organization, management, and working conditions. There are many factors slackening production, of which working conditions is part. A complete inquiry into the workers' working conditions can enable managements to reduce risks in the workplaces and improve productivity. Understanding and awareness of the benefits of workplace research and a probe into the working conditions in the Ugandan apparel assembly plants are urgently required. Methods: A total of 103 (70 women and 33 men workers from five different plants were interviewed. Together with the top management of various plants, questionnaires about the workers' opinions of their physical working conditions were prepared. Data was collected using two methods: (1 questionnaire; and (2 observation of the workers during their work. Results: The results indicated that poor plant working conditions were mainly contributed by the workers' social factors and the management policies. Conclusion: The government, together with the management, should work to improve the working conditions in the apparel assembly plants, as it greatly affects both. Keywords: apparel assembly plants, ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, Uganda, working conditions

  16. My home is my bazaar - A taxonomy and classification of current wireless home network protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, Rune; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Hjorth, Theis Solberg

    2011-01-01

    to considerable challenges for developers and integrators in understanding and choosing between the available wireless technologies. To further increase technology adoption and improve business risk assessments, it is necessary to determine the important properties of the technologies in order to compare them......, cost, security, etc. Third, a classification based on the taxonomy and the collected data is presented. In the final discussion, we identify a number of key aspects that could be important technology criteria for future development of home automation protocols....

  17. Development of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-07-01

    The communication protocol, which provide overall communication rules and methods and give ways how to exchange information, is the most important part and it can affect the overall performance of communication network. Therefore, the first step of development of the communication network of an NPP is its own communication protocol design, which conforms to the requirements and characteristics of an NPP I and C. To manage the protocol development process, we establish development procedure and define detail substantive based on the procedure and we examine the adaptability of existing commercial communication protocols to the communication protocol of an NPP I and C. Existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT) can be categorized into 3 groups: general commercial communication protocols, industrial communication protocols, military communication protocols. We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of popular protocols in each group. And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications

  18. Melatonin: current status and future perspectives in plant science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azher Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is a ubiquitous molecule with pleiotropic actions in different organisms. It performs many important functions in human, animals and plants; these range from regulating circadian rhythms in animals to controlling senescence in plants. In this review, we summarize the available information regarding the presence of melatonin in different plant species, along with highlighting its biosynthesis and mechanisms of action. We also collected the available information on the effects of melatonin application on commercially important crops to improve their growth and development. Additionally, we have identified many new aspects where melatonin may have possible roles in plants, for example, its function in improving the storage life and quality of fruits and vegetables, its role in vascular reconnection during the grafting process and nutrient uptake from roots by modifying root architecture. Another potentially important aspect is the production of melatonin-rich food crops (cereals, fruits and vegetables through combination of conventional and modern breeding approaches, to increase plant resistance against biotic and abiotic stress, leading to improved crop yields and the nutraceutical value of produce to solve food security issues.

  19. The Current Working Conditions in Ugandan Apparel Assembly Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebyetekerwa, Mike; Akankwasa, Nicholus Tayari; Marriam, Ifra

    2017-12-01

    The present rapid shift of industrialization from developed to developing countries requires developing countries to understand issues related to work organization, management, and working conditions. There are many factors slackening production, of which working conditions is part. A complete inquiry into the workers' working conditions can enable managements to reduce risks in the workplaces and improve productivity. Understanding and awareness of the benefits of workplace research and a probe into the working conditions in the Ugandan apparel assembly plants are urgently required. A total of 103 (70 women and 33 men) workers from five different plants were interviewed. Together with the top management of various plants, questionnaires about the workers' opinions of their physical working conditions were prepared. Data was collected using two methods: (1) questionnaire; and (2) observation of the workers during their work. The results indicated that poor plant working conditions were mainly contributed by the workers' social factors and the management policies. The government, together with the management, should work to improve the working conditions in the apparel assembly plants, as it greatly affects both.

  20. [Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Matthieu

    2013-05-01

    Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

  1. Current challenges and future perspectives of plant and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshelion, Menachem; Altman, Arie

    2015-06-01

    Advances in understanding plant biology, novel genetic resources, genome modification, and omics technologies generate new solutions for food security and novel biomaterials production under changing environmental conditions. New gene and germplasm candidates that are anticipated to lead to improved crop yields and other plant traits under stress have to pass long development phases based on trial and error using large-scale field evaluation. Therefore, quantitative, objective, and automated screening methods combined with decision-making algorithms are likely to have many advantages, enabling rapid screening of the most promising crop lines at an early stage followed by final mandatory field experiments. The combination of novel molecular tools, screening technologies, and economic evaluation should become the main goal of the plant biotechnological revolution in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fire and invasive exotic plant species in eastern oak communities: an assessment of current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2006-01-01

    Successful regeneration of oak-dominated communities in the Eastern United States historically requires disturbance such as fire, making them vulnerable to invasion by exotic plants. Little is currently known about the effects of fire on invasive plant species and the effects of invasive plant species on fire regimes of this region. Seventeen common eastern invaders...

  3. Ecosystem Fabrication (EcoFAB) Protocols for The Construction of Laboratory Ecosystems Designed to Study Plant-microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Sasse, Joelle; Lewald, Kyle M; Zhalnina, Kateryna; Cornmesser, Lloyd T; Duncombe, Todd A; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Vogel, John P; Firestone, Mary K; Northen, Trent R

    2018-04-10

    Beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer a sustainable biological solution with the potential to boost low-input food and bioenergy production. A better mechanistic understanding of these complex plant-microbe interactions will be crucial to improving plant production as well as performing basic ecological studies investigating plant-soil-microbe interactions. Here, a detailed description for ecosystem fabrication is presented, using widely available 3D printing technologies, to create controlled laboratory habitats (EcoFABs) for mechanistic studies of plant-microbe interactions within specific environmental conditions. Two sizes of EcoFABs are described that are suited for the investigation of microbial interactions with various plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, and Panicum virgatum. These flow-through devices allow for controlled manipulation and sampling of root microbiomes, root chemistry as well as imaging of root morphology and microbial localization. This protocol includes the details for maintaining sterile conditions inside EcoFABs and mounting independent LED light systems onto EcoFABs. Detailed methods for addition of different forms of media, including soils, sand, and liquid growth media coupled to the characterization of these systems using imaging and metabolomics are described. Together, these systems enable dynamic and detailed investigation of plant and plant-microbial consortia including the manipulation of microbiome composition (including mutants), the monitoring of plant growth, root morphology, exudate composition, and microbial localization under controlled environmental conditions. We anticipate that these detailed protocols will serve as an important starting point for other researchers, ideally helping create standardized experimental systems for investigating plant-microbe interactions.

  4. Some current engineering topics in nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amana, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis based on the principle of fracture mechanics, is presented for several engineering problems occuring in nuclear power plant components. The specific problems covered are: underclad cracking; stress corrosion cracking; cracks in HAZ of nozzle weld; feedwater nozzle corner crack; shift of transition temperature due to neutron irradiation; LWR local-ECC thermal shock experiment; and design and material selection of RPV in terms of fracture mechanics. (B.R.H.)

  5. Current status of countermeasures for ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Tajima, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes ageing coutermeasure program of the nuclear power plants performed by the Japanese Government and industries and related activities, and describes current research program and utilization of the research results for the aged nuclear power plants. Regulatory bodies (NISA of METI: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) reviewed the ageing issues of nuclear power plants to enhance countermeasures for the aged plants. Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) entrusted by NISA is carrying out the task relating to the aged plants. (orig.)

  6. Current status of technology for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, B.

    2000-01-01

    In most developed countries of the world, deregulation of electricity markets has been established: competition is fierce, and utilities have to improve the competitiveness of their plants. It is an important challenge for nuclear power plants: a smart way to deal with this problem is life extension of existing units. The financial stakes associated with maintaining or extending the lifetime of nuclear power stations are very high; thus, if their lifetime is shortened by about ten years, dismantling and renewal would be brought forward which would increase their costs by several tens of billions of French francs. Furthermore, every extra year of operation of a 900 MWe unit should save about 500 million French francs per year on financial charges that would be necessary for a new investment, provided that maintenance costs do not become excessive. In order to succeed, utilities must improve their knowledge of ageing mechanisms, demonstrate to safety authorities the feasibility of life extension (especially taking into account critical components), operate existing units in an exemplary way, manage and master the long-term evolution of the safety reference state. (author)

  7. Wireless networking for the dental office: current wireless standards and security protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Arora, Sarika

    2004-11-15

    Digital radiography has gained immense popularity in dentistry today in spite of the early difficulty for the profession to embrace the technology. The transition from film to digital has been happening at a faster pace in the fields of Orthodontics, Oral Surgery, Endodontics, Periodontics, and other specialties where the radiographic images (periapical, bitewing, panoramic, cephalometric, and skull radiographs) are being acquired digitally, stored within a server locally, and eventually accessed for diagnostic purposes, along with the rest of the patient data via the patient management software (PMS). A review of the literature shows the diagnostic performance of digital radiography is at least comparable to or even better than that of conventional radiography. Similarly, other digital diagnostic tools like caries detectors, cephalometric analysis software, and digital scanners were used for many years for the diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. The introduction of wireless charged-coupled device (CCD) sensors in early 2004 (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY) has moved digital radiography a step further into the wireless era. As with any emerging technology, there are concerns that should be looked into before adapting to the wireless environment. Foremost is the network security involved in the installation and usage of these wireless networks. This article deals with the existing standards and choices in wireless technologies that are available for implementation within a contemporary dental office. The network security protocols that protect the patient data and boost the efficiency of modern day dental clinics are enumerated.

  8. MRI technique for the preoperative evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis: current status and protocol recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.; Oehmke, F.; Tinneberg, H.-R.; Krombach, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain and infertility. It is defined as the occurrence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and can manifest as a peritoneal, ovarian or infiltrating form, the latter being referred to as deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Surgery is essential in the treatment of DIE and depending on the severity of the disease, surgery can be difficult and extensive. Beside clinical examination and ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven its value to provide useful information for planning surgery in patients with suspected DIE. To optimise the quality of MRI examinations, radiologists have to be familiar with the capabilities and also the limitations of this technique with respect to the assessment of DIE. MRI yields morphological information by using mainly T1- and T2-weighted sequences, but can also provide functional information by means of intravenous gadolinium, diffusion-weighted imaging or cine-MRI. In this article, these techniques and also adequate measures of patient preparation, which are indispensable for successful MRI imaging for the preoperative evaluation of DIE, are reviewed and a comprehensive protocol recommendation is provided.

  9. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  10. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  11. Age-related macular degeneration: using morphological predictors to modify current treatment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Mohammed; Souka, Ahmed; Adelman, Ron A

    2018-03-01

    therapy and extended follow-up intervals (4 weekly) can be suggested for patients who show adequate visual response and have both SRF and PVD at baseline. In addition, patients with poor prognostic indicators such as IRC, VMA, large CNV size, older age and poor response at 12 weeks should be extended very cautiously with the possibility of fixed monthly/bimonthly (every 2 months) treatments if they fail to achieve dryness. Patients with PED at baseline should receive monthly/bimonthly injections of anti-VEGF therapy or can be extended very cautiously (two weekly intervals) using a TAE protocol. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh E Charvet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is cumulative. Treatment protocols typically require multiple consecutive sessions spanning weeks or months. However, traveling to clinic for a tDCS session can present an obstacle to subjects and their caregivers. With modified devices and headgear, tDCS treatment can be administered remotely under clinical supervision, potentially enhancing recruitment, throughput, and convenience. Here we propose standards and protocols for clinical trials utilizing remotely-supervised tDCS with the goal of providing safe, reproducible and well-tolerated stimulation therapy outside of the clinic. The recommendations include: 1 training of staff in tDCS treatment and supervision, 2 assessment of the user’s capability to participate in tDCS remotely, 3 ongoing training procedures and materials including assessments of the user and/or caregiver, 4 simple and fail-safe electrode preparation techniques and tDCS headgear, 5 strict dose control for each session, 6 ongoing monitoring to quantify compliance (device preparation, electrode saturation/placement, stimulation protocol, with corresponding corrective steps as required, 7 monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects, 8 guidelines for discontinuation of a session and/or study participation including emergency failsafe procedures tailored to the treatment population’s level of need. These guidelines are intended to provide a minimal level of methodological rigor for clinical trials seeking to apply tDCS outside a specialized treatment center. We outline indication-specific applications (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Palliative Care following these recommendations that support a standardized framework for evaluating the tolerability and reproducibility of remote-supervised tDCS that, once established, will allow for translation of tDCS clinical trials to a greater size and range of patient populations.

  13. Flaws in current human training protocols for spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: lessons learned from instructional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eLotte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI has highlighted their potential for many applications, they remain barely used outside laboratories. The main reason is their lack of robustness. Indeed, with current BCI, mental state recognition is usually slow and often incorrect. Spontaneous BCI (i.e., mental imagery-based BCI often rely on mutual learning efforts by the user and the machine, with BCI users learning to produce stable EEG patterns (spontaneous BCI control being widely acknowledged as a skill while the computer learns to automatically recognize these EEG patterns, using signal processing. Most research so far was focused on signal processing, mostly neglecting the human in the loop. However, how well the user masters the BCI skill is also a key element explaining BCI robustness. Indeed, if the user is not able to produce stable and distinct EEG patterns, then no signal processing algorithm would be able to recognize them. Unfortunately, despite the importance of BCI training protocols, they have been scarcely studied so far, and used mostly unchanged for years.In this paper, we advocate that current human training approaches for spontaneous BCI are most likely inappropriate. We notably study instructional design literature in order to identify the key requirements and guidelines for a successful training procedure that promotes a good and efficient skill learning. This literature study highlights that current spontaneous BCI user training procedures satisfy very few of these requirements and hence are likely to be suboptimal. We therefore identify the flaws in BCI training protocols according to instructional design principles, at several levels: in the instructions provided to the user, in the tasks he/she has to perform, and in the feedback provided. For each level, we propose new research directions that are theoretically expected to address some of these flaws and to help users learn the BCI skill more efficiently.

  14. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.

  15. Evaluation of a biodegradation screening protocol for contaminated soil from manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.J.; Battaglia, A.; Smith, J.R.; Middleton, A.C.; Nakles, D.V.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative for treating soils contaminated with PAHs. however, given the variability encountered in soils characteristics and contamination level, their susceptibility to biological treatment must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. This paper discusses a new treatability protocol, the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol. The mainstay of the protocol, which is designed to quickly provide treatability data for a given contaminated soil is a bioslurry experiment, in which the contaminated soil is continuously stirred and provided with abundant oxygen, nutrients and water, to maximize biological activity and thus contaminant removal. The results of using such protocol on four soils, widely differing in physical characteristics and contamination levels, are compared to the results of traditional pan studies, and an empirical equation, describing the observed soil concentrations as a function of time in both slurry and pans, is presented. Similarities and differences between achievable endpoints and biodegradation rates are discussed, and the applicability of the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol to full-scale engineered systems is addressed. Results to date indicate that, for soils with less than 10% fines slurry and pan experiments yield approximately the same endpoint, so that for those soils the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol can be used to assess the viability of an unsaturated bioremediation system. For soils with more than 10% fines, the slurry treatment endpoints are better than the pans. For those soils a traditional pan study experiment should be performed to evaluate the potential capabilities of unsaturated bioremediation

  16. Power plant cycle chemistry - a currently neglected power plant chemistry discipline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursik, A.

    2005-01-01

    Power plant cycle chemistry seems to be a stepchild at both utilities and universities and research organizations. It is felt that other power plant chemistry disciplines are more important. The last International Power Cycle Chemistry Conference in Prague may be cited as an example. A critical review of the papers presented at this conference seems to confirm the above-mentioned statements. This situation is very unsatisfactory and has led to an increasing number of component failures and instances of damage to major cycle components. Optimization of cycle chemistry in fossil power plants undoubtedly results in clear benefits and savings with respect to operating costs. It should be kept in mind that many seemingly important chemistry-related issues lose their importance during forced outages of units practicing faulty plant cycle chemistry. (orig.)

  17. Protocol adherence for continuously titrated interventions in randomized trials: an overview of the current methodology and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lauzier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard definition for protocol adherence is the proportion of all scheduled doses that are delivered. In clinical research, this definition has several limitations when evaluating protocol adherence in trials that study interventions requiring continuous titration. Discussion Building upon a specific case study, we analyzed a recent trial of a continuously titrated intervention to assess the impact of different definitions of protocol deviations on the interpretation of protocol adherence. The OVATION pilot trial was an open-label randomized controlled trial of higher (75–80 mmHg versus lower (60–65 mmHg mean arterial pressure (MAP targets for vasopressor therapy in shock. In this trial, potential protocol deviations were defined as MAP values outside the targeted range for >4 consecutive hours during vasopressor therapy without synchronous and consistent adjustments of vasopressor doses. An adjudication committee reviewed each potential deviation to determine if it was clinically-justified or not. There are four reasons for this contextual measurement and reporting of protocol adherence. First, between-arm separation is a robust measure of adherence to complex protocols. Second, adherence assessed by protocol deviations varies in function of the definition of deviations and the frequency of measurements. Third, distinguishing clinically-justified vs. not clinically-justified protocol deviations acknowledges clinically sensible bedside decision-making and offers a clear terminology before the trial begins. Finally, multiple metrics exist to report protocol deviations, which provides different information but complementary information on protocol adherence. Conclusions In trials of interventions requiring continuous titration, metrics used for defining protocol deviations have a considerable impact on the interpretation of protocol adherence. Definitions for protocol deviations should be prespecified and correlated

  18. Protocol adherence for continuously titrated interventions in randomized trials: an overview of the current methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, F; Adhikari, N K; Seely, A; Koo, K K Y; Belley-Côté, E P; Burns, K E A; Cook, D J; D'Aragon, F; Rochwerg, B; Kho, M E; Oczkowksi, S J W; Duan, E H; Meade, M O; Day, A G; Lamontagne, F

    2017-07-17

    The standard definition for protocol adherence is the proportion of all scheduled doses that are delivered. In clinical research, this definition has several limitations when evaluating protocol adherence in trials that study interventions requiring continuous titration. Building upon a specific case study, we analyzed a recent trial of a continuously titrated intervention to assess the impact of different definitions of protocol deviations on the interpretation of protocol adherence. The OVATION pilot trial was an open-label randomized controlled trial of higher (75-80 mmHg) versus lower (60-65 mmHg) mean arterial pressure (MAP) targets for vasopressor therapy in shock. In this trial, potential protocol deviations were defined as MAP values outside the targeted range for >4 consecutive hours during vasopressor therapy without synchronous and consistent adjustments of vasopressor doses. An adjudication committee reviewed each potential deviation to determine if it was clinically-justified or not. There are four reasons for this contextual measurement and reporting of protocol adherence. First, between-arm separation is a robust measure of adherence to complex protocols. Second, adherence assessed by protocol deviations varies in function of the definition of deviations and the frequency of measurements. Third, distinguishing clinically-justified vs. not clinically-justified protocol deviations acknowledges clinically sensible bedside decision-making and offers a clear terminology before the trial begins. Finally, multiple metrics exist to report protocol deviations, which provides different information but complementary information on protocol adherence. In trials of interventions requiring continuous titration, metrics used for defining protocol deviations have a considerable impact on the interpretation of protocol adherence. Definitions for protocol deviations should be prespecified and correlated with between-arm separation, if it can be measured.

  19. Two mini-preparation protocols to DNA extraction from plants with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Were standardized two previously reported standard plant DNA extraction methods, but improved them on mini preparations to use the samples for population genetic analysis. The combination of CTAB lysis procedure-solvent extraction and DNA column purification (DNeasy plant mini kit modification) enables a faster and ...

  20. Establishment of an efficient plant regeneration culture protocol and achievement of successful genetic transformation in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Guoxuan; Yang, Yali; Niu, Sufang; Yang, Fuguang; Yang, Shaoxia; Tang, Jianian; Chen, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is described for shoot-bud regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of J. curcas. Treating the explants with high concentrations (5-120 mg/L) of TDZ for short durations (5-80 min) before inoculation culture increased significantly the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated buds. The highest shoot-buds induction rate (87.35%) was achieved when petiole explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min and inoculated on hormone-free MS medium for 30 days. Regenerated shoots of 0.5 cm or a little longer were isolated and grafted to seedling stocks of the same species, and then the grafted plantlets were planted on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA and 2 mg/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP). This grafting strategy was found to be very effective, to obtain that healthy grafted plantlets ready for acclimatization within 20 days. By the above mentioned protocol and with general Agrobacterium - mediated genetic transformation methods only 65 days were needed to obtain intact transgenic plants.

  1. Reduced program of inspection by induced currents for condenser of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Mendonca, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this work it's presented a reduced inspection in service program by the technique of induced currents to the turbine condenser of Embalse's Power Plant (Cordoba). The authors based its elaboration on the results obtained in the exam of a small number of tubes and on experience obtained through four inspections in the condensers of Atucha I Power Plant, through mathematical models of oxygen and ammoniac distribution in both Power Plants, and its experimental verification in the case of Atucha I. This program improves the quality of inspection thereby reducing time, equipment and personnel employed. (C.M.) [pt

  2. Current understanding of treatment and management protocol for adult diabetic in-patients at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, N.; Memon, A.; Khan, M.O.; Masood, S.; Rouf, M.; Mirza, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the current understanding of treatment and management protocols for adult diabetic in-patients at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi from July to September 2009, involved 450 participants, who were interviewed through a well-structured questionnaire regarding the patient's demography, clinical features, past medical history, type of diabetes mellitus, duration, associated complications, and also involved patient notes for laboratory tests and management. SPSSv15.0 was used for descriptive analysis. Results: The study population of 450 diabetics had 144 (32%) males and 306 (68%) females. Of the total, 435 (96.7%) patients had type 2 diabetes. There were 231 (51%) patients using insulin, 168 (37.3%) oral hypoglycaemic drugs, and 51 (11.3%) using both. Among patients using insulin, regular insulin usage stood at 30% followed by a combination of regular insulin and NPH (26.7%) and NPH alone at 6%. The most popular drug used was metformin (27.3%) and the least used drug was glitazones (4%). In the study population, 73.3% patients controlled their diabetes with diet, and 24.7% with regular exercise. Conclusion: Majority of the study population had type 2 diabetes with a female preponderance. Insulin was prescribed for half the patients. Metformin was the most frequently used oral hypoglycaemic drug. (author)

  3. Paediatric end-of-life care needs in Switzerland: current practices, and perspectives from parents and professionals. A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstraesser, Eva; Zimmermann, Karin; Eskola, Katri; Luck, Patricia; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Cignacco, Eva

    2015-08-01

    To present a protocol for a multi-phase study about the current practice of end-of-life care in paediatric settings in Switzerland. In Switzerland, paediatric palliative care is usually provided by teams, who may not necessarily have specific training. There is a lack of systematic data about specific aspects of care at the end of a child's life, such as symptom management, involvement of parents in decision-making and family-centred care and experiences and needs of parents, and perspectives of healthcare professionals. This retrospective nationwide multicentre study, Paediatric End-of-LIfe CAre Needs in Switzerland (PELICAN), combines quantitative and qualitative methods of enquiry. The PELICAN study consists of three observational parts, PELICAN I describes practices of end-of-life care (defined as the last 4 weeks of life) in the hospital and home care setting of children (0-18 years) who died in the years 2011-2012 due to a cardiac, neurological or oncological disease, or who died in the neonatal period. PELICAN II assesses the experiences and needs of parents during the end-of-life phase of their child. PELICAN III focuses on healthcare professionals and explores their perspectives concerning the provision of end-of-life care. This first study across Switzerland will provide comprehensive insight into the current end-of-life care in children with distinct diagnoses and the perspectives of affected parents and health professionals. The results may facilitate the development and implementation of programmes for end-of-life care in children across Switzerland, building on real experiences and needs. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01983852. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Transcription factors and plant response to drought stress: Current understanding and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing vulnerability of plants to a variety of stresses such as drought, salt and extreme temperatures poses a global threat to sustained growth and productivity of major crops. Of these stresses, drought represents a considerable threat to plant growth and development. In view of this, developing staple food cultivars with improved drought tolerance emerges as the most sustainable solution towards improving crop productivity in a scenario of climate change. In parallel, unraveling the genetic architecture and the targeted identification of molecular networks using modern OMICS analyses, that can underpin drought tolerance mechanisms, is urgently required. Importantly, integrated studies intending to elucidate complex mechanisms can bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge about drought stress tolerance in plants. It is now well established that drought tolerance is regulated by several genes, including transcription factors (TFs that enable plants to withstand unfavorable conditions, and these remain potential genomic candidates for their wide application in crop breeding. These TFs represent the key molecular switches orchestrating the regulation of plant developmental processes in response to a variety of stresses. The current review aims to offer a deeper understanding of TFs engaged in regulating plant’s response under drought stress and to devise potential strategies to improve plant tolerance against drought.

  5. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density situation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Mandon, Julien; Persijn, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims After a series of seminal works during the last decade of the 20th century nitric oxide (NO) is now firmly placed in the pantheon of plant signals. NO acts in plant-microbe interactions, responses to abiotic stress, stomatal regulation and a range of developmental processes...... of NO production from DEANO (diethylamine nitric oxide), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) following infiltration of tobacco leaves which could aid workers in their experiments. Further, based on current data it is difficult to define a bespoke plant NO signalling pathway, but rather....... By considering the recent advances in plant NO biology, this review will highlight certain key aspects that require further attention. Scope and conclusions The following questions will be considered. Whilst cytosolic nitrate reductase is an important source of NO, the contributions of other mechanisms...

  7. The effect of plant growth regulators and their interaction with electric current on winter wheat development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biesaga-Koscielniak, J.; Koscielniak, J.; Filek, M.; Marcinska, I.; Krekule, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana; Kubon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2010), s. 987-995 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : In vitro culture * Plant growth regulators * Electric current Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  8. Eddy current and ultrasonic fuel channel inspection at Karachi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, W.R.; Alam, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    In November of 1993 and in-service inspection was performed on eight fuel channels in the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. The workscope included ultrasonic and eddy current volumetric examinations, and eddy current measurement of pressure-to calandria tube gap. This paper briefly discusses the planning strategy of the ultrasonic and eddy current examinations, and describes the equipment developed to meet the requirements, followed by details of the actual channel inspection campaign. The presented nondestructive examinations assisted in determining fitness for service of KANUPP reactor channels in general, and confirmed that the problems associated with channel G12 were not generic in nature. (author)

  9. Meeting summary of the second CSNI specialist meeting on simulators and plant analyzers - Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Second CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation was held in Espoo, Finland, from September 29 through October 2, 1997. It was organised by CSNI Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2), Task Group on Thermal Hydraulic Applications (TG-THA), in co-operation with Technical Research Centre of Finland. The meeting in Espoo attracted some 90 participants from 17 countries. A total of 49 invited papers were presented in the meeting in addition to 7 simulator system demonstrations. Ample time was reserved for the presentations and informal discussions during the four meeting days. The previous meeting held in Lappeenranta, Finland, in 1992 collected some 85 participants from 12 countries, presenting a total of 40 papers. The meeting was structured into 6 sessions covering the important aspects of development and use of simulators and plant analyzers: Session I: New objectives, Requirements and Concepts. This session covered the progress experienced since the 1. simulator meeting and tried to address the changing role of simulators based on the changes in users' needs and developing possibilities. Session II: Trends in Simulation Technology. This session was reserved for studying the current trends in the simulation technology: software environments, visualisation, simulator configuration tools, programming languages and computer systems. Session III: Training and human factor studies using simulators. This session was created for studying the status of different uses of simulators such as educational simulators, human factor studies and integrated safety assessment in addition to traditional training. Regarding to the severe accidents, a question was raised whether the simulator use should be for training or education. Session IV: Modelling techniques. The session on modelling techniques was included to cover recent developments in the modelling techniques applicable to training

  10. Current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchy, L.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution shows the basic information about the crucial milestone of 3. building and the current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce. Contribution also shows what activities were realized and what material in area of designation of the technical and safety standard of the project was elaborated in the past, the main activities planned for 2006 have been described, support for Feasibility Study elaborated by ENEL and description of the integrated management system. The basic thesis crucial for the next steps on the project of 3. and 4. block of Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce is presented in the conclusion

  11. Consideration of the legal system required for achievement of current nuclear power plant construction programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellon Fernandez, E.; Forum Atomico Espanol, Madrid)

    1976-01-01

    The extensive nuclear power plant construction programmes currently in progress in western countries require updating of the legislation in force in this field, especially as regards the following: acquisition of the sites necessary by means of a national planning programme of available sites; simplification of formalities concerning issuance of administrative licenses; revision of the principle of absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator which forms the basis of the third party liability system for nuclear damage; radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear plants. Furthermore, this new legislation should be harmonized between the different countries concerned. (N.E.A.) [fr

  12. Municipal Waste-to-Energy plants in Poland – current projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyranka Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions show why in the current situation development of Polish WtE infrastructure is right, i.e. operation of aforementioned plants that will ensure benefits associated with energy production, reduction of landfilling and informing public opinion regarding modern waste management models. Additionally, the article draws attention on the high responsibility that will be put on WtE plants operators and that experience gained during WtE implementation can be used to improve even further for future Polish Waste Management Systems.

  13. The Role of Soil Microorganisms in Plant Mineral Nutrition—Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Richard; Peukert, Manuela; Succurro, Antonella; Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    In their natural environment, plants are part of a rich ecosystem including numerous and diverse microorganisms in the soil. It has been long recognized that some of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, play important roles in plant performance by improving mineral nutrition. However, the full range of microbes associated with plants and their potential to replace synthetic agricultural inputs has only recently started to be uncovered. In the last few years, a great progress has been made in the knowledge on composition of rhizospheric microbiomes and their dynamics. There is clear evidence that plants shape microbiome structures, most probably by root exudates, and also that bacteria have developed various adaptations to thrive in the rhizospheric niche. The mechanisms of these interactions and the processes driving the alterations in microbiomes are, however, largely unknown. In this review, we focus on the interaction of plants and root associated bacteria enhancing plant mineral nutrition, summarizing the current knowledge in several research fields that can converge to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. PMID:28974956

  14. Current activities in support of CANDU plant life management: an industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, B.A.; Price, E.G.; Hopkins, J.; Charlebois, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current focus of the CANDU industry is to position the nuclear option as a cost competitive, safe and reliable means of electricity production. To achieve its goal the CANDU industry as a whole is undertaking steps to improve further its performance and safety of its nuclear power plants. A number of programs have been planned and implemented particularly for plants in the mid-life range. Some of these programs include life assessment studies of critical systems, Structures and Components (SSCS), refurbishment and upgrading programs and monitoring and periodic inspection programs. Some elements of the programs have been in place from station start up and some are being instituted as part of the aging management and performance improvement program. The industry recognizes that the key to sustaining high performance over the life of the plant is the implementation of an integrated aging management program that encompasses all elements of plant operation and maintenance. A systematically implemented program on optimized maintenance and inspection strategy, standardized work processes, component rehabilitation programs, and applying lessons learned are some of the elements of a sustainable high performance and an effective plant life assurance program. The paper will describe the elements of an integrated program, the multiphase approach defined for CANDU PLIM and some of the activities undertaken by the industry to further improve and sustain plant safety, reliability and performance. (author)

  15. Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals.

  16. Estimation of the Plant Time Constant of Current-Controlled Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Malvar, Jano

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the plant time constant is essential to perform a thorough analysis of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs). As the loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions, the effects associated to converter losses should be included...... in the model, through an equivalent series resistance. In a recent work, an algorithm to identify this parameter was developed, considering the inductance value as known and practically constant. Nevertheless, the plant inductance can also present important uncertainties with respect to the inductance...... of the VSC interface filter measured at rated conditions. This paper extends that method so that both parameters of the plant time constant (resistance and inductance) are estimated. Such enhancement is achieved through the evaluation of the closed-loop transient responses of both axes of the synchronous...

  17. Harmonic effects of solar geomagnetically induced currents on the electrical distribution system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.

    1992-01-01

    Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system

  18. Eddy-current tests on operational evaluation of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a worldwide research on the technical and economical impacts due to failure in tube bundles of nuclear power plant steam generators. An Eddy current non destructive test using Foucault currents for the inspection and failure detection on the tubes, and also the main type of defects. The paper also presents the signals generated by a Zetec MIZ-40 test equipment. This paper also presents a brief description of an automatic system for data analysis which is under development by using a fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence

  19. Negative sequence current control in wind power plants with VSC-HVDC connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Large offshore wind power plants may have multi-MW wind turbine generators (WTG) equipped with full-scale converters (FSC) and voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltaage direct-current (HVDC) transmission for grid connection. The power electronic converters in theWTG-FSC and the VSC......-HVDC allow fast current control in the offshore grid. This paper presents a method of controlling the negative sequence current injection into the offshore grid from the VSC-HVDC as well as WTG-FSCs. This would minimize the power oscillations and hence reduce the dc voltage overshoots in the VSC-HVDC system...... as well as in the WTG-FSCs; especially when the offshore grid is unbalanced due to asymmetric faults. The formulation for negative sequence current injection is mathematically derived and then implemented in electromagnetic transients (EMT) simulation model. The simulated results show that the negative...

  20. African medicinal plants and their derivatives: Current efforts towards potential anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbele, Mzwandile; Hull, Rodney; Dlamini, Zodwa

    2017-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and second only to cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is a challenge in African countries because generally there is limited funding available to deal with the cancer epidemic and awareness and this should be prioritised and all possible resources should be utilized to prevent and treat cancer. The current review reports on the role of African medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer, and also outlines methodologies that can also be used to achieve better outcomes for cancer treatment. This review outlines African medicinal plants, isolated compounds and technologies that can be used to advance cancer research. Chemical structures of isolated compounds have an important role in anti-cancer treatments; new technologies and methods may assist to identify more properties of African medicinal plants and the treatment of cancer. In conclusion, African medicinal plants have shown their potential as enormous resources for novel cytotoxicity compounds. Finally it has been noted that the cytotoxicity depends on the chemical structural arrangements of African medicinal plants compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-coding RNAs and plant male sterility: current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankita; Bohra, Abhishek

    2018-02-01

    Latest outcomes assign functional role to non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in regulatory networks that confer male sterility to plants. Male sterility in plants offers great opportunity for improving crop performance through application of hybrid technology. In this respect, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and sterility induced by photoperiod (PGMS)/temperature (TGMS) have greatly facilitated development of high-yielding hybrids in crops. Participation of non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in plant reproductive development is increasingly becoming evident. Recent breakthroughs in rice definitively associate ncRNAs with PGMS and TGMS. In case of CMS, the exact mechanism through which the mitochondrial ORFs exert influence on the development of male gametophyte remains obscure in several crops. High-throughput sequencing has enabled genome-wide discovery and validation of these regulatory molecules and their target genes, describing their potential roles performed in relation to CMS. Discovery of ncRNA localized in plant mtDNA with its possible implication in CMS induction is intriguing in this respect. Still, conclusive evidences linking ncRNA with CMS phenotypes are currently unavailable, demanding complementing genetic approaches like transgenics to substantiate the preliminary findings. Here, we review the recent literature on the contribution of ncRNAs in conferring male sterility to plants, with an emphasis on microRNAs. Also, we present a perspective on improved understanding about ncRNA-mediated regulatory pathways that control male sterility in plants. A refined understanding of plant male sterility would strengthen crop hybrid industry to deliver hybrids with improved performance.

  2. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, auricular acupuncture to support patients with substance abuse and behavioral health disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuyt EB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth B Stuyt,1 Claudia A Voyles2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Pueblo, CO, 2Department of Clinical Studies, AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA-standardized 3- to 5-point ear acupuncture protocol, born of a community-minded response to turbulent times not unlike today, has evolved into the most widely implemented acupuncture-assisted protocol, not only for substance abuse, but also for broad behavioral health applications. This evolution happened despite inconsistent research support. This review highlights the history of the protocol and the research that followed its development. Promising, early randomized-controlled trials were followed by a mixed field of positive and negative studies that may serve as a whole to prove that NADA, despite its apparent simplicity, is neither a reductive nor an independent treatment, and the need to refine the research approaches. Particularly focusing on the last decade and its array of trials that elucidate aspects of NADA application and effects, the authors recommend that, going forward, research continues to explore the comparison of the NADA protocol added to accepted treatments to those treatments alone, recognizing that it is not a stand-alone procedure but a psychosocial intervention that affects the whole person and can augment outcomes from other treatment modalities. Keywords: National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA, ear acupuncture, acudetox, addiction, mental health, trauma

  3. Evaluation of extraction protocols for anti-diabetic phytochemical substances from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajara M; Habila, James D

    2016-12-15

    To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus ( n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) from the three methods. The extracts were administered orally, once daily for 21 d. In this report, the percentage VA extract yield from MAE was highest (20.9% ± 1.05%) within 39 min using 250 mL of solvent, when compared to the CM (14.35% ± 0.28%) within 4320 min using 900 mL of solvent and SE (15.75% ± 0.71%) within 265 min using 500 mL of solvent. The percentage differences in OG extract yield between: MAE vs SE was 41.05%; MAE vs CM was 46.81% and SE vs CM was 9.77%. The qualitative chemical analysis of the two plants showed no difference in the various phytoconstituents tested, but differs quantitatively in the amount of the individual phytoconstituents, as MAE had significantly high yield ( P > 0.05) on phenolics, saponins and tannins. SE technique gave significantly high yield ( P > 0.05) on alkaloid, while CM gave significant high yield on flavonoids. The extracts from CM exhibited a significantly ( P > 0.05) better hypoglycemic activity within the first 14-d of treatment (43.3% ± 3.62%) when compared to MAE (36.5% ± 0.08%) and SE methods (33.3% ± 1.60%). However, the percentage hypoglycemic activity, 21 d post-treatment with 250 mg/kg b.w. extract from MAE was 72.6% ± 1.03% and it was more comparable to 10 mg/kg b.w. glibenclamide treated group (75.0% ± 0.73%), unlike the SE (69.5% ± 0.71%) and CM (69.1% ± 1.03%). CM

  4. Current status and technical description of Chinese 2 x 250 MWth HTR-PM demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuoyi; Wu Zongxin; Wang Dazhong; Xu Yuanhui; Sun Yuliang; Li Fu; Dong Yujie

    2009-01-01

    After the nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl the world nuclear community made great efforts to increase research on nuclear reactors and to develop advanced nuclear power plants with much improved safety features. Following the successful construction and a most gratifying operation of the 10 MW th high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University has developed and designed an HTR demonstration plant, called the HTR-PM (high-temperature-reactor pebble-bed module). The design, having jointly been carried out with industry partners from China and in collaboration of experts worldwide, closely follows the design principles of the HTR-10. Due to intensive engineering and R and D efforts since 2001, the basic design of the HTR-PM has been finished while all main technical features have been fixed. A Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has been compiled. The HTR-PM plant will consist of two nuclear steam supply system (NSSS), so called modules, each one comprising of a single zone 250 MW th pebble-bed modular reactor and a steam generator. The two NSSS modules feed one steam turbine and generate an electric power of 210 MW. A pilot fuel production line will be built to fabricate 300,000 pebble fuel elements per year. This line is closely based on the technology of the HTR-10 fuel production line. The main goals of the project are two-fold. Firstly, the economic competitiveness of commercial HTR-PM plants shall be demonstrated. Secondly, it shall be shown that HTR-PM plants do not need accident management procedures and will not require any need for offsite emergency measures. According to the current schedule of the project the completion date of the demonstration plant will be around 2013. The reactor site has been evaluated and approved; the procurement of long-lead components has already been started. After the successful operation of the demonstration plant

  5. On the Performance of the Current MANET Routing Protocols for VoIP, HTTP, and FTP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheb A. Jabbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances of ensemble mobile environment of smart devices with embedded sensors have enabled the MANET to play a key role in the smart cities as well as WSN and WMN. However, these smart devices are still limited in terms of energy, processor, and memory. Moreover, the efficient routing for reliable network connectivity at anytime, anywhere, and about everything is still a challenge in multihop wireless networks. This paper evaluates the QoS and energy efficiency of three active routing protocols: (i OLSRv2, a successor to OLSR, (ii DYMO, a successor to both DSR and AODV, and (iii MP-OLSR multipath extension to OLSRv2. In contrast to the related previous works which focused only on CBR traffic without considering the influence of specific traffic types on the performance of routing protocols, this work focused on this area from a different perspective. It evaluates the performance of three internet-based traffic types that can be used in the smart city applications: VoIP, HTTP, and FTP using different simulation models. The impact of the network density, load traffic, and nodes mobility on the considered protocols was evaluated by considering particular performance metrics for each traffic application. Based on the results, the study concludes by presenting useful recommendations for future work.

  6. Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Fault Currents of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a wind power plant for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. The size of wind power plants (WPPs) keeps getting bigger and bigger. The number of wind plants in the U.S. has increased very rapidly in the past 10 years. It is projected that in the U.S., the total wind power generation will reach 330 GW by 2030. As the importance of WPPs increases, planning engi-neers must perform impact studies used to evaluate short-circuit current (SCC) contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This information is needed to size the circuit breakers, to establish the proper sys-tem protection, and to choose the transient suppressor in the circuits within the WPP. This task can be challenging to protec-tion engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. Three different soft-ware packages are utilized to develop this paper. Time domain simulations and steady-state calculations are used to perform the analysis.

  7. Omics and biotechnology of arsenic stress and detoxification in plants: current updates and prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Smita; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring metallic element, is a dreadful health hazard to millions of people across the globe. Arsenic is present in low amount in the environment and originates from anthropogenic impact and geogenic sources. The presence of As in groundwater used for irrigation is a worldwide problem as it affects crop productivity, accumulates to different tissues and contaminates food chain. The consumption of As contaminated water or food products leads to several diseases and even death. Recently, studies have been carried out to explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms which contribute to As toxicity, accumulation, detoxification and tolerance acquisition in plants. This information has led to the development of the biotechnological tools for developing plants with modulated As tolerance and detoxification to safeguard cellular and genetic integrity as well as to minimize food chain contamination. This review aims to provide current updates about the biochemical and molecular networks involved in As uptake by plants and the recent developments in the area of functional genomics in terms of developing As tolerant and low As accumulating plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Plant Performance. Safety and Performance in Current NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer technologies, signal processing, analytical modeling, and the advent of wireless sensors have provided the nuclear industry with ample means to automate and optimize maintenance activities and improve safety, efficiency, and availability, while reducing costs and radiation exposure to maintenance personnel. This paper provides a review of these developments and presents examples of their use in the nuclear power industry and the financial and safety benefits that they have produced. As the current generation of nuclear power plants have passed their mid-life, increased monitoring of their health is critical to their safe operation. This is especially true now that license renewal of nuclear power plants has accelerated, allowing some plants to operate up to 60 years or more. Furthermore, many utilities are maximizing their power output through uprating projects and retrofits. This puts additional demand and more stress on the plant equipment such as the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems and the reactor internal components making them more vulnerable to the effects of aging, degradation, and failure. In the meantime, the nuclear power industry is working to reduce generation costs by adopting condition-based maintenance strategies and automation of testing activities. These developments have stimulated great interest in on-line monitoring (OLM) technologies and new diagnostic and prognostic methods to anticipate, identify, and resolve equipment and process problems and ensure plant safety, efficiency, and immunity to accidents. The foundation for much of the required technologies has already been established through 40 years of research and development (R and D) efforts performed by numerous organizations, scientists, and engineers around the world including the author. This paper provides examples of these technologies and demonstrates how the gap between some of the more important R and D efforts and end users have been filled

  9. Future carbon regulations and current investments in alternative coal-fired power plant technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Ram C.; Parsons, John E.; Herzog, Howard J.; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze how uncertain future US carbon regulations shape the current choice of the type of power plant to build. Our focus is on two coal-fired technologies, pulverized coal (PC) and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology (IGCC). The PC technology is cheapest-assuming there is no need to control carbon emissions. The IGCC technology may be cheaper if carbon must be captured. Since power plants last many years and future regulations are uncertain, a US electric utility faces a standard decision under uncertainty. A company will confront the range of possible outcomes, assigning its best estimate of the probability of each scenario, averaging the results and determining the power plant technology with the lowest possible cost inclusive of expected future carbon related costs, whether those costs be in the form of emissions charges paid or capital expenditures for retrofitting to capture carbon. If the company assigns high probability to no regulation or to less stringent regulation of carbon, then it makes sense for it to build the PC plant. But if it assigns sufficient probability to scenarios with more stringent regulation, then the IGCC technology is warranted. We provide some useful benchmarks for possible future regulation and show how these relate back to the relative costs of the two technologies and the optimal technology choice. Few of the policy proposals widely referenced in the public discussion warrant the choice of the IGCC technology. Instead, the PC technology remains the least costly. However, recent carbon prices in the European Emissions Trading System are higher than these benchmarks. If it is any guide to possible future penalties for emissions in the US, then current investment in the IGCC technology is warranted. Of course, other factors need to be factored into the decision as well

  10. Silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticle toxicity in plants: A review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ashley; Venkatachalam, P; Sahi, Shivendra; Sharma, Nilesh

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have become widely used in recent years for many manufacturing and medical processes. Recent literature suggests that many metallic nanomaterials including those of silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) cause significant toxic effects in animal cell culture and animal models, however, toxicity studies using plant species are limited. This review examines current progress in the understanding of the effect of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on plant species. There are many facets to this ongoing environmental problem. This review addresses the effects of NPs on oxidative stress-related gene expression, genotoxicity, seed germination, and root elongation. It is largely accepted that NP exposure results in the cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to both positive and negative effects on plant growth. However, factors such as NP size, shape, surface coating and concentration vary greatly among studies resulting in conflicting reports of the effect at times. In addition, plant species tend to differ in their reaction to NP exposure, with some showing positive effects of NP augmentation while many others showing detrimental effects. Seed germination studies have shown to be less effective in gauging phytotoxicity, while root elongation studies have shown more promise. Given the large increase in nanomaterial applications in consumer products, agriculture and energy sectors, it is critical to understand their role in the environment and their effects on plant life. A closer look at nanomaterial-driven ecotoxicity is needed. Ecosystem-level studies are required to indicate how these nanomaterials transfer at the critical trophic levels affecting human health and biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Current status of LTO licensing programme for Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, J.; Kupca, L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of long term operation (LTO) licensing programme for Bohunice nuclear power plant is to demonstrate that the relevant structures and components shall perform their functions throughout the entire LTO period during which they shall meet all the relevant safety requirements. All the activities-which should result in utility's request to obtain the licence for LTO-must be performed in line with the relevant legal basis. As of May 2012, the anticipated duration of currently running programme is thirteen months. All relevant documentation, required by the established legal basis, shall be submitted to the licensing authority one year before the Unit 3 design life expiry. (author)

  12. Reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems at nuclear power plants: a discussion of NUREG/CR-2989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems typical of most nuclear power plants was estimated by using fault-tree analysis of selected typical designs. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. Trends of diesel generator independent failure on demand are included. No one or two improvements can be made at all plants to increase significantly the industry-average emergency alternating-current power system reliability; the most beneficial improvements are varied and plant specific

  13. Electric current precedes emergence of a lateral root in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ezaki, S; Hayashi, K; Toko, K; Yamafuji, K

    1992-10-01

    Stable electrochemical patterns appear spontaneously around roots of higher plants and are closely related to growth. An electric potential pattern accompanied by lateral root emergence was measured along the surface of the primary root of adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) over 21 h using a microelectrode manipulated by a newly developed apparatus. The electric potential became lower at the point where a lateral root emerged. This change preceded the emergence of the lateral root by about 10 h. A theory is presented for calculating two-dimensional patterns of electric potential and electric current density around the primary root (and a lateral root) using only data on the one-dimensional electric potential measured near the surface of the primary root. The development of the lateral root inside the primary root is associated with the influx of electric current of about 0.7 muA.cm(-2) at the surface.

  14. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337

  15. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  16. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  17. Purification of active myrosinase from plants by aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kristina L; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W David; Fahey, Jed W

    2015-01-01

    Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (from broccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Defects and their inspectability by UT in current heavy section steels for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, S.; Ohkubo, Y.; Takeya, M.; Wataya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination (UT, hereinafter) techniques and their equipment have been improved in search of the defects in steels and structures for nuclear power plant components, while the acceptance standards of the defects became continually more stringent in a ''sword and armour'' race. Consequently, the steel making technique had to respond in minimizing the possible defects in steels with successful results in the past two decades. The conventional UT procedures cover basically the following categories of function. 1) Detection and location of defects. 2) Sizing of defects. 3) Characterization of defects. 4) Structure and residual stress effects in ultrasonic field. With proper considerations to the configuration of the steels under examination, the inspectability of the possible defects is further to be optimized. However, the final evaluation has often to be left to the discretion of a competent NDE engineer, well experienced in UT and knowledgeable in steel making. It is therefore the intention of the present paper to review the states-of-the-art of the defects found in the current heavy section steels for primary and secondary components of nuclear power plant, manufactured by the authors' plant. Typical defects, detectable size of them and inspectability of them are discussed

  19. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  20. Interspecific competition in plants: how well do current methods answer fundamental questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J; Wayne, P; Bazzaz, F A

    2001-02-01

    Accurately quantifying and interpreting the processes and outcomes of competition among plants is essential for evaluating theories of plant community organization and evolution. We argue that many current experimental approaches to quantifying competitive interactions introduce size bias, which may significantly impact the quantitative and qualitative conclusions drawn from studies. Size bias generally arises when estimates of competitive ability are erroneously influenced by the initial size of competing individuals. We employ a series of quantitative thought experiments to demonstrate the potential for size bias in analysis of four traditional experimental designs (pairwise, replacement series, additive series, and response surfaces) either when only final measurements are available or when both initial and final measurements are collected. We distinguish three questions relevant to describing competitive interactions: Which species dominates? Which species gains? and How do species affect each other? The choice of experimental design and measurements greatly influences the scope of inference permitted. Conditions under which the latter two questions can give biased information are tabulated. We outline a new approach to characterizing competition that avoids size bias and that improves the concordance between research question and experimental design. The implications of the choice of size metrics used to quantify both the initial state and the responses of elements in interspecific mixtures are discussed. The relevance of size bias in competition studies with organisms other than plants is also discussed.

  1. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Vorsino

    Full Text Available Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75 as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1. This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.

  2. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam; Koob, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.

  3. Network communication for remote technology and NDT controls on current nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitaine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Among the most important targets for ''UTILITIES'' are to increase nuclear power plant availability and reduce the workers dosimetry. A possible way to reach these targets is to reduce the duration of the refueling period and to limit the number of operators in the work areas It is necessary to use remote technology and to provide much equipment to support the main activities during refueling. Remote technology is a possible solution to remove operators from the maintenance area. The main activities concerned are the NDT inspection on the primary components and fuel handling system. Recent progress on remote technology made by the electronic industry and network communication has increased their capacities. It is easier now to use them, and more and more people are familiar with these technologies. Internet, manufacturing, supervision, and surgery use these technologies. Now it seems appropriate to examine these technologies for current maintenance in nuclear plants. Remote technologies and communication network can help to solve current difficulties in the maintenance field and dosimetry limits. For a long time, many people thought that the cost and the difficulty of applying new technologies would be not extremely expensive, but this is no longer the case. Now with the first feed back we can show that these technologies are a good answer for increased availability and reduction of dosimetry. (author)

  4. Network communication for remote technology and NDT controls on current nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, A. [Electricite de France, 92 - Clamart (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires

    2001-07-01

    Among the most important targets for ''UTILITIES'' are to increase nuclear power plant availability and reduce the workers dosimetry. A possible way to reach these targets is to reduce the duration of the refueling period and to limit the number of operators in the work areas It is necessary to use remote technology and to provide much equipment to support the main activities during refueling. Remote technology is a possible solution to remove operators from the maintenance area. The main activities concerned are the NDT inspection on the primary components and fuel handling system. Recent progress on remote technology made by the electronic industry and network communication has increased their capacities. It is easier now to use them, and more and more people are familiar with these technologies. Internet, manufacturing, supervision, and surgery use these technologies. Now it seems appropriate to examine these technologies for current maintenance in nuclear plants. Remote technologies and communication network can help to solve current difficulties in the maintenance field and dosimetry limits. For a long time, many people thought that the cost and the difficulty of applying new technologies would be not extremely expensive, but this is no longer the case. Now with the first feed back we can show that these technologies are a good answer for increased availability and reduction of dosimetry. (author)

  5. Synthesis in plants and plant extracts of silver nanoparticles with potent antimicrobial properties: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Tariq; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Nadhman, Akhtar

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants and plant extracts (green synthesis) has been developed into an important innovative biotechnology, especially in the application of such particles in the control of pathogenic bacteria. This is a safer technology, biologically and environmentally, than synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical or physical methods. Plants are preferable to microbes as agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles because plants do not need to be maintained in cell culture. The antibacterial activity of bionanoparticles has been extensively explored during the past decade. This review examines studies published in the last decade that deal with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in plants and their antibacterial activity.

  6. Development and future perspective of nuclear power plants. Current status and future prospect of world nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi NPS accidents occurred on 11 March 2011 brought about great effects on nuclear development not only in Japan but also in the world. In Japan restart of operation of periodically inspected nuclear power plants (NPPs) could not be allowed except Oi NPPs two units and most parties except Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) pledged to possibly phasing out nuclear power at House of Councillors election in July and public opinion was mostly against nuclear power after the accident. LDP clearly stated that, with the inauguration of new government last December, Japan would not pursuing the policy of the prior government of possibly phasing out nuclear power by the 2030s, but would instead make a 'zero-base' review of energy policy. Germany decided to close eight reactors immediately and remaining nine by the end of 2022. For many countries, nuclear power would play an important role in achieving energy security and sustainable development goals. In 2011 NPPs 6 units started operation with 2 units under construction, and in 2012 NPPs 3 units started operation with 7 units under construction. At present there are now over 400 NPPs operating in 31 countries and world trend seemed nuclear development was continued and number of countries newly deploying NPPs was increasing as much as eighteen. This article presented current status and future prospect of world NPPs in details. Japan would like to share its experiences and information obtained from the accident with the world and also promote NPPs overseas to meet the world's expectations. (T. Tanaka)

  7. EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR THE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA?s Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around c...

  8. Improvement of ISI techniques by multi-frequency eddy current testing method for steam generator tube in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takashi; Kamimura, Takeo; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Araki, Yasuo; Fukui, Shigetaka.

    1982-05-01

    Eddy current flaw detection techniques are applied to the in-service inspection (ISI) of steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactors (PWR) plant. To improve the reliability and operating efficiency of the plants, efforts are being made to develop eddy current testing methods of various kinds. Multi-frequency eddy current testing method, one of new method, has recently been applied to actual heat exchanger tubes, contributing to the improvement of the detectability and signal evaluation of the ISI. The outline of multi-frequency eddy current testing method and its effects on the improvement of flaw detecting and signal evaluation accuracy are described. (author)

  9. Current trends and future requirements for the mass spectrometric investigation of microbial, mammalian and plant metabolomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Warwick B

    2008-01-01

    The functional levels of biological cells or organisms can be separated into the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Of these the metabolome offers specific advantages to the investigation of the phenotype of biological systems. The investigation of the metabolome (metabolomics) has only recently appeared as a mainstream scientific discipline and is currently developing rapidly for the study of microbial, plant and mammalian metabolomes. The metabolome pipeline or workflow encompasses the processes of sample collection and preparation, collection of analytical data, raw data pre-processing, data analysis and data storage. Of these processes the collection of analytical data will be discussed in this review with specific interest shown in the application of mass spectrometry in the metabolomics pipeline. The current developments in mass spectrometry platforms (GC–MS, LC–MS, DIMS and imaging MS) and applications of specific interest will be highlighted. The current limitations of these platforms and applications will be discussed with areas requiring further development also highlighted. These include the detectable coverage of the metabolome, the identification of metabolites and the process of converting raw data to biological knowledge. (review article)

  10. Fiscal year 1990 Rocky Flats Plant environmental restoration program current-year work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, T.; Waage, E.; Miller, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the FY90 Current Year Work Plan (CYWP), intended to serve as a guiding document with which the Environmental Restoration and RCRA Compliance programs will be implemented at the Rocky Flats Plant, The Current Year Work Plan document serves to provide in one single document any cross-references necessary to understand how the DOE Five Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, or any other related documents fit into the Current Year Work Plan for the Rocky Flats Environmental Restoration. The scope of this paper will compare the planned Fiscal Year 1990 environmental restoration activities to those actually achieved at the end of the fiscal year. The DOE Headquarters (HQ) issued the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Five-Year Plan (FYP). The purpose of the FYP is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. The Five Year Plan has been updated to include the Colorado Department of Health (CDH), Evironmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Department of Energy (DOE) Inter Agency Agreement Environmental Restoration activities. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes

  11. Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Vogrin, Simon J; Carter, Olivia; Cook, Mark J; Forte, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses a weak electric current to modulate neuronal activity. A neurophysiologic outcome measure to demonstrate reliable tDCS modulation at the group level is transcranial magnetic stimulation engendered motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Here, we conduct a study testing the reliability of individual MEP response patterns following a common tDCS protocol. Fourteen participants (7m/7f) each underwent nine randomized sessions of 1 mA, 10 min tDCS (3 anode; 3 cathode; 3 sham) delivered using an M1/orbito-frontal electrode montage (sessions separated by an average of ~5.5 days). Fifteen MEPs were obtained prior to, immediately following and in 5 min intervals for 30 min following tDCS. TMS was delivered at 130 % resting motor threshold using neuronavigation to ensure consistent coil localization. A number of non-experimental variables were collected during each session. At the individual level, considerable variability was seen among different testing sessions. No participant demonstrated an excitatory response ≥20 % to all three anodal sessions, and no participant demonstrated an inhibitory response ≥20 % to all three cathodal sessions. Intra-class correlation revealed poor anodal and cathodal test-retest reliability [anode: ICC(2,1) = 0.062; cathode: ICC(2,1) = 0.055] and moderate sham test-retest reliability [ICC(2,1) = 0.433]. Results also revealed no significant effect of tDCS at the group level. Using this common protocol, we found the effects of tDCS on MEP amplitudes to be highly variable at the individual level. In addition, no significant effects of tDCS on MEP amplitude were found at the group level. Future studies should consider utilizing a more strict experimental protocol to potentially account for intra-individual response variations.

  12. The priming of storage glucan synthesis from bacteria to plants: current knowledge and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hulst, Christophe; Mérida, Angel

    2010-10-01

    Starch is the main polymer in which carbon and energy are stored in land plants, algae and some cyanobacteria. It plays a crucial role in the physiology of these organisms and also represents an important polymer for humans, in terms of both diet and nonfood industry uses. Recent efforts have elucidated most of the steps involved in the synthesis of starch. However, the process that initiates the synthesis of the starch granule remains unclear. Here, we outline the similarities between the synthesis of starch and the synthesis of glycogen, the other widespread and abundant glucose-based polymer in living cells. We place special emphasis on the mechanisms of initiation of the glycogen granule and current knowledge concerning the initiation of the starch granule. We also discuss recent discoveries regarding the function of starch synthases in the priming of the starch granule and possible interactions with other elements of the starch synthesis machinery.

  13. Eddy currents signal processing for steam generator inspection in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1992-01-01

    Steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are periodically checked by means of eddy current probes. The output of a probe is composed of three types of signals: known events (rolling zone, support plates, U-bend part), noise (mainly metallurgical noise) and possible flaws. The latter are random transients, both in arrival time and in shape: they have to be detected and then estimated, before to be fed to the high level stages of a diagnostic system. The objective of the study presented is to develop a semi-automatic system, which could manage and process more than 1 M-bytes of data per tube and provide an operator with reliable diagnostics proposals within a few minutes. This can be achieved only by cooperation of several digital signal processing techniques: detection, segmentation, estimation, noise subtraction, adaptive filtering, modelization, pattern recognition. The paper describes some of these items

  14. Genetic Variation in Past and Current Landscapes: Conservation Implications Based on Six Endemic Florida Scrub Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, E.S.; Pickert, R.; Dolan, R.W.; Yahr, R.; Gordon, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    If genetic variation is often positively correlated with population sizes and the presence of nearby populations and suitable habitats, landscape proxies could inform conservation decisions without genetic analyses. For six Florida scrub endemic plants (Dicerandra frutescens, Eryngium cuneifolium, Hypericum cumulicola, Liatris ohlingerae, Nolina brittoniana, and Warea carteri), we relate two measures of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity and alleles per polymorphic locus (APL), to population size and landscape variables. Presettlement areas were estimated based on soil preferences and GIS soils maps. Four species showed no genetic patterns related to population or landscape factors. The other two species showed significant but inconsistent patterns. For Liatris ohlingerae, APL was negatively related to population density and weakly, positively related to remaining presettlement habitat within 32 km. For Nolina brittoniana, APL increased with population size. The rather weak effects of population area/size and both past and current landscape structures suggest that genetic variation needs to be directly measured and not inferred for conservation planning.

  15. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  16. An experimental study on a training support system utilizing trainee's eye gaze point and think aloud protocol for diagnosing nuclear power plant anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Takahisa; Samejima, Ryouta; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2003-01-01

    An experimental system has been developed for aiming at supporting the simulator training of diagnosis nuclear power plant anomaly, where an expert provides the instructions to a trainee by his/her own educational and experienced point of view. This system has several characteristics as follows: (1) the expert can provide the instruction through the local area network or the Internet, (2) the training task is the detection of the primary cause of plant anomaly, which is not including the plant operation but requires only thinking, and (3) the system can automatically detects the trainee's view-point and think aloud protocols and provide these two types of information to the expert in real time for supporting his/her instruction. A laboratory experiment using this system was conducted, where an expert, who had really engaged in plant operation as a chief operator, was employed as the instructor for novice students. As the result of analyzing the experimental data, it was found that the two types of information, trainee's viewpoints and his verbal protocols, have some potential of effectiveness for supporting the instructor to estimate the trainees diagnostic thinking process and provide the instruction. (author)

  17. Coenzyme Q10 production in plants: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Sanjay Singh; Jaiwal, Anjali; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-06-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or Ubiquinone10 (UQ10), an isoprenylated benzoquinone, is well-known for its role as an electron carrier in aerobic respiration. It is a sole representative of lipid soluble antioxidant that is synthesized in our body. In recent years, it has been found to be associated with a range of patho-physiological conditions and its oral administration has also reported to be of therapeutic value in a wide spectrum of chronic diseases. Additionally, as an antioxidant, it has been widely used as an ingredient in dietary supplements, neutraceuticals, and functional foods as well as in anti-aging creams. Since its limited dietary uptake and decrease in its endogenous synthesis in the body with age and under various diseases states warrants its adequate supply from an external source. To meet its growing demand for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries, there is a great interest in the commercial production of CoQ10. Various synthetic and fermentation of microbial natural producers and their mutated strains have been developed for its commercial production. Although, microbial production is the major industrial source of CoQ10 but due to low yield and high production cost, other cost-effective and alternative sources need to be explored. Plants, being photosynthetic, producing high biomass and the engineering of pathways for producing CoQ10 directly in food crops will eliminate the additional step for purification and thus could be used as an ideal and cost-effective alternative to chemical synthesis and microbial production of CoQ10. A better understanding of CoQ10 biosynthetic enzymes and their regulation in model systems like E. coli and yeast has led to the use of metabolic engineering to enhance CoQ10 production not only in microbes but also in plants. The plant-based CoQ10 production has emerged as a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach capable of supplying CoQ10 in ample amounts. The current strategies, progress and constraints of

  18. Current forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo

    1997-01-01

    Current steel forgings for steam generator (SG) of PWR plant are reviewed in the aspect of design and material improvement. The following three items are introduced. The use of integral type steel forgings for the fabrication of steam generator enhances the structural integrity and makes easier fabrication and inspection including in-service inspection. The following examples of current integral type forgings developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) are introduced: (1) primary head integrated with nozzles, manways and supports; (2) steam drum head integrated with nozzle and handhole; (3) conical shell integrated with cylindrical sections and handholes. In order to decrease the weight of steam generator, the high strength materials such as SA508, Cl.3a steel have been adopted in some cases. The properties of this steel are introduced and the chemistry and heat treatment condition are discussed. As one of the methods to minimize the macro- and micro-segregations, the use of vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), i.e. deoxidization of steel by gaseous CO reaction, with addition of Al for grain refining was investigated. The properties of SA508, Cl.3 steels with Low Si content are compared with those of conventional one

  19. Current forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Current steel forgings for steam generator (SG) of PWR plant are reviewed in the aspect of design and material improvement. The following three items are introduced. The use of integral type steel forgings for the fabrication of steam generator enhances the structural integrity and makes easier fabrication and inspection including in-service inspection. The following examples of current integral type forgings developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) are introduced: (1) primary head integrated with nozzles, manways and supports; (2) steam drum head integrated with nozzle and handhole; (3) conical shell integrated with cylindrical sections and handholes. In order to decrease the weight of steam generator, the high strength materials such as SA508, Cl.3a steel have been adopted in some cases. The properties of this steel are introduced and the chemistry and heat treatment condition are discussed. As one of the methods to minimize the macro- and micro-segregations, the use of vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), i.e. deoxidization of steel by gaseous CO reaction, with addition of Al for grain refining was investigated. The properties of SA508, Cl.3 steels with Low Si content are compared with those of conventional one.

  20. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Current use of wild plants with edible underground storage organs in a rural population of Patagonia: between tradition and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydee

    2015-09-25

    Edible plants with underground storage organs (USOs) are neglected resources. We studied the local ecological knowledge edible plants with (USOs) in rural populations of North-Patagonia in order to establish how people are utilizing these plants. Some aspect of corpus-praxis-cosmos complex associated to the local ecological knowledge was documented and discussed. In addition, variation in this ecological knowledge due to age, gender, family structure, ethnic self-determination was also evaluated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 inhabitants in order to study the relationship between the current use of plants with USOs and the age, sex, family group composition and ethnic self-identification of interviewees. In addition, the Cultural Importance Index for each species was calculated. The current richness of known species in these populations is a total of 9 plants. Plants with USOs tend to be used more frequently as the age of the interviewee increases. Women and men showed no differences in the average richness of species cited. The interviewees who share their homes with other generations use these plants more frequently than those who live alone. Our results indicate that the interviewees who identified themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people use these plants more frequently. For the Mapuche people, wild plants have constituted material and symbolic resources of great importance in their historical subsistence. In addition, they are currently being redefined as elements which present a connection with ancestral practices, produce a strong relationship with the 'land', and become markers which identify the 'natural' (historical) ways of their people; these are key elements in the current political processes of identity revaluation. This research is valuable to stimulate cultural revival and health promotion programs in the communities with their own local, cultural food.

  2. The effect of the fast neutron current on the amino acid contents and nucleic acid synthesis in maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhundova, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    At the present time the effects of external influences on the genetic structures of the plant cells and the transmission of the accepted signals to other cellular structures and then to the whole organism have actively been studied. According to the opinion of a number of authors the gene expression and repression are immediate responses to the environment changes. To affect the plant genetic apparatus it is quite enough to expose it to some factors such as gamma rays, X- rays, neutron currents, saline-, temperature- or osmotic stresses. At the current stage of the research of the molecular mechanisms of the plant adaptation to the environment changes the priority goal is to ascertain the nature of the influence of the above mentioned factors on the processes of DNA replication and transcription, as the nucleic acids are the targets for external effects. The fast neutron current is one of the factors that influence the plant growth and development. Unlike gamma rays, the mechanism of the neutron irradiation on the plant genetic apparatus is very poorly studied. The objective of our research was the study of the fast neutron current effects on the DNA replication and transcription processes and amino acid synthesis in the irradiated maize plants

  3. Efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in women with provoked vestibulodynia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Annie; Léonard, Guillaume; Gougeon, Véronique; Waddell, Guy; Bureau, Yves-André; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2016-05-14

    Provoked vestibulodynia is the most common form of vulvodynia. Despite its high prevalence and deleterious sexual, conjugal, and psychological repercussions, effective evidence-based interventions for provoked vestibulodynia remain limited. For a high proportion of women, significant pain persists despite the currently available treatments. Growing evidence suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) could play a key role in provoked vestibulodynia; thus, treatment targeting the CNS, rather than localized dysfunctions, may be beneficial for women suffering from provoked vestibulodynia. In this study, we aim to build on the promising results of a previous case report and evaluate whether transcranial direct-current stimulation, a non-invasive brain stimulation technique targeting the CNS, could be an effective treatment option for women with provoked vestibulodynia. This single-center, triple-blind, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial aims to compare the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation with sham transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Forty women diagnosed with provoked vestibulodynia by a gynecologist, following a standardized treatment protocol, are randomized to either active transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment for ten sessions of 20 minutes at an intensity of 2 mA or sham transcranial direct-current stimulation over a 2-week period. Outcome measures are collected at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome is pain during intercourse, assessed with a numerical rating scale. Secondary measurements focus on the sexual function, vestibular pain sensitivity, psychological distress, treatment satisfaction, and the patient's global impression of change. To our knowledge, this study is the first randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Findings from this

  4. Evaluation of current Australian health service accreditation processes (ACCREDIT-CAP): protocol for a mixed-method research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, Reece; Greenfield, David; Moldovan, Max; Pawsey, Marjorie; Mumford, Virginia; Westbrook, Johanna Irene; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Accreditation programmes aim to improve the quality and safety of health services, and have been widely implemented. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the outcomes of existing programmes. The Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork-Current Accreditation Processes (ACCREDIT-CAP) project is designed to address key gaps in the literature by evaluating the current processes of three accreditation programmes used across Australian acute, primary and aged care services. The project comprises three mixed-method studies involving documentary analyses, surveys, focus groups and individual interviews. Study samples will comprise stakeholders from across the Australian healthcare system: accreditation agencies; federal and state government departments; consumer advocates; professional colleges and associations; and staff of acute, primary and aged care services. Sample sizes have been determined to ensure results allow robust conclusions. Qualitative information will be thematically analysed, supported by the use of textual grouping software. Quantitative data will be subjected to a variety of analytical procedures, including descriptive and comparative statistics. The results are designed to inform health system policy and planning decisions in Australia and internationally. The project has been approved by the University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number HREC 10274). Results will be reported to partner organisations, healthcare consumers and other stakeholders via peer-reviewed publications, conference and seminar presentations, and a publicly accessible website.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for treatment of major depression during pregnancy: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigod, Simone; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Daskalakis, Zafiris; Murphy, Kellie; Ray, Joel; Oberlander, Tim; Somerton, Sarah; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Blumberger, Daniel

    2014-09-18

    Women with depression in pregnancy are faced with difficult treatment decisions. Untreated, antenatal depression has serious negative implications for mothers and children. While antidepressant drug treatment is likely to improve depressive symptoms, it crosses the placenta and may pose risks to the unborn child. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a focal brain stimulation treatment that improves depressive symptoms within 3 weeks of treatment by inducing changes to brain areas involved in depression, without impacting any other brain areas, and without inducing changes to heart rate, blood pressure or core body temperature. The localized nature of transcranial direct current stimulation makes it an ideal therapeutic approach for treating depression during pregnancy, although it has never previously been evaluated in this population. We describe a pilot randomized controlled trial of transcranial direct current stimulation among women with depression in pregnancy to assess the feasibility of a larger, multicentre efficacy study. Women over 18 years of age and between 14 and 32 weeks gestation can be enrolled in the study provided they meet diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode of at least moderate severity and have been offered but refused antidepressant medication. Participants are randomized to receive active transcranial direct current stimulation or a sham condition that is administered in 15 30-minute treatments over three weeks. Women sit upright during treatment and receive obstetrical monitoring prior to, during and after each treatment session. Depressive symptoms, treatment acceptability, and pregnancy outcomes are assessed at baseline (prior to randomization), at the end of each treatment week, every four weeks post-treatment until delivery, and at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel therapeutic option for treating depression during pregnancy. This protocol allows for assessment of the

  6. The current status of Korea's Nuclear Power Plant Industry and the Need for International Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    As an executive in charge of the nuclear power plant sector at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction ('Doosan'), which is the nation's only major supplier of nuclear power plant equipment and materials, I would like to tell you about how the nation's nuclear power plant industry has developed and in what direction it is currently expected to advance, with the focus on my company's nuclear business activities. In 1980, Doosan built a large factory in Chang won with the aim of engaging in the industrial plant business, including production of power plant equipment and materials. This factory is now capable of producing equipment and materials for large-capacity power plants, ranging from the production of casting and forging to the final assembly of power plant equipment. The Korean government took the dramatic step of integrating power plant facilities of several companies into one entity, and have Doosan take over it. The nation continued to build nuclear power plants while making efforts to achieve self-reliance in the relevant technology.

  7. Genetic Variation in Past and Current Landscapes: Conservation Implications Based on Six Endemic Florida Scrub Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If genetic variation is often positively correlated with population sizes and the presence of nearby populations and suitable habitats, landscape proxies could inform conservation decisions without genetic analyses. For six Florida scrub endemic plants (Dicerandra frutescens, Eryngium cuneifolium, Hypericum cumulicola, Liatris ohlingerae, Nolina brittoniana, and Warea carteri, we relate two measures of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity and alleles per polymorphic locus (APL, to population size and landscape variables. Presettlement areas were estimated based on soil preferences and GIS soils maps. Four species showed no genetic patterns related to population or landscape factors. The other two species showed significant but inconsistent patterns. For Liatris ohlingerae, APL was negatively related to population density and weakly, positively related to remaining presettlement habitat within 32 km. For Nolina brittoniana, APL increased with population size. The rather weak effects of population area/size and both past and current landscape structures suggest that genetic variation needs to be directly measured and not inferred for conservation planning.

  8. Options for the disposition of current inventory of Rocky Flats Plant residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Lychin.

    1994-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, much concern has been directed towards the accumulation of special nuclear material resulting from the dismantlement of a large number of nuclear weapons. This concern has opened up a debate over the final disposition of the large inventory of weapons-capable plutonium. Technologies for the conversion of plutonium into acceptable forms will need to be assessed and evaluated. Candidate strategies for interim and final disposition include a variety of immobilization techniques (vitrification in glass, ceramic, or metal), conversion to reactor fuel, or direct discard as waste. The selected disposition strategy will be chosen based upon a range of decision metric such as expected conversion costs, equipment requirements, and waste generation. To this end, a systems analysis approach is necessary for the evaluation and comparison of the different disposition strategies. Current data on inventory of plutonium, such as that at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), may be useful for the evaluation and selection of candidate disposition technologies. A preliminary analysis of the residues of scrap at Rocky Flats was performed to establish a foundation for comparison of candidate strategies. About 3 metric tons of plutonium and 270 metric tons of other wastes remain in the inventory at Rocky Flats. Estimates on the equipment, facility, manpower, and cost requirements to process this inventory over a proposed 10-year cleanup campaign will provide a benchmark for comparison and assessment of proposed disposition technologies

  9. Current status of nuclear power plant I and C systems (2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Young; Park, J.H.; Lee, J.S. and others

    2000-12-01

    Analog type I and C Systems of Nuclear Power Plants are being replaced by digital type systems because of the aging problems of the I and C systems. New NPPs have adopted computer-based digital I and C systems because the economical efficiency and the usability of the systems become higher than the analog I and C systems. However, the digital I and C systems have not been applied to NPPs because the reliability of computer systems and software has not been validated. The research works for reliability of the systems have been performed in many institutions. In this study, we reviewed the current status of I and C systems for advanced NPPs that have developed in Korea as well as in other countries until this year. We hope to use the result of this study to plan for a localization of NPP I and C systems. In this study, the I and C systems of advanced reactors such as AP600 and NUPLEX 80+ of U.S.A, CANDU 9 of Canada, APWRs and ABWRs of Japan, N4 of France, and KNGR, KALIMER, and SMART of Korea were reviewed. We reviewed the nuclear policy of U.S.A and Europe, and the NPP digital I and C systems developed in many international research institutes. Using this result, we extracted items to be researched and classified those by types of reactors. Then, we established the localization method of NPP digital I and C systems.

  10. Why the Japanese Nuclear Power Plants are not trusted? Verification of current nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electric power following the trend of structural reform and government's economic and financial rebuild had impacted the management of electric utilities in 1990, current nuclear power comes to be subject to government's leadership and support to promote nuclear energy. The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy Japan of atomic energy commission in 2005 aims to (1) maintain the 30 to 40% or more share of nuclear energy in electricity generation up to 2030 and afterwards, (2) promote the nuclear fuel cycle and (3) commercialize the fast-breeder reactors. Nuclear Energy National Plan of ministry of economy, trade and industry in 2006 makes reference to construction of FBR demonstration reactor by 2025, development of Japanese next-generation LWR and also construction of second reprocessing plant. Major stakeholders related with nuclear power generation such as politicians, government (the authorities concerned), electric utilities and local governments play respective important role in nuclear policy as 'a tetrahedral structure'. The Niigataken Chuets-oki earthquake reminded risk problems of nuclear power management and shook the nuclear tetrahedron structure, which might collapse with loss of public trust. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Current status of nuclear power plant I and C systems (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Young; Park, J. H.; Lee, J. S. and others

    2000-12-01

    Analog type I and C Systems of Nuclear Power Plants are being replaced by digital type systems because of the aging problems of the I and C systems. New NPPs have adopted computer-based digital I and C systems because the economical efficiency and the usability of the systems become higher than the analog I and C systems. However, the digital I and C systems have not been applied to NPPs because the reliability of computer systems and software has not been validated. The research works for reliability of the systems have been performed in many institutions. In this study, we reviewed the current status of I and C systems for advanced NPPs that have developed in Korea as well as in other countries until this year. We hope to use the result of this study to plan for a localization of NPP I and C systems. In this study, the I and C systems of advanced reactors such as AP600 and NUPLEX 80+ of U.S.A, CANDU 9 of Canada, APWRs and ABWRs of Japan, N4 of France, and KNGR, KALIMER, and SMART of Korea were reviewed. We reviewed the nuclear policy of U.S.A and Europe, and the NPP digital I and C systems developed in many international research institutes. Using this result, we extracted items to be researched and classified those by types of reactors. Then, we established the localization method of NPP digital I and C systems

  12. Options for the disposition of current inventory of Rocky Flats Plant residues. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.

    1994-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, much concern has been directed towards the accumulation of special nuclear material resulting from the dismantlement of a large number of nuclear weapons. This concern has opened up a debate over the final disposition of the large inventory of weapons-capable plutonium. Technologies for the conversion of plutonium into acceptable forms will need to be assessed and evaluated. Candidate strategies for interim and final disposition include a variety of immobilization techniques (vitrification in glass, ceramic, or metal), conversion to reactor fuel, or direct discard as waste. The selected disposition strategy will be chosen based upon a range of decision metrics such as expected conversion costs, equipment requirements, and waste generation. To this end, a systems analysis approach is necessary for the evaluation and comparison of the different disposition strategies. Current data on inventory of plutonium, such as that at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), may be useful for the evaluation and selection of candidate disposition technologies. A preliminary analysis of the residues of scrap at Rocky Flats was performed to establish a foundation for comparison of candidate strategies. About 3 metric tons of plutonium and 270 metric tons of other wastes remain in the inventory at Rocky Flats. Estimates on the equipment, facility, manpower, and cost requirements to process this inventory over a proposed 10-year cleanup campaign will provide a benchmark for comparison and assessment of proposed disposition technologies

  13. Simulation models: a current indispensable tool in studies of the continuous water-soil-plant - atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Gonzalez, Felicita; Cid, G.; Osorio, Maria de los A.; Ruiz, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This work assesses the current use of simulation models as a tool useful and indispensable for the advancement in the research and study of the processes related to the continuous water-soil - plant-atmosphere. In recent years they have reported in the literature many jobs where these modeling tools are used as a support to the decision-making process of companies or organizations in the agricultural sphere and in Special for the design of optimal management of irrigation and fertilization strategies of the crops. Summarizes some of the latest applications reported with respect to the use of water transfers and solutes, such simulation models mainly to nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination problems. On the other hand also summarizes important applications of simulation models of growth of cultivation for the prediction of effects on the performance of different conditions of water stress, and finally some other applications on the management of the different irrigation technologies as kingpins, superfiail irrigation and drip irrigation. Refer also the main work carried out in Cuba. (author)

  14. Role of Plants in a Constructed Wetland: Current and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of plants in the treatment of effluents by constructed wetland (CW systems is under debate. Here, we review ways in which plants can affect CW processes and suggest two novel functions for plants in CWs. The first is salt phytoremediation by halophytes. We have strong evidence that halophytic plants can reduce wastewater salinity by accumulating salts in their tissues. Our studies have shown that Bassia indica, a halophytic annual, is capable of salt phytoremediation, accumulating sodium to up to 10% of its dry weight. The second novel use of plants in CWs is as phytoindicators of water quality. We demonstrate that accumulation of H2O2, a marker for plant stress, is reduced in the in successive treatment stages, where water quality is improved. It is recommended that monitoring and management of CWs consider the potential of plants as phytoremediators and phytoindicators.

  15. Current issues in the evolutionary ecology of ant-plant symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Veronika E; Frederickson, Megan E; McKey, Doyle; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2014-05-01

    Ant-plant symbioses involve plants that provide hollow structures specialized for housing ants and often food to ants. In return, the inhabiting ants protect plants against herbivores and sometimes provide them with nutrients. Here, we review recent advances in ant-plant symbioses, focusing on three areas. First, the nutritional ecology of plant-ants, which is based not only on plant-derived food rewards, but also on inputs from other symbiotic partners, in particular fungi and possibly bacteria. Food and protection are the most important 'currencies' exchanged between partners and they drive the nature and evolution of the relationships. Secondly, studies of conflict and cooperation in ant-plant symbioses have contributed key insights into the evolution and maintenance of mutualism, particularly how partner-mediated feedbacks affect the specificity and stability of mutualisms. There is little evidence that mutualistic ants or plants are under selection to cheat, but the costs and benefits of ant-plant interactions do vary with environmental factors, making them vulnerable to natural or anthropogenic environmental change. Thus, thirdly, ant-plant symbioses should be considered good models for investigating the effects of global change on the outcome of mutualistic interactions. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in reducing consumption in patients with alcohol use disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak, Benoit; Soudry-Faure, Agnès; Abello, Nicolas; Carpentier, Maud; Jonval, Lysiane; Allard, Coralie; Sabsevari, Foroogh; Blaise, Emilie; Ponavoy, Eddy; Bonin, Bernard; Meille, Vincent; Chauvet-Gelinier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-17

    Approximately 15 million persons in the European Union and 10 million persons in the USA are alcohol-dependent. The global burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol is considerable: worldwide, approximately one in 25 deaths in 2004 was caused by alcohol. At the same time, alcohol use disorders remain seriously undertreated. In this context, alternative or adjunctive therapies such as brain stimulation may play a prominent role. The early results of studies using transcranial direct current stimulation found that stimulations delivered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result in a significant reduction of craving and an improvement of the decision-making processes in various additive disorders. We, therefore, hypothesize that transcranial direct current stimulation can lead to a decrease in alcohol consumption in patients suffering from alcohol use disorders. We report the protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, to evaluate the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation on alcohol reduction in patients with an alcohol use disorder. The study will be conducted in 14 centers in France and Monaco. Altogether, 340 subjects over 18 years of age and diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder will be randomized to receive five consecutive twice-daily sessions of either active or placebo transcranial direct current stimulation. One session consists in delivering a current flow continuously (anode F4; cathode F3) twice for 13 minutes, with treatments separated by a rest interval of 20 min. Efficacy will be evaluated using the change from baseline (alcohol consumption during the 4 weeks before randomization) to 24 weeks in the total alcohol consumption and number of heavy drinking days. Secondary outcome measures will include alcohol craving, clinical and biological improvements, and the effects on mood and quality of life, as well as cognitive and safety assessments, and, for smokers, an assessment of the

  17. Concurrent transcranial direct current stimulation and progressive resistance training in Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Ashlee M; Tillman, Alex; Rantalainen, Timo; Muthalib, Makii; Johnson, Liam; Kidgell, Dawson J; Wundersitz, Daniel; Enticott, Peter G; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2016-07-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results from a loss of dopamine in the brain, leading to movement dysfunctions such as bradykinesia, postural instability, resting tremor and muscle rigidity. Furthermore, dopamine deficiency in PD has been shown to result in maladaptive plasticity of the primary motor cortex (M1). Progressive resistance training (PRT) is a popular intervention in PD that improves muscular strength and results in clinically significant improvements on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). In separate studies, the application of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) to the M1 has been shown to improve motor function in PD; however, the combined use of tDCS and PRT has not been investigated. We propose a 6-week, double-blind randomised controlled trial combining M1 tDCS and PRT of the lower body in participants (n = 42) with moderate PD (Hoehn and Yahr scale score 2-4). Supervised lower body PRT combined with functional balance tasks will be performed three times per week with concurrent a-tDCS delivered at 2 mA for 20 minutes (a-tDCS group) or with sham tDCS (sham group). Control participants will receive standard care (control group). Outcome measures will include functional strength, gait speed and variability, balance, neurophysiological function at rest and during movement execution, and the UPDRS motor subscale, measured at baseline, 3 weeks (during), 6 weeks (post), and 9 weeks (retention). Ethical approval has been granted by the Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee (project number 2015-014), and the trial has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615001241527). This will be the first randomised controlled trial to combine PRT and a-tDCS targeting balance and gait in people with PD. The study will elucidate the functional, clinical and neurophysiological outcomes of combined PRT and a-tDCS. It is hypothesised that combined PRT and a-tDCS will significantly

  18. Application of over-current relay in offshore wind power plant grid with VSC-HVDC connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Teodorescu, Remus [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Rodriguez, Pedro [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kjaer, Philip C. [Vestas Technology R and D, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the setting and coordination of over-current relays in an offshore wind power plant (WPP) grid connected only to the power electronic converters with limited fault current capability. The limited fault current injection capability of the converters has been considered as a hindrance for the relay setting. This characteristic can be utilized to develop a deterministic picture of the radial grid network and then the relays settings could be applied. The relay coordination has been demonstrated through an implementation in the Real Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) platform. The setting of relay parameters based upon maximum nominal currents is explained and the consequences are investigated. (orig.)

  19. Treatability and scale-up protocols for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation of manufactured-gas-plant soils. Final report, September 1987-July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.W.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sanseverino, J.

    1991-07-01

    The report describes activities to develop a framework to reliably scale-up and apply challenging bioremediation processes to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) soils. It includes: a discussion of the accuracy needed for competitive application of bioremediation; a framework and examples for treatability and scale-up protocols for selection, design and application of these processes; both batch and continuous testing protocols for developing predictive rate data; and special predictive relationships that may be used in process selection/scale-up. The work, coupled with subsequent work (as recommended) to develop an MGP soil desorption/diffusion protocol and new scale-up methods, and with subsequent scale-up testing should lead to the capability for improved selection of MGP sites for bioremediation and improved performance, success, and reliability of field applications. With this greater predictive reliability, bioremediation will be used more often in the field on the most favorable applications and its cost advantages over other remediation options will be realized

  20. Current status and future prospects of Korean standardized nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieh, C.-H.; Park, S.-K.; Lee, B.-R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed a brief history of Korean nuclear industry since the first Kori-1 plant operation in 1978 with special emphasis on the NSSS and BOP design and engineering, and the design approaches for nuclear power plants in the future. Continued effort to enhance plant economy and operational safety has been made by increasing plant size, and improving safety features, systems and component reliability in various design aspects. Korean nuclear industry is now trying to be one of the major contributors to the world nuclear field in sharing nuclear technology gained from past experience and developed through internation technical cooperation programs

  1. Numerical modeling of counter-current condensation in a Black Liquor Gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risberg, Mikael; Gebart, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Pressurized Entrained flow High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification is a novel technique to recover the inorganic chemicals and available energy in black liquor originating from kraft pulping. The gasifier has a direct quench that quickly cools the raw syngas when it leaves the hot reactor by spraying the gas with a water solution. As a result, the raw syngas becomes saturated with steam. Typically the gasifier operates at 30 bar which corresponds to a dew point of about 235 °C and a steam concentration in the saturated syngas that is about 3 times higher than the total concentration of the other species in the syngas. After the quench cooler the syngas is passed through a counter-current condenser where the raw syngas is cooled and most of the steam is condensed. The condenser consists of several vertical tubes where reflux condensation occurs inside the tubes due to water cooling of the tubes on the shell-side. A large part of the condensation takes place inside the tubes on the wall and results in a counterflow of water driven by gravity through the counter current condenser. In this study a computational fluid dynamics model is developed for the two-phase fluid flow on the tube-side of the condenser and for the single phase flow of the shell-side. The two-phase flow was treated using an Euler–Euler formulation with closure correlations for heat flux, condensation rate and pressure drop inside the tubes. The single-phase model for the shell side uses closure correlations for the heat flux and pressure drop. Predictions of the model are compared with results from experimental measurements in a condenser used in a 3 MW Black Liquor Gasification development plant. The results are in good agreement with the limited experimental data that has been collected in the experimental gasifier. However, more validation data is necessary before a definite conclusion can be drawn about the predictive capability of the code. -- Highlights: • A multi-phase model for a

  2. Subirrigation for production of native plants in nurseries - concepts, current knowledge, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin L. Schmal; Kas Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Jeremy Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Subirrigation, a method whereby water is allowed to move upward into the growing medium by capillary action, has been the focus of recent research in forest and conservation nurseries growing a wide variety of native plants. Subirrigation reduces the amount of water needed for producing high-quality plants, discharged wastewater, and leaching of nutrients compared with...

  3. The role of chemistry in poisonous plant research: Current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants are a major cause of economic loss to livestock producers in many parts of the world. Losses include deaths, abortions, birth defects, reduced production and lost forage value. The USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plant Research Lab in collaboration with the Inner Mongolia Agricultural Univers...

  4. Metabolic engineering of plant monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes--current status and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B Markus; Ahkami, Amirhossein

    2013-02-01

    Terpenoids (a.k.a. isoprenoids) represent the most diverse class of natural products found in plants, with tens of thousands of reported structures. Plant-derived terpenoids have a multitude of pharmaceutical and industrial applications, but the natural resources for their extraction are often limited and, in many cases, synthetic routes are not commercially viable. Some of the most valuable terpenoids are not accumulated in model plants or crops, and genetic resources for breeding of terpenoid natural product traits are thus poorly developed. At present, metabolic engineering, either in the native producer or a heterologous host, is the only realistic alternative to improve yield and accessibility. In this review article, we will evaluate the state of the art of modulating the biosynthetic pathways for the production of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes in plants. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 2. Current status of biofouling surveillance and control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Johnson, K.I.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the current status of techniques for detection and control of cooling-water system fouling by bivalve mollusks at nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of these techniques is evaluated on the basis of information gathered from a literature review and in interviews with nuclear power plant personnel. Biofouling detection techniques examined in this report include regular maintenance, in-service inspection, and testing. Generally, these methods have been inadequate for detecting biofouling. Recommendations for improving biofouling detection capabilities are presented. Biofouling prevention (or control) methods that are examined in this report include intake screen systems, thermal treatment, preventive maintenance, chemical treatment alternatives, and antifoulant coatings. Recommendations for improving biofouling control methods at operating nuclear power plants are presented. Additional techniques that could be implemented at future power plants or that require further research are also described

  6. Current trends in codal requirements for safety in operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivasista, K.; Shah, Y.K.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Code of practice on safety in nuclear power plant operation states the requirements to be met during operation of a nuclear power plant for assuring safety. Among various stages of authorization, regulatory body issues authorization for operation of a nuclear power plant, monitors and enforces regulatory requirements. The responsible organization shall have overall responsibility and the plant management shall have the primary responsibility for ensuring safe and efficient operation of its nuclear power plants. A set of codal requirements covering technical and administrative aspects are mandatory for the plant management to implement to ensure that the nuclear power plant is operated in accordance with the design intent. Requirements on operating procedures and instructions establish operation and maintenance, inspection and testing of the plant in a planned and systematic way. The requirements on emergency preparedness programme establish with a reasonable assurance that, in the event of an emergency situation, appropriate measures can be taken to mitigate the consequences. Commissioning requirements verify performance criteria during commissioning to ensure that the design intent and QA requirements are met. Several modifications in systems important to safety required during operation of a nuclear power plant are regulated. However new operational codal requirements arising out of periodic safety review, operational experience feedback, life management, probabilistic safety assessment, physical security, safety convention and obligations and decommissioning are not covered in the present code of practice for safety in nuclear power plant operation. Codal provisions on 'Review by operating organization on aspects of design having implications on operability' are also required to be addressed. The merits in developing such a methodology include acceptance of the design by operating organization, ensuring maintainability, proper layout etc. in the new designs

  7. Methods for growth regulation of greenhouse produced ornamental pot- and bedding plants – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrand Karl-Johan I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs are used in the production of ornamental potted and bedding plants. Growth control is needed for maximizing production per unit area, reducing transportation costs and to obtain a desired visual quality. However, the use of PGRs is associated with toxicity risks to humans and the environment. In many countries the availability of PGRs is restricted as few substances are registered for use. A number of alternative methods have been suggested. The methods include genetic methods (breeding and crop cultivation practices such as fertigation, temperature and light management. A lot of research into “alternative” growth regulation was performed during the 1980-1990s, revealing several possible ways of using different climatic factors to optimize plant growth with respect to plant height. In recent years, the interest in climatic growth regulation has been resurrected, not least due to the coming phase-out of the plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC. Today, authorities in many countries are aiming towards reducing the use of agrochemicals. At the same time, there is a strong demand from consumers for products produced without chemicals. This article provides a broad overview of available methods for non-chemical growth control. It is concluded that a combination of plant breeding and management of temperature, fertigation and light management has the potential of replacing chemical growth regulators in the commercial production of ornamental pot- and bedding plants.

  8. Current status of construction of nuclear power plants No. 7, No. 8 in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sug, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The up-to-date accomplishment and future work in the construction of nuclear power plants in Korea are outlined. The scope of the construction project of the No. 7 and No. 8 power plants, selection of the suppliers of the main instruments, assessment of the planning, architecture, engineering, construction fund, procurement of nuclear fuel, and the necessities of home production of various nuclear materials are briefly summarized. (author)

  9. Molecular Phytopathology: Current Approaches and Main Directions in Diagnostics of Woody Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Baranov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors describe the prospects for diagnosis of woody plants diseases based on the use of modern methods of molecular plant pathology. The metagenomic approach based on the analysis of complex pathogens, including non-pathogenic microflora is described. The use the multicopy universal loci characterized by a number of advantages in determining taxonomic affiliation of infectious agents during phytopathological molecular analysis is proposed.

  10. Plant Virus–Insect Vector Interactions: Current and Potential Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Mann, Krin S.; Johnson, Karyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition and transmission by an insect vector is central to the infection cycle of the majority of plant pathogenic viruses. Plant viruses can interact with their insect host in a variety of ways including both non-persistent and circulative transmission; in some cases, the latter involves virus replication in cells of the insect host. Replicating viruses can also elicit both innate and specific defense responses in the insect host. A consistent feature is that the interaction of the virus with its insect host/vector requires specific molecular interactions between virus and host, commonly via proteins. Understanding the interactions between plant viruses and their insect host can underpin approaches to protect plants from infection by interfering with virus uptake and transmission. Here, we provide a perspective focused on identifying novel approaches and research directions to facilitate control of plant viruses by better understanding and targeting virus–insect molecular interactions. We also draw parallels with molecular interactions in insect vectors of animal viruses, and consider technical advances for their control that may be more broadly applicable to plant virus vectors. PMID:27834855

  11. Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Poschenrieder

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bicarbonate plays a fundamental role in the cell pH status in all organisms. In autotrophs, HCO3− may further contribute to carbon concentration mechanisms (CCM. This is especially relevant in the CO2-poor habitats of cyanobacteria, aquatic microalgae, and macrophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants can also benefit from CCM as evidenced by the evolution of C4 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM. The presence of HCO3− in all organisms leads to more questions regarding the mechanisms of uptake and membrane transport in these different biological systems. This review aims to provide an overview of the transport and metabolic processes related to HCO3− in microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, and terrestrial plants. HCO3− transport in cyanobacteria and human cells is much better documented and is included for comparison. We further comment on the metabolic roles of HCO3− in plants by focusing on the diversity and functions of carbonic anhydrases and PEP carboxylases as well as on the signaling role of CO2/HCO3− in stomatal guard cells. Plant responses to excess soil HCO3− is briefly addressed. In conclusion, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge of HCO3− uptake and transport in plants that hamper the development of breeding strategies for both more efficient CCM and better HCO3− tolerance in crop plants.

  12. Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Fernández, José Antonio; Rubio, Lourdes; Pérez, Laura; Terés, Joana; Barceló, Juan

    2018-05-03

    Bicarbonate plays a fundamental role in the cell pH status in all organisms. In autotrophs, HCO₃ − may further contribute to carbon concentration mechanisms (CCM). This is especially relevant in the CO₂-poor habitats of cyanobacteria, aquatic microalgae, and macrophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants can also benefit from CCM as evidenced by the evolution of C₄ and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). The presence of HCO₃ − in all organisms leads to more questions regarding the mechanisms of uptake and membrane transport in these different biological systems. This review aims to provide an overview of the transport and metabolic processes related to HCO₃ − in microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, and terrestrial plants. HCO₃ − transport in cyanobacteria and human cells is much better documented and is included for comparison. We further comment on the metabolic roles of HCO₃ − in plants by focusing on the diversity and functions of carbonic anhydrases and PEP carboxylases as well as on the signaling role of CO₂/HCO₃ − in stomatal guard cells. Plant responses to excess soil HCO₃ − is briefly addressed. In conclusion, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge of HCO₃ − uptake and transport in plants that hamper the development of breeding strategies for both more efficient CCM and better HCO₃ − tolerance in crop plants.

  13. Current advances in screening for bioactive components from medicinal plants by affinity ultrafiltration mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Huang, Bill X; Guo, Mingquan

    2018-05-21

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in maintaining human health for thousands of years. However, the interactions between the active components in medicinal plants and some certain biological targets during a disease are still unclear in most cases. To conduct the high-throughput screening for small active molecules that can interact with biological targets, which is of great theoretical significance and practical value. The ultrafiltration mass spectrometry (UF-LC/MS) is a powerful bio-analytical method by combining affinity ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), which could rapidly screen and identify small active molecules that bind to biological targets of interest at the same time. Compared with other analytical methods, affinity UF-LC/MS has the characteristics of fast, sensitive and high throughput, and is especially suitable for the complicated extracts of medicinal plants. In this review, the basic principle, characteristics and some most recent challenges in UF-LC/MS have been demonstrated. Meanwhile, the progress and applications of affinity UF-LC/MS in the discovery of the active components from natural medicinal plants and the interactions between small molecules and biological target proteins are also briefly summarised. In addition, the future directions for UF-LC/MS are also prospected. Affinity UF-LC/MS is a powerful tool in studies on the interactions between small active molecules and biological protein targets, especially in the high-throughput screening of active components from the natural medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with sensorimotor retraining in chronic low back pain: a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Adam Louis; Liston, Matthew B; Chang, Wei-Ju; Walton, David M; Wand, Benedict Martin; Schabrun, Siobhan M

    2017-08-21

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly health problem yet current treatments demonstrate at best, small effects. The concurrent application of treatments with synergistic clinical and mechanistic effects may improve outcomes in chronic LBP. This pilot trial aims to (1) determine the feasibility, safety and perceived patient response to a combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and sensorimotor retraining intervention in chronic LBP and (2) provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. A pilot randomised, assessor and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial will be conducted. Eighty participants with chronic LBP will be randomly allocated to receive either (1) active tDCS + sensorimotor retraining or (2) sham tDCS + sensorimotor retraining. tDCS (active or sham) will be applied to the primary motor cortex for 20 min immediately prior to 60 min of supervised sensorimotor retraining twice per week for 10 weeks. Participants in both groups will complete home exercises three times per week. Feasibility, safety, pain, disability and pain system function will be assessed immediately before and after the 10-week intervention. Analysis of feasibility and safety will be performed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses will be conducted based on intention-to-treat and per protocol and will be used to determine trends for effectiveness. Ethical approval has been gained from the institutional human research ethics committee (H10184). Written informed consent will be provided by all participants. Results from this pilot study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12616000624482. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Carter, Olivia; Forte, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    Research exploring the behavioral impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1 has produced homogenous results. The most common explanations to address this homogeneity concerns the differential impact of varied tDCS parameters (such as stimulation intensity or electrode montage). To explore this, we systematically examined the effects of 15 different tDCS protocols on a well-elucidated neurobehavioral system: simple visual motor reaction time (smRT). For the initial phase of this study, 150 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of 5 experimental groups (2mA anodal, 2mA cathodal, 1mA anodal, 1mA cathodal, or sham) across 3 different conditions (orbitofrontal, bilateral, or extracephalic reference electrode location). The active electrode was always placed over M1 and tDCS lasted for 20min. Starting ~5min prior to stimulation and running continuously for ~30min, participants were repeatedly presented with a visual cue centered on a computer monitor and asked to press a response button as quickly as possible at stimulus onset (stimuli number: 100 pre-, 400 during-, and 100-post stimulation - interstimulus interval: 1-3s). Ex-gaussian distribution curves, miss, and error rates were determined for each normalized batch of 100 RTs and compared using a two-way ANOVA. As the largest group differences were seen with 2mA anodal (compared to sham) stimulation using an orbitofrontal montage, an additional 60 healthy participants were recruited to further test for significance in this condition. No significant impact of tDCS was seen on any parameter of smRT distribution, error rate, or miss rate, regardless of polarity, stimulation intensity, electrode montage, or stimulation-to-task relationship. Our results suggest that tDCS over M1 might not have a predictable or reliable effect on short duration smRT. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the mechanisms by which tDCS might modulate more complex motor behaviors. Additional

  16. Boosting the globalization of plant proteomics through INPPO: current developments and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Raj; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Tanou, Georgia; Dunn, Michael J; Kieselbach, Thomas; Cramer, Rainer; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Chen, Sixue; Rafudeen, Mohammed Suhail; Deswal, Renu; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-02-01

    The International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) is a non-profit-organization consisting of people who are involved or interested in plant proteomics. INPPO is constantly growing in volume and activity, which is mostly due to the realization among plant proteomics researchers worldwide for the need of such a global platform. Their active participation resulted in the rapid growth within the first year of INPPO's official launch in 2011 via its website (www.inppo.com) and publication of the 'Viewpoint paper' in a special issue of PROTEOMICS (May 2011). Here, we will be highlighting the progress achieved in the year 2011 and the future targets for the year 2012 and onwards. INPPO has achieved a successful administrative structure, the Core Committee (CC; composed of President, Vice-President, and General Secretaries), Executive Council (EC), and General Body (GB) to achieve INPPO objectives. Various committees and subcommittees are in the process of being functionalized via discussion amongst scientists around the globe. INPPO's primary aim to popularize the plant proteomics research in biological sciences has also been recognized by PROTEOMICS where a section dedicated to plant proteomics has been introduced starting January 2012, following the very first issue of this journal devoted to plant proteomics in May 2011. To disseminate organizational activities to the scientific community, INPPO has launched a biannual (in January and July) newsletter entitled 'INPPO Express: News & Views' with the first issue published in January 2012. INPPO is also planning to have several activities in 2012, including programs within the Education Outreach committee in different countries, and the development of research ideas and proposals with priority on crop and horticultural plants, while keeping tight interactions with proteomics programs on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and Medicago truncatula. Altogether, the INPPO progress and upcoming activities

  17. Current progress in the design and setup of a SOFC/GT hybrid power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegelberger, Christian; Henke, Moritz; Tomberg, Marius; Heddrich, Marc; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is setting up a hybrid power plant with 30 kW electrical power output. It consists of a SOFC and a micro gas turbine (MGT). The hybrid power plant can reach electrical system efficiencies greater than 60 % throughout a wide operating range. Due to the SOFC’s high operation temperature and incomplete fuel utilisation, the exhaust gas will always contain usable energy. The MGT will use this energy to provide compressed and preheated air for the SOFC and ge...

  18. Impact of wind power plant reactive current injection during asymmetrical grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    As more renewable energy sources, especially more wind turbines (WTs) are installed in the power system; grid codes for wind power integration are being generated to sustain stable power system operation with non-synchronous generation. Common to most of the grid codes, wind power plants (WPPs...... faults, is investigated, which was not considered in the wind power impact studies before....

  19. Contributions of plant introductions to the ancestry of current U.S. peanut cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant introductions (PIs) have been used in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improvement in the U.S.A. since the inception of peanut breeding there in the 1930s. One might think that the era of screening collections of PIs for pest resistances or other economically important traits then crossing selecte...

  20. Design rules for high temperature plant - the implications of recent research in relation to current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    An historical summary is presented of design rules for high temperature plant, leading to the rules applicable to high temperature reactors, particularly the liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Special attention is given to creep rupture properties of ferritic and austenitic materials used for the construction of components such as boilers and pressure vessels. (author)

  1. Current developments in mechanized non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilinger, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants require frequent in-service activities to be carried out conscientiously in areas potentially hazardous to human operators (because of the associated radiation exposure), such as non-destructive testing of pressurized components of the steam system. Locations to be inspected in this way include the reactor pressure vessel, core internals, steam generators, pressurizers, and pipes. The codes to be used as a basis of these inspections demand high absolute positioning and repeating accuracy. These requirements can be met by mechanized test procedures. Accordingly, many new applications of, mostly mobile, robots have been developed over the past few years. The innovative control and sensor systems for stationary and mobile robots now on the market offer a potential for economic application in a large number of new areas in inspection, maintenance and service in nuclear power plants. More progress in this area is expected for the near future. Areva NP founded the new NDT Center, NETEC (Non-destructive Examination Technical Center), as a global technical center for non-destructive materials testing. NETEC is to advance research and development of all basic NDT technologies, robotics included. For many years, intelligeNDT has offered solutions and products for a variety of inspection and testing purposes and locations in nuclear power plants and is involved in continuous further development of the experience collected in nuclear power plants on the spot. (orig.)

  2. Nitrogen oxides emissions from thermal power plants in china: current status and future predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yan; Gao, Jiajia; Qiu, Peipei; Zhu, Chuanyong

    2013-10-01

    Increasing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the Chinese mainland have been of great concern due to their adverse impacts on regional air quality and public health. To explore and obtain the temporal and spatial characteristics of NOx emissions from thermal power plants in China, a unit-based method is developed. The method assesses NOx emissions based on detailed information on unit capacity, boiler and burner patterns, feed fuel types, emission control technologies, and geographical locations. The national total NOx emissions in 2010 are estimated at 7801.6 kt, of which 5495.8 kt is released from coal-fired power plant units of considerable size between 300 and 1000 MW. The top provincial emitter is Shandong where plants are densely concentrated. The average NOx-intensity is estimated at 2.28 g/kWh, markedly higher than that of developed countries, mainly owing to the inadequate application of high-efficiency denitrification devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Future NOx emissions are predicted by applying scenario analysis, indicating that a reduction of about 40% by the year 2020 can be achieved compared with emissions in 2010. These results suggest that NOx emissions from Chinese thermal power plants could be substantially mitigated within 10 years if reasonable control measures were implemented effectively.

  3. Current inverters as the main component of photovoltaic plants. Independent power generation; Wechselrichter als Herz der Photovoltaik. Unabhaengige Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattmann, Ulrich [Mastervolt GmbH Deutschland, Koeln (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    At present, it's all very well for the manufacturers of photovoltaic plants to laugh. Nothing is to be felt by a recession or crisis despite strong reduction of the reimbursement in its business division. Everywhere, the indicators stand on growth. The prescribed targets of sale for the current financial year already are reached or exceeded. One calmly expects the discussion on degression.

  4. Deterministic secure communication protocol without using entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show a deterministic secure direct communication protocol using single qubit in mixed state. The security of this protocol is based on the security proof of BB84 protocol. It can be realized with current technologies.

  5. Current Perspective in the International Trade of Medicinal Plants Material: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Karan, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    The recent years have seen an increased interest in medicinal plants together with the therapeutic use of phytochemicals. Medicinal plants are utilized by the industry for the production of extracts, phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals and their use is expected to grow faster than the conventional drugs. The enormous demand of medicinal plant material has resulted in huge trade both at domestic and international levels. The trade data of medicinal plant material with commodity code HS 1211 (SITC.4, code 292.4) and their derived/related products which are traded under different commodity codes has been acquired from COMTRADE, Trade Map, country reports, technical documents etc for the period 2001 to 2014. The data was analyzed using statistical tools to draw conclusions. The significant features of the global trade; the leading source, consumer, import and export countries; and the striking trends are presented. The trade of the ten key countries and the selected important items is also discussed in detail. The conservative figure of trade of medicinal plants materials and their derived/related products including extracts, essential oils, phytopharmaceuticals, gums, spices used in medicine, tannins for pharmaceutical use, ingredients for cosmetics etc. as calculated from the global export data for the year 2014 is estimated at USD 33 billion. The average global export in medicinal plants under HS 1211 for the fourteen year period was USD 1.92 billion for 601,357 tons per annum and for the year 2014 it stood at 702,813 tons valued at USD 3.60 billion. For the studied period, an annual average growth rate (AAGR) of 2.4% in volumes and 9.2% in values of export was observed. Nearly 30% of the global trade is made up by top two countries of the import and export. China and India from Asia; Egypt and Morocco from Africa; Poland, Bulgaria and Albania from Europe; Chile and Peru from South America are important supply sources. The USA, Japan and Europe

  6. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Tsitsilin, Andrey N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Historically Russia can be regarded as a "herbophilious" society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition) has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called "functional foods", which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and-through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia-showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  7. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Shikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically Russia can be regarded as a “herbophilious” society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called “functional foods”, which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and—through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia—showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  8. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  9. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  10. Current situation of spent fuel management in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant, Veracruz, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), owner and operator of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (2 x 654 MWe BWR), has twice decided to increase the storage capacity of the spent fuel pools of the reactors. The Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), the national nuclear regulatory authority, approved the increase by a factor of 2.66 in the storage capacity proposal by CFE in 1989. Each reactor spent fuel pool can now hold 614 t HM. The reracking was done at a cost of about US $13 per kg U, which will add only 0.042 mills per kWh to the fuel cycle cost. (author)

  11. Current applications of optimal estimation and control theory to the LOFT reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Tylee, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two advanced estimation and control systems being developed for the LOFT reactor plant are described and evaluated. The advanced protection system, based on a Kalman filter estimator is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, DNBR, and LHGR. The steam generator LQG control system provides stable, closed-loop, zero steady state error control over a wide power range and also provides on-line estimates of certain unmeasureable variables as steam generator power output and cooling capacity for operator information

  12. Current applications of optimal estimation and control theory to the LOFT reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Tylee, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two advanced estimation and control systems being developed for the LOFT reactor plant are described and evaluated. The advanced protection system, based on a Kalman filter estimator is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, DNBR, and LHGR. The steam generator LQG control system provides stable, closed-loop, zero steady state error control over a wide power range and also provides on-line estimates of certain unmeasureable variables as steam generator power output and cooling capacity for operator information. 12 refs

  13. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  14. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  15. Current summary of international extreme load design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of extreme load design criteria both as to rate and depth within any national jurisdiction as applied to nuclear power plant design is a function of several factors. The prime factor is the number of nuclear power plant facilities which are operating, under construction or planned in a given country. The second most important factor seems to be the degree of development of a domestic independent nuclear steam system supplier, NSSS vendor. Finally, countries whose domestic NSSS firms are active in the export market appear to have more active criteria development programs or at least they appear more visible to the foreign observer. For the purposes of this paper, extreme loads are defined as those loads having probability of occurence less than 10 -1 /yr and whose occurence could result in radiological consequences in excess of those permitted by national health standards. The specific loads considered include earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), airplane crash, detonation, and high energy system rupture. The paper identifies five national centers for extreme load criteria development; Canada, Great Britian, USA, USSR, and West Germany with both France and Japan also about to appear as independent centers of criteria development. Criteria under development by each national center are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  16. Current status and outlook perspectives of induced mutations for plant improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Li Junhui; Gu Jiayu; ZZhao Shirong; Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    Since 1928, induced mutations have played a significant role in solving world food and nutritional security problems through mutant germplasm enhancement and new mutant variety development. According to incomplete statistics, up to September 2009, induced mutations have officially released 3088 mutant cultivars in more than 170 crop species by more than 60 countries in the world. China tanks the first in the world, which has have released 802 mutant cultivars in 45 crop species, and takes more than a quarter of the total number of mutant varieties in the FAO/IAEA database. The maximum annually accumulated planting area of the mutant varieties was 9 million hectares, with an additional increase of 1.5 billion kilograms to national output of grain, cotton, oil, being converted to social and economic benefits of more than 2 billion RMB. The recent development and application of accelerator ion beam irradiation, the spaceflight environment and the other new mutation means, as well as the effective use of traditional radiation mutagenesis are becoming more active in crop improvement and new gene discovery. The advent of plant genomics and high throughput DNA techniques, such as TILLING, have opened a new era of molecular mutation breeding, which will overcome the limitations of conventional mutation breeding and play a significant role in solving China and world food security. (authors)

  17. WD40-repeat proteins in plant cell wall formation: current evidence and research prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea eGuerriero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic complexity of living organisms relies on supramolecular protein structures which ensure vital processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis. In eukaryotes WD40-repeat (WDR proteins often function as molecular hubs mediating supramolecular interactions. WDR proteins may display a variety of interacting partners and participate in the assembly of complexes involved in distinct cellular functions. In plants, the formation of lignocellulosic biomass involves extensive synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, a process that requires the assembly of large transmembrane enzyme complexes, intensive vesicle trafficking, interactions with the cytoskeleton, and coordinated gene expression. Because of their function as supramolecular hubs, WDR proteins could participate in each or any of these steps, although to date only few WDR proteins have been linked to the cell wall by experimental evidence. Nevertheless, several potential cell wall-related WDR proteins were recently identified using in silico aproaches, such as analyses of co-expression, interactome and conserved gene neighbourhood. Notably, some WDR genes are frequently genomic neighbours of genes coding for GT2-family polysaccharide synthases in eukaryotes, and this WDR-GT2 collinear microsynteny is detected in diverse taxa. In angiosperms, two WDR genes are collinear to cellulose synthase genes, CESAs, whereas in ascomycetous fungi several WDR genes are adjacent to chitin synthase genes, chs. In this Perspective we summarize and discuss experimental and in silico studies on the possible involvement of WDR proteins in plant cell wall formation. The prospects of biotechnological engineering for enhanced biomass production are discussed.

  18. ADDING ECOLOGICAL REALISM TO PLANT TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current test protocols for the protection of nontarget plants used when registering pesticides in the United States and many other countries depend on two tests using greenhouse grown, agricultural seedling plants. The seedling emergence and vegetative vigor tests are used to as...

  19. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  20. Measurement by eddy currents of tube-antivibratory bar gap steam generators of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, E.; Bieth, M.; Floze, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    In steam generators tubes are maintained by AVB to limit vibrations amplitude induced by secondary fluid flow. After some years wear sometimes occurs. For gap measurement between tubes and AVB Framatome developed a method based on eddy current and using a probe rotating inside the tube [fr

  1. EXTRACSION: a system for automatic Eddy Current diagnosis of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Zorgati, R.

    1992-01-01

    Improving speed and quality of Eddy Current non-destructive testing of steam generator tubes leads to automation of all process that contribute to diagnosis. This paper describes how signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial and artificial intelligence are used to build a software package that is able to automatically provide an efficient diagnosis. (author)

  2. Extraction: a system for automatic eddy current diagnosis of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Zorgati, R.

    1994-01-01

    Improving speed and quality of Eddy Current non-destructive testing of steam generator tubes leads to automatize all processes that contribute to diagnosis. This paper describes how we use signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence to build a software package that is able to automatically provide an efficient diagnosis. (authors). 2 figs., 5 refs

  3. The Creys-Malville nuclear power plant. Information in central data processing during current microbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garelly, H.

    1980-01-01

    Having recalled a few definitions and some statistics, mention is then made of the problem of current microbreak measurement, the software facilities to be employed so that they do not affect the operation of the data processing system and their effects on the software [fr

  4. HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants: Review and Outlook of Current Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob; Zeni, Lorenzo; Gryning, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on grid integration of large offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) using high voltage direct voltage (HVDC) for grid connection. The paper describes in detail selected challenges hereto and presents how DONG Energy Wind Power (DEWP) is addressing...... these challenges through three coordinated PhD projects in close collaboration with leading academia within the field. The overall goal of these projects is to acquire in-depth knowledge of relevant operating phenomena in the offshore OWPP grid, rich with power electronics devices (PEDs) such as the HVDC...... and the PED widely used in the wind turbine generators (WTGs). Challenges hereto include PED control system interaction (from a stability point of view), assessment of the quality of vendor supplied control systems and their robustness against e.g. short circuits and load rejection. Furthermore, the outcome...

  5. Adequacy of current systems for monitoring extremity exposures at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.D.; Harty, R.

    1985-01-01

    In general, only a small portion of workers at commercial nuclear power plants are limited by extremity exposures, and these workers can be readily identified. There seems to be no need for increased badging among the radiation workers. However, those workers who are extremity limited may not be receiving adequate dosimetry. For workers handling compact sources, unless contrary information is available, the tip of the thumb of the dominant hand can be assumed to be the limiting site, and dose to the thumb tip averaged over one square centimeter at the basal layer of the skin should be measured or estimated. As discussed briefly in this paper, the assessment of dose in high gradient fields can be a difficult task. The particular dosimeter studied is a band-aid type composed of a thermoluminescent material embedded in a carbon matrix under 4 mils of plastic. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique are discussed

  6. Preliminary research on eddy current bobbin quantitative test for heat exchange tube in nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pan; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng

    2016-02-01

    For quantitative defects detection research on heat transfer tube in nuclear power plants (NPP), two parts of work are carried out based on the crack as the main research objects. (1) Production optimization of calibration tube. Firstly, ASME, RSEM and homemade crack calibration tubes are applied to quantitatively analyze the defects depth on other designed crack test tubes, and then the judgment with quantitative results under crack calibration tube with more accuracy is given. Base on that, weight analysis of influence factors for crack depth quantitative test such as crack orientation, length, volume and so on can be undertaken, which will optimize manufacture technology of calibration tubes. (2) Quantitative optimization of crack depth. Neural network model with multi-calibration curve adopted to optimize natural crack test depth generated in in-service tubes shows preliminary ability to improve quantitative accuracy.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d -1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d -1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Current and future emissions of primary pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Hao, Hongke; Wang, Dexiang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution inventory of primary atmospheric pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi in 2012 was built based on a detailed database compiled at unit level involving unit capacity, boiler size and type, commission time, corresponding control technologies, and average coal quality of 72 power plants. The pollutants included SO 2 , NO x , fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 ), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). Emission factors for SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were adopted from standardized official promulgation, supplemented by those from local studies. The estimated annual emissions of SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC, OC, CO and NMVOC were 152.4, 314.8, 16.6, 26.4, 0.07, 0.27, 64.9 and 2.5kt, respectively. Small units (emission rates compared to medium (≥100MW and emissions were decontamination efficiency, sulfur content and ash content of coal. Weinan and Xianyang were the two cities with the highest emissions, and Guanzhong Plain had the largest emission density. Despite the projected growth of coal consumption, emissions would decrease in 2030 due to improvement in emission control technologies and combustion efficiencies. SO 2 and NO x emissions would experience significant reduction by ~81% and ~84%, respectively. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC and OC would be decreased by ~43% and CO and NMVOC would be reduced by ~16%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The exotic invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum is a strong competitor even outside its current realized climatic temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurа Sanderson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dog-strangling vine (Vincetoxicum rossicum is an exotic plant originating from Central and Eastern Europe that is becoming increasingly invasive in southern Ontario, Canada. Once established, it successfully displaces local native plant species but mechanisms behind this plant’s high competitive ability are not fully understood. It is unknown whether cooler temperatures will limit the range expansion of V. rossicum, which has demonstrated high tolerance for other environmental variables such as light and soil moisture. Furthermore, if V. rossicum can establish outside its current climatic limit it is unknown whether competition with native species can significantly contribute to reduce fitness and slow down invasion. We conducted an experiment to test the potential of V. rossicum to spread into northern areas of Ontario using a set of growth chambers to simulate southern and northern Ontario climatic temperature regimes. We also tested plant-plant competition by growing V. rossicum in pots with a highly abundant native species, Solidago canadensis, and comparing growth responses to plants grown alone. We found that the fitness of V. rossicum was not affected by the cooler climate despite a delay in reproductive phenology. Growing V. rossicum with S. canadensis caused a significant reduction in seedpod biomass of V. rossicum. However, we did not detect a temperature x competition interaction in spite of evidence for adaptation of S. canadensis to cooler temperature conditions. We conclude that the spread of V. rossicum north within the tested range is unlikely to be limited by climatic temperature but competition with an abundant native species may contribute to slow it down.

  10. Current situation of the project finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznan, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the contribution there is the basic information mentioned about history of building and the current situation at the finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce with the use of project digitization. Further on the contribution shows what kinds of supporting material has been elaborated, what kind of decisions have been issued to the finishing of the building, way of financing and also the assumption of investment return under the defined conditions. An orientation time schedule of the finishing of the building and the crucial steps for its security are presented in the conclusion

  11. Preparative separation of flavonoids from the medicinal plant Davilla elliptica St. Hill. by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldo Daniel; Silva Marcelo Aparecido; Rodrigues Clenilson Martins; Calvo Tamara Regina; Sannomiya Miriam; Santos Lourdes Campaner dos; Vilegas Wagner; Kushima Hélio; Hiruma-Lima Clélia Akiko; Brito Alba Regina Monteiro de Souza

    2006-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) is a major tool for the fast separation of natural products from plants. It was used for the preparative isolation of the flavonoid monoglucosides present in the aerial parts of the Davilla elliptica St. Hill. (Dilleniaceae). This species is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders. The optimum solvent system used was composed of a mixture of ethyl acetate-n-propanol-water (140:8:80, v/v/v) and led to a successful...

  12. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  13. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali; Ali, Ahmad; de Boer, Hugo J

    2014-10-10

    Poverty is pervasive in the Swat Valley, Pakistan. Most of the people survive by farming small landholdings. Many earn additional income by collecting and selling plant material for use in herbal medicine. This material is collected from wild populations but the people involved have little appreciation of the potential value of the plant material they collect and the long term impact their collecting has on local plant populations. In 2012, existing practices in collecting and trading high value minor crops from Swat District, Pakistan, were analyzed. The focus of the study was on the collection pattern of medicinal plants as an economic activity within Swat District and the likely destinations of these products in national or international markets. Local collectors/farmers and dealers were surveyed about their collection efforts, quantities collected, prices received, and resulting incomes. Herbal markets in major cities of Pakistan were surveyed for current market trends, domestic sources of supply, imports and exports of herbal material, price patterns, and market product-quality requirements. It was observed that wild collection is almost the only source of medicinal plant raw material in the country, with virtually no cultivation. Gathering is mostly done by women and children of nomadic Middle Hill tribes who earn supplementary income through this activity, with the plants then brought into the market by collectors who are usually local farmers. The individuals involved in gathering and collecting are largely untrained regarding the pre-harvest and post-harvest treatment of collected material. Most of the collected material is sold to local middlemen. After that, the trade pattern is complex and heterogeneous, involving many players. Pakistan exports of high value plants generate over US$10.5 million annually in 2012, with a substantial percentage of the supply coming from Swat District, but its market share has been declining. Reasons for the decline were

  14. Transient voltage control of a DFIG-based wind power plant for suppressing overvoltage using a reactive current reduction loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a transient voltage control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind power plant (WPP using a reactive current reduction loop to suppress the overvoltage at a point of interconnection (POI and DFIG terminal after a fault clearance. The change of terminal voltage of a DFIG is monitored at every predefined time period to detect the fault clearance. If the voltage change exceeds a set value, then the reactive current reduction loop reduces the reactive current reference in the DFIG controller using the step function. The reactive current injection of DFIGs in a WPP is rapidly reduced, and a WPP can rapidly suppress the overvoltage at a fault clearance because the reactive current reference is reduced. Using an electromagnetic transients program–released version (EMTP–RV simulator, the performance of the proposed scheme was validated for a model system comprising 20 units of a 5-MW DFIG considering various scenarios, such as fault and wind conditions. Test results show that the proposed scheme enables a WPP to suppress the overvoltage at the POI and DFIG terminal within a short time under grid fault conditions.

  15. Current status of life management policies for nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannai, T.

    2000-01-01

    Almost 30 years have passed since the initial commercial NPPs started operation in Japan. It is natural. therefore that concerns related to aging og these NPPs have increased. This report covers the following related key points. Technical assessment was applied to the major components (reactor pressure vessel, primary piping,...) of NPPs. It was concluded that complete periodical inspections would enable safe operation assuming a long term operation. The safety of Japanese NPPs is sufficiently ensured bu the execution of periodical inspection/examinations and thorough preventive maintenance measures. It is appropriate for the electric utility companies to apply detailed technical assessment to all NPP components after 30 year operation, and to produce detailed maintenance schedules thereafter; Enhancement of structural codes/standards in response to the toughness change due to aging shall be constantly studied in the future by reflecting the knowledge accumulated so far and by referring to the codes/standards of the USA; Technology development is required to enable the further reliable management of aged NPPs. It is important to continue to develop inspection and repair technologies. It is also important to acquire the material data and operation data of power plants related to their aging

  16. Observations on some current issues pertaining to nuclear power plant seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper the author addresses some of those areas in which it is believed major research and development should be undertaken in the years immediately ahead if significant advances in earthquake engineering especially applicable to nuclear power plant design are to be achieved. From the standpoint of excitation (loading) the paper dwells extensively on concepts of so-called effective acceleration, with some comments also given on response spectra and modifications thereto. In the areas of resistance of structures attention is devoted to the topics of damping, ductility (energy absorption), and associated margins of strength to resist overloading. The need for developing comprehensive field measurement programs of ground and structural response throughout the world is cited. Future progress in earthquake engineering hinges in large part on developing a confirmatory basis for the technology, partly through continuing developments of analysis techniques and corresponding laboratory testing, but most importantly field observations in actual earthquakes which can be interpreted rationally to lend verification and support to the theoretical and design bases. Finally, the important topic of equipment seismic resistance is singled out for attention. (orig.)

  17. Current steel forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoharu; Murai, Etsuo; Sato, Ikuo [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan). Muroran Plant; Suzuki, Kimiaki; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Tsukada, Hisashi [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    On the steel forging (SF) elements for steam generator (SG) of the pressurized water type light water reactor (PWR), from a viewpoint of upgrading in their improvements of design and materials, here were described on three materials such as integrated steel forgings, high strength steel forgings, and vacuum carbon deoxidisation (VCD) steel forgings. On production of SG, by using the integrated SF, not only structural soundness of SG is upgraded, but also inspections containing inspections under production and usage become easier, to bring minimization of maintenance inspection and reduction of exposure under operation. And, in order to reduce weight of SG and upgrade seismic resistance, SA508, a Cl.3a high strength SF (620 MPa class in tensile strength) is used for some nuclear plants. Here were introduced material properties of this SF and described its chemical components and heat treatment condition. And, as a method to reduce macro- and micro-segregation of materials and to upgrade homogeneity of material property, a method combined deoxidisation of steel due to carbon monoxide reaction with crystal grain minimization due to addition of aluminum was investigated. In addition, properties of a low Si-SA508 Cl.3 steel using this method was compared with that of usual SA508 Cl.3 steel. (G.K.)

  18. Current status and development of heat exchangers for boiling water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoshio; Nishioka, Shuji; Ito, Shizuo

    1975-01-01

    More efficient and reliable operation is required for BWR heat exchangers because of nuclear plant safety and other reasons. Heat exchangers are classified into two categories of systems, the system for normal operation and the system for emergency operation. The present state and future improvement of heat exchangers are described in view of heat transfer performance, material selection, structural design, vibration, and so on. When noncondensing gas exists in vapour, heat transfer performance deteriorates, so that the heat transfer characteristics should be corrected by the adaption of venting the non condensing gas from the system. Heat transfer tubes should have high corrosion resistance to working fluid as well as high thermal conductivity, strength and economy. From that point of view, 30% cupro-nickel tubes will be replaced with 10% cupro-nickel tubes or titanium tubes though some technical development is necessary. These heat exchangers are now designed according to the MITI criteria for the technology concerning nuclear and thermal power generation, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sec. III and some other criteria. Most of heat transfer tube failures are caused from the tube vibration induced by working fluid flow, so that the vibration test and analysis were performed on U-tube elements. Some correction was obtained for design and fabrication techniques. (Iwase, T.)

  19. An historical overview and current status update of manufactured gas plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) industry which was an essential and extremely beneficial component of urban America for almost a century. The industry was primarily concerned with the production of gas for lighting and heating. Some secondary production of chemical byproducts for use as fuel sources or chemical feedstocks for other phases of industry was also conducted. By providing a centralized and economical source of fuel for public lighting, as well as for private domestic use, the industry prospered by providing major benefits to public safety and urban and industrial development. Although not present at all sites, MGP byproducts and residues remain at or near some MGP facilities in accordance with generally-accepted disposal practices of the times. some of these residues can represent a potential human health hazard from direct exposure. The mere presence of these materials at former MGP sites is not, however, a necessary indication that a significant human or environmental threat is present. The existence of such a potential impact will depend on the type, quantity and nature of the material present. Also, such residues are often buried or otherwise separated from direct exposure pathways. Therefore, these residues usually do not present a direct contact hazard unless disturbed or exposed in some way or unless they have entered local groundwater or surface water

  20. The current situation of waste management at German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottenrott, G.; Mirschinka, V.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given about the main points of the agreement between the four utility companies and the German government on June 11, 2001, concerning waste management and disposal. The current waste management situation is compared with the effects of the agreement on the future development of the German waste management concept. Major innovations are the discontinuation of reprocessing, the establishment of local intermediate storage facilities for fuel elements and the suspension of the exploration works conducted on the salt dome at Gorleben. (orig.)

  1. Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The majority of localities are in south and south-eastern Poland: Małopolska Upland, Lublin Upland, Roztocze, Przemyśl Foothills, Pieniny Mts, rarely in the valleys of the Lower Vistula and Oder rivers or Wolin island. The distribution map in Poland is included. The taxonomy, biology and ecology of the species are discussed.

  2. Orobanche flava (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, hosts and plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche flava is a species of Central European mountain ranges, mainly the Alps and Carpathian Mts. The paper presents the current distribution of O. flava in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999 and 2014. The distribution of species is centered in southern Poland, mainly in the Carpathian Mts., and, sporadically, in the Sudeten Mts. The distribution of O. flava in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology are also discussed.

  3. Current status and technology development of Reprocessing Plant in Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    It is a problem that the vitrified waste could not be produced at the down nozzle in glass furnace by accumulation of platinum group metals contented in high-level radioactive waste. This article describes our efforts to solve the problem. The glass furnace, glassification process, development of glassification technology in Japan, structure of glass furnace, improvement of glass furnace now in use, improvement of glassification technology, and development of new glass furnace and new glass materials are explained. Configuration drawing of glass furnace, heating method, glass flow from the down nozzle, existing state of platinum group metals in glass, comparison between the current glass furnace and advance furnace, analysis result of inner part of furnace, and measurement result of density, viscosity and heat capacity of molten glass are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  4. A Method for Identification of the Equivalent Inductance and Resistance in the Plant Model of Current-Controlled Grid-Tied Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo

    2015-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the plant time constant L=R is essential to perform a thorough analysis and design of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs). From the perspective of the current controller dynamics in the low frequency range, such plant time constant is also suitable...... for most cases in which an LCL filter is used. As the loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions, the effects associated to converter losses should be included in the model, through an equivalent series resistance. In addition, the plant inductance may also present...... important uncertainties with respect to the value of the VSC L/LCL interface filter measured at rated conditions. Thus, in this work, a method is presented to estimate both parameters of the plant time constant, i.e., the equivalent inductance and resistance in the plant model of current-controlled VSCs...

  5. THE CURRENT STATE OF STUDY OF PLANTS OF HEDYSARUM L. FLORAE OF THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Imachuyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the ecological-botanical research and the current state of knowledge of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.The aim of the study was the review of the information contained in open sources about the basic ecological and Botanical characteristics, geographic specie of habitat and phytocoenotic specie of species of the genus Hedysarum growing in the Caucasus.Materials and methods. The study was conducted using information retrieval (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, RGB, VINITI, SOCIONET, ReseachGate, PubMed, Web of Sciences, SCOPUS, RNMJ.RU, UlrichsWEB, EBSCO, Scientific library of the Botanical Institute of RAS as well as the results of our research.Results: the review study of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.Conclusion: the results of the analysis of regional floras, morphological characteristics, the main ecological and botanical characteristics of these 16 species, the geographic specie of habitat, phytocenotic specie are presented.

  6. Natural or Plant Products for the Treatment of Neurological Disorders: Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become very popular in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Natural products as one of the CAM modalities offer potential opportunities to discover lead compounds for novel drug development. The use of CAM or natural products in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is comparatively a newer area. A structured online literature search for peer-reviewed research articles was conducted on the PubMed, Europe PMC, Medline and Google Scholar portals, using phrases: natural products for neurologic disorders, phytomedicine for neurodegenerative diseases, natural therapeutics for neurological symptopms etc. Results: The retrieved data showed the natural therapeutics with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory salutations evidently plays a crucial role in protecting neurons. Of these, the most promising are caffeine, trigonelline, shogaol, curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, wogonin, ginsenosides, tanshinones, withanolides, picrosides, parthenolide, cannabinoids, Devil's claw and white willow bark, including Chinese formulations Renshen Shouwu and Shengmai San. Though several herbs and their active ingredients have been studied in laboratory and clinical settings, only a few have been investigated for their molecular mechanisms of action. Notably, despite the promising and safe therapeutic benefits of CAM/herbal medicines, there exists a possible risk when combining them with prescription drugs. As a result, many drugs have shown changes in blood pressure, hepatotoxicity, seizures etc. when combined with certain herbs. Certainly, extensive work is needed to make sure that patients should take a regimen of protective and restorative therapy under an experienced healthcare professional. This article updates on the current knowledge of promising natural products used in neurological disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Generation of Electricity Using Spartina Patens with Stainless Steel Current Collectors in a Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Deep

    At present, the global energy infrastructure is highly dependent on (i) non-renewable fossil fuels with significant emissions of greenhouse gasses (ii) green fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel with impact on current agricultural practices competing with food production for arable lands, fertilizers, also requiring additional energy input. Plant-based microbial fuel cell (PMFC) technology can be found as a promising alternative to produce electricity without any side effects with an advantage of using sunlight as an energy source. In the present study, we developed PMFCs using Spartina patens, a marshland grass, abundantly available in the coastal regions of the USA. Figure 1 is a schematic for a PMFC with the anode and cathode compartments where others have used carbon-based electrodes for current collection. In contrast, we attempted to utilize stainless steel wires with more surface area to enhance the current collection in the anode compartment as well as to increase the rate of reduction in the cathode chamber and thereby increase the amount of electricity produced. The study will give results on the periodic use of Spartina patens in PMFC along with the porous stainless steel electrodes which have never been employed in PMFCs before.

  8. Probes for inspections of heat exchanges installed at nuclear power plants type PWR by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alonso F.O.

    2007-01-01

    From all non destructive examination methods usable to perform integrity evaluation of critical equipment installed at nuclear power plants (NPP), eddy current test (ET) may be considered the most important one, when examining heat exchangers. For its application, special probes and reference calibration standards are employed. In pressurized water reactor (PWR) NPPs, a particularly critical equipment is the steam generator (SG), a huge heat exchanger that contains thousands of U-bend thin wall tubes. Due to its severe working conditions (pressure and temperature), that component is periodically examined by means of ET. In this paper a revision of the operating fundamentals of the main ET probes, used to perform SG inspections is presented. (author)

  9. An Anion Conductance, the Essential Component of the Hydroxyl-Radical-Induced Ion Current in Plant Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pottosin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress signaling is essential for plant adaptation to hostile environments. Previous studies revealed the essentiality of hydroxyl radicals (HO•-induced activation of massive K+ efflux and a smaller Ca2+ influx as an important component of plant adaptation to a broad range of abiotic stresses. Such activation would modify membrane potential making it more negative. Contrary to these expectations, here, we provide experimental evidence that HO• induces a strong depolarization, from −130 to −70 mV, which could only be explained by a substantial HO•-induced efflux of intracellular anions. Application of Gd3+ and NPPB, non-specific blockers of cation and anion conductance, respectively, reduced HO•-induced ion fluxes instantaneously, implying a direct block of the dual conductance. The selectivity of an early instantaneous HO•-induced whole cell current fluctuated from more anionic to more cationic and vice versa, developing a higher cation selectivity at later times. The parallel electroneutral efflux of K+ and anions should underlie a substantial leak of the cellular electrolyte, which may affect the cell’s turgor and metabolic status. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed in the context of cell fate determination, and ROS and cytosolic K+ signaling.

  10. Wavelets transforms and fuzzy logic in the eddy-current inspection of nuclear power plants steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear power plants steam generators around the world have presented early damage history in their tubes, caused either by design errors or by inappropriate operation, which besides reducing the availability and the safety of the nuclear power plants it also generates heavy economical burden. To monitor the steam generators operational condition, the Eddy Current testing of their tubes is the non destructive method used to detect, localize, classify and to size the defects. The inspection is performed by inserting probes with coils in the tubes generating a signal correlated to the defect. These signals produced by the probe electric circuit are composed by the resistance and the inductive components which can be combined to produce a Lissajous figure in the complex plane. However, Eddy-Current signals contain noise which induce subjectivity inducing to errors in the inspector diagnosis. It is not uncommon to have different diagnosis from two inspectors about the same signal. The present work has the objective of supplying a methodology to analyze the signals which could help the inspector in the difficult task of interpreting the Eddy Current signals. It is proposed a method to remove the noise based on Wavelets Transforms. It is also proposed a normalization in the signal phase angle measurements. Furthermore, two additional characteristics are also studied, namely: the signal amplitudes and the widths of the Lissajous petals. The use of a Fuzzy Logic based inference engine is also developed and its use is demonstrated to be viable. The defects studied in this work are those which produces volumetric changes in the material. In order to test the proposed methodology, several artificial defects were produced in tubes using different types of materials like: brass, 316L stainless steel and Inconel 600 to produce a experimental data base. An Eddy-Current inspection equipment, the MIZ-17ET was used. Around 1000 time series signals of defects were acquired through

  11. Current concepts on selected plant secondary metabolites with promising inhibitory effects against enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, I Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become one of the deadliest diseases for human beings with special incidence in elderly population. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most prevalent cause of dementia. The neuropathology of AD has not been fully elucidated yet, however, cholinergic hypothesis is the most accepted theory nowadays, resulting from the cholinergic deficit emerging in the brains of AD patients. Shortage of the neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and butyrylcholine has been demonstrated, and therefore, inhibition of the enzymes; acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that break down acetylcholine and butyrylcholine has become a standard approach for AD treatment. However, cholinesterase inhibitors are only effective in symptomatic treatment and have no ability to impede the disease. The pathogenesis of AD is highly complex and another hypothesis is the formation of amyloid plaques containing beta-amyloid peptide, which causes neurolesions in the brains of AD patients. Beta-amyloid peptide is generated after the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein, especially by the beta- and gamma-secretase in the amyloidogenic pathway. The secretases involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein are of particular interest and, consequently, the inhibition of secretase enzyme family of protease type has become another desired treatment strategy for AD. On the other hand, medicinal plants are attractive sources for drug research and development as they produce chemically-varying molecules with preferred biological activities. The aim of this article is to review the available data on selected inhibitors from plant secondary metabolites with emphasis on cholinesterase, prolyl endopeptidase, and secretase enzyme families as being the current treatments of AD.

  12. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain: Design, method and protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luedtke Kerstin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrical stimulation of central nervous system areas with surgically implanted stimulators has been shown to result in pain relief. To avoid the risks and side effects of surgery, transcranial direct current stimulation is an option to electrically stimulate the motor cortex through the skull. Previous research has shown that transcranial direct current stimulation relieves pain in patients with fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain and chronic pelvic pain. Evidence indicates that the method is pain free, safe and inexpensive. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation over the motor cortex for pain reduction in patients with chronic low back pain. It will also investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation as a prior treatment enhances the symptom reduction achieved by a cognitive-behavioural group intervention. Participants will be randomised to receive a series of 5 days of transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 20 mins or 20 mins of sham stimulation; followed by a cognitive-behavioural group programme. The primary outcome parameters will measure pain (Visual Analog Scale and disability (Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome parameters will include the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, the Funktionsfragebogen Hannover (perceived function, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, bothersomeness and Health Related Quality of Life (SF 36, as well as Patient-Perceived Satisfactory Improvement. Assessments will take place immediately prior to the first application of transcranial direct current stimulation or sham, after 5 consecutive days of stimulation, immediately after the cognitive-behavioural group programme and at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks follow-up. Discussion This trial will help to determine, whether transcranial direct current stimulation is an effective treatment for patients with chronic low back

  14. Current trends towards a new regulation and evolution of fire protection systems technologies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Sanjuan, G.

    1996-01-01

    For some time now, the field of Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants has, with its own peculiarities in an otherwise general process, been the centre of some controversy caused by tendencies to reduce regulatory inflexibility by transforming what was originally a prescriptive, pro grammatical and deterministic regulatory system into a system based on risk assessment and operating experience. Such tendencies include: Cost Beneficial Licensing Actions (CBLA) Use of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) as a tool for evaluating the impact of postulated fires in nuclear safety Improvement of communications between the regulatory body and the industry These trends have coincided with the arduous process of requalifying passive fire-resistant protection materials, such as Thermo lag and others, which are used to separate redundant Safe Shutdown trains with fire-resistance ranges of one (1) hour or three (3) hours, in compliance with some of the alternatives that Appendix R to 10 CFR 50 offers. The process has involved a lot of effort and financial cost in requalification and in employing compensatory measures until operability of the fire-resistant materials is reestablished. A new test methodology has been created for these barriers (GL 86-10, Supplement 1) and new materials have become available and are currently undergoing qualification. (Author)

  15. Two disjunct Pleistocene populations and anisotropic postglacial expansion shaped the current genetic structure of the relict plant Amborella trichopoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Tournebize

    Full Text Available Past climate fluctuations shaped the population dynamics of organisms in space and time, and have impacted their present intra-specific genetic structure. Demo-genetic modelling allows inferring the way past demographic and migration dynamics have determined this structure. Amborella trichopoda is an emblematic relict plant endemic to New Caledonia, widely distributed in the understory of non-ultramafic rainforests. We assessed the influence of the last glacial climates on the demographic history and the paleo-distribution of 12 Amborella populations covering the whole current distribution. We performed coalescent genetic modelling of these dynamics, based on both whole-genome resequencing and microsatellite genotyping data. We found that the two main genetic groups of Amborella were shaped by the divergence of two ancestral populations during the last glacial maximum. From 12,800 years BP, the South ancestral population has expanded 6.3-fold while the size of the North population has remained stable. Recent asymmetric gene flow between the groups further contributed to the phylogeographical pattern. Spatially explicit coalescent modelling allowed us to estimate the location of ancestral populations with good accuracy (< 22 km and provided indications regarding the mid-elevation pathways that facilitated post-glacial expansion.

  16. Enhancement of Operating Efficiency Of The Central Coal-Preparation Plant of "MMK - UGOL" Ltd. Under Current Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarygin, Maksim

    2017-11-01

    In this article the subject of enhancement of operating efficiency of the central coal-preparation plant of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is encompassed. Modern trends in the development of technologies and equipment for coal beneficiation are due to the following requirements: improving competitiveness of coal products, improvement of quality of marketable products, reduction of coal production cost, environmental requirements: polluting emission abatement, prepared coal saving, improvement of the effectiveness of resource conservation; complex mechanization and beneficiation process automation. In the article the contemporary problems of raw coal benefication under current conditions of the increased dilution of withdrawable coals with rock fractions are considered. Comparative analysis of efficiency of application of modern concentrating equipment under the conditions of the CCPP of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is carried out on the basis of research works. Particular attention is paid to dehydration of produced coal concentrate with content of volatile agents of more than 35.0% and content of fine-dispersed particles in flotation concentrate of more than 50.0%. Comparative analysis of the coal concentrate dehydration technologies is conducted.

  17. [Plants' materials and synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors use as a substitute of Marihuana, appearing in a current forensic toxicology practice of evidence materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Florek, Ewa; Zaba, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis sativa species Indica (Marihuana) is nowadays one of the most common plant drug, with psychoactive activity, presently appearing on the illegal market in Poland. It is reported that frequency of securing evidential materials so called substitute of Marihuana, is growing rapidly during the last few years. The substitutes of Marihuana occurring on the market are of natural or synthetic origins, for example different species of raw plants' materials having action similar to Cannabis or raw plants' materials with no psychoactive properities but with an addition of components so called synthetic cannabinoids. The review presents recent developments in drug market and current problems of forensic toxicology on the example of Marihuana.

  18. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  19. Arabidopsis protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez-Zapater, José M; Salinas, Julio

    1998-01-01

    ... the interest of geneticists and molecular biologists, not only from the plant field, but from other research fields needing a novel model system. In recent years, high expectations for Plant Biotechnology in the next century, together with the need for basic information in every area of plant biology, have served to mobilize resources and orient much new...

  20. Fast and sensitive medical diagnostic protocol based on integrating circular current lines for magnetic washing and optical detection of fluorescent magnetic nanobeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiyam Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are increasingly being used as ‘magnetic labels’ in medical diagnostics. Practical applications of MNPs necessitate reducing their non-specific interactions with sensor surfaces that result in noise in measurements. Here we describe the design and implementation of a sensing platform that incorporates circular shaped current lines that reduce non-specific binding by enabling the “magnetic washing” of loosely attached MNPs attached to the senor surface. Generating magnetic fields by passing electrical currents through the circular shaped current lines enabled the capture and collection of fluorescent MNPs that was more efficient and effective than straight current lines reported to-date. The use of fluorescent MNPs allows their optical detection rather than with widely used magnetoresistive sensors. As a result our approach is not affected by magnetic noise due to the flow of currents. Our design is expected to improve the speed, accuracy, and sensitivity of MNPs based medical diagnostics. Keywords: Biosensors, Magnetic beads, Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles, Lab on chip, Point of care testing

  1. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  2. Opportunities for improvement on current nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure in Latin America: Findings from the 65-country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols cross-sectional Study (INCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, João V; Mut, Fernando; Alexánderson, Erick; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Better, Nathan; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Einstein, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Comparison of Latin American (LA) nuclear cardiology (NC) practice with that in the rest of the world (RoW) will identify areas for improvement and lead to educational activities to reduce radiation exposure from NC. INCAPS collected data on all SPECT and PET procedures performed during a single week in March-April 2013 in 36 laboratories in 10 LA countries (n = 1139), and 272 laboratories in 55 countries in RoW (n = 6772). Eight "best practices" were identified a priori and a radiation-related Quality Index (QI) was devised indicating the number used. Mean radiation effective dose (ED) in LA was higher than in RoW (11.8 vs 9.1 mSv, p < 0.001). Within a populous country like Brazil, a wide variation in laboratory mean ED was found, ranging from 8.4 to 17.8 mSv. Only 11% of LA laboratories achieved median ED <9 mSv, compared to 32% in RoW (p < 0.001). QIs ranged from 2 in a laboratory in Mexico to 7 in a laboratory in Cuba. Three major opportunities to reduce ED for LA patients were identified: (1) more laboratories could implement stress-only imaging, (2) camera-based methods of ED reduction, including prone imaging, could be more frequently used, and (3) injected activity of 99m Tc could be adjusted reflecting patient weight/habitus. On average, radiation dose from NC is higher in LA compared to RoW, with median laboratory ED <9 mSv achieved only one third as frequently as in RoW. Opportunities to reduce radiation exposure in LA have been identified and guideline-based recommendations made to optimize protocols and adhere to the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principle.

  3. Starlite figures of merit for tokamak current drive - economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive (γ B ∝ n e I o R o /P CD ), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for γ B depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium

  4. STARLITE figures of merit for tokamak current drive -- Economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.; Jardin, S.; Kessel, C.

    1995-10-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive (γ B ∝ n e I 0 R 0 /P CD ), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for γ B depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium

  5. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  6. Synergistic effect of combined transcranial direct current stimulation/constraint-induced movement therapy in children and young adults with hemiparesis: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette; Menk, Jeremiah; Mueller, Bryon; Meekins, Gregg; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Timothy; Rudser, Kyle

    2015-11-12

    Perinatal stroke occurs in more than 1 in 2,500 live births and resultant congenital hemiparesis necessitates investigation into interventions which may improve long-term function and decreased burden of care beyond current therapies ( http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/cp/data.html ). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) is recognized as an effective hemiparesis rehabilitation intervention. Transcranial direct current stimulation as an adjunct treatment to CIMT may potentiate neuroplastic responses and improve motor function. The methodology of a clinical trial in children designed as a placebo-controlled, serial -session, non-invasive brain stimulation trial incorporating CIMT is described here. The primary hypotheses are 1) that no serious adverse events will occur in children receiving non-invasive brain stimulation and 2) that children in the stimulation intervention group will show significant improvements in hand motor function compared to children in the placebo stimulation control group. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Twenty children and/or young adults (ages 8-21) with congenital hemiparesis, will be enrolled. The intervention group will receive ten 2-hour sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with constraint-induced movement therapy and the control group will receive sham stimulation with CIMT. The primary outcome measure is safety assessment of transcranial direct current stimulation by physician evaluation, vital sign monitoring and symptom reports. Additionally, hand function will be evaluated using the Assisting Hand Assessment, grip strength and assessment of goals using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Neuroimaging will confirm diagnoses, corticospinal tract integrity and cortical activation. Motor cortical excitability will also be examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques. Combining non-invasive brain stimulation and CIMT interventions has the potential to improve motor

  7. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  8. Development of Network Protocol for the Integrated Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. W.; Baek, J. I.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Park, K. H.; Shin, J. M. [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Communication devices in the safety system of nuclear power plants are distinguished from those developed for commercial purposes in terms of a strict requirement of safety. The concept of safety covers the determinability, the reliability, and the separation/isolation to prevent the undesirable interactions among devices. The safety also requires that these properties be never proof less. Most of the current commercialized communication products rarely have the safety properties. Moreover, they can be neither verified nor validated to satisfy the safety property of implementation process. This research proposes the novel architecture and protocol of a data communication network for the safety system in nuclear power plants.

  9. Development of Network Protocol for the Integrated Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. W.; Baek, J. I.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Park, K. H.; Shin, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Communication devices in the safety system of nuclear power plants are distinguished from those developed for commercial purposes in terms of a strict requirement of safety. The concept of safety covers the determinability, the reliability, and the separation/isolation to prevent the undesirable interactions among devices. The safety also requires that these properties be never proof less. Most of the current commercialized communication products rarely have the safety properties. Moreover, they can be neither verified nor validated to satisfy the safety property of implementation process. This research proposes the novel architecture and protocol of a data communication network for the safety system in nuclear power plants

  10. University of Washington/ Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Tidal Current Technology Test Protocol, Instrumentation, Design Code, and Oceanographic Modeling Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-452

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The University of Washington (UW) - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (UW-NNMREC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate to advance research and development (R&D) of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy technology, specifically renewable energy captured from ocean tidal currents. UW-NNMREC is endeavoring to establish infrastructure, capabilities and tools to support in-water testing of marine energy technology. NREL is leveraging its experience and capabilities in field testing of wind systems to develop protocols and instrumentation to advance field testing of MHK systems. Under this work, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to develop a common instrumentation system and testing methodologies, standards and protocols. UW-NNMREC is also establishing simulation capabilities for MHK turbine and turbine arrays. NREL has extensive experience in wind turbine array modeling and is developing several computer based numerical simulation capabilities for MHK systems. Under this CRADA, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to augment single device and array modeling codes. As part of this effort UW NNMREC will also work with NREL to run simulations on NREL's high performance computer system.

  11. The current state of inservice testing programs at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants - a regulatory overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Colaccino, J.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves at U.S. nuclear power plants to provide consistency in the implementation of regulatory requirements and to enhance communications among utility licensees who may have, like NSSS vendors, similar kinds and numbers of components or comparable IST programs. Documents discussed include the ASME Operation and Maintenance Standards Parts 6 and 10 (covering inservice testing of pumps and valves in light water reactor power plants), the draft NUREG-1482, Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants (including review comments by Nuclear Management and Resource Council), and applicable Licensee Event Reports including summaries of several reports relating to IST

  12. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on locomotion and balance in patients with chronic stroke: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, M; Supiot, A; Zory, R; Aegerter, P; Pradon, D; Roche, N

    2017-10-23

    Following stroke, patients are often left with hemiparesis that reduces balance and gait capacity. A recent, non-invasive technique, transcranial direct current stimulation, can be used to modify cortical excitability when used in an anodal configuration. It also increases the excitability of spinal neuronal circuits involved in movement in healthy subjects. Many studies in patients with stroke have shown that this technique can improve motor, sensory and cognitive function. For example, anodal tDCS has been shown to improve motor performance of the lower limbs in patients with stroke, such as voluntary quadriceps strength, toe-pinch force and reaction time. Nevertheless, studies of motor function have been limited to simple tasks. Surprisingly, the effects of tDCS on the locomotion and balance of patients with chronic stroke have never been evaluated. In this study, we hypothesise that anodal tDCS will improve balance and gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke-related hemiparesis through its effects at cortical and spinal level. This is a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, single-centre, cross-over study over 36 months. Forty patients with chronic stroke will be included. Each patient will participate in three visits: an inclusion visit, and two visits during which they will all undergo either one 30-min session of transcranial direct current stimulation or one 30-min session of placebo stimulation in a randomised order. Evaluations will be carried out before, during and twice after stimulation. The primary outcome is the variability of the displacement of the centre of mass during gait and a static-balance task. Secondary outcomes include clinical and functional measures before and after stimulation. A three-dimensional gait analysis, and evaluation of static balance on a force platform will be also conducted before, during and after stimulation. These results should constitute a useful database to determine the aspects of

  13. Electrical Structure of Future Off-shore Wind Power Plant with a High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan

    The increasing demand of electric power and the growing consciousness towards the changing climate has led to a rapid development of renewable energy in the recent years. Among all, wind energy has been the fastest growing energy source in the last decade. But the growing size of wind power plants......, better wind conditions at off-shore and the general demand to put them out of sight have all contributed to the installation of large wind power plants in off-shore condition. However, moving wind power plants far out in the off-shore comes with many associated problems. One of the main challenges...... is the transmission of power over long distance. Historically, the power transmission from off-shore wind power plants has been done via HVAC submarine cables. This provides a simple solution, but AC cables cannot be arbitrarily long. It is shown in the report that major issues with HVAC cable transmission system...

  14. The current status of research and development concerning steam generator acoustic leak detection for the demonstration FBR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Masahisa

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Co. (JAPC) started the research and development into Acoustic Leak Detection for the Demonstration FBR (D-FBR) plant in 1989. Acoustic Leak Detection is expected as a water leak detection system in the Steam Generator for the first D-FBR plant. JAPC is presently analyzing data on Acoustic Leak Detection in order to form some basic concepts and basic specifications about leak detection. Both low frequency types and high frequency types are selected as candidates for Acoustic Leak Detection. After a review of both types, either one will be selected for the D-FBT plant. A detailed Research and Development plan on Acoustic Leak Detection, which should be carried out prior to starting the construction of the D-FBR plant, is under review. (author). 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Distribution of a pelagic tunicate, Salpa fusiformis in warm surface current of the eastern Korean waters and its impingement on cooling water intakes of Uljin nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jinho; Choi, Hyun Woo; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dongsung; Lee, Jae Hac

    2008-07-01

    Impingement of a large amount of gelatinous plankton, Salpa fusiformis on the seawater intake system-screens in a nuclear power plant at Uljin was firstly recorded on 18th June 2003. Whole amount of the clogged animals was estimated were presumptively at 295 tons and the shortage of cooling seawater supply by the animal clogging caused 38% of decrease in generation capability of the power plant. Zooplankton collection with a multiple towing net during the day and at night from 5 to 6 June 2003 included various gelatinous zooplanktons known to be warm water species such as salps and siphonophores. Comparatively larger species, Salpa fusiformis occupied 25.4% in individual density among the gelatinous plankton and showed surface distribution in the depth shallower than thermocline, performing little diel vertical migration. Temperature, salinity and satellite data also showed warm surface current predominated over the southern coastal region near the power plant in June. The results suggested that warm surface current occasionally extended into the neritic region may transfer S. fusiformis, to the waters off the power plant. The environmental factors and their relation to ecobiology of the large quantity of salpa population that are being sucked into the intake channel of the power plant are discussed.

  16. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS): Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Ronda, Gaby; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2010-08-03

    Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) the frequency of self-test use, (2) the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3) the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4) the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5) the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6) the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Mixed methods study with (1) a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2) semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3) the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self-testing, and the consumers' actual follow-up behaviour based

  17. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS: Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1 the frequency of self-test use, (2 the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3 the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4 the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5 the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6 the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Methods Mixed methods study with (1 a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2 semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3 the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. Conclusions The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self

  18. A review of measured bioaccumulation data in terrestrial plants for organic chemicals: Metrics, variability and the need for standardized measurement protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, William J; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Dettenmaier, Erik M

    2018-01-01

    by plants are often expressed as ratios of chemical concentrations in the plant compartments of interest (e.g., leaves, shoots, roots, xylem sap) to that in the exposure medium (e.g., soil, soil pore water, hydroponic solution, air). These ratios are generally referred to as bioconcentration factors (BCFs...

  19. Multi-functionality of the few: current and past uses of wild plants for food and healing in Liubań region, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Hrynevich, Yanina; Vasilyeva, Iryna; Prakofjewa, Julia; Vnukovich, Yuriy; Paciupa, Jury; Hlushko, Aliaksei; Knureva, Yana; Litvinava, Yulia; Vyskvarka, Siarhei; Silivonchyk, Hanna; Paulava, Alena; Kõiva, Mare; Kalle, Raivo

    2017-02-08

    This study examined the use of wild plants in the food, medicinal and veterinary areas within a small territory limited to one village council in the Liubań district of Belarus. The objectives of the research were to document the current and past uses of wild plants in this region for food and human/animal medication; to analyse the food, medicinal and veterinary areas in the context of wild plants; and to qualitatively compare the results with relevant publications concerning the wild food plants of Belarus. Fieldwork was carried out as a practical part of a development cooperation project in May 2016 in 11 villages of the Liubań district. One hundred thirty-four respondents were selected randomly. Information about local uses of wild plants was obtained via semi-structured interviews and the folk-history method. Interview records were digitalized and the data structured in Detailed Use Records (DUR), which were divided into food, medicinal and veterinary areas and then analysed to ascertain local perceptions. A total of 2252 DUR of wild plants were recorded. Eighty-eight wild plant taxa belonging to 45 plant families were used across all three areas. Of these, 58 taxa were used in the food, 74 in the medicinal and 23 in the veterinary areas. A relatively high percentage of the taxa were used in both the food and medicinal areas (55%) and an even greater percentage in both the medicinal and veterinary areas (87%). Comparison with earlier research on wild food plants shows the considerable difference among seldom-mentioned taxa or uses, showing possible regional differences despite the homogenization of the population during the Soviet era. As the majority of taxa with overlapping uses belonged to the most utilized plants, there appears to be clear a tendency to use plants in several different areas once they are brought into the home. This may be due to the need to maximize the versatility of limited resources. While the number of wild taxa used is relatively

  20. Development of high-reliable real-time communication network protocol for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Sang; Kim, Young Sik [Korea National University of Education, Chongwon (Korea); No, Hee Chon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this research, we first define protocol subsets for SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) communication network based on the requirement of SMART MMIS transmission delay and traffic requirements and OSI(Open System Interconnection) 7 layers' network protocol functions. Also, current industrial purpose LAN protocols are analyzed and the applicability of commercialized protocols are checked. For the suitability test, we have applied approximated SMART data traffic and maximum allowable transmission delay requirement. With the simulation results, we conclude that IEEE 802.5 and FDDI which is an ANSI standard, is the most suitable for SMART. We further analyzed the FDDI and token ring protocols for SMART and nuclear plant network environment including IEEE 802.4, IEEE 802.5, and ARCnet. The most suitable protocol for SMART is FDDI and FDDI MAC and RMT protocol specifications have been verified with LOTOS and the verification results show that FDDI MAC and RMT satisfy the reachability and liveness, but does not show deadlock and livelock. Therefore, we conclude that FDDI MAC and RMT is highly reliable protocol for SMART MMIS network. After that, we consider the stacking fault of IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol and propose a fault tolerant MAM(Modified Active Monitor) protocol. The simulation results show that the MAM protocol improves lower priority traffic service rate when stacking fault occurs. Therefore, proposed MAM protocol can be applied to SMART communication network for high reliability and hard real-time communication purpose in data acquisition and inter channel network. (author). 37 refs., 79 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Current perspectives on nuclear power plant risks and the use of risk-based information in regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D F; Ernst, M L; Murphy, J

    1987-08-01

    For the first five years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has supported extensive studies of severe accidents. One outcome of this work is a set of advanced method for analyzing the probabilities, source terms, consequences, and risks of such accidents. These methods are being applied to a set of six U.S. commercial nuclear power plants, covering a wide spread of nuclear steam supply systems and containment designs. This work is to be documented in the Reactor Risk Reference Document, NUREG-1150, and supporting contractors reports. The methods being used for NUREG-1150, and some initial plant results, are briefly described in this paper.

  2. Proceeding of 27th domestic symposium on trends in aging management and current status of aging degradation studies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    As the 27th domestic symposium of Atomic Energy Research Committee, the Japan Welding Engineering Society, the symposium was held titled as 'Trends of aging managements and current status of aging effect studies in nuclear power plants'. Six speakers gave lectures titled as 'Present status of research on mechanism and prediction method of neutron irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels', 'Present status of research on mechanism and prediction method of environmentally assisted cracking in the LWR environments', 'Domestic and overseas trends of aging management of the LWR plants', 'Trends of prediction/evaluation, inspection/monitoring and repair/replacement technologies for aging of the LWR plants', 'Present status of research on mechanism and prediction method of high cycle thermal fatigue due to the thermal fluid-structure interaction in the LWR environments' and Present status of research on very high cycle fatigue of structural materials'. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  4. Current developments in mechanized non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants; Aktuelle Entwicklungen bei mechanisierten, zerstoerungsfreien Pruefungen in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, R. [intelligeNDT System und Services GmbH und Co. KG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Nuclear power plants require frequent in-service activities to be carried out conscientiously in areas potentially hazardous to human operators (because of the associated radiation exposure), such as non-destructive testing of pressurized components of the steam system. Locations to be inspected in this way include the reactor pressure vessel, core internals, steam generators, pressurizers, and pipes. The codes to be used as a basis of these inspections demand high absolute positioning and repeating accuracy. These requirements can be met by mechanized test procedures. Accordingly, many new applications of, mostly mobile, robots have been developed over the past few years. The innovative control and sensor systems for stationary and mobile robots now on the market offer a potential for economic application in a large number of new areas in inspection, maintenance and service in nuclear power plants. More progress in this area is expected for the near future. Areva NP founded the new NDT Center, NETEC (Non-destructive Examination Technical Center), as a global technical center for non-destructive materials testing. NETEC is to advance research and development of all basic NDT technologies, robotics included. For many years, intelligeNDT has offered solutions and products for a variety of inspection and testing purposes and locations in nuclear power plants and is involved in continuous further development of the experience collected in nuclear power plants on the spot. (orig.)

  5. Elucidation of salt stress defense and tolerance mechanisms of crop plants using proteomics--current achievements and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Castellanos-Cervantes, Thelma; de León, José L Diaz; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Perez-Alfocea, Francisco; Salekdeh, Ghasem H; Witzel, Katja; Zörb, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Salinity is a major threat limiting the productivity of crop plants. A clear demand for improving the salinity tolerance of the major crop plants is imposed by the rapidly growing world population. This review summarizes the achievements of proteomic studies to elucidate the response mechanisms of selected model and crop plants to cope with salinity stress. We also aim at identifying research areas, which deserve increased attention in future proteome studies, as a prerequisite to identify novel targets for breeding strategies. Such areas include the impact of plant-microbial communities on the salinity tolerance of crops under field conditions, the importance of hormone signaling in abiotic stress tolerance, and the significance of control mechanisms underlying the observed changes in the proteome patterns. We briefly highlight the impact of novel tools for future proteome studies and argue for the use of integrated approaches. The evaluation of genetic resources by means of novel automated phenotyping facilities will have a large impact on the application of proteomics especially in combination with metabolomics or transcriptomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Current scientific literature on tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) ecology in Mississippi, and critical information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the basic ecological patterns of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is required for implementing a successful integrated pest management program. As the primary pest of cotton in Mississippi and across the mid-south, L. lineolaris is a highly polyphagous m...

  7. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph Kueffer,; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive, non-native plants (or environmental weeds) have long been recognized as a major threat to the native biodiversity of oceanic islands (Cronk & Fuller, 1995; Denslow, 2003). Globally, several hundred non-native plant species have been reported to have major impacts on natural areas on oceanic islands (Kueffer et al., 2009). In Hawaii, at least some 50 non-native plant species reach dominance in natural areas (Kueffer et al., 2009) and many of them are known to impact ecosystem processes or biodiversity. One example is the invasive Australian tree fern (Cyathea cooperi), which has been shown to be very efficient at utilizing soil nitrogen and can grow six times as rapidly in height, maintain four times more fronds, and produce significantly more fertile fronds per month than the native Hawaiian endemic tree ferns, Cibotium spp. (Durand & Goldstein, 2001a, b). Additionally, while native tree ferns provide an ideal substrate for epiphytic growth of many understory ferns and flowering plants, the Australian tree fern has the effect of impoverishing the understory and failing to support an abundance of native epiphytes (Medeiros & Loope, 1993). Other notorious examples of invasive plant species problematic for biodiversity and ecosystem processes in Hawaii include miconia (Miconia calvescens), strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), albizia (Falcataria moluccana), firetree (Morella faya), clidemia (Clidemia hirta), kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), and fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), to name just a few. Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis) is a recent example of a seriously problematic invasive species for Hawaii’s agriculture and is damaging certain high-elevations native ecosystems as well.

  8. Analysis of the impact of connecting a larger number of small hydroelectric power plants to the short-circuit currents values and relay protection system of distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of a large number of small hydro power plants on the short-circuit currents is analysed, as well as the operation of the relay protection system within the real distribution network in Serbia. The necessary modification of the existing protection functions, as well as the implementation of the new proposed protection functions, are presented and discussed. Network modeling and analysis are performed using the program tool DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

  9. Technologies for improving the availability and reliability of current and future water cooled nuclear power plants. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    One of the activities of the IAEA is to provide all Member States with an international source of balanced, objective information on advanced in technology for water cooled reactors. Since the global nuclear industry has a common interest in improving plant availability and reliability to assure specific individual plant and country perspective as well as to have an image of well managed competitive industry, the IAEA held a Technical Committee Meeting on Technologies for Improving the Availability and Reliability of Current and Future Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants in September 1997. The basic aim to was to identify, review and exchange information on international developments in technologies for achieving high availability and reliability and to suggest areas where further technical advances could contribute to improvement of performance. Designs for future plants were presented in the context of how they can accommodate both the organizational and technical means for reaching even higher levels of performance. This proceedings contains the contributed papers presented at this Meeting each with a separate abstract. Four sessions were concerned with: policies, practices and procedures for achieving high reliability and availability; improving availability and reliability through better use of today`s technologies; recent advances in technologies for improving availability and reliability; achieving high availability for new plants Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Technologies for improving the availability and reliability of current and future water cooled nuclear power plants. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    One of the activities of the IAEA is to provide all Member States with an international source of balanced, objective information on advanced in technology for water cooled reactors. Since the global nuclear industry has a common interest in improving plant availability and reliability to assure specific individual plant and country perspective as well as to have an image of well managed competitive industry, the IAEA held a Technical Committee Meeting on Technologies for Improving the Availability and Reliability of Current and Future Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants in September 1997. The basic aim to was to identify, review and exchange information on international developments in technologies for achieving high availability and reliability and to suggest areas where further technical advances could contribute to improvement of performance. Designs for future plants were presented in the context of how they can accommodate both the organizational and technical means for reaching even higher levels of performance. This proceedings contains the contributed papers presented at this Meeting each with a separate abstract. Four sessions were concerned with: policies, practices and procedures for achieving high reliability and availability; improving availability and reliability through better use of today's technologies; recent advances in technologies for improving availability and reliability; achieving high availability for new plants

  11. Constructing a sustainable power sector in China: current and future emissions of coal-fired power plants from 2010 to 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    As the largest energy infrastructure in China, power sector consumed more coal than any other sector and threatened air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement target. In this work, we assessed the evolution of coal-fired power plants in China during 2010-2030 and the evolution of associated emissions for the same period by using a unit-based emission projection model which integrated the historical power plants information, turnover of the future power plant fleet, and the evolution of end-of-pipe control technologies. We found that, driven by the stringent environmental legislation, SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 emissions from China's coal-fired power plants decreased by 49%, 45%, and 24% respectively during 2010-2015, comparing to 14% increase of coal consumption and 15% increase in CO2 emissions. We estimated that under current national energy development planning, coal consumption and CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants will continue to increase until 2030, in which against the China's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) targets. Early retirement of old and low-efficient power plants will cumulatively reduce 2.2 Pg CO2 emissions from the baseline scenario during 2016-2030, but still could not curb CO2 emissions from the peak before 2030. Owing to the implementation of "near zero" emission control policy, we projected that emissions of air pollutants will significantly decrease during the same period under all scenarios, indicating the decoupling trends of air pollutants and CO2 emissions. Although with limited direct emission reduction benefits, increasing operating hours of power plants could avoid 236 GW of new power plants construction, which could indirectly reduce emissions embodied in the construction activity. Our results identified a more sustainable pathway for China's coal-fired power plants, which could reduce air pollutant emissions, improve the energy efficiency, and slow down the construction of new units. However, continuous

  12. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  13. An efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of salt tolerant transgenic wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Sharaf, Ahmed N; Soliman, Mohamed H; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the production of transgenic salt tolerant hexaploid wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene. Wheat mature zygotic embryos were isolated from two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars (namely: Gemmeiza 9 and Gemmeiza 10) and were transformed with the A. tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the pBI-121 vector containing the AtNHX1 gene. Transgenic wheat lines that express the gus intron was obtained and used as control. The results confirmed that npt-II gene could be transmitted and expressed in the T2 following 3:1 Mendelian segregation while the control plant couldn't. The data indicate that, the AtNHX1 gene was integrated in a stable manner into the wheat genome and the corresponding transcripts were expressed. The transformation efficiency was 5.7 and 7.5% for cultivars Gemmeiza 10 and Gemmeiza 9, respectively. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of AtNHX1 gene in wheat salt tolerance. The transgenic wheat lines could maintain high growth rate under salt stress condition (350 mM NaCl) while the control plant couldn't. The results confirmed that Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 increased salt tolerance by increasing Na(+) accumulation and keeping K+/Na(+) balance. Thus, transgenic plants showed high tolerance to salt stress and can be considered as a new genetic resource in breeding programs.

  14. Current price guided use of combined cycle power plants with heat extraction using the example of the combined cycle Tiefstack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieck, Jan; Hagen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The sale of electricity at the European Power Exchange in the DayAhead auction contains a certain economic risk, if the electricity is produced with gas fired CHP plants. This risk is due to a low price level connected with a relatively high price volatility. An auction strategy, using block orders, including the use of smart blocks is a possible way to minimize economic risk. Such a strategy is presented in this paper, using the example of the auction strategy for the CCGT Tiefstack. As the CCGT Tiefstack is part of the district heating system of the city Hamburg, this system is described as well as the technical constraints of the CCGT.

  15. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of state of current knowledge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, Melusi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2). Concentration dependent accumulation of Ti was reported after 7 d exposure of Lemna minor to 0.01-5 mg/L nTiO2 [74]. Approximately an average of 70 mg/kg whole plant Ti was recorded at the highest exposure concentration compared to 0.37 mg... differ between species [72] was support d by the findings of Glenn et al. [45]. Using electron microscopy techniques, Li et al. [74] found agglomerates of nTiO2 adsorbed onto L. minor fronds but no internalisation was evident, and concluded...

  16. Current status of the plant phosphorylation site database PhosPhAt and its use as a resource for molecular plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsova, Borjana; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2012-01-01

    As the most studied post-translational modification, protein phosphorylation is analyzed in a growing number of proteomic experiments. These high-throughput approaches generate large datasets, from which specific spectrum-based information can be hard to find. In 2007, the PhosPhAt database was launched to collect and present Arabidopsis phosphorylation sites identified by mass spectrometry from and for the scientific community. At present, PhosPhAt 3.0 consolidates phosphoproteomics data from 19 published proteomic studies. Out of 5460 listed unique phosphoproteins, about 25% have been identified in at least two independent experimental setups. This is especially important when considering issues of false positive and false negative identification rates and data quality (Durek etal., 2010). This valuable data set encompasses over 13205 unique phosphopeptides, with unambiguous mapping to serine (77%), threonine (17%), and tyrosine (6%). Sorting the functional annotations of experimentally found phosphorylated proteins in PhosPhAt using Gene Ontology terms shows an over-representation of proteins in regulatory pathways and signaling processes. A similar distribution is found when the PhosPhAt predictor, trained on experimentally obtained plant phosphorylation sites, is used to predict phosphorylation sites for the Arabidopsis genome. Finally, the possibility to insert a protein sequence into the PhosPhAt predictor allows species independent use of the prediction resource. In practice, PhosPhAt also allows easy exploitation of proteomic data for design of further targeted experiments.

  17. Current distribution, habitat, and status of Category 2 candidate plant species on and near the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, Kevin W. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lindemann, Tim A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lyon, Glen E. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Steen, Dan C. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wills, Cathy A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Flick, Sarah A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results of surveys conducted between 1991 and 1995 were used to document the distribution and habitat of 11 Category 2 candidate plant species known to occur on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Approximately 200 areas encompassing about 13,000 ha were surveyed. Distributions of all species except Frasera-pahutensis and Phaceliaparishii were increased, and the ranges of Camissonia megalantha, Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, Penstemon albomarginatus, and Penstemon pahutensis were expanded. The status of each species was assessed based on current distribution population trends, and potential threats. Recommendations were made to reclassi& the following five species to Category 3C: Arctomecon merriamii, F. pahutensis, P. pahutensis, Phacelia beatleyae, and Phaceliaparishii. Two species, C. megalantha and Cymopterus ripIeyi var. saniculoides, were recommended for reclassification to Category 3B status. No recommendation was made to reclassify Astragalus funereus, G. hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, P. albomarginatus, or Penstemon fruticiformis var. amargosae from their current Category 2 status. Populations of these four species are not threatened on NTS, but the NTS populations represent only a.small portion of each species’ range and the potential threats of mining or grazing activities off NTS on these species was notassessed. Conservation measures recommended included the development of an NTS ecosystem conservation plan, continued conduct of preactivity and plant surveys on NTS, and protection of plant type localities on NTS.

  18. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  19. Abscisic Acid Signaling and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: A Review on Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Upadhyay, Neha; Kumar, Nitin; Yadav, Gaurav; Singh, Jaspreet; Mishra, Rohit K.; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Rishi; Upadhyay, R. G.; Pandey, Mayank; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters. It also interacts with the signaling molecules of processes involved in stress response and development of seeds. On the whole, the stress to a plant can be susceptible or tolerant by taking into account the coordinated activities of various stress-responsive genes. Numbers of transcription factor are involved in regulating the expression of ABA responsive genes by acting together with their respective cis-acting elements. Hence, for improvement in stress-tolerance capacity of plants, it is necessary to understand the mechanism behind it. On this ground, this article enlightens the importance and role of ABA signaling with regard to various stresses as well as regulation of ABA biosynthetic pathway along with the transcription factors for stress tolerance. PMID:28265276

  20. Ultrasound and Eddy-Current inspection of longitudinal shroud welds in the Santa Maria de Garona Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elorza, J.; Fernandez, F.

    1998-01-01

    This is the first time that this kind of inspection has been performed in the world with the Ultrasound (UT) and Eddy-Current (EC) techniques. The inspection, performed during the 19th refueling outage in March 1997, using the MIDAS acquisition and analysis system, which allows joint UT and EC inspection. MIDAS is the new inspection system developed by Tecnatom for vessel internals that integrates acquisition and evaluation of the data obtained from the use of Ultrasound and Eddy-Current inspection techniques. The inspection was completed in less than the scheduled time, and covered the programmed volumes without any noteworthy incidents. (Author)

  1. Current issues and uncertainties in the measurement and modelling of air-vegetation exchange and within-plant processing of POPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Jonathan L.; Thomas, Gareth O.; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Air-vegetation exchange of POPs is an important process controlling the entry of POPs into terrestrial food chains, and may also have a significant effect on the global movement of these compounds. Many factors affect the air-vegetation transfer including: the physicochemical properties of the compounds of interest; environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed, humidity and light conditions; and plant characteristics such as functional type, leaf surface area, cuticular structure, and leaf longevity. The purpose of this review is to quantify the effects these differences might have on air/plant exchange of POPs, and to point out the major gaps in the knowledge of this subject that require further research. Uptake mechanisms are complicated, with the role of each factor in controlling partitioning, fate and behaviour process still not fully understood. Consequently, current models of air-vegetation exchange do not incorporate variability in these factors, with the exception of temperature. These models instead rely on using average values for a number of environmental factors (e.g. plant lipid content, surface area), ignoring the large variations in these values. The available models suggest that boundary layer conductance is of key importance in the uptake of POPs, although large uncertainties in the cuticular pathway prevents confirmation of this with any degree of certainty, and experimental data seems to show plant-side resistance to be important. Models are usually based on the assumption that POP uptake occurs through the lipophilic cuticle which covers aerial surfaces of plants. However, some authors have recently attached greater importance to the stomatal route of entry into the leaf for gas phase compounds. There is a need for greater mechanistic understanding of air-plant exchange and the 'scaling' of factors affecting it. The review also suggests a number of key variables that researchers should measure in their experiments to allow comparisons

  2. Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff assessment and views of current maintenance practices of a four unit CANDU plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the AECB practices in assessing maintenance activities at one four unit CANDU nuclear plant.-it outlines the authority of the AECB in enforcing the licence condition concerned with maintenance, and how this is interpreted by AECB site staff to measure and report maintenance activities. The AECB staff attaches great importance to proper maintenance as it affects safe operation. Programs used by the licensee staff to identify safety important components, or to predict degradations and failures are of particular interest. In our experience, the application of such programs has been generally good. However, their integration into an overall maintenance scheme can be improved, and the possibilities of integration are not well understood. This paper includes examples of such integration to illustrate our views and to highlight the resultant benefits that AECB staff believes are possible. (author)

  3. Current status of the Colombia power plants emissions; Estado de las emisiones en las centrales termoelectricas de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano Hurtado, Ricardo [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    The characteristics of the Colombian thermal electric resource and the environmental characteristics of the region such as: the climate where the power plants are located; the Geology and the type of soils; the technology employed for the atmospheric emissions control; the water consumption in the region; the systems for ash extraction an social-economical aspects are described [Espanol] Se describen las caracteristicas del parque termico de Colombia y las caracteristicas ambientales de la region como son: el clima donde estan localizadas las plantas; la geologia y los tipos de suelos; la tecnologia utilizada en el control de las emisiones atmosfericas; el consumo de agua en la region; los sistemas de extraccion de cenizas y aspectos socioeconomicos

  4. Current status of the Colombia power plants emissions; Estado de las emisiones en las centrales termoelectricas de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano Hurtado, Ricardo [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, (Colombia)

    1997-12-31

    The characteristics of the Colombian thermal electric resource and the environmental characteristics of the region such as: the climate where the power plants are located; the Geology and the type of soils; the technology employed for the atmospheric emissions control; the water consumption in the region; the systems for ash extraction an social-economical aspects are described [Espanol] Se describen las caracteristicas del parque termico de Colombia y las caracteristicas ambientales de la region como son: el clima donde estan localizadas las plantas; la geologia y los tipos de suelos; la tecnologia utilizada en el control de las emisiones atmosfericas; el consumo de agua en la region; los sistemas de extraccion de cenizas y aspectos socioeconomicos

  5. A mobile test facility based on a magnetic cumulative generator to study the stability of the power plants under impact of lightning currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Zavalova, V. E., E-mail: zavalova@fites.ru; Kozlov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The report presents the results of the development and field testing of a mobile test facility based on a helical magnetic cumulative generator (MCGTF). The system is designed for full-scale modeling of lightning currents to study the safety of power plants of any type, including nuclear power plants. Advanced technologies of high-energy physics for solving both engineering and applied problems underlie this pilot project. The energy from the magnetic cumulative generator (MCG) is transferred to a high-impedance load with high efficiency of more than 50% using pulse transformer coupling. Modeling of the dynamics of the MEG that operates in a circuit with lumped parameters allows one to apply the law of inductance output during operation of the MCG, thus providing the required front of the current pulse in the load without using any switches. The results of field testing of the MCGTF are presented for both the ground loop and the model load. The ground loop generates a load resistance of 2–4 Ω. In the tests, the ohmic resistance of the model load is 10 Ω. It is shown that the current pulse parameters recorded in the resistive-inductive load are close to the calculated values.

  6. Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: a current perspective of genome distribution, evolution, and function : Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: genomic organization, evolution, and molecular mechanism models contribute broadly to plant pathogen defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2018-02-01

    STAND P-loop NTPase is the common weapon used by plant and other organisms from all three kingdoms of life to defend themselves against pathogen invasion. The purpose of this study is to review comprehensively the latest finding of plant STAND P-loop NTPase related to their genomic distribution, evolution, and their mechanism of action. Earlier, the plant STAND P-loop NTPase known to be comprised of only NBS-LRRs/AP-ATPase/NB-ARC ATPase. However, recent finding suggests that genome of early green plants comprised of two types of STAND P-loop NTPases: (1) mammalian NACHT NTPases and (2) NBS-LRRs. Moreover, YchF (unconventional G protein and members of P-loop NTPase) subfamily has been reported to be exceptionally involved in biotic stress (in case of Oryza sativa), thereby a novel member of STAND P-loop NTPase in green plants. The lineage-specific expansion and genome duplication events are responsible for abundance of plant STAND P-loop NTPases; where "moderate tandem and low segmental duplication" trajectory followed in majority of plant species with few exception (equal contribution of tandem and segmental duplication). Since the past decades, systematic research is being investigated into NBS-LRR function supported the direct recognition of pathogen or pathogen effectors by the latest models proposed via 'integrated decoy' or 'sensor domains' model. Here, we integrate the recently published findings together with the previous literature on the genomic distribution, evolution, and distinct models proposed for functional molecular mechanism of plant STAND P-loop NTPases.

  7. Review of damages of nuclear power plants steam generator's tubes and way of detecting by using eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Steam generator tubing integrity is very important factor for reliable and safe operation of NPP. Several different types of tube degradation mechanisms were experienced in SG operation. To avoid possible tube rupture and primary-to-secondary leak, the EC examination of tubing should be performed. Different eddy current techniques may be used for detecting defects and theirs characterization. A comparison of data analysis results with pulled tube destructive metallography results can provide valuable insights in determining the capability of existing technology and provide guidance for procedure or technology improvements. (author)

  8. A Critique on the Effectiveness of Current Human Reliability Analysis Approach for the Human-Machine Interface Design in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee

    2010-01-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in cooperation of PSA has been conducted to evaluate the safety of a system and the validity of a system design. HRA has been believed to provide a quantitative value of human error potential and the safety level of a design alternative in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). However, it becomes doubtful that current HRA is worth to conduct to evaluate the human factors of NPP design, since there have been many critiques upon the virtue of HRA. Inevitably, the newer the technology becomes, the larger endeavors bound for the new facilitated methods. This paper describes the limitations and the obsolescence of the current HRA, especially for the design evaluation of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) utilizing the recent digital technologies. An alternative approach to the assessment of the human error potential of HMI design is proposed

  9. Biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Jones, Huw D; Tamás, László

    2012-01-01

    After rice, wheat is considered to be the most important world food crop, and the demand for high-quality wheat flour is increasing. Although there are no GM varieties currently grown, wheat is an important target for biotechnology, and we anticipate that GM wheat will be commercially available in 10-15 years. In this chapter, we summarize the main features and challenges of wheat transformation and then describe detailed protocols for the production of transgenic wheat plants both by biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated DNA-delivery. Although these methods are used mainly for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), they can also be successfully applied, with slight modifications, to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The appropriate size and developmental stage of explants (immature embryo-derived scutella), the conditions to produce embryogenic callus tissues, and the methods to regenerate transgenic plants under increasing selection pressure are provided in the protocol. To illustrate the application of herbicide selection system, we have chosen to describe the use of the plasmid pAHC25 for biolistic transformation, while for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation the binary vector pAL156 (incorporating both the bar gene and the uidA gene) has been chosen. Beside the step-by-step methodology for obtaining stably transformed and normal fertile plants, procedures for screening and testing transgenic wheat plants are also discussed.

  10. Life-cycle assessment of a Waste-to-Energy plant in central Norway: Current situation and effects of changes in waste fraction composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausselet, Carine; Cherubini, Francesco; Del Alamo Serrano, Gonzalo; Becidan, Michael; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-12-01

    Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants constitute one of the most common waste management options to deal with municipal solid waste. WtE plants have the dual objective to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and simultaneously to produce useful energy (heat and/or power). Energy from WtE is gaining steadily increasing importance in the energy mix of several countries. Norway is no exception, as energy recovered from waste currently represents the main energy source of the Norwegian district heating system. Life-cycle assessments (LCA) of WtE systems in a Norwegian context are quasi-nonexistent, and this study assesses the environmental performance of a WtE plant located in central Norway by combining detailed LCA methodology with primary data from plant operations. Mass transfer coefficients and leaching coefficients are used to trace emissions over the various life-cycle stages from waste logistics to final disposal of the ashes. We consider different fractions of input waste (current waste mix, insertion of 10% car fluff, 5% clinical waste and 10% and 50% wood waste), and find a total contribution to Climate Change Impact Potential ranging from 265 to 637gCO 2 eq/kg of waste and 25 to 61gCO 2 eq/MJ of heat. The key drivers of the environmental performances of the WtE system being assessed are the carbon biogenic fraction and the lower heating value of the incoming waste, the direct emissions at the WtE plant, the leaching of the heavy metals at the landfill sites and to a lesser extent the use of consumables. We benchmark the environmental performances of our WtE systems against those of fossil energy systems, and we find better performance for the majority of environmental impact categories, including Climate Change Impact Potential, although some trade-offs exist (e.g. higher impacts on Human Toxicity Potential than natural gas, but lower than coal). Also, the insertion of challenging new waste fractions is demonstrated to be an option both to cope with the

  11. Comparison of ex-USSR norms and current international practice in design of seismic resistant nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptenbuchner, B.; David, M.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic hazard has been estimated according to ex-USSR norms in the original designs of WWER type Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in former Soviet Union as well as in all former east European countries. For some steps of the design the national standards has been also taken into account. The original ex-USSR norms and instructions has been several times changed and improved during the time. This contribution is dealing with the development of ex-USSR norms and regulations with the aim to recognise some most important differentiations in comparison with corresponding western or international ones from point of view of civil structures. The understanding of relations of these documents is very important for seismic qualification and upgrading of WWER-type, NPPs. The main Soviet/Russian Standards and Regulations related to the seismic design and qualification of NPP structures as SNiP II-A.12-69, VSN 15-78, SNiP II-7-81, PiNAE G-7-002-86, NTD SEV etc. have been taken into consideration and compared with western or international standards as IAEA 50-SG-S1, IAEA 50-SG-D15, KTA 2201.1-6, ASCE 4-86 etc. The numerical examples of structural seismic qualification has been elaborated according to different standards for better understanding and in order to determine the degree of safety referring to corresponding standards. The authors has tried also to take into account the way of application of ex-USSR norms. The comparison of different norms and regulations has been analysed and corresponding conclusions and recommendations have been derived. These conclusions and recommendations can be helpful by the seismic qualification and upgrading of WWER-type NPPs. (author)

  12. Captive power plant selection for pakistan cement industry in perspective of current energy crises: a fuzzy-ahp approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.M.; Sultan, A.; Rana, B.B.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the prevailing energy crisis, it is reasonable for the Cement industry of Pakistan to look for alternate sources of electricity generation. The decision of selecting a CPP (Captive Power Plant) depends on a broad variety of parameters which may be conflicting to each other. A comparative evaluation of these CPP's should be helpful for industry, particularly if the applied methodology can handle with the real world ambiguities and imprecisions associated with the data pools and expert opinions. This paper utilizes an F-AHP (Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process) based multi-attribute framework to prioritize the affecting parameters and assign rankings to the CPP alternatives. The CPP's recommended by experts for this study are RDF-CPP (Refused Derived Fuel CPP), CF-CPP (Coal Fired CPP) and WHR-CPP (Waste Heat Recovery CPP). The factors affecting the decision of selecting the optimum CPP are prioritized by the experts using our F-AHP approach. Real world quantitative data is extracted from different online resources and financial reports of cement companies in Pakistan. The F-AHP model is flexible enough to deal with a variety of inputs including qualitative scales, crisp values and standard fuzzy numbers. The model is solved and a sensitivity analysis is performed in respective software. This study shows that non-conventional CPPs are highly demanded for cement industry in Pakistan and while selecting these CPPs, management gives high priority to factors like 'automation' and 'environment' whereas associated "initial cost"is not given much weight in decision making. In concluding ranking list, WHR-CPP is at the top and CF-CPP is at the bottom. This study may facilitate decision makers of cement industry in Pakistan and international CPP manufacturers alike in their forthcoming strategic decisions. (author)

  13. An one-time-pad key communication protocol with entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We present an one-time-pad key communication protocol that allows secure direct communication with entanglement. Alice can send message to Bob in a deterministic manner by using local measurements and public communication. The theoretical efficiency of this protocol is double compared with BB84 protocol. We show this protocol is unconditional secure under arbitrary quantum attack. And we discuss that this protocol can be perfectly implemented with current technologies.

  14. Isolation and Purification of Oridonin from the Whole Plant of Isodon rubescens by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYue Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successfully used for isolation and purification of oridonin from Isodon rubescens by using a two-phase-solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2.8:5:2.8:5, v/v/v/v. The targeted compound isolated, collected and purified by HSCCC was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A total of 40.6 mg of oridonin with the purity of 73.5% was obtained in less than 100 min from 100 mg of crude Isodon rubescens extract. The chemical structure of the compound was identified by IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  15. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  16. Analysis on the Current Status of Chemical Decontamination Technology of Steam Generators in the Oversea Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Taebin; Kim, Sukhoon; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub; Lee, Seunghee [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The steam generators in Hanbit Unit 3 and 4 are scheduled to be replaced in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nevertheless, the wastes from the dismantled steam generators are currently just on-site stored in the NPP because there are no disposal measures for the waste and lack of the decontamination techniques for large-sized metallic equipment. In contrast, in the oversea NPPs, there are many practical cases of chemical decontamination not only for oversized components in the NPPs such as reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, but also for major pipes. Chemical decontamination technique is more effective in decontaminating the components with complicated shape compared with mechanical one. Moreover, a high decontamination factor can be obtained by using strong solvent, and thereby most of radionuclides can be removed. Due to these advantages, the chemical decontamination has been used most frequently for operation of decontaminating the large-sized equipment. In this study, an analysis on the current status of chemical decontamination technique used for the steam generators of the foreign commercial NPPs was performed. In this study, the three major chemical decontamination processes were reviewed, which are applied to the decommissioning process of the steam generators in the commercial NPPs of the United States, Germany, and Belgium. The three processes have the different features in aspect of solvent, while those are based in common on the oxidation and reduction between the target metal surface and solvents. In addition, they have the same goals for improving the decontamination efficiency and decreasing the amount of the secondary waste generation. Based on the analysis results on component sub-processes and major advantages and disadvantages of each process, Table 2 shows the key fundamental technologies for decontamination of the steam generator in Korea and the major considerations in the development process of each technology. It is necessary to prepare

  17. Impact of Neutral Point Current Control on Copper Loss Distribution of Five Phase PM Generators Used in Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARASHLOO, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement under faulty conditions is one of the main objectives of fault tolerant PM drives. This goal can be achieved by increasing the output power while reducing the losses. Stator copper loss not only directly affects the total efficiency, but also plays an important role in thermal stress generations of iron core. In this paper, the effect of having control on neutral point current is studied on the efficiency of five-phase permanent magnet machines. Open circuit fault is considered for both one and two phases, and the distribution of copper loss along the windings are evaluated in each case. It is shown that only by having access to neutral point, it is possible to generate less stator thermal stress and more mechanical power in five-phase permanent magnet generators. Wind power generation and their applications are kept in mind, and the results are verified via simulations and experimental tests on an outer-rotor type of five-phase PM machine.

  18. Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness and safety of current weekend allied health services and a new stakeholder-driven model for acute medical/surgical patients versus no weekend allied health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Terry P; O'Brien, Lisa; Mitchell, Deb; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Haas, Romi; Markham, Donna; Plumb, Samantha; Chiu, Timothy; May, Kerry; Philip, Kathleen; Lescai, David; McDermott, Fiona; Sarkies, Mitchell; Ghaly, Marcelle; Shaw, Leonie; Juj, Genevieve; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-04-02

    Disinvestment from inefficient or ineffective health services is a growing priority for health care systems. Provision of allied health services over the weekend is now commonplace despite a relative paucity of evidence supporting their provision. The relatively high cost of providing this service combined with the paucity of evidence supporting its provision makes this a potential candidate for disinvestment so that resources consumed can be used in other areas. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of the current model of weekend allied health service and a new stakeholder-driven model of weekend allied health service delivery on acute medical and surgical wards compared to having no weekend allied health service. Two stepped wedge, cluster randomised trials of weekend allied health services will be conducted in six acute medical/surgical wards across two public metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne (Australia). Wards have been chosen to participate by management teams at each hospital. The allied health services to be investigated will include physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, dietetics, social work and allied health assistants. At baseline, all wards will be receiving weekend allied health services. Study 1 intervention will be the sequential disinvestment (roll-in) of the current weekend allied health service model from each participating ward in monthly intervals and study 2 will be the roll-out of a new stakeholder-driven model of weekend allied health service delivery. The order in which weekend allied health services will be rolled in and out amongst participating wards will be determined randomly. This trial will be conducted in each of the two participating hospitals at a different time interval. Primary outcomes will be length of stay, rate of unplanned hospital readmission within 28 days and rate of adverse events. Secondary outcomes will be number of complaints and compliments, staff absenteeism

  19. Evaluation of a High Concentrated Contrast Media Injection Protocol in Combination with Low Tube Current for Dose Reduction in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Randomized, Two-center Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yibo; Hua, Yanqing; Wang, Mingpeng; Mao, Dingbiao; Jin, Xiu; Li, Cheng; Shi, Kailei; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate the radiation dose reduction potential and image quality (IQ) of a high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) injection protocol in combination with a low tube current (mAs) in coronary computed tomography angiography. Eighty-one consecutive patients (mean age: 62 years; 34 females; body mass index: 18-31) were included and randomized-assigned into two groups. All computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in two groups with the same tube voltage (100 kV), flow rate of contrast medium (5.0 mL/s), and iodine dose (22.8 g). An automatic mAs and low concentration contrast medium (300 mgI/mL) were used in group A, whereas effective mAs was reduced by a factor 0.6 along with HCCM (400 mgI/mL) in group B. Radiation dose was assessed (CT dose index [CTDI vol ] and dose length product), and vessel-based objective IQ for various regions of interest (enhancement, noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio), subjective IQ, noise, and motion artifacts were analyzed overall and vessel-based with a 5-point Likert scale. The CT attenuation of coronary arteries and image noise in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (ranges: 507.5-548.1 Hounsfield units vs 407.5-444.5 Hounsfield units; and 20.3 ± 8.6 vs 17.7 ± 8.0) (P ≤ 0.0166). There was no significant difference between the two groups in signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and subjective IQ of coronary arteries (29.4-31.7, 30.0-37.0, and medium score of 5 in group A vs 29.4-32.4, 27.7-36.3, and medium score of 5 in group B, respectively, P ≥ 0.1859). Both mean CTDI vol and dose length product in group B were 58% of those of group A. HCCM combined with low tube current allows dose reduction in coronary computed tomography angiography and does not compromise IQ. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative importance of current and past landscape structure and local habitat conditions for plant species richness in dry grassland-like forest openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Iveta; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In fragmented landscapes, plant species richness may depend not only on local habitat conditions but also on landscape structure. In addition, both present and past landscape structure may be important for species richness. There are, however, only a few studies that have investigated the relative importance of all of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of current and past landscape structures and habitat conditions on species richness at dry grassland-like forest openings in a forested landscape and to assess their relative importance for species richness. We analyzed information on past and present landscape structures using aerial photographs from 1938, 1973, 1988, 2000 and 2007. We calculated the area of each locality and its isolation in the present and in the past and the continuity of localities in GIS. At each locality, we recorded all vascular plant species (296 species in 110 forest openings) and information on abiotic conditions of the localities. We found that the current species richness of the forest openings was significantly determined by local habitat conditions as well as by landscape structure in the present and in the past. The highest species richness was observed on larger and more heterogeneous localities with rocks and shallow soils, which were already large and well connected to other localities in 1938. The changes in the landscape structure in the past can thus have strong effects on current species richness. Future studies attempting to understand determinants of species diversity in fragmented landscapes should also include data on past landscape structure, as it may in fact be more important than the present structure.

  1. An Argument Approach to Observation Protocol Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Courtney A.; Gitomer, Drew H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Qi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a validity argument approach for use on observation protocols currently used to assess teacher quality for high-stakes personnel and professional development decisions. After defining the teaching quality domain, we articulate an interpretive argument for observation protocols. To illustrate the types of evidence that might…

  2. Phytoalexin Elicitation- Potency As A Novel Technology for Biological Control and Protection Digitalis purpurea L. plants from Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Gamma Ray and Electric Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosila, H.A.; Lila, M.; Ahmed, T.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea L seeds treated with gamma ray, (G) 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E), 0, 100, 150, 200 mA, then planted in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicates (R) and 2 successive seasons, in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900ppm) through surface drip irrigation system (SDI).The formed plants were foliar sprayed with manganese (M),0,3ppm-The formed Phytoalexin (PA) was bioassayed and chemically quantified.M3ppm could induce sistemic resistance (ISR) which initiate to farm 0.064, 0.070 mg PA 100mg fresh leaves. The formed PA exhibited PA-glycosidal structure wherefore, achieve therapeutic potency. (G) depress significantlly PA 73-91% of control while (E) activated (PA) significantly 134-154% of control. At (GE) interaction, such (G) dose PA increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA. Hence (E) efface a serious depression of (G). At (GEM) interaction, (G) 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR EO mA, M3ppm the formed. (PA) were; 91, 75, 63 were increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA M3ppm 128, 119, 109 – 129, 117, 107% of control for first and second season, respectively. Therefore, M elicitor application, in GEM combination, could be considered as a novel strategy for biological control and plant protection, from economic and environmental benefit point of view. It would occur by decreasing the cost of fungicides, bactericides and pesticides in Digitalis purpurea L biomass production, grown in extended agriculture area.

  3. Current situation regarding the co-combustion of waste materials in power plants; Aktuelle Situation der Mitverbrennung von Abfallstoffen in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, U.; Krueger, H.; Puch, K.H. [VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In view of the wholly insufficient capacity, relative to current arisings, of waste incineration plants, residue processing plants and plants for the utilisation of other combustible materials we are inevitably faced with the question whether power plant furnaces might not be suited for the thermal treatment and utilisation of wastes and residues. This possibility has been studied by many VGB member companies and seriously investigated for its practicability in several cases. The investigations were premised on the following fundamental positions. The VGB members are prepared to contribute to the solution of the above problems as long as this is possible without detriment to their duties as energy suppliers. They can only assume this responsibility if the requirements of the licensing laws are observed. This concerns the quality and arising quantities of wastes to be taken in, emissions, and the disposal of combustion residues. Power plants typically make more or less complete use of their own process residues, a feature which as far as possible should not be impaired by the co-combustion process. The technical problems posed by the co-combustion of suitable residues and wastes are usually solvable. Co-combustion offers an alternative and a supplement to dedicated waste utilisation plants or plants for the utilisation of suitable residues. Beyond this some companies are interested in profiting from the fees that will be due to them for utilising wastes. From 1990 to 1992 a VGB working group studied the option of co-combustion on the basis of the above premises. The material elaborated by the group now in turn serves as a basis for the following deliberations. [Deutsch] Da die Kapazitaet der Abfallverbrennungsanlagen, der Anlagen zur Reststoffverwertung und der Anlagen zur Nutzung sonstiger brennbaren Stoffe fuer das vorhandene Angebot bei weitem nicht ausreicht, ergibt sich die Frage der Eignung von Kraftwerksfeuerungen zur thermischen Behandlung und Verwertung von

  4. Protocol study for a randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial involving virtual reality and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for the improvement of upper limb motor function in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Moura, Renata Calhes Franco de; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Duarte, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho; Miziara, Isabela; Melo, Gileno Edu Lameira de; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Santos Oliveira, Claudia

    2017-08-11

    Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence. A randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed. The calculation of the sample size will be defined based on the results of a pilot study involving the same methods. The participants will be randomly allocated to two groups. Evaluations will be conducted before and after the intervention as well as 1 month after the end of the intervention process. At each evaluation, three-dimensional analysis of upper limb movement muscle activity will be measured using electromyography, cerebral activity will be measured using an electroencephalogram system and intellectual capacity will be assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Virtual reality training will be performed three times a week (one 20 min session per day) for a total of 10 sessions. During the protocol, transcranial stimulation will be administered concomitantly to upper limb motor training. The results will be analysed statistically, with a p value≤0.05 considered indicative of statistical significance. The present study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Universidade Nove de Julho (Sao Paulo,Brazil) under process number 1.540.113 and is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (N° RBR3PHPXB). The participating institutions have presented a declaration of participation. The volunteers will be permitted to drop out of the study at any time with no negative repercussions. The results will be published and will contribute evidence regarding the use of

  5. Effectiveness of implementing a best practice primary healthcare model for low back pain (BetterBack) compared with current routine care in the Swedish context: an internal pilot study informed protocol for an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 2 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Allan; Schröder, Karin; Enthoven, Paul; Nilsen, Per; Öberg, Birgitta

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem commonly requiring healthcare. In Sweden, there is a call from healthcare practitioners (HCPs) for the development, implementation and evaluation of a best practice primary healthcare model for LBP. Aims (1) To improve and understand the mechanisms underlying changes in HCP confidence, attitudes and beliefs for providing best practice coherent primary healthcare for patients with LBP; (2) to improve and understand the mechanisms underlying illness beliefs, self-care enablement, pain, disability and quality of life in patients with LBP; and (3) to evaluate a multifaceted and sustained implementation strategy and the cost-effectiveness of the BetterBack☺ model of care (MOC) for LBP from the perspective of the Swedish primary healthcare context. Methods This study is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 2 trial testing the hypothesised superiority of the BetterBack☺ MOC compared with current routine care. The trial involves simultaneous testing of MOC effects at the HCP, patient and implementation process levels. This involves a prospective cohort study investigating implementation at the HCP level and a patient-blinded, pragmatic, cluster, randomised controlled trial with longitudinal follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months post baseline for effectiveness at the patient level. A parallel process and economic analysis from a healthcare sector perspective will also be performed. Patients will be allocated to routine care (control group) or the BetterBack☺ MOC (intervention group) according to a stepped cluster dogleg structure with two assessments in routine care. Experimental conditions will be compared and causal mediation analysis investigated. Qualitative HCP and patient experiences of the BetterBack☺ MOC will also be investigated. Dissemination The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. Further national dissemination and

  6. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    This document describes the state of the art snd some of the main open problems in the area of unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. The most essential part of a cryptographic protocol is not its being secure. Imagine a cryptographic protocol which is secure, but where we do not know...... that it is secure. Such a protocol would do little in providing security. When all comes to all, cryptographic security is done for the sake of people, and the essential part of security is for people what it has always been, namely to feel secure. To feel secure employing a given cryptographic protocol we need...... to know that is is secure. I.e. we need a proof that it is secure. Today the proof of security of essentially all practically employed cryptographic protocols relies on computational assumptions. To prove that currently employed ways to communicate securely over the Internet are secure we e.g. need...

  7. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  8. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  9. On the NBI system for substantial current drive in a fusion power plant: Status and R and D needs for ion source and laser neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NBI is a candidate for a cw tokamak DEMO due to its high current drive efficiency. • The plug-in efficiency must be improved from the present 20–30% to more than 50%. • A suitable candidate is a photo neutralizer with almost 100% neutralization efficiency; basic feasibility studies are underway. • Cw operation with a large availability puts rather high demands on source operation with some safety margins, especially for the components with high power density loads (source back plate and extraction system). • Alternatives to the present use of cesium are under exploitations. - Abstract: The requirements for the heating and current drive systems of a fusion power plant will strongly depend on the DEMO scenario. The paper discusses the R and D needs for a neutral beam injection system — being a candidate due to the highest current drive efficiency — for the most demanding scenario, a steady state tokamak DEMO. Most important issues are the improvement of the wall-plug efficiency from the present ∼25% to the required 50–60% by improving the neutralization efficiency with a laser neutralizer system and the improvement of the reliability of the ion source operation. The demands on and the potential of decreasing the ion source operation pressure, as well as decreasing the amount of co-extracted electrons and backstreaming ions are discussed using the ITER requirements and solutions as basis. A further concern is the necessity of cesium for which either the cesium management must be improved or alternatives to cesium for the production of negative ions have to be identified

  10. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  11. Isolation of cytotoxic diterpenoids from the Chilean medicinal plant Azorella compacta Phil from the Atacama Desert by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bórquez, Jorge; Bartolucci, Nandy López; Echiburú-Chau, Carlos; Winterhalter, Peter; Vallejos, Javier; Jerz, Gerold; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2016-06-01

    Azorella compacta (Apiaceae) is a native Chilean cushion shrub which produces a resin containing mulinane and azorellane diterpenoids. This plant has been used since pre-Colombian times to treat inflammation and dental neuralgias. In this work the first preparative fractionation of diterpenoids present in this plant by means of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied, and cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated for the first time against a panel of MCF7 cells. The major compounds isolated were identified by means of spectroscopy as azorellanol, 13α, 14α-dihydroxymulin-11-en-20-oic acid, mulinolic acid, mulin-11,13-dien-20-oic acid, 17-acetoxy-mulin-11,13-dien-20 oic acid, and 17-acetoxy-mulinic acid (compounds 7, 9-11 and 13, respectively), and four minor diterpenoids [7-deacetyl-azorellanol (6), 13-epi-azorellanol, 7-acetoxy-mulin-9,12-diene, and 17-acetoxy-mulin-11,13-dien-20-oic acid (compounds 4, 8 and 12)], together with three new minor diterpenoids: 13β,14β-dihydroxymulin-11-en-20-oic acid (1), 13-epiazorellanone (2) and 13-epi-7-deacetyl-azorellanol (3) were identified. Besides, compounds 4, 6, 7, 8 and 11 displayed good cytotoxic activity (less than 50% cell viability at 100 µM). Among them, compound 7, an acetylated azorellane, was the most active. HSCCC allowed the isolation of 13 diterpenoids present in A. compacta. Three compounds are reported for the first time. Isolated azorellanes are more potent cytotoxic agents than are mulinanes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Modeling plant density and ponding water effects on flooded rice evapotranspiration and crop coefficients: critical discussion about the concepts used in current methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschonitis, Vassilis; Diamantopoulou, Maria; Papamichail, Dimitris

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study is to propose new modeling approaches for daily estimations of crop coefficient K c for flooded rice ( Oryza sativa L., ssp. indica) under various plant densities. Non-linear regression (NLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict K c based on leaf area index LAI, crop height, wind speed, water albedo, and ponding water depth. Two years of evapotranspiration ET c measurements from lysimeters located in a Mediterranean environment were used in this study. The NLR approach combines bootstrapping and Bayesian sensitivity analysis based on a semi-empirical formula. This approach provided significant information about the hidden role of the same predictor variables in the Levenberg-Marquardt ANN approach, which improved K c predictions. Relationships of production versus ET c were also built and verified by data obtained from Australia. The results of the study showed that the daily K c values, under extremely high plant densities (e.g., for LAI max > 10), can reach extremely high values ( K c > 3) during the reproductive stage. Justifications given in the discussion question both the K c values given by FAO and the energy budget approaches, which assume that ET c cannot exceed a specific threshold defined by the net radiation. These approaches can no longer explain the continuous increase of global rice yields (currently are more than double in comparison to the 1960s) due to the improvement of cultivars and agriculture intensification. The study suggests that the safest method to verify predefined or modeled K c values is through preconstructed relationships of production versus ET c using field measurements.

  13. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L; Schacht, Walter H; Soper, Jonathan M; Wienhold, Carol E

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  14. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L.; Schacht, Walter H.; Soper, Jonathan M.; Wienhold, Carol E.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  15. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. The role of wildfire in the establishment and range expansion of nonnative plant species into natural areas: A review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara Johnson; Lisa J. Rew; Bruce D. Maxwell; Steve Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative invasive plants are one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems worldwide (Vitousek et al. 1996). In fact, their spread has been described as "a raging biological wildfire" (Dewey et al. 1995). Disturbances tend to create conditions that are favorable for germination and establishment of plant species. Nonnative plant species are often...

  17. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  18. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management.

  19. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes, an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional

  20. Unexpected spatial impact of treatment plant discharges induced by episodic hydrodynamic events: Modelling Lagrangian transport of fine particles by Northern Current intrusions in the bays of Marseille (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Bertrand; Pinazo, Christel; Banaru, Daniela; Pagès, Rémi; Guiart, Pierre; Pairaud, Ivane

    2018-01-01

    Our study highlights the Lagrangian transport of solid particles discharged at the Marseille Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), located at Cortiou on the southern coastline. We focused on episodic situations characterized by a coastal circulation pattern induced by intrusion events of the Northern Current (NC) on the continental shelf, associated with SE wind regimes. We computed, using MARS3D-RHOMA and ICHTHYOP models, the particle trajectories from a patch of 5.104 passive and conservative fine particles released at the WWTP outlet, during 2 chosen representative periods of intrusion of the NC in June 2008 and in October 2011, associated with S-SE and E-SE winds, respectively. Unexpected results highlighted that the amount of particles reaching the vulnerable shorelines of both northern and southern bays accounted for 21.2% and 46.3% of the WWTP initial patch, in June 2008 and October 2011, respectively. Finally, a conceptual diagram is proposed to highlight the mechanisms of dispersion within the bays of Marseille of the fine particles released at the WWTP outlet that have long been underestimated.

  1. Finite element analysis of ageing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in nuclear plant - An international review of current capabilities and priorities for future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear plants contain a variety of concrete structures whose structural performance is essential to the safety of the plant. There is a requirement to demonstrate the robustness of these structures during normal operating and extreme accident conditions, throughout their life. During this time, the concrete may degrade due to the effects of ageing. This degradation must be accounted for during the assessment of their performance. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) techniques have tremendous potential for providing valuable insight into the behaviour of these aged concrete structures under a range of different loading conditions. Advanced FEA techniques currently enjoy widespread use within the nuclear industry for the non-linear analysis of concrete. Many practitioners within the nuclear industry are at the forefront of the industrial application of these methods. However, in some areas, the programs that are commercially available lag behind the best information available from research. This document is an international review of current capabilities and priorities for future development relating to non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete in the nuclear industry in the various member states. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of degraded or ageing structures. This report: 1. Summarises the needs for FEA of aged concrete nuclear structures; 2. Details the existing capabilities, not just in terms of what the software is capable of, but also in terms of the current practices employed by those in industry; 3. Looks at how engineers, within the nuclear industry, working in this field would like to see methods improved, and identifies the factors that are limiting current practice; 4. Summarises ongoing research that may provide beneficial technological advances; 5. Assigns priorities to the different development requests; 6. Selects those developments that are felt to be of greatest benefit to industry and provides a qualitative

  2. Human factors engineering in nuclear plant rehabilitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernston, K.; Remisz, M.; Malcolm, S.

    2001-01-01

    There are several unique considerations when creating and maintaining a human factors program for a plant refurbishment. These consideration arise from a variety of sources, including budget and time constraints on life extension projects, working to existing plant protocols and current acceptable HFE practices, and issues relating to function and task analysis. This results in a need to streamline and carefully time HFE practices from project start up to completion. In order to perform this task adequately, a comprehensive Human Factors Engineering Program Plan should be designed and tailored to the project. Systems of planning and prioritization are essential, and the required HFE designer training needs to be established. HFE specialists need to be aware of the existing plant constraints, and he prepared to work within them when providing support. The current paper discusses these aspects in the context of major refurbishment work at CANDU stations. (author)

  3. Protocol in NORM industries. Central thermal coal production; Protocolo de actuacion en industrial NORM. Centrales de produccion termica de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Cancio, D.

    2011-07-01

    This protocol arises from the execution of R and D project Study of the radiological impact of coal power plants on their environment, funded by the Nuclear Safety Council. Its main objective was to assess the radiological impact exerted on workers and their environments, the four coal-fired power more currently in Spain: As Pontes (A Coruna), Compostilla II (Leon ),Litoral (Almeria) and Andorra (Teruel). (Author)

  4. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based...

  5. Robust regeneration protocol for the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Solanum tuberosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bilal, M.; Hussain, J.; Shah, M. M.; Hassan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant genetic transformation requires robust regeneration system. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as cytokinins (CKs) play a pivotal role in organogenesis; however, CKs are the most expensive PGRs. In the current study, an efficient yet economical protocol for regeneration of potato plant was developed. Stem inter-nodal and leaf explants were cultured on different regeneration media supplemented with varying concentration of different CKs such as kinetin and zeatin. Murashige- Skoog media added with zeatin (1, 1.5 mg/L) was designated as RZ1, RZ1.5, respectively or kinetin (1.5, 2 mg/L) was designated as RK1.5 and RK2, respectively, however, concentrations of other hormones such as NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid A3) were kept same. RZ1 and RZ1.5 gave significantly better Results as compared to RK-type media in all aspects studied such as callus initiation, days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per explants. RZ1 medium was then selected as regeneration media for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato plants with cyanobacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene, which provided multiple putative transformants on selection media. The transformants were further confirmed through PCR. The current protocol is found to be cost effective and efficient for the regeneration of Solanum tuberosum and can be successfully implied for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (author)

  6. Current status and problems of decontamination by municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture. Records from four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kota

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the current status and problems of decontamination by 52 municipalities out of 59 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture, four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, mainly based on the results of a questionnaire survey. The area corresponds to in all municipalities except for the 7 whose entire administrative area has been designated as Special Decontamination Area. This study reveals that (1) the number of municipalities which planned, ordered and implemented decontamination work has peaked although decontamination work of public facilities, housing, roads, farmland and forests has been still carried out in many municipalities, (2) about half of the municipalities have not secured enough temporary storage sites for contaminated soil and waste, (3) many municipalities recognize that construction of interim storage facilities, transfer of contaminated soil and waste from each municipality to interim storage facilities, and maintenance of temporary storage sites are major challenges concerning decontamination work, (4) about half of the municipalities regard efforts concerning decontamination work by the national government and the Fukushima prefectural government office as inadequate, (5) not a few municipalities recognize that residents cannot live their lives with a sense of safety and security unless air radiation dose is reduced to the level before the accident, and (6) most municipalities recognize that safe living environments can be recovered by decontamination work. Finally, based on these results, this study points out early completion of interim storage facilities and development of conditions to maintain and manage temporary storage sites, the end of decontamination work based on the air radiation dose rate, and establishment of decontamination policies concerning forests, rivers and waterways, as main future challenges concerning decontamination work by municipalities. (author)

  7. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  8. Weaknesses of a dynamic identity based authentication protocol for multi-server architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Weiwei

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Li et al. proposed a dynamic identity based authentication protocol for multi-server architecture. They claimed their protocol is secure and can withstand various attacks. But we found some security loopholes in the protocol. Accordingly, the current paper demonstrates that Li et al.'s protocol is vulnerable to the replay attack, the password guessing attack and the masquerade attack.

  9. Turf Conversion Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings as a result of water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with converting turfgrass or other water-intensive plantings to water-wise and sustainable landscapes. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  10. A Technical Assessment Of The Current Water Policy Boundary At U.S. Department Of Energy, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2012-01-01

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  11. New logistics protocols for distributed interactive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Darrin; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Felton, Erik; Herman, Deborah A.

    1995-06-01

    In today's environment, the transportation and maintenance of military forces is nearly as important as combat operations. Rapid deployment to regions of low-intensity conflict will become a very common training scenario for the U.S. military. Thus it is desirable to apply distributed simulation technology to train logistics personnel in their combat support roles. Currently, distributed interactive simulation (DIS) only contains rudimentary logistics protocols. This paper introduces new protocols designed to handle the logistics problem. The Newtonian protocol takes a physics-based approach to modeling interactions on the simulation network. This protocol consists of a family of protocol data units (PDUs) which are used to communicate forces in different circumstances. The protocol implements a small set of physical relations. This represents a flexible and general mechanism to describe battlefield interactions between network entities. The migratory object protocol (MOP) family addresses the transfer of control. General mechanisms provide the means to simulate resupply, repair, and maintenance of entities at any level of abstraction (individual soldier to division). It can also increase the fidelity of mine laying, enable handover of weapons for terminal guidance, allow for the distribution of aggregate-level simulation entities, provide capabilities for the simulation of personnel, etc.

  12. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Yoshito [University of Alaska; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Gregory, Don A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  13. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  14. A nested-polymerase chain reaction protocol for detection and population biology studies of Peronospora arborescens, the downy mildew pathogen of opium poppy, using herbarium specimens and asymptomatic, fresh plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Muñoz Ledesma, Francisco J; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed using either of two primer pairs that improves the in planta detection of Peronospora arborescens DNA. The new protocol represented an increase in sensitivity of 100- to 1,000-fold of detection of the oomycete in opium poppy tissue compared with the detection limit of single PCR using the same primer pairs. The new protocol allowed amplification of 5 to 0.5 fg of Peronospora arborescens DNA mixed with Papaver somniferum DNA. The protocol proved useful for amplifying Peronospora arborescens DNA from 96-year-old herbarium specimens of Papaver spp. and to demonstrate that asymptomatic, systemic infections by Peronospora arborescens can occur in wild Papaver spp. as well as in cultivated opium poppy. Also, the increase in sensitivity of the protocol made possible the detection of seedborne Peronospora arborescens in commercial opium poppy seed stocks in Spain with a high frequency, which poses a threat for pathogen spread. Direct sequencing of purified amplicons allowed alignment of a Peronospora arborescens internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence up to 730-bp long when combining the sequences obtained with the two primer sets. Maximum parsimony analysis of amplified Peronospora arborescens ITS rDNA sequences from specimens of Papaver dubium, P. hybridum, P. rhoeas, and P. somniferum from different countries indicated for the first time that a degree of host specificity may exist within populations of Peronospora arborescens. The reported protocol will be useful for epidemiological and biogeographical studies of downy mildew diseases as well as to unravel misclassification of Peronospora arborescens and Peronospora cristata, the reported causal agents of the opium poppy downy mildew disease.

  15. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  16. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  17. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  18. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  19. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  1. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  2. Improving health outcomes for young people with long term conditions: The role of digital communication in current and future patient-clinician communication for NHS providers of specialist clinical services for young people - LYNC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Frances E; Atherton, Helen; Barker, Jack R; Cave, Jonathan Ak; Dennick, Kathryn; Dowdall, Peter; Fraser, Joe; Huxley, Caroline; Kim, Sung-Wook; Madan, Jason J; Matharu, Harjit; Musumadi, Luhanga; Palmer, Tom M; Paul, Moli; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Sujan, Mark A; Sutcliffe, Paul A; Sturt, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Young people living with long term conditions are vulnerable to health service disengagement. This endangers their long term health. Studies report requests for digital forms of communication - email, text, social media - with their health care team. Digital clinical communication is troublesome for the UK NHS. In this article we aim to present the research protocol for evaluating the impacts and outcomes of digital clinical communications for young people living with long term conditions and provide critical analysis of their use, monitoring and evaluation by NHS providers (LYNC study: Long term conditions, Young people, Networked Communications). The research involves: (a) patient and public involvement activities with 16-24 year olds with and without long term health conditions; (b) six literature reviews; (c) case studies - the main empirical part of the study - and (d) synthesis and a consensus meeting. Case studies use a mixed methods design. Interviews and non-participant observation of practitioners and patients communicating in up to 20 specialist clinical settings will be combined with data, aggregated at the case level (non-identifiable patient data) on a range of clinical outcomes meaningful within the case and across cases. We will describe the use of digital clinical communication from the perspective of patients, clinical staff, support staff and managers, interviewing up to 15 young people and 15 staff per case study. Outcome data includes emergency admissions, A&E attendance and DNA (did not attend) rates. Case studies will be analysed to understand impacts of digital clinical communication on patient health outcomes, health care costs and consumption, ethics and patient safety.

  3. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  4. Current knowledge of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) as a medicinal plant species: a review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Radosław; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species whose fruits have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. However, schisandra seems to be a plant still underestimated in contemporary therapy still in the countries of East Asia. The article presents latest available information on the chemical composition of this plant species. Special attention is given to dibenzo cyclooctadiene lignans. In addition, recent studies of the biological activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans and schisandra fruit extracts are recapitulated. The paper gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential. The cosmetic properties are depicted, too. The analytical methods used for assaying schisandra lignans in the scientific studies and also in industry are also presented. Moreover, special attention is given to the information on the latest biotechnological studies of this plant species. The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the huge potential of the pharmacological relevance of S. chinensis.

  5. The comparative cost analysis of EAP Re-authentication Protocol and EAP TLS Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Mehla; Bhawna Gupta

    2010-01-01

    the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a generic framework supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to not repeat the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. The EAP reauthentication Protocol provides a consistent, methodindependentand low-latency re-authentication. It is extension to current EAP mechanism to support intradomain handoff authentication. This paper analyzed the performance of the EAP r...

  6. Ground failure in direct current systems of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant, Parana, Brazil. Impact in the operation; Falla a tierra en sistemas de corriente continua en la Central Hidroelectrica Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Impacto en la operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Santacruz, Heriberto [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: soto@itaipu.gov.py

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this work is to share with other companies the operation experience obtained by researching the direct current systems ground failure, in the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant. During the research process electrical and/or electronic components can be damaged, and also human failures can occurred during the circuit connection and disconnection manoeuvres, necessary for the identification of the components causing the failures.

  7. Pestel study: system comparison of the generation of electric current and heating energy in coupled and uncoupled plants; Pestel Studie: Systemvergleich der Strom- und Heizenergieerzeugung in gekoppelten und ungekoppelten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    A system comparison of the generation of electric current and heating energy in coupled and uncoupled plants was carried out in the years 1983/84 at the Eduard Pestel Institute for system research in Hannover. A report is given on the main focus of the investigation which was the comparison of cogeneration power plant for cogeneration with the current generation in modern condensation power plants and the corresponding generation of heating energy in modern gas boilers. The primary energy consumption for generating electric current was compared by means of four examples to the consumption for heating energy generation. The costs of this generation in terms of national economy and industrial management were also compared to each other by means of four examples. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Eduard Pestel Institut fuer Systemforschung e.V. in Hannover wurde in den Jahren 1983/1984 ein Systemvergleich zwischen der Strom- und Heizenergieerzeugung in gekoppelten und ungekoppelten Anlagen durchgefuehrt. Schwerpunkt der Untersuchung, ueber den heute berichtet werden soll, war der Vergleich von - Blockheizkraftwerken zur gekoppelten Erzeugung mit - einer Stromerzeugung in modernene Kondensationskraftwerken und der entsprechenden Heizwaermeerzeugung in modernen Gaskesseln. Dabei wurden anhand von vier konkreten Fallbeispielen jeweils - die Primaerenergieverbraeuche fuer die Strom- und Heizwaermeerzeugung sowie - die volkswirtschaftlichen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten dieser Erzeugung miteinander verglichen. (orig.)

  8. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  9. A study protocol for a single-blind, randomized controlled trial of adjunctive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for chronic pain among patients receiving specialized, inpatient multimodal pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice Jimenez-Torres, G; Weinstein, Benjamin L; Walker, Cory R; Christopher Fowler, J; Ashford, Philippa; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Madan, Alok

    2017-03-01

    Available treatments for chronic pain (CP) are modestly effective or associated with iatrogenic harm. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that may be an effective, adjunctive treatment to non-opioid therapies. In this randomized control trial (RCT), we compare adjunctive active versus sham tDCS among patients in a multimodal inpatient pain management program. The primary objectives of the RCT are to improve pain tolerance and subjective pain experience. Patients admitted to the Pain Management Program at The Menninger Clinic in Houston, Texas are eligible for this trial. Eighty-four participants will be randomized (1:1) into a single-blind, 2×12 (group×time) controlled trial. A battery-powered direct and constant current stimulator (Soterix Medical Inc. 2014) delivers anodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and cathodal stimulation over the right DLPFC. Active tDCS is applied by supplying a 2mA current for 20min/session over 10 sessions. Participants complete self-report and performance-based assessments on a weekly basis just prior to brain stimulation. Self-report assessments are collected via Chronic Pain Tracker version 3.6, an iPad interfaced application. The performance-based pain tolerance task is completed through the cold presser task. Interventions with cross-symptomatic therapeutic potential are absolutely essential in the context of CP, in which psychiatric comorbidity is the norm. Modalities that can be used in tandem with evidence-based, non-opioid therapies have the potential to have a synergistic effect, resulting in increased effectiveness of what have been modestly effective treatments to date. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An evidence based blunt trauma protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, R. van; Kool, D.R.; Lubeek, S.F.K.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Deunk, J.; Edwards, M.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently CT is rapidly implemented in the evaluation of trauma patients. In anticipation of a large international multicentre trial, this study's aim was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a new diagnostic protocol, used for the primary radiological evaluation in adult blunt

  11. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  12. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Regulation of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products in drinking and groundwater in the EU: Current status and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabs, V; Leake, C; Botham, P; Melching-Kollmuß, S

    2015-10-01

    Non-relevant metabolites are defined in the EU regulation for plant protection product authorization and a detailed definition of non-relevant metabolites is given in an EU Commission DG Sanco (now DG SANTE - Health and Food Safety) guidance document. However, in water legislation at EU and member state level non-relevant metabolites of pesticides are either not specifically regulated or diverse threshold values are applied. Based on their inherent properties, non-relevant metabolites should be regulated based on substance-specific and toxicity-based limit values in drinking and groundwater like other anthropogenic chemicals. Yet, if a general limit value for non-relevant metabolites in drinking and groundwater is favored, an application of a Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept for Cramer class III compounds leads to a threshold value of 4.5 μg L(-1). This general value is exemplarily shown to be protective for non-relevant metabolites, based on individual drinking water limit values derived for a set of 56 non-relevant metabolites. A consistent definition of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products, as well as their uniform regulation in drinking and groundwater in the EU, is important to achieve legal clarity for all stakeholders and to establish planning security for development of plant protection products for the European market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  15. Investigation of inter-grain critical current density in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconducting wires and its relationship with the heat treatment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallecchi, I.; Leveratto, A.; Braccini, V.; Zunino, V.; Malagoli, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of each different heat treatment stage in the fabrication of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconducting wires on intra-grain and inter-grain superconducting properties. We measure magnetic critical temperature T c values and transport critical current density J c at temperatures from 4 K to 40 K and in fields up to 7 T. From an analysis of the temperature dependence of the self-field critical current density J c(T) that takes into account weak link behavior and the proximity effect, we study grain boundary (GB) transparency to supercurrents; we also establish a relationship between GB oxygenation in the different steps of the fabrication process and GB transparency to supercurrents. We find that GB oxygenation starts in the first crystallization stage, but it becomes complete in the plateau at 836 °C and in slow cooling stages and is further enhanced in the prolonged post-annealing step. Such oxygenation makes GBs more conductive, thus improving the inter-grain J c value and temperature dependence. On the other hand, from inspection of the T c values in the framework of the phase diagram dome, we find that grains are already oxygenated in the crystallization step up to the optimal doping, while successive slow cooling and post-annealing treatments further enhance the degree of overdoping, especially if carried out in oxygen atmosphere rather than in air.

  16. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  17. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  18. Increasing the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions: protocol and intervention design of the MacPLUS FS Factorial Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Iserman, Emma; Hobson, Nicholas; Cohen, Natasha; Cohen, Adam; Roshanov, Pavel S; Perez, Miguel; Cotoi, Chris; Parrish, Rick; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Iorio, Alfonso; Haynes, R Brian

    2014-09-20

    Finding current best evidence for clinical decisions remains challenging. With 3,000 new studies published every day, no single evidence-based resource provides all answers or is sufficiently updated. McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service--Federated Search (MacPLUS FS) addresses this issue by looking in multiple high quality resources simultaneously and displaying results in a one-page pyramid with the most clinically useful at the top. Yet, additional logistical and educational barriers need to be addressed to enhance point-of-care evidence retrieval. This trial seeks to test three innovative interventions, among clinicians registered to MacPLUS FS, to increase the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions. In a user-centered approach, we designed three interventions embedded in MacPLUS FS: (A) a web-based Clinical Question Recorder; (B) an Evidence Retrieval Coach composed of eight short educational videos; (C) an Audit, Feedback and Gamification approach to evidence retrieval, based on the allocation of 'badges' and 'reputation scores.' We will conduct a randomized factorial controlled trial among all the 904 eligible medical doctors currently registered to MacPLUS FS at the hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Canada. Postgraduate trainees (n=429) and clinical faculty/staff (n=475) will be randomized to each of the three following interventions in a factorial design (AxBxC). Utilization will be continuously recorded through clinicians’ accounts that track logins and usage, down to the level of individual keystrokes. The primary outcome is the rate of searches per month per user during the six months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes, measured through the validated Impact Assessment Method questionnaire, include: utility of answers found (meeting clinicians’ information needs), use (application in practice), and perceived usefulness on patient outcomes. Built on effective models for the point

  19. Randomised comparison of the effectiveness of the laryngeal mask airway supreme, i-gel and current practice in the initial airway management of prehospital cardiac arrest (REVIVE-Airways): a feasibility study research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benger, Jonathan Richard; Voss, Sarah; Coates, David; Greenwood, Rosemary; Nolan, Jerry; Rawstorne, Steven; Rhys, Megan; Thomas, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation with appropriate airway management improves outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Historically, tracheal intubation has been accepted as the optimal form of OHCA airway management in the UK. The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee recently concluded that newer supraglottic airway devices (SADs) are safe and effective devices for hospital procedures and that their use in OHCA should be investigated. This study will address an identified gap in current knowledge by assessing whether it is feasible to use a cluster randomised design to compare SADs with current practice, and also to each other, during OHCA. The primary objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of a cluster randomised trial to compare the ventilation success of two newer SADs: the i-gel and the laryngeal mask airway supreme to usual practice during the initial airway management of OHCA. The secondary objectives are to collect data on ventilation success, further airway interventions required, loss of a previously established airway during transport, airway management on arrival at hospital (or termination of the resuscitation attempt), initial resuscitation success, survival to intensive care admission, survival to hospital discharge and patient outcome at 3 months. Ambulance paramedics will be randomly allocated to one of the three methods of airway management. Adults in medical OHCA attended by a trial paramedic will be eligible for the study. Approval for the study has been obtained from a National Health Service Research Ethics Committee with authority to review proposals for trials of a medical device in incapacitated adults. The results will be made publicly available on an open access website, and we will publish the findings in appropriate journals and present them at national and international conferences relevant to the subject field. ISRCTN: 18528625.

  20. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Chen, Gongliang; Li, Jianhua; Li, Linsen; Alzahrani, Bander

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  1. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Mehmood

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  2. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  3. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  4. Current situation of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) in Chinese patients older than 40 years with airflow limitation: rationale and design for a multicenter, cross-sectional trial (study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yao, Wanzhen; Cai, Baiqiang; Chen, Ping; Ling, Xia; Shang, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the frequently occurring chronic airway diseases, and the overlapping syndrome observed in the majority of patients has been recently defined as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung (GOLD, 2014) and Global initiative for Asthma (GINA, 2015). The proportion, features, and clinical practice of ACOS still remain elusive in China. We are conducting this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study (NCT02600221) to investigate the distributions of chronic obstructive diseases in patients >40 years of age with chronic airflow limitation in China along with determination of the main clinical practice and features of these diseases. The study will also explore the factors that may influence the exacerbations and severity of ACOS in Chinese patients (>40 years of age). A total of 2,000 patients (age, ≥40 years; either sex) who are clinically diagnosed as having asthma, COPD/chronic bronchitis/emphysema, or ACOS for at least 12 months with airflow limitation [post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC): current situation, main clinical practice, and features of ACOS, asthma, and COPD conditions in Chinese patients. The insights will be helpful in designing optimal management strategies for ACOS and redefining the healthcare development programs.

  5. Stator current harmonics evolution by neural network method based on CFE/SS algorithm for ACEC generator of Rey Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Mirabedini, H.

    2001-01-01

    One method for on-line fault diagnosis in synchronous generator is stator current harmonics analysis. Then artificial neural network is considered in this paper in order to evaluate stator current harmonics in different loads. Training set of artificial neural network is made ready by generator modeling, finite element method and state space model. Many points from generator capability curve are used in order to complete this set. Artificial neural network which is used in this paper is a percept ron network with a single hidden layer, Eight hidden neurons and back propagation algorithm. Results are indicated that the trained artificial neural network can identify stator current harmonics for arbitrary load from the capability curve. The error is less than 10% in comparison with values obtained directly from the CFE-SS algorithm. The rating parameters of modeled generator are 43950 (kV A), 11(KV), 3000 (rpm), 50 (H Z), (P F=0.8)

  6. An improved low-voltage ride-through performance of DFIG based wind plant using stator dynamic composite fault current limiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, P K; Chatterjee, D; Goswami, S K

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an enhanced low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) performance of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has been presented with the usage of stator dynamic composite fault current limiter (SDCFCL). This protection circuit comprises of a suitable series resistor-inductor combination and parallel bidirectional semiconductor switch. The SDCFCL facilitates double benefits such as reduction of rotor induced open circuit voltage due to increased value of stator total inductance and concurrent increase of rotor impedance. Both effects will limit rotor circuit over current and over voltage situation more secured way in comparison to the conventional scheme like the dynamic rotor current limiter (RCL) during any type of fault situation. The proposed concept is validated through the simulation study of the grid integrated 2.0MW DFIG. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Roadmap on Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies in Current and Future Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) recently sponsored the creation of a roadmap for instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technology development. The roadmap represents the collective efforts of a group of subject matter experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, vendors, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and utilities. It is intended to provide the underpinnings to the government sponsored ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) performed in the United States for the next several years. A distinguishing feature of this roadmapping effort is that it is not limited to a technology progression plan but includes a detailed rationale, aimed at the nonspecialist, for the existence of a focused ICHMI RD and D program. Eight specific technology areas were identified for focused RD and D as follows: (1) sensors and electronics for harsh environments,(2) uncertainty characterization for diagnostics/prognostics applications, (3) quantification of software quality for high-integrity digital applications, (4) intelligent controls for nearly autonomous operation of advanced nuclear plants, (5) plant network architecture, (6) intelligent aiding technology for operational support, (7) human system interaction models and analysis tools, and (8) licensing and regulatory challenges and solutions.

  8. Analyses of occupational radiation exposure received at Gundremmingen nuclear power station, and its implications on the design of current and future power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickelpasch, N.; Pfeiffer, K.W.; Peter, H.

    1977-01-01

    In 1976, the 250 MW Gundremmingen nuclear power station (KRB) completed its first decade of operation. The accumulated activity built-up due to corrosion products in the primary system, the condition of the plant and the methods of radiation work management determine the occupational exposure. The development and the general features of these three parameters are presented in detail. Job related exposure accounting has proven to be an effective means of radiation management. By this means up to 90% of the total radiation exposure could be traced with an accuracy of about 10 mrem. It is shown that up to 40% of the total exposure originate not from primary work but from associating jobs, e.g. work area preparation and testing efforts. Especially in this field a remarkable reduction of the occupational dose rate can be achieved by precise planning. The ten-year radiation protection history of KRB served as a design basis with the objective to reduce occupational radiation exposure. Examples are given how this influenced not only the design of relevant systems but also their accomodation, arrangement and shielding with regard to maintenance and repair work during reactor outage. Physical separation of the components and valves from the associated actuators, controls and instruments was provided to reduce personnel radiation exposure during plant operation. Provisions were also made to avoid contamination of the building atmosphere and to reduce the release of radioactivity via the ventilation systems

  9. Novel protocol for persister cells isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia J Cañas-Duarte

    Full Text Available Bacterial persistence, where a fraction of a population presents a transient resistance to bactericidal substances, has great medical importance due to its relation with the appearance of antibiotic resistances and untreatable bacterial chronic infections. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown in spite of recent advances, in great part because of the difficulty in isolating the very small fraction of the population that is in this state at any given time. Current protocols for persister isolation have resulted in possible biases because of the induction of this state by the protocol itself. Here we present a novel protocol that allows rapid isolation of persister cells both from exponential and stationary phase. Moreover, it is capable of differentiating between type I and type II persister cells, which should allow the field to move beyond its current state of studying only one type. While this protocol prompts a revision of many of the current results, it should greatly facilitate further advances in the field.

  10. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  11. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  12. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  13. Improving plant bioaccumulation science through consistent reporting of experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Arnot, Jon A.; Doucette, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data and models for plant bioaccumulation of organic contaminants play a crucial role for assessing the potential human and ecological risks associated with chemical use. Plants are receptor organisms and direct or indirect vectors for chemical exposures to all other organisms. As new...... experimental data are generated they are used to improve our understanding of plant-chemical interactions that in turn allows for the development of better scientific knowledge and conceptual and predictive models. The interrelationship between experimental data and model development is an ongoing, never......-ending process needed to advance our ability to provide reliable quality information that can be used in various contexts including regulatory risk assessment. However, relatively few standard experimental protocols for generating plant bioaccumulation data are currently available and because of inconsistent...

  14. Comparing high altitude treatment with current best care in Dutch children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (and asthma): study protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (DAVOS trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Karin B; Zijlstra, Wieneke T; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Meijer, Yolanda; Venema, Monica Uniken; Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, Lous; l'Hoir, Monique P; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2014-03-26

    evidence for the efficacy of high altitude treatment compared to treatment at sea level for children with moderate to severe AD. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN88136485.

  15. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  16. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  17. Croatia energy planning and Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, Neven; Juretic, Franjo; Zeljko, Mladen; Bogdan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Croatia as an Annex I country of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and a country that has pledged in the Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its GHG emissions by 5% will have to envisage a new energy strategy. Compared to the energy consumption collapse in some transitional countries, Croatia has passed through a relatively short-term reduction of GHG emissions since 1990 because of higher energy efficiency of its pretransition economy. It is expected that in case of baseline scenario, it will breach the Kyoto target in 2003. Several scenarios of power generation are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions. The cost-effective scenario expects a mixture of coal and gas fired power plants to be built to satisfy the new demand and to replace the old power plants that are being decommissioned. More Kyoto friendly scenario envisages forcing the compliance with the Protocol with measures only in power generation sector by the construction of mainly zero emission generating capacity in the future, while decommissioning the old plants as planned, and is compared to the others from the GHG emissions point of view. The conclusion is that by measures tackling only power generation, it will not be possible to keep GHG emission under the Kyoto target level. The case of including the emissions from Croatian owned power plants in former Yugoslavia is also discussed

  18. Radon in large buildings: The development of a protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed

  19. Two Phases Authentication Level (TPAL) protocol for nodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... node may contain sensitive informations such as military data and monitoring data. ... LLN is a kind of Internet of Things (IoT) network with limited power source ... Current authentication Internet protocols cannot be adopted directly into LLN ...

  20. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  1. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  2. How to go on with Czech uranium: does current uranium mining in the Czech Republic cover Czech nuclear power plants' needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalek, Bedrich

    2009-01-01

    The overview covers the history of uranium mining in the Czech Republic (description of the deposits and overview of their exploitation) and current needs for uranium and the status of uranium resources in the Czech Republic (uranium mining at the Rozna deposit, overview of exploitation of the deposit, uranium ore reserves, possibilities of future use of the Rozna deposit, the Brzkov and Horni Veznice deposits, and the use of mine waters as a secondary uranium source). It is concluded that in view of the current development of uses of raw materials for the power sector worldwide and increasing dependence of many countries (including the Czech Republic) on imports of such raw materials (often from politically unstable countries) it is strategically important to maintain domestic uranium mining to cover the needs of the Czech power sector. Uranium reserves and preconditions for their mining still exist in this country. (P.A.)

  3. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  4. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  5. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  6. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    diverse local-area networks, this protocol offers both (1) a random- access mode needed for the early PFF deployment phase and (2) a time-bounded-services mode needed during PFF-maintenance operations. Switching between these two modes could be controlled by upper-layer entities using standard link-management mechanisms. Because the early deployment phase of a PFF mission can be expected to involve multihop relaying to achieve network connectivity (see figure), the proposed protocol includes the open shortest path first (OSPF) network protocol that is commonly used in the Internet. Each spacecraft in a PFF network would be in one of seven distinct states as the mission evolved from initial deployment, through coarse formation, and into precise formation. Reconfiguration of the formation to perform different scientific observations would also cause state changes among the network nodes. The application protocol provides for recognition and tracking of the seven states for each node and for protocol changes under specified conditions to adapt the network and satisfy communication requirements associated with the current PFF mission phase. Except during early deployment, when peer-to-peer random access discovery methods would be used, the application protocol provides for operation in a centralized manner.

  7. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  8. SACRI: A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.N.; Follesoe, K.; Volden, F.S.; Torralba, B.

    1994-01-01

    Control room operator support systems and their interface designs have as one goal the enhancement of the operators' situation awareness of the dynamically changing process state. This paper describes a technique for measuring situation awareness within the Human Factors evaluation of control room operator-system interfaces. The technique, referred to as SACRI, has been evaluated in four simulator studies and the main findings from these studies are summarized in this paper. It is concluded that SACRI can be a useful supplement to operator performance measures currently existing for use within control room interface evaluations. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  10. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  11. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  12. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  13. Epidemiological studies of Fukushima residents exposed to ionising radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant prefecture—a preliminary review of current plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    It is now more than six months since the beginning of the accident on 11 March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The Japanese government and local health authorities have started to collect the information necessary to estimate radiation doses received by those living in the area around the plant, drafted plans for the health care of residents, and started to implement some of them. This paper reviews and discusses the studies necessary for risk evaluation of cancer and non-cancer diseases, including those already planned, mainly from the view point of evaluating health risk using epidemiological approaches. In the long run, it is important to establish a cohort with a control group. Even if the cumulative doses are estimated to be so low that it is difficult to evaluate the risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases, it is necessary to conduct such a study to reassure residents. The health care programme of the Fukushima Prefecture government, including health check-ups of residents, will help to assess indirect effects of radiation exposure, including psychological problems. The success of any studies of radiation epidemiology depends on the collection of accurate information on radiation doses received by the study subjects. However, some of the dosimetry surveys were not conducted in a timely manner. (It should be recognised, though, that such a problem might have been inevitable, considering the chaotic condition after the nuclear accident.) Accurate estimation of the radiation dose received by each resident is not only important for scientific risk evaluation but also to inform each resident about his or her potential risk. Otherwise, residents will bear an undue psychological burden from uncertainties regarding their radiation exposure and its health consequences. One of other important tasks in Fukushima is the improvement of the quality of the regional cancer registry in this prefecture. It is also important to start thyroid cancer

  14. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF, and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89% were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; P = NS. Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant P values.

  15. Comparison between two clomiphene citrate protocols for induction of ovulation in clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Sheikh-El-Arab Elsedeek

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The current study reports significantly higher ovulation and pregnancy rates with the longer lower dose protocol probably because of prolonged FSH rise. Study web address: ACTRN12611000639921.

  16. Development of regulatory guidance on safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany. A survey on accomplished and current PSA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.-P.; Froehmel, T.; Goertz, R.; Rehs, B.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the key points of the accomplished and current regulatory activities in order to revise PSA guide and the corresponding technical documents in Germany. The regulatory German PSA guide covers the fundamental requirements concerning the performance of PSAs in the frame of comprehensive safety reviews. The technical details regarding the performance of PSA are set out in two technical documents (PSA Methods and PSA Data) that have been developed by a working group of PSA experts (FAK PSA). Based on the experiences from the first series of PSRs, international experiences and the fact that PSR is mandatory since April 2002 revisions of all guides are underway. The first guide to be updated is the PSA guide together with the corresponding technical documents. The working programme and the revision process of FAK PSA was finished at the end of 2004 and the technical documents have recently been republished. (author)

  17. Preparative isolation and purification of three stilbene glycosides from the tibetan medicinal plant Rheum tanguticum maxim. Ex Balf. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Han, Fa; Li, Yu-Lin; Yue, Hui-Lan

    2013-02-01

    Stilbene glycosides are the primary constituents of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf., to which different bioactivities has been attributed, including: anti-HIV, anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, anti-malarial, and anti-allergy activity. However, effective methods for the isolation and purification of stilbene glycosides, such as trans-rhapontin, cis-rhapontin and trans-desoxyrhaponticin, from this herb are not currently available. To develop an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of three stilbene glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. via high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A solvent system composed of chloroform:n-butanol:methanol:water (4:1:3:2, v/v/v/v) was developed for the separation. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.8 mL/min. The apparatus was controlled at 800 rpm and 25 °C, and the effluent was monitored at 280 nm. Chemical constituents were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their structures were identified by ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR. Under the optimised conditions, 25.5 mg trans-rhapontin, 16.0 mg cis-rhapontin and 20.5 mg trans-desoxyrhaponticin were separated from 80 mg crude sample; the isolates had purities of 99.6, 97.2 and 99.2%, respectively. A simple and efficient HSCCC method has been optimised for the preparative separation of stilbene glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  19. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  20. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  1. Concentration/time-dependent dissipation, partitioning and plant accumulation of hazardous current-used pesticides and 2-hydroxyatrazine in sand and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, Natália; Bílková, Zuzana; Vašíčková, Jana; Hofman, Jakub; Bielská, Lucie

    2018-07-01

    The dissipation, partitioning dynamics and biouptake was measured for selected hazardous current-used pesticides (conazole fungicides: epoxiconazole, flusilazole, tebuconazole; prochloraz, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin) and for a transformation product (2-hydroxyatrazine) in agricultural soil and quartz sand as representatives of a real and a worst-case scenario. Dissipation, uptake to Lactuca sativa and the freely dissolved concentration along with the organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K oc ) were determined on days 12, 40, and 90 following the application of compounds at three fortification levels (0.1-1.0-10 mg/kg). Conazole fungicides showed similar dissipation patterns and were more persistent in soil than prochloraz, chlorpyrifos and pendimethalin. 2-Hydroxyatrazine showed a concentration-depended decrease in persistency in soil. Lettuce roots were shown to accumulate higher amounts than shoots where the extent of root uptake was driven by compound partitioning. This was evidenced by the ability of freely dissolved concentration (C free ) to reliably (r 2  = 0.94) predict root uptake. Concentration in leaves did not exceed the maximum residue levels (MRLs) for lettuce, which was likely given by the low root-to-shoot translocation factors (TFs) of the tested compounds varying between 0.007 and 0.14. K oc values were in the range of literature values. Sorption to soil was higher than to sand for all compounds, yet following the K oc dynamics compounds did not appear to be sequestered in soil with increasing residence time. From these results, it follows that the tested compounds may persist in soil but since they did not accumulate in lettuce above MRLs, contamination of the food web is unlikely. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Authentication Protocols for Internet of Things: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amine Ferrag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive survey of authentication protocols for Internet of Things (IoT is presented. Specifically more than forty authentication protocols developed for or applied in the context of the IoT are selected and examined in detail. These protocols are categorized based on the target environment: (1 Machine to Machine Communications (M2M, (2 Internet of Vehicles (IoV, (3 Internet of Energy (IoE, and (4 Internet of Sensors (IoS. Threat models, countermeasures, and formal security verification techniques used in authentication protocols for the IoT are presented. In addition a taxonomy and comparison of authentication protocols that are developed for the IoT in terms of network model, specific security goals, main processes, computation complexity, and communication overhead are provided. Based on the current survey, open issues are identified and future research directions are proposed.

  3. Recommendations for Enhancing Implementation of Additional Protocol Declarations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Nidaira, Kazuo; Aono, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    Japan signed the Additional Protocol (hereafter, AP) in December 1998. The domestic law and regulation had been revised to implement the initial and annual declarations for the Agency and the Additional Protocol came into force in December 1999. Since initial declaration in 2000, Japan has submitted the annual declaration in every May. Until 2010, Japan has made 10 annual declarations. This paper gives recommendations to enhance implementation of Additional Protocol declarations based on 10-year experience in Japan and addresses the following: Current status of additional protocol declaration in Japan; Outline of processing method; AP Information Management System; Recommendations for improving quality of declaration. Preparation of additional protocol declaration in NMCC has been conducted in the course of contract with Japan Safeguards Office (hereafter, JSGO) for safeguards information treatment. (author)

  4. Extraction and analysis of intact glucosinolates--a validated pressurized liquid extraction/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocol for Isatis tinctoria, and qualitative analysis of other cruciferous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Cutting, Brian; Ernst, Beat; Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-09-28

    Glucosinolates have attracted significant interest due to the chemopreventive properties of some of their transformation products. Numerous protocols for the extraction and analysis of glucosinolates have been published, but limited effort has been devoted to optimize and validate crucial extraction parameters and sample preparation steps. We carried out a systematic optimization and validation of a quantitative assay for the direct analysis of intact glucosinolates in Isatis tinctoria leaves (woad, Brassicaceae). Various parameters such as solvent composition, particle size, temperature, and number of required extraction steps were optimized using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). We observed thermal degradation of glucosinolates at temperatures above 50 degrees C, and loss of >60% within 10min at 100 degrees C, but no enzymatic degradation in the leaf samples at ambient temperature. Excellent peak shape and resolution was obtained by reversed-phase chromatography on a Phenomenex Aqua column using 10mM ammonium formate as ion-pair reagent. Detection was carried out by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Analysis of cruciferous vegetables and spices such as broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and black mustard (Sinapis nigra L.) demonstrated the general applicability of the method.

  5. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  6. Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Young Kil

    2004-02-01

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants

  7. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. Short communication. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of. Campylobacter spp. from environmental waters. SM Diergaardt, SN Venter*, M Chalmers, J Theron and VS Brözel. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, ...

  9. Efficient in vitro regeneration protocol of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present communication reports an efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration protocol for endemic umbellifer Centella asiatica (L.) urban via callus mediated organogenesis from leaf and stem explants. The plant is pharmacologically very important and its consumption as underutilized green leafy vegetable affluent in ...

  10. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  11. Handbook of plant cell culture. Volume 2. Crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.R.; Evans, D.A.; Ammirato, P.V.; Yamada, Y. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    In this volume the state-of-the-art plant cell culture techniques described in the first volume are applied to several agricultural and horticultural crops. In 21 chapters, they include maize, oats, wheat, beans, red clover and other forage legumes, asparagus, celery, cassava, sweet potato, banana, pawpaw, apple, grapes, conifers, date palm, rubber, sugarcane and tobacco. Each chapter contains (1) detailed protocols to serve as the foundation for current research, (2) a critical review of the literature, and (3) in-depth evaluations of the potential shown by plant cell culture for crop improvement. The history and economic importance of each crop are discussed. This volume also includes an essay, ''Oil from plants'', by M. Calvin.

  12. Protocols for pressure ulcer prevention: are they evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Lidice M; Grypdonck, Mieke H F; Defloor, Tom

    2010-03-01

    This study is a report of a study to determine the quality of protocols for pressure ulcer prevention in home care in the Netherlands. If pressure ulcer prevention protocols are evidence-based and practitioners use them correctly in practice, this will result a reduction in pressure ulcers. Very little is known about the evidence-based content and quality of the pressure ulcer prevention protocols. In 2008, current pressure ulcer prevention protocols from 24 home-care agencies in the Netherlands were evaluated. A checklist developed and validated by two pressure ulcer prevention experts was used to assess the quality of the protocols, and weighted and unweighted quality scores were computed and analysed using descriptive statistics. The 24 pressure ulcer prevention protocols had a mean weighted quality score of 63.38 points out of a maximum of 100 (sd 5). The importance of observing the skin at the pressure points at least once a day was emphasized in 75% of the protocols. Only 42% correctly warned against the use of materials that were 'less effective or that could potentially cause harm'. Pressure ulcer prevention commands a reasonable amount of attention in home care, but the incidence of pressure ulcers and lack of a consistent, standardized document for use in actual practice indicate a need for systematic implementation of national pressure ulcer prevention standards in the Netherlands to ensure adherence to the established protocols.

  13. [Computerized clinical protocol for occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsench, J; Ferrer, J; Nogueras, J

    1988-11-01

    In making a protocol it is necessary that all members of the team who are going to collect information have the same unity of criterion about the different variables that compose it. The drawing up of this document is as much or more necessary than the protocol itself. In this work we all data collected in the protocol and we give the explanations of each concept.

  14. The current situation of SHPs (small-scale hydroelectric power plant) in the Southeast and Northeast regions of Brazil; O panorama atual das PCHs (pequenas centrais hidreletricas) na regiao sudeste e nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais; Stano Junior, Angelo [PCH Luiz Dias, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Campos, Bruno Thiago Lopes da Costa; Silva, Evilene Santos [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH), Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], Emails: tiago@unifei.edu.br, stano@unifei.edu.br, brunoloppez@unifei.edu.br, evilene@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    With the recent changes in the regulatory mark and also with the creation of the market of Brazilian energy, it reappears the Small Hydro Power Plant - SHP's economic strategic for the decentralizes generation to the attendance of small consuming centers. This article presents the current situation of SHP's in the Southeast and Northeast areas of the Country, besides treating in a wider context, of the need of investments in power generation starting from this renewable energy model for attendance of some communities of those areas that still lack of this benefit. The electrification process should not be seen only by the optics of the financial attractiveness, because an important part of rural homes still exists without light, but also as a social investment, capable to rescue citizenship to take education and respect to the rural communities of those areas. (author)

  15. Australian high-dose-rate brachytherapy protocols for gynaecological malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.; Dally, M.; Stevens, M.; Thornton, D.; Carruthers, S.; Jeal, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is no consensus over the optimal dose fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy used for gynaecological malignancy. In Australian public hospital departments of radiation oncology, HDR brachytherapy for gynaecological cancer is being more commonly used. A survey of public departments that are using this technology, or that plan to introduce this technology, was performed. Their current protocols are presented. In general, protocols are similar biologically; however, the practical aspects such as the number of fractions given do vary and may reflect resource restrictions or, alternatively, differences in interpretations of the literature and of the best protocols by clinicians. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  17. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  18. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  19. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  20. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  1. Proof Theory, Transformations, and Logic Programming for Debugging Security Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettorossi, Alberto; Delzanno, Giorgio; Etalle, Sandro

    2001-01-01

    We define a sequent calculus to formally specify, simulate, debug and verify security protocols. In our sequents we distinguish between the current knowledge of principals and the current global state of the session. Hereby, we can describe the operational semantics of principals and of an intruder

  2. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, Richard S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Zoology. Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  3. Supporting Tablet Configuration, Tracking, and Infection Control Practices in Digital Health Interventions: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Robert D; Ortiz, Alexa M; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-06-27

    Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Develop three protocols to support tablet configuration, tablet management, and tablet maintenance. The Configurator software, Tile technology, and current infection control recommendations were employed to develop three distinct protocols for tablet-based digital health interventions. Configurator is a mobile device management software specifically for iPhone operating system (iOS) devices. The capabilities and current applications of Configurator were reviewed and used to develop the protocol to support device configuration. Tile is a tracking tag associated with a free mobile app available for iOS and Android devices. The features associated with Tile were evaluated and used to develop the Tile protocol to support tablet management. Furthermore, current recommendations on preventing health care-related infections were reviewed to develop the infection control protocol to support tablet maintenance. This article provides three protocols: the Configurator protocol, the Tile protocol, and the infection control protocol. These protocols can help to ensure consistent implementation of tablet-based interventions, enhance fidelity when employing tablets for research purposes, and serve as a guide for tablet deployments within clinical settings.

  4. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  5. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokharel, Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  6. An electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS). Document architecture for specimen management and the exchange of specimen collection protocols between biobanking information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, O; Semjonow, A; Oezguer, E; Herden, J; Akbarov, I; Tok, A; Engelmann, U; Wille, S

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of collection protocols in biobanking is essential for a high-quality sample preparation process. However, there is not currently a well-defined universal method for integrating collection protocols in the biobanking information system (BIMS). Therefore, an electronic schema of the collection protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) is required to maintain the integrity and enable the exchange of collection protocols. The development and implementation of an electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS) was performed at two institutions (Muenster and Cologne) in three stages. First, we analyzed the infrastructure that was already established at both the biorepository and the hospital information systems of these institutions and determined the requirements for the sufficient preparation of specimens and documentation. Second, we designed an eSCPS according to these requirements. Finally, a prospective study was conducted to implement and evaluate the novel schema in the current BIMS. We designed an eSCPS that provides all of the relevant information about collection protocols. Ten electronic collection protocols were generated using the supplementary Protocol Editor tool, and these protocols were successfully implemented in the existing BIMS. Moreover, an electronic list of collection protocols for the current studies being performed at each institution was included, new collection protocols were added, and the existing protocols were redesigned to be modifiable. The documentation time was significantly reduced after implementing the eSCPS (5 ± 2 min vs. 7 ± 3 min; p = 0.0002). The eSCPS improves the integrity and facilitates the exchange of specimen collection protocols in the existing open-source BIMS.

  7. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  8. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  9. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tiessen, Alex [Posterity Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2017-10-06

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller - or multiple chillers - and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components.

  10. Quantum deterministic key distribution protocols based on the authenticated entanglement channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Nanrun; Wang Lijun; Ding Jie; Gong Lihua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the quantum entanglement channel, two secure quantum deterministic key distribution (QDKD) protocols are proposed. Unlike quantum random key distribution (QRKD) protocols, the proposed QDKD protocols can distribute the deterministic key securely, which is of significant importance in the field of key management. The security of the proposed QDKD protocols is analyzed in detail using information theory. It is shown that the proposed QDKD protocols can safely and effectively hand over the deterministic key to the specific receiver and their physical implementation is feasible with current technology.

  11. Quantum deterministic key distribution protocols based on the authenticated entanglement channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Nanrun; Wang Lijun; Ding Jie; Gong Lihua [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)], E-mail: znr21@163.com, E-mail: znr21@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Based on the quantum entanglement channel, two secure quantum deterministic key distribution (QDKD) protocols are proposed. Unlike quantum random key distribution (QRKD) protocols, the proposed QDKD protocols can distribute the deterministic key securely, which is of significant importance in the field of key management. The security of the proposed QDKD protocols is analyzed in detail using information theory. It is shown that the proposed QDKD protocols can safely and effectively hand over the deterministic key to the specific receiver and their physical implementation is feasible with current technology.

  12. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  13. Redactions in protocols for drug trials: what industry sponsors concealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardsen, Mikkel; Ogden, Michelle; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2018-04-01

    Objective To describe the redactions in contemporary protocols for industry-sponsored randomised drug trials with patient relevant outcomes and to evaluate whether there was a legitimate rationale for the redactions. Design Cohort study. Under the Freedom of Information Act, we requested access to trial protocols approved by a research ethics committee in Denmark from October 2012 to March 2013. We received 17 consecutive protocols, which had been redacted before we got them, and nine protocols without redactions. In five additional cases, the companies refused to let the committees give us access, and in three other cases, documents were missing. Participants Not applicable. Setting Not applicable. Main outcome measure Amount and nature of redactions in 22 predefined key protocol variables. Results The redactions were most widespread in those sections of the protocol where there is empirical evidence of substantial problems with the trustworthiness of published drug trials: data analysis, handling of missing data, detection and analysis of adverse events, definition of the outcomes, interim analyses and premature termination of the study, sponsor's access to incoming data while the study is running, ownership to the data and investigators' publication rights. The parts of the text that were redacted differed widely, both between companies and within the same company. Conclusions We could not identify any legitimate rationale for the redactions. The current mistrust in industry-sponsored drug trials can only change if the industry offers unconditional access to its trial protocols and other relevant documents and data.

  14. Protocol compliance and time management in blunt trauma resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjersberg, W R; Bergs, E A; Mushkudiani, N; Klimek, M; Schipper, I B

    2009-01-01

    To study advanced trauma life support (ATLS) protocol adherence prospectively in trauma resuscitation and to analyse time management of daily multidisciplinary trauma resuscitation at a level 1 trauma centre, for both moderately and severely injured patients. All victims of severe blunt trauma were consecutively included. Patients with a revised trauma score (RTS) of 12 were resuscitated by a "minor trauma" team and patients with an RTS of less than 12 were resuscitated by a "severe trauma" team. Digital video recordings were used to analyse protocol compliance and time management during initial assessment. From 1 May to 1 September 2003, 193 resuscitations were included. The "minor trauma" team assessed 119 patients, with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 7 (range 1-45). Overall protocol compliance was 42%, ranging from 0% for thoracic percussion to 93% for thoracic auscultation. The median resuscitation time was 45.9 minutes (range 39.7-55.9). The "severe team" assessed 74 patients, with a mean ISS of 22 (range 1-59). Overall protocol compliance was 53%, ranging from 4% for thoracic percussion to 95% for thoracic auscultation. Resuscitation took 34.8 minutes median (range 21.6-44.1). Results showed the current trauma resuscitation to be ATLS-like, with sometimes very low protocol compliance rates. Timing of secondary survey and radiology and thus time efficiency remains a challenge in all trauma patients. To assess the effect of trauma resuscitation protocols on outcome, protocol adherence needs to be improved.

  15. Performance analysis of routing protocols for IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Sridhar; Nalini, N.

    2018-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an arrangement of advancements that are between disciplinary. It is utilized to have compelling combination of both physical and computerized things. With IoT physical things can have personal virtual identities and participate in distributed computing. Realization of IoT needs the usage of sensors based on the sector for which IoT is integrated. For instance, in healthcare domain, IoT needs to have integration with wearable sensors used by patients. As sensor devices produce huge amount of data, often called big data, there should be efficient routing protocols in place. To the extent remote systems is worried there are some current protocols, for example, OLSR, DSR and AODV. It additionally tosses light into Trust based routing protocol for low-power and lossy systems (TRPL) for IoT. These are broadly utilized remote directing protocols. As IoT is developing round the corner, it is basic to investigate routing protocols that and evaluate their execution regarding throughput, end to end delay, and directing overhead. The execution experiences can help in settling on very much educated choices while incorporating remote systems with IoT. In this paper, we analyzed different routing protocols and their performance is compared. It is found that AODV showed better performance than other routing protocols aforementioned.

  16. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  17. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  18. Current issues in plant disease control: Biotechnology and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is the genetic manipulation and multiplication of any living organism through novel techniques and technologies such as tissue culture and genetic engineering in order to produce new organisms and or products that can be used in variety of ways. It is theoretically possible to express virtually any genetic trait ...

  19. current issues in plant disease control: biotechnology and plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    reaction (PCR) techniques are used in the identification of viral and bacterial disease and also new formats using .... process is also enhanced by the enzymatic activity of the RISC .... accumulation of ammonia in tobacco leaves, which causes.

  20. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  1. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  2. Protocol notions from the bibliography of his authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. María Luz Álvarez Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol is a subject that has suffered great changes over the last years in Spain. Its presence at university training has shifted from being a mere anecdote to becoming one more subject to be taught in postgraduate courses endorsed by a big social and professional demand. With the aim of announcing Protocol as a subject to the Spanish academic field, the present article carries out a study of the theoretical situation of this subject and profession in Spain. This research means to get to know the scientific character of Protocol, at the same time as it tries to found such professional side in the current offer of courses and of training. For this reason, this research could be interesting for the Spanish academic field, by helping to explain the reality of Protocol in Spain and to impel its theoretical development in our country.

  3. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  4. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Un protocole pour la modélisation du fonctionnement des stations d'épuration à boues activées GMP Protocol for activated sludge models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILLOT, Sylvie ; LANGERGRABER, Günter ; OHTSUKI, Takayuki ; SHAW, Andrew ; TAKACS, Imre ; WINKLER, Stefan ; RIEGER, Leiv

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Les stations d’épuration sont des systèmes dynamiques, soumis à d’importantes variations temporelles. La modélisation de leur fonctionnement, qui consiste à représenter mathématiquement l’évolution dans le temps de variables d’intérêt représentant les phénomènes biologiques, physiques et chimiques qui se déroulent dans les ouvrages, est utilisée pour mieux comprendre les processus mis en jeu et optimiser le traitement des eaux résiduaires.. Focus sur les activités du groupe de travail Good Modelling Practice de l’IWA, auquel participe activement les équipes d’Irstea, notamment dans l’élaboration d’un protocole pour l’utilisation des modèles de boues activées en pratique.The IWA Task Group on Good Modelling Practice (GMP has analysed current practice and experience on the use of activated sludge models. The group developed a framework to make modelling more straightforward and that helps structuring the interaction between modellers and the project stakeholders. The GMP protocol is a synthesis of existing procedures, and contains five major steps: (i Project definition, (ii Data collection and reconciliation, (iii Plant model set-up, (iv Calibration and validation, and (v Simulation and result interpretation. The Unified Protocol forms the basis of a Scientific and Technical Report that will be published in late 2012.

  6. Biologic comparison of partial breast irradiation protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Lymberis, Stella C.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the dose/fractionation schedules currently used in ongoing clinical trials of partial breast irradiation (PBI) by comparing their biologically effective dose (BED) values to those of three standard whole breast protocols commonly used after segmental mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods and materials: The BED equation derived from the linear-quadratic model for radiation-induced cell killing was used to calculate the BEDs for three commonly used whole breast radiotherapy regimens, in addition to a variety of external beam radiotherapy, as well as high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy, PBI protocols. Results: The BED values of most PBI protocols resulted in tumor control BEDs roughly equivalent to a 50-Gy standard treatment, but consistently lower than the BEDs for regimens in which the tumor bed receives a total dose of either 60 Gy or 66 Gy. The BED values calculated for the acute radiation responses of erythema and desquamation were nearly all lower for the PBI schedules, and the late-response BEDs for most PBI regimens were in a similar range to the BEDs for the standard treatments. Conclusion: Biologically effective dose modeling raises the concern that inadequate doses might be delivered by PBI to ensure optimal in-field tumor control

  7. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  8. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  9. Delay tolerant networks protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos

    2011-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) - which include terrestrial mobile networks, exotic media networks, ad-hoc networks, and sensor networks - are becoming more important and may not be well served by the current end-to-end TCP/IP model. This book provides a self-contained, one-stop reference for researchers and practitioners who are looking toward the future of networking. The text presents a systematic exploration of DTN concepts, architectures, protocols, enabling technologies, and applications. It also discusses various challenges associated with DTN. The author includes a wealth of illustrative

  10. Cognitive Radio MAC Protocol for WLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank H.P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    hole; moreover, it designs dual inband sensing scheme to detect primary user appearance. Additionally, C-CSMA/CA has the advantage to effectively solve the cognitive radio self-coexistence issues in the overlapping CR BSSs scenario. It also realizes station-based dynamic resource selection......To solve the performance degradation issue in current WLAN caused by the crowded unlicensed spectrum, we propose a cognitive radio (CR) media access protocol, C-CSMA/CA. The basic idea is that with cognitive radio techniques the WLAN devices can not only access the legacy WLAN unlicensed spectrum...

  11. Evaluation of Protocol Uniformity Concerning Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Richard H. M.; van Eijk, Daan J.; Lange, Johan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a current complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One uniform and standardized protocol, based on the “critical view of safety” concept of Strasberg, should reduce the incidence of this complication. Furthermore, owing to the rapid development of minimally invasive surgery, technicians are becoming more frequently involved. To improve communication between the operating team and technicians, standardized actions should also be defined. The aim of this study was to compare existing protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy from various Dutch hospitals. Methods Fifteen Dutch hospitals were contacted for evaluation of their protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All evaluated protocols were divided into six steps and were compared accordingly. Results In total, 13 hospitals responded—5 academic hospitals, 5 teaching hospitals, 3 community hospitals—of which 10 protocols were usable for comparison. Concerning the trocar positions, only minor differences were found. The concept of “critical view of safety” was represented in just one protocol. Furthermore, the order of clipping and cutting the cystic artery and duct differed. Descriptions of instruments and apparatus were also inconsistent. Conclusions Present protocols differ too much to define a universal procedure among surgeons in The Netherlands. The authors propose one (inter)national standardized protocol, including standardized actions. This uniform standardized protocol has to be officially released and recommended by national scientific associations (e.g., the Dutch Society of Surgery) or international societies (e.g., European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons). The aim is to improve patient safety and professional communication, which are necessary for new developments. PMID:18224485

  12. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  13. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Standardised handoff protocols have become necessary patient ... improve the perioperative handoff communications from the cardiac operating theatres to the ICU. ..... as you can imagine, there was push-back to the change.

  14. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  15. The Groningen protocol: another perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jotkowitz, A B; Glick, S

    2006-01-01

    The Groningen protocol allows for the euthanasia of severely ill newborns with a hopeless prognosis and unbearable suffering. We understand the impetus for such a protocol but have moral and ethical concerns with it. Advocates for euthanasia in adults have relied on the concept of human autonomy, which is lacking in the case of infants. In addition, biases can potentially influence the decision making of both parents and physicians. It is also very difficult to weigh the element of quality of...

  16. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  17. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  18. Does Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Combined with Peripheral Electrical Stimulation Have an Additive Effect in the Control of Hip Joint Osteonecrosis Pain Associated with Sickle Cell Disease? A Protocol for a One-Session Double Blind, Block-Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Tiago da Silva; Silva, Wellington Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Sânzia B; Figueiredo, Camila A; Campbell, Fernanda Q; Daltro, Gildasio de Cerqueira; Valenzuela, Antônio; Montoya, Pedro; Lucena, Rita de C S; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is probably related to maladaptive plasticity of brain areas involved in nociceptive processing. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) can modulate cortical excitability and help to control chronic pain. Studies have shown that combined use of tDCS and PES has additive effects. However, to date, no study investigated additive effects of these neuromodulatory techniques on chronic pain in patients with SCD. This protocol describes a study aiming to assess whether combined use of tDCS and PES more effectively alleviate pain in patients with SCD compared to single use of each technique. The study consists of a one-session double blind, block-randomized clinical trial (NCT02813629) in which 128 participants with SCD and femoral osteonecrosis will be enrolled. Stepwise procedures will occur on two independent days. On day 1, participants will be screened for eligibility criteria. On day 2, data collection will occur in four stages: sample characterization, baseline assessment, intervention, and post-intervention assessment. These procedures will last ~5 h. Participants will be divided into two groups according to homozygous for S allele (HbSS) ( n = 64) and heterozygous for S and C alleles (HbSC) ( n = 64) genotypes. Participants in each group will be randomly assigned, equally, to one of the following interventions: (1) active tDCS + active PES; (2) active tDCS + sham PES; (3) sham tDCS + active PES; and (4) sham tDCS + sham PES. Active tDCS intervention will consist of 20 min 2 mA anodic stimulation over the primary motor cortex contralateral to the most painful hip. Active PES intervention will consist of 30 min sensory electrical stimulation at 100 Hz over the most painful hip. The main study outcome will be pain intensity, measured by a Visual Analogue Scale. In addition, electroencephalographic power density, cortical maps of the gluteus maximus muscle elicited by

  19. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  20. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  1. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  2. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  3. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  4. Energy-Aware RFID Anti-Collision Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Laura; Simon, Hugo Landaluce; Ruiz, Asier Perallos

    2018-06-11

    The growing interest in mobile devices is transforming wireless identification technologies. Mobile and battery-powered Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers, such as hand readers and smart phones, are are becoming increasingly attractive. These RFID readers require energy-efficient anti-collision protocols to minimize the tag collisions and to expand the reader's battery life. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in RFID sensor networks with a growing number of RFID sensor tags. Thus, RFID application developers must be mindful of tag anti-collision protocols. Energy-efficient protocols involve a low reader energy consumption per tag. This work presents a thorough study of the reader energy consumption per tag and analyzes the main factor that affects this metric: the frame size update strategy. Using the conclusion of this analysis, the anti-collision protocol Energy-Aware Slotted Aloha (EASA) is presented to decrease the energy consumption per tag. The frame size update strategy of EASA is configured to minimize the energy consumption per tag. As a result, EASA presents an energy-aware frame. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated and compared with several state of the art Aloha-based anti-collision protocols based on the current RFID standard. Simulation results show that EASA, with an average of 15 mJ consumed per tag identified, achieves a 6% average improvement in the energy consumption per tag in relation to the strategies of the comparison.

  5. About the Design of QUIC Firefox Transport Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vraj Pandya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connections Chrome is an experimental transport layer network protocol designed by Jim Roskind at Google, initially implemented in 2012 and announced publicly in 2013. One of the QUIC's goals is to improve performance of connection-oriented web applications that are currently using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP. To do that, QUIC achieves a reduced latency and a better stream-multiplexing support to avoid network congestion. In 2015, Firefox Mozilla started to work on an equivalent QUIC transport protocol for their browser. This idea was motivated by the differences between Chrome and Firefox. Despite the fact that Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome are both web browser engines, there are some significant differences between them, such as file hierarchy, open source policies (Firefox is completely, while Chrome is only partial, tabs design, continuous integration, and more. Likewise QUIC Chrome, QUIC Firefox is a new multiplexed and secure transport based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP, designed from the ground up and optimized for Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol 2 (HTTP/2 semantics. While built with HTTP/2 as the primary application protocol, QUIC builds on decades of transport and security experience, and implements mechanisms that make it attractive as a modern general-purpose transport. In addition to describing the main design of QUIC Firefox, this paper will compare Firefox with QUIC Firefox. Our preliminary experimental results support that QUIC Firefox has a faster execution time, less latency time, and a better throughput time than the traditional Firefox.  

  6. Efficient protocol for rapid Aloe vera micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsaghi, Mozhgan; Moieni, Ahmad; Kahrizi, Danial

    2014-06-01

    Aloe vera Linn. (Liliaceae) is a medicinal plant and has a number of curative properties. Vegetative propagation has not enough potential for supplying market demand. However, via in vitro propagation makes possible the mass production of Aloe plants. The current study was conducted to investigate growth regulators' effects on proliferation of A. vera. In this study, for comparison of plant growth regulators' effects on proliferation, the shoot tips and auxiliary buds of A. vera were cultured in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Rooted plantlets were transferred to garden soil, compost, and sand in the proportion of 1:1:1, respectively, after hardening. The maximum number of shoots was obtained on the medium supplemented with 1 mg/L IAA+4 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L IAA+0.8 BAP mg/L. Rooting was also achieved in the same media composition proliferation of shoot. The acclimatized plants showed 100% of survival. The regenerated plants looked healthy, and they were morphologically similar to that of stock plants. These results suggest that in vitro culture may be used as a technique for rapid propagation of A. vera.

  7. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  8. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  9. Protocollering is essentieel : Behandeling van paracetamolintoxicatie in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, E.N.; Van Den Bemt, P.M.L.A.; Van Zantvoort, C.A.; Touw, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning occurs frequently in the Netherlands. In order to study the way in which paracetamol poisonings are being treated in Dutch hospitals, a survey was sent to all Dutch hospital pharmacies, in which they were asked to sent their current protocol for the treatment of paracetamol

  10. Desensitization to Mycofenolate Mofetil: a novel 12 step protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Gonzalez-Estrada, A; Fernandez, J; Subramanian, A

    2016-07-01

    The use of MMF has become standard practice in many solid organ transplant recipients due its efficacy and favorable risk profile compared to other immunosuppressants. There has been a single case report of successful MMF desensitization. However, this protocol did not follow current Drug practice parameters. We report a successful desensitization to MMF in a double heart-kidney transplant recipient.

  11. Concrete Security for Entity Recognition: The Jane Doe Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucks, Stefan; Zenner, Erik; Weimerskirch, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Entity recognition does not ask whether the message is from some entity X, just whether a message is from the same entity as a previous message. This turns turns out to be very useful for low-end devices. The current paper proposes a new protocol – the “Jane Doe Protocol” –, and provides a formal...

  12. Human Schedule Performance, Protocol Analysis, and the "Silent Dog" Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Francisco; Luciano, Carmen; Gomez, Inmaculada; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to investigate the role of private verbal behavior on the operant performances of human adults, using a protocol analysis procedure with additional methodological controls (the "silent dog" method). Twelve subjects were exposed to fixed ratio 8 and differential reinforcement of low rate 3-s schedules. For…

  13. Evaluation of protocol uniformity concerning laparoscopic cholecystectomy in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S.G.L. Wauben; R.H.M. Goossens (Richard); D.J. van Eijk (Daan); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a current complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One uniform and standardized protocol, based on the "critical view of safety" concept of Strasberg, should reduce the incidence of this complication. Furthermore, owing to the rapid

  14. Development and validation of a remote home safety protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Sergio; Lee, Mi Jung; Simic, Ivana; Levy, Charles; Sanford, Jon

    2018-02-01

    Environmental assessments and subsequent modifications conducted by healthcare professionals can enhance home safety and promote independent living. However, travel time, expense and the availability of qualified professionals can limit the broad application of this intervention. Remote technology has the potential to increase access to home safety evaluations. This study describes the development and validation of a remote home safety protocol that can be used by a caregiver of an elderly person to video-record their home environment for later viewing and evaluation by a trained professional. The protocol was developed based on literature reviews and evaluations from clinical and content experts. Cognitive interviews were conducted with a group of six caregivers to validate the protocol. The final protocol included step-by-step directions to record indoor and outdoor areas of the home. The validation process resulted in modifications related to safety, clarity of the protocol, readability, visual appearance, technical descriptions and usability. Our final protocol includes detailed instructions that a caregiver should be able to follow to record a home environment for subsequent evaluation by a home safety professional. Implications for Rehabilitation The results of this study have several implications for rehabilitation practice The remote home safety evaluation protocol can potentially improve access to rehabilitation services for clients in remote areas and prevent unnecessary delays for needed care. Using our protocol, a patient's caregiver can partner with therapists to quickly and efficiently evaluate a patient's home before they are released from the hospital. Caregiver narration, which reflects a caregiver's own perspective, is critical to evaluating home safety. In-home safety evaluations, currently not available to all who need them due to access barriers, can enhance a patient's independence and provide a safer home environment.

  15. Disinfection Contact Time study plan (100-N Area tracer protocol). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-07-01

    Bechtel Hanford, Inc. will prepare an Engineering Tracer Study Protocol for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Non-transient Non-community water treatment plant for the 100-N Water Plant at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Included in this report are the results of a study that determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and thus the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  16. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  17. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  18. An efficient plant regeneration protocol from petiole explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest percentage of shoot buds induction (64.0%) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.52 mgL-1 TDZ with organic additives; adenine sulphate (50 mgL-1) + glutamine (100 mgL-1) + L-arginine (25 mgL-1) + citric acid (0.0025%) + ascorbic acid (0.005%). A maximum of six shoots per explant were ...

  19. Plant virology protocols: from virus isolation to transgenic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, Gary D; Taylor, Sally C

    1998-01-01

    .... Methods in Molecular Biology™ is a trademark of The Humana Press Inc. All authored papers, comments, opinions, conclusions, or recommendations are those of the author(s), and do not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher. This publication is printed on acid-free paper. ANSI Z39.48-1984 (American Standards Institute) Permanence of Paper for Printed...

  20. Proposal for a Test Protocol for Genetically Modified Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998......The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998...

  1. Development of an efficient plant regeneration protocol for sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UKZN

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... explants produced highly recalcitrant callus that did not regenerate into ... Key words: Tissue culture, regeneration, sweet potato, genetic transformation. .... sterilized in 5% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite solution for 20 min and.

  2. An effective disinfection protocol for plant regeneration from shoot tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... 2National Agriculture and Animal Resources Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Kingdom of Saudi ... If we can obtain explant materials from offshoot, ... 2 – 3 mm were again surface sterilized in sodium hypochlorite.

  3. An Overview and Analysis of Mobile Internet Protocols in Cellular Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Han-Chieh

    2001-01-01

    Notes that cellular is the inevitable future architecture for the personal communication service system. Discusses the current cellular support based on Mobile Internet Protocol version 6 (Ipv6) and points out the shortfalls of using Mobile IP. Highlights protocols especially for mobile management schemes which can optimize a high-speed mobile…

  4. The Geneva Protocol of 1925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Elroy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices as well as the use of bacteriological methods of warfare

  5. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  6. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  7. Improving plant bioaccumulation science through consistent reporting of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Arnot, Jon A; Doucette, William J

    2016-10-01

    Experimental data and models for plant bioaccumulation of organic contaminants play a crucial role for assessing the potential human and ecological risks associated with chemical use. Plants are receptor organisms and direct or indirect vectors for chemical exposures to all other organisms. As new experimental data are generated they are used to improve our understanding of plant-chemical interactions that in turn allows for the development of better scientific knowledge and conceptual and predictive models. The interrelationship between experimental data and model development is an ongoing, never-ending process needed to advance our ability to provide reliable quality information that can be used in various contexts including regulatory risk assessment. However, relatively few standard experimental protocols for generating plant bioaccumulation data are currently available and because of inconsistent data collection and reporting requirements, the information generated is often less useful than it could be for direct applications in chemical assessments and for model development and refinement. We review existing testing guidelines, common data reporting practices, and provide recommendations for revising testing guidelines and reporting requirements to improve bioaccumulation knowledge and models. This analysis provides a list of experimental parameters that will help to develop high quality datasets and support modeling tools for assessing bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in plants and ultimately addressing uncertainty in ecological and human health risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  10. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  11. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  12. Environmental release of living modified organisms: current approaches and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; Nickson, Ph D

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is being rapidly adopted as evidenced by the acreage of genetically modified (GM) crops planted and tonnes of product (grain and fiber) harvested. Concurrent with this technological progress, is a growing concern that the worlds biological diversity is coming under increasing threat from human activities. As such, ecological risk assessment approaches are being developed for GM crop plants as international agreements regulating the transboundary movements of these products are being implemented. This paper reviews the ecological risk assessment approach that has been used to date to approve GM crops to date. The process has been case-by-case, using a comparative, science-based approach balancing the potential risks and benefits of the new technology versus those present with the currently accepted practices. The approach used to evaluate and approve these products is consistent with the conditions and requirements outlined in the Cartagena Protocol.

  13. Eavesdropping on the two-way quantum communication protocols with invisible photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qingyu [State Key Laboratory of Magnetics Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institution of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)]. E-mail: qycai@wipm.ac.cn

    2006-02-20

    The crucial issue of quantum communication protocol is its security. In this Letter, we show that all the deterministic and direct two-way quantum communication protocols, sometimes called ping-pong (PP) protocols, are insecure when an eavesdropper uses the invisible photon to eavesdrop on the communication. With our invisible photon eavesdropping (IPE) scheme, the eavesdropper can obtain full information of the communication with zero risk of being detected. We show that this IPE scheme can be implemented experimentally with current technology. Finally, a possible improvement of PP communication protocols security is proposed00.

  14. Eavesdropping on the two-way quantum communication protocols with invisible photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyu

    2006-01-01

    The crucial issue of quantum communication protocol is its security. In this Letter, we show that all the deterministic and direct two-way quantum communication protocols, sometimes called ping-pong (PP) protocols, are insecure when an eavesdropper uses the invisible photon to eavesdrop on the communication. With our invisible photon eavesdropping (IPE) scheme, the eavesdropper can obtain full information of the communication with zero risk of being detected. We show that this IPE scheme can be implemented experimentally with current technology. Finally, a possible improvement of PP communication protocols security is proposed

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DISTINCT SECURED AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS USED IN THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the e-commerce and m-commerce applications in the current e-business world, has adopted asymmetric key cryptography technique in their authentication protocol to provide an efficient authentication of the involved parties. This paper exhibits the performance analysis of distinct authentication protocol which implements the public key cryptography like RSA, ECC and HECC. The comparison is made based on key generation, sign generation and sign verification processes. The results prove that the performance achieved through HECC based authentication protocol is better than the ECC- and RSA based authentication protocols.

  16. Implementation of the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol – final report : overview of outcome-based measurement of broiler welfare and a general discussion on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, two topics related to our study on the implementation of the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol are discussed. First, animal-based measures for broiler welfare, currently included in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol, are discussed with respect to

  17. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kyoto protocol and its implementation in pakistan: hurdles and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Sher, H.A.; Qureshi, S.A

    2010-01-01

    In 1997 Kyoto protocol was adopted at the third session of Conference of the parties of UNFCC in Kyoto, Japan. This protocol restricts the industrialized countries and those in transition to a market economy agreed to limit or reduce their emissions. In Pakistan the government is also taking steps to reduce the pollution. This paper discusses the possible low carbon emitting electricity generation options by keeping in view the current energy scenario of Pakistan and the new energy policy announced by the Government of Pakistan for renewable energy promotion. (author)

  19. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  20. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....