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Sample records for plants assay purification

  1. Radioligand purification prior to routine receptor assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.-M.; Berthois, Y.; Martin, P.-M.

    1988-01-01

    The need to repurify the commercially available radioligands [ 3 H]estradiol and [ 3 H]testosterone before use in routine assays was investigated. Storage of these products for 2 months after delivery led to appreciable degradation of [ 3 H]estradiol compared to [ 3 H]testosterone. Unexpectedly, TLC and even HPLC procedures were ineffective in completely restoring the purity of [ 3 H]-estradiol and the unremoved polar products induced important variations in our estrogen receptor assays. An increase in non-specific binding and a concomitant decrease in total binding were observed resulting in an underestimation of specific binding sites and of the affinity constant. In some cases Scatchard analysis was not possible. The authors therefore strongly recommend the repurification of low-stability radioligands and propose an economic time-saving procedure for the purification of [ 3 H]estradiol by solvent differential partition which requires no high-cost investment in apparatus. (author)

  2. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  3. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  4. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chu Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique—based on DNA analysis—was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya’s sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya’s sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source.

  5. Improved laboratory assays of Pu and U for SRP purification and finishing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.K.; Dorsett, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made in routine assay techniques for uranium and plutonium as part of an effort to improve accountability at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Emphasis was placed on input/output accountability points and key physical inventory tanks associated with purification and finishing processes. Improvements were made in existing assay methods; new methods were implemented; and the application of these methods was greatly expanded. Prior to assays, samples were validated via density measurements. Digital density meters precise to four, five, and six decimal places were used to meet specific requirements. Improved plutonium assay techniques are now in routine use: controlled-potential coulometry, ion-exchange coulometry, and Pu(III) diode-array spectrophotometry. A new state-of-the-art coulometer was fabricated and used to ensure maximum accuracy in verifying standards and in measuring plutonium in product streams. The diode-array spectrophotometer for Pu(III) measurements was modified with fiber optics to facilitate remote measurements; rapid, precise measurements made the technique ideally suited for high-throughput assays. For uranium assays, the isotope-dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method was converted to a gravimetric basis. The IDMS method and the existing Davies-Gray titration (gravimetric basis) have met accountability requirements for uranium. More recently, a Pu(VI) diode-array spectrophotometric method was used on a test basis to measure plutonium in shielded-cell input accountability samples. In addition, tests to measure uranium via diode-array spectrophotometry were initiated. This rapid, precise method will replace IDMS for certain key sample points

  6. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, Wayne D.; Lee, R. Stephen; Ottmar, Herbert; Guardini, Sergio

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants [ru

  7. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2009-10-01

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  8. Cytoplasmic Actin: Purification and Single Molecule Assembly Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott D.; Zuchero, J. Bradley; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential to all eukaryotic cells. In addition to playing important structural roles, assembly of actin into filaments powers diverse cellular processes, including cell motility, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Actin polymerization is tightly regulated by its numerous cofactors, which control spatial and temporal assembly of actin as well as the physical properties of these filaments. Development of an in vitro model of actin polymerization from purified components has allowed for great advances in determining the effects of these proteins on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we describe how to use the pyrene actin assembly assay to determine the effect of a protein on the kinetics of actin assembly, either directly or as mediated by proteins such as nucleation or capping factors. Secondly, we show how fluorescently labeled phalloidin can be used to visualize the filaments that are created in vitro to give insight into how proteins regulate actin filament structure. Finally, we describe a method for visualizing dynamic assembly and disassembly of single actin filaments and fluorescently labeled actin binding proteins using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. PMID:23868587

  9. Isolation and purification of porcine LH for radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.; Goralska, M.; Krzymowski, T.; Pogorzelski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure of isolation and purification of LH from porcine pituitary glands is described. From 1 kg of pituitary glands 150 mg of LH GPZ-1 preparation of high purity were obtained. Immunization of rabbits with the prepared hormone gave homogeneous antibodies against porcine LH with high affinity and low cross-reactions with FSH. Radioreceptor assay with the use of the prepared porcine LH demonstrated the high capacity of cell membrane receptors of the boar tests for binding this hormone. (author)

  10. Purification of the functional plant membrane channel KAT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibi, Takao; Aoki, Shiho; Oda, Keisuke; Munemasa, Shintaro; Ozaki, Shunsuke; Shirai, Osamu; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The inward-rectifying K + channel KAT1 is expressed mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells. The purification of functional KAT1 has never been reported. We investigated the extraction of the plant K + channel KAT1 with different detergents, as an example for how to select detergents for purifying a eukaryotic membrane protein. A KAT1-GFP fusion protein was used to screen a library of 46 detergents for the effective solubilization of intact KAT1. Then, a 'test set' of three detergents was picked for further analysis, based on their biochemical characteristics and availability. The combination use of the selected detergents enabled the effective purification of functional KAT1 with affinity and gel-filtration chromatography

  11. Single-Step Purification and Characterization of A Recombinant Serine Proteinase Inhibitor from Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shweta; Agarwal, Saurabh; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2016-05-01

    Expression of recombinant therapeutic proteins in transgenic plants has a tremendous impact on safe and economical production of biomolecules for biopharmaceutical industry. The major limitation in their production is downstream processing of recombinant protein to obtain higher yield and purity of the final product. In this study, a simple and rapid process has been developed for purification of therapeutic recombinant α1-proteinase inhibitor (rα1-PI) from transgenic tomato plants, which is an abundant serine protease inhibitor in human serum and chiefly inhibits the activity of neutrophil elastase in lungs. We have expressed rα1-PI with modified synthetic gene in transgenic tomato plants at a very high level (≃3.2 % of total soluble protein). The heterologous protein was extracted with (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, followed by chromatographic separation on different matrices. However, only immunoaffinity chromatography resulted into homogenous preparation of rα1-PI with 54 % recovery. The plant-purified rα1-PI showed molecular mass and structural conformation comparable to native serum α1-PI, as shown by mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. The results of elastase inhibition assay revealed biological activity of the purified rα1-PI protein. This work demonstrates a simple and efficient one-step purification of rα1-PI from transgenic plants, which is an essential prerequisite for further therapeutic development.

  12. Production, purification, and assay of thrombopoietin. Final report, June 1, 1973--June 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Studies were conducted on purification and assay of thrombopoietin, the development of neutralizing antibodies to thrombopoietin, and the production of thrombopoietin by kidney cells in culture. The role of platelet-specific antiserum action in thrombocytopenia was investigated. Thrombopoietin was present in sera of thrombocytopenic mice following x radiation or injection of platelet-specific antisera. Studies with dogs showed that platelet cycles are dependent on thrombopoietin and that platelet sizes are altered inversely with platelet counts. The effects of maternal thrombocytopenia on platelet counts of pre- and postnatal mice were investigated as well as the effects of hypoxia on platelet production in mice

  13. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Filho, D.; Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Baba, S.; Miranda, L.E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author)

  14. Purification of power plant waters with high gradient magnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1993-04-01

    This is a report of a literature survey. Magnetic high gradient filtration is suitable for separations in difficult surroundings because it can be used in high pressure and temperature, the filtration can be automated and the filter does not contain components which have to be replaced. Magnetic separators for purification of power plant waters have been manufactured commercially for a long time, but they have not always worked satisfactorily especially when separating small particles. The corrosion products in power plant waters are usually ferrimagnetic or paramagnetic and are well suited for magnetic separation. The particle sizes varies considerable but at least in nuclear power plants they are mostly in the range 0.1-30 μ, some even smaller. According to different publications most 60 Co is in particles, while other publications indicate that more than 70 % is in solution. Similarly the data on the purification efficiency of 60 Co varies significantly. Even small magnetic fields are sufficient to separate large ferrimagnetic particles, but the separation of small and paramagnetic particles requires a field more than 20 kT and the high gradient. Presently available commercial separators are so efficient that its seems not to be economically worthwhile to develop them further to improve the filtration efficiency for small particles. Instead it might be worthwhile to investigate methods to increase the particle size by water chemistry methods. (Au). (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  15. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  16. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.) [de

  17. Concept of off-gas purification in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; von Ammon, R.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and individual processes for the off-gas purification in reprocessing plants are described which are suited to achieve a better retention of the gaseous and volatile radionuclides 129 I, 85 Kr, 14 C, and tritium. Improved and new process steps have been developed to the cold pilot plant scale. Essential individual process steps are an efficient iodine desorption from the dissolver solution, improved and new off-gas scrubs with nitric acid, a cryogenic as well as a selective absorption process for rare gas recovery plus the required prepurification steps and a process for the continuous and pressure-free fixation and storage of krypton in a metal matrix. Individual facilities have been selected and combined to investigate integrated dissolver off-gas systems. Advanced concepts based on a process using low flows and loads of all off-gas streams including the cell ventilation off-gas are briefly discussed

  18. Operating experiences of gas purification system of Heavy Water Plant Talcher (Paper No. 1.11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Mohanty, P.R.; Pandey, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    The operating experiences with the purification system installed at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher for purification of feed synthesis gas from fertilizer plant is described. The purification system has performed satisfactorily even with levels of impurities as much as 15 to 20 ppm of oxygen and carbon monoxide. The system could not however be tested at designed gas throughput and on a sustained basis. However, increase in gas throughput upto the design value is not expected to pose any problem on the performance of the purification system. (author). 5 figs

  19. Magnetic nanoparticle based purification and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibody against enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Gun; Kim, Myeong-Ae; Park, Young-Il; Jung, Tae-Sung; Son, Seong-Wan; So, ByungJae

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal anti-enrofloxacin antibody was prepared for a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and purification system using monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupled magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The IC50 values of the developed mAb for enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, sarafloxacin, pefloxacin, and norfloxacin were 5.0, 8.3, 9.7, 21.7, 36.0, and 63.7 ng/mL, respectively. The lowest detectable level of ENR was 0.7 ng/mL in the prepared ELISA system. To validate the developed ELISA in the food matrix, known amounts of ENR were spiked in meat and egg samples at 10, 20 and 30 ng/mL. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 72.9 to 113.16% with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.42 to 10.11%. The applicability of the mAb-MNP system was verified by testing the recoveries for ENR residue in three different matrices. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 75.16 to 86.36%, while the CV ranged from 5.08 to 11.53%. Overall, ENR-specific monoclonal antibody was prepared and developed for use in competitive to ELISAs for the detection of ENR in animal meat samples. Furthermore, we suggest that a purification system for ENR using mAb-coupled MNPs could be useful for determination of ENR residue in food. PMID:26040610

  20. A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, Kebreab A; Gunaratna, K R; Henriksson, Hongbin; Brumer, Harry; Dalhammar, Gunnel

    2005-06-01

    Use of extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO) is of great interest for low-cost water treatment. This paper discusses water and salt extraction of a coagulant protein from the seed, purification using ion exchange, its chemical characteristics, coagulation and antimicrobial properties. The coagulant from both extracts is a cationic protein with pI greater than 9.6 and molecular mass less than 6.5 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis of the purified water extract indicated that it contained at least four homologous proteins, based on MS/MS peptide sequence data. The protein is thermoresistant and remained active after 5h heat treatment at 95 degrees C. The coagulant protein showed both flocculating and antibacterial effects of 1.1--4 log reduction. With samples of high turbidity, the MO extract showed similar coagulation activity as alum. Cecropin A and MO extract were found to have similar flocculation effects for clay and microorganisms. Simple methods for both the purification and assay of MO coagulating proteins are presented, which are necessary for large-scale water treatment applications.

  1. Biotin protein ligase from Candida albicans: expression, purification and development of a novel assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendini, Nicole R; Bailey, Lisa M; Booker, Grant W; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wallace, John C; Polyak, Steven W

    2008-11-15

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) is an essential enzyme responsible for the activation of biotin-dependent enzymes through the covalent attachment of biotin. In yeast, disruption of BPL affects important metabolic pathways such as fatty acid biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. This makes BPL an attractive drug target for new antifungal agents. Here we report the cloning, recombinant expression and purification of BPL from the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The biotin domains of acetyl CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase were also cloned and characterised as substrates for BPL. A novel assay was established thereby allowing examination of the enzyme's properties. These findings will facilitate future structural studies as well as screening efforts to identify potential inhibitors.

  2. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  3. Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2017-01-01

    In Arequipa, Peru’s second largest city, engineers work hard to control water flows and provide different sectors with clean and sufficient water. In 2011, only 10 percent of the totality of water used daily by Arequipa’s then close to 1 million people—in households, tourism, industry, and mining......—was treated before it was returned to the river where it continues its flow downstream towards cultivated fields and, finally, into the Pacific Ocean. It takes specialized knowledge and manifold technologies to manage water and sustain life in Arequipa, and engineers are central actors for making water flow...... of categories can be understood as practices of purification. However, a purely technical grip on water is never possible. Unruly elements, like weather, contamination, urban dwellers, and competing interests, interfere and make processes of intervention unstable. Water is never completely cleaned, and, equally...

  4. Decommissioning of the Plutonium Purification and Residues Recovery Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    British Nuclear Group is continuing to build on BNFL's successful record of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. Challenging radiological conditions and complex technical problems have been overcome to reduce the hazard associated with the UK's nuclear legacy. The former Plutonium Purification and Residues Recovery Plant at Sellafield operated from 1954 through to 1987. This is the only plant to have experienced an uncontrolled criticality incident in the UK, in August 1970 during operations. The plant comprised of two mirror image cells approximately 6.5 m x 13.5 m x 16 m, constructed of bare brick. The cell structure provided secondary containment, the process vessels and pipes within the cell providing primary containment. The plant utilized a solvent extraction process to purify the plutonium stream. Surrounding the two process cells to the north, east and south is an annulus area that housed the operational control panels, feed and sample glove-boxes, and ancillary equipment. The building was ventilated by an unfiltered extract on the process cells and a filtered extract from the vessels and glove-boxes. During the long operational lifetime of the plant, the primary containment deteriorated to such an extent that the process cells eventually became the main containment, with levels of radioactive contamination in excess of 14,256 pCi alpha. This led to significant aerial effluent discharges towards the end of the plant's operational life and onerous working conditions during decommissioning. Implementation of a phased decommissioning strategy from 1991 has led to: - A reduction of approximately 60% in the Sellafield site's aerial alpha discharges following installation of a new ventilation system, - Removal of 12 plutonium contaminated glove-boxes and sample cabinets from the building, - Disposal of the approximately 500 m 2 of asbestos building cladding, - Removal of over 90% of the active pipes and vessels from the highly contaminated process cells

  5. Characterization of primary coolant purification system samples for assay of spent ion exchanger radionuclide inventor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajin Prasad, S.; Pant, Amar; Sharma, Ranjit; Pal, Sanjit

    2018-01-01

    The primary coolant system water of a research reactor contains various fission and activation products and the water is circulated continuously through ion exchange resin cartridges, to reduce the radioactive ionic impurity present in it. The coolant purification system comprises of an ion exchange cooler, two micro filters, and a battery of six ion exchanger beds, associated valves, piping and instrumentation (Heavy water System Operating manual, 2014). The spent cartridge is finally disposed off as active solid waste which contains predominantly long lived fission and activation products. The heavy water coolant is also used to cool the structural assemblies after passing through primary heat exchanger and a metallic strainer, which accumulates the fission and activation products. When there is a reduction of coolant flow through these strainers, they are removed for cleaning and decontamination. This paper describes the characterization of ion exchange resin samples and liquid effluent generated during ultra sonic decontamination of strainer. The results obtained can be used as a methodology for the assay of the spent ion exchanger cartridges radionuclide inventory, during its disposal

  6. Purification of intact chloroplasts from marine plant Posidonia oceanica suitable for organelle proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Amalia; Serra, Ilia Anna; Spadafora, Antonia; Cardilio, Monica; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Santos, Rui; Mazzuca, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Posidonia oceanica is a marine angiosperm, or seagrass, adapted to grow to the underwater life from shallow waters to 50 m depth. This raises questions of how their photosynthesis adapted to the attenuation of light through the water column and leads to the assumption that biochemistry and metabolism of the chloroplast are the basis of adaptive capacity. In the present study, we described a protocol that was adapted from those optimized for terrestrial plants, to extract chloroplasts from as minimal tissue as possible. We obtained the best balance between tissue amount/intact chloroplasts yield using one leaf from one plant. After isopynic separations, the chloroplasts purity and integrity were evaluated by biochemical assay and using a proteomic approach. Chloroplast proteins were extracted from highly purified organelles and resolved by 1DE SDS-PAGE. Proteins were sequenced by nLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS of 1DE gel bands and identified against NCBInr green plant databases, Dr. Zompo database for seagrasses in a local customized dataset. The curated localization of proteins in sub-plastidial compartments (i.e. envelope, stroma and thylakoids) was retrieved in the AT_CHLORO database. This purification protocol and the validation of compartment markers may serve as basis for sub-cellular proteomics in P. oceanica and other seagrasses. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Health physics system scheme for the uranium purification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Oliveira, E.C.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    After describing the two uranium purification processes used in the Chemical Engineerring Division of the Instituto de Energia Atomica, it is examined the possible hazards and methods to control or eliminate them. Since these purification process present several stages, in each one of them it is evaluated the hazards and tried to give adequate solutions to protect both, personnel and installations, from the potential radiation hazards

  8. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  9. Small scale purification of human pituitary lutropin (hLH) for use in radioligand assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, I.; Morgante, L.; Bartolini, P.

    1988-08-01

    Human lutropin (hLH) is a relatively unstable protein, which even in lyophilised form tends to dissociate into subunits during long storage periods. Considering the limited disposibilty of human pituitaries, a small-scale extraction method is proposed for radioassays. Starting from 10 and 20 hypophyses after Sephadex G 100 purification, 10 μg/gland with approximate 10% purity was obtained. After the last purification, hLH recovery was of 1.5 μg/gland. (author) [pt

  10. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material. Extraction and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, F A; Barrett, F C

    1967-09-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol-water-aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether-formic acid-2-methylpropan-2-ol-water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5'-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract simulating that

  11. Active Test of Purification Facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseki, Tadahiro; Tsujimura, Akino; Nitta, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    During the second and third steps of Active Test of the Plutonium Purification unit, the extraction and reextraction performances of pulsed columns and mixer-settlers have been checked. Plutonium losses into wastes have been also checked. As a result, it was confirmed that the expected performances had been achieved. (authors)

  12. A Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...

  13. Nucleic acid purification from plants, animals and microbes in under 30 seconds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification is a powerful molecular biology tool, although its use outside the modern laboratory environment is limited due to the relatively cumbersome methods required to extract nucleic acids from biological samples. To address this issue, we investigated a variety of materials for their suitability for nucleic acid capture and purification. We report here that untreated cellulose-based paper can rapidly capture nucleic acids within seconds and retain them during a single washing step, while contaminants present in complex biological samples are quickly removed. Building on this knowledge, we have successfully created an equipment-free nucleic acid extraction dipstick methodology that can obtain amplification-ready DNA and RNA from plants, animals, and microbes from difficult biological samples such as blood and leaves from adult trees in less than 30 seconds. The simplicity and speed of this method as well as the low cost and availability of suitable materials (e.g., common paper towelling, means that nucleic acid extraction is now more accessible and affordable for researchers and the broader community. Furthermore, when combined with recent advancements in isothermal amplification and naked eye DNA visualization techniques, the dipstick extraction technology makes performing molecular diagnostic assays achievable in limited resource settings including university and high school classrooms, field-based environments, and developing countries.

  14. Active test of purification facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishio, Takahiro; Sato, Nobuharu; Inaba, Makoto; Itagaki, Takashi [Purification Section, Plant Operation Department, Reprocessing Plant, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    I. Introduction: At RRP, following the completion of Water Test, Chemical Test (CT) and Uranium Test (UT), the Active Test (AT) with actual spent fuel assemblies has been performed since March of 2006. This paper deals with the AT of the plutonium purification unit at RRP. II. Outline of plutonium purification unit: The plutonium purification unit purifies plutonium nitrate sent from the Separation Facility, and it has 5 pulsed columns and 4 mixer-settlers. Plutonium valence is adjusted to Pu{sup 4+} in plutonium nitrate sent from the Separation Facility, and then plutonium is extracted into organic phase (tri-butyl phosphate: TBP) in the extraction column. At this time, most of fission products remain in aqueous phase (nitric acid solution), which is discharged as raffinate through the diluent washing column. The fission products still contained in loaded organic solvent are removed in the FP scrubbing column, and then plutonium is stripped with nitric acid solution including hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) as reducer. After TBP contained in purified plutonium nitrate solution is removed in the diluent washing bank with n-dodecane, it is sent to the plutonium concentration unit. Organic solvent used in the stripping column is sent to the plutonium barrier bank in order to remove remaining plutonium with uranous nitrate and hydrazine nitrate solution, and organic solvent is sent to the solvent regeneration unit. III. Active test results: The main purpose of the AT on the plutonium purification unit is (1) checking the performance of plutonium extraction and stripping, (2) checking the efficiency of diluent washing. III.A. Plutonium Extraction and Stripping performances: As a result of the neutron monitor profile on the extraction column during the representative operation, extraction was completed at the upper part of the column. As for the neutron monitor profile on the stripping column, stripping was performed at the lower part of the column. Plutonium concentration

  15. Drying and purification of natural gas by clinoptilolite on an experimental pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitsishvili, G V; Urotadze, S L; Lukin, V D; Bagirov, R M

    1976-02-01

    The paper deals with the process of the drying and purification of natural gas from CO/sub 2/ on an experimental pilot plant using the natural zeolite clinoptilolite. On the basis of the obtained data the dynamic activity of clinoptilolite against water and CO/sub 2/ has been calculated.

  16. Purification of plant plasma membranes by two-phase partitioning and measurement of H+ pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Anette; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2012-01-01

    Purification of plasma membranes by two-phase partitioning is based on the separation of microsomal membranes, dependent on their surface hydrophobicity. Here we explain the purification of plasma membranes from a relatively small amount of material (7-30 g). The fluorescent probe ACMA (9-amino-6-chloro-2-metoxyacridine) accumulates inside the vesicles upon protonation. Quenching of ACMA in the solution corresponds to the H(+) transport across the plasma membrane. Before running the assay, the plasma membranes are incubated with the detergent Brij-58 in order to create inside-out vesicles.Purification of plasma membranes by two-phase partitioning is based on the separation of microsomal membranes, dependent on their surface hydrophobicity. Here we explain the purification of plasma membranes from a relatively small amount of material (7-30 g). The fluorescent probe ACMA (9-amino-6-chloro-2-metoxyacridine) accumulates inside the vesicles upon protonation. Quenching of ACMA in the solution corresponds to the H(+) transport across the plasma membrane. Before running the assay, the plasma membranes are incubated with the detergent Brij-58 in order to create inside-out vesicles.

  17. In vivo nanotoxicity assays in plant models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamta; Ernest, Vinita; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing application of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) in consumer products like textiles, cosmetics, washing machines and other household products increases their chance to reach the environment. Intensive research is required to assess the nanoparticles' toxicity to the environmental system. The toxicological effect of nanoparticles has been studied at the miniscule scale and requires intensive research to be conducted to assess its unknown effects. Plants are the primary target species which need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. So far, the mechanisms of toxicity of nanoparticles to the plant system remains largely unknown and little information on the potential uptake of nanoparticles by plants and their subsequent fate within the food chain is available. The phytoxicological behaviour of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa and seeds of Zea mays (maize), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) was done. The in vitro studies on A. cepa have been done to check the cytotoxicological effects including mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, vagrant chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, disturbed metaphase, breaks and formation of micronucleus. In vitro and in vivo studies on seed systems exposed to different concentration of nanoparticles dispersion to check phytotoxicity end point as root length, germination effect, adsorption and accumulation of nanoparticles (uptake studies) into the plant systems. In vivo studies in a seed system was done using phytagel medium. Biochemical studies were done to check effect on protein, DNA and thiobarbituric acid reactive species concentration. FT-IR studies were done to analyze the functional and conformational changes in the treated and untreated samples. The toxicological effects of nanoparticles had to be studied at the miniscule scale to address existing environment problems or prevent future problems. The

  18. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  19. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides 58 Co and 60 Co 100%, and over 60% for 134 Cs and 137 Cs. (authors)

  20. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição LV Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g. Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage.

  1. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Conceição L. V.; Pourrut, Bertrand; Ferreira de Oliveira, José M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g., Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage. PMID:26175750

  2. Air purification by house plants : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Within the project ‘Plant champion air purification’, a public-private cooperation, a literate survey was carried out to explore recent findings on the possibilities of plants to purify indoor contaminated air. Literature was searched in academic journals, on the internet and within reports recently

  3. Expression, purification, and activity assay of peptide deformylase from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xuchun; Hu, Jinwei; Wang, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiong; Lv, Junqiang; Fu, Zheng; Sun, Yajun; Sun, Jia; Lin, Gang; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2011-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is considered an attractive target for screening novel antibiotics. The PDF from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are representative of the gram-negative species type of PDF (type I PDF) and the gram-positive species type of PDF (type II PDF), respectively. They could be used for screening broad-spectrum antibiotics. Herein, we cloned the def gene by PCR, inserted it into plasmid pET-22b-def, and transformed the plasmid into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells, then the cells were induced by IPTG to express PDF. E. coli Ni(2+)-PDF was extracted and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. S. aureus PDFs were extracted and purified using the MagExtractor kit. The nickel form of S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding NiCl(2) to all reagents used for purification. Iron-enriched S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding FeCl(3) to the growth medium for E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells and adding FeCl(3) and catalase to all reagents used for purification. The activities of PDFs were analyzed, compared, and grouped according to the experimental conditions that produced optimal activity, and we used actinonin as an inhibitor of PDF and calculated the IC(50) value. We obtained high expression of E. coli and S. aureus PDF with high activity and stability. The function of PDFs was inhibited by actinonin in a dose-dependent manner. Results may be helpful for future mechanistic investigations of PDF as well as high-throughput screening for other PDF inhibitors.

  4. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  5. Decontamination and Decommissioning Experience at a Sellafield Uranium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Built in the 1950's, this plant was originally designed to purify depleted uranyl nitrate solution arising from reprocessing operations at the Primary Separation and Head End Plant (Fig. 1). The facility was used for various purposes throughout its life cycle such as research, development and trial based processes. Test rigs were operated in the building from the 1970's until 1984 to support development of the process and equipment now used at Sellafield's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). The extensive decommissioning program for this facility began over 15 years ago. Many challenges have been overcome throughout this program such as decommissioning the four main process cells, which were very highly alpha contaminated. The cells contained vessels and pipeline systems that were contaminated to such levels that workers had to use pressurized suits to enter the cells. Since decommissioning at Sellafield was in its infancy, this project has trialed various decontamination/decommissioning methods and techniques in order to progress the project, and this has provided valuable learning for other decommissioning projects. The project has included characterization, decontamination, dismantling, waste handling, and is now ready for demolition during late 2005, early 2006. This will be the first major facility within the historic Separation Area at Sellafield to be demolished down to base slab level. The lessons learnt from this project will directly benefit numerous decommissioning projects as the cleanup at Sellafield continues. (authors)

  6. Purification of oil-contaminated soils from heavy metals using plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamanova, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Purification of local areas of oil-contaminated soils with contamination degree of 5-8 percent using plant resistant to salinity and high temperature and rehabilitation of these soils is the most urgent task for Apsheron Peninsula which is the main territory of oil onshore in Azerbaijan. This method is environmentally compatible and economically viable against other methods. Despite the fact that in this area it has been carried out numerous scientific researches, for each level of contamination, for each specific soil type, for each specific climatic conditions and the group of plants requires more and more researches

  7. Production, purification and assay of thrombopoietin. Progress report, August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted which indicate that thrombopoietin can be detected by both a bioassay and an immunoassay in sera of patients with various platelet production disorders. Other studies have shown that the kidney appears to have a vital role in thrombopoietin production; the mechanism of how platelet-specific antisera causes thrombocytopenia has been investigated. Also, an investigation has been made into the preparation of assay mice and the different methods for the measurement of thrombopoietin. These studies indicate that mice in rebound-thrombocytosis are more sensitive to exogenous TSF than normal or platelet transfused mice. Also, % 35 S incorporation into platelets of assay mice is the most sensitive measurement of thrombopoiesis. The effects of hypoxia on platelet production was also investigated along with the release of thrombopoietin in animals exposed to RAMPS and whole-body x-irradiation

  8. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Alice Teacă; Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests). Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars) and rye seed...

  9. Ecogenotoxicity testing of aquatic environment by comet assay in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of environmental monitoring is the detection of potentially hazardous compounds in water. We have set up a standard method to apply the Comet assay in aquatic plants that could be of great interest to evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress on the same species regarded as most sensitive to environmental pollutants. The aim of the present study was to set up of standardized procedure to evaluate genotoxicity in aquatic plants- Ceratophyllum demersum one that is submerged free floating and the other is Lemna minor - a fresh water floating plant by Comet assay. Electrophoresis and unwinding times were adapted to obtain minimum DNA migration evaluated as tail intensity % or tail moment in the control group and, at the same time maximum sensitivity for DNA damage with known genotoxicants. We further investigated the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced in the same species. Based on the repeatability of results obtained we suggest that Ceratophyllum, Lemna can serve as model species and Comet assay could be adopted to monitor the eco-genotoxicity of water pollutants.

  10. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  11. Purification of active myrosinase from plants by aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kristina L; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W David; Fahey, Jed W

    2015-01-01

    Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (from broccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Air purification in industrial plants producing automotive rubber components in terms of energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzebielec Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In automotive industry plants, which use injection molding machines for rubber processing, tar contaminates air to such an extent that air fails to enter standard heat recovery systems. Accumulated tar clogs ventilation heat recovery exchangers in just a few days. In the plant in which the research was conducted, tar contamination causes blockage of ventilation ducts. The effect of this phenomenon was that every half year channels had to be replaced with new ones, since the economic analysis has shown that cleaning them is not cost-efficient. Air temperature inside such plants is often, even in winter, higher than 30°C. The air, without any means of heat recovery, is discharged outside the buildings. The analyzed plant uses three types of media for production: hot water, cold water at 14°C (produced in a water chiller, and compressed air, generated in a unit with a rated power consumption of 180 kW. The aim of the study is to determine the energy efficiency improvement of this type of manufacturing plant. The main problem to solve is to provide an air purification process so that air can be used in heat recovery devices. The next problem to solve is to recover heat at such a temperature level that it would be possible to produce cold for technological purposes without air purification. Experimental studies have shown that air purification is feasible. By using one microjet head, a total of 75% of tar particles was removed from the air; by using 4 heads, a purification efficiency of 93% was obtained. This method of air purification causes air temperature to decrease from 35°C to 20°C, which significantly reduces the potential for heat recovery. The next step of the research was designing a cassette-plate heat exchanger to exchange heat without air purification. The economic analysis of such a solution revealed that replacing the heat exchanger with a new one even once a year was not cost-efficient. Another issue examined in the context of

  13. A sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghabrial, S.A.; Shepherd, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of plant viruses is described. The RISA procedure is a microplate method based on the principle of 'double-antibody sandwich' and follows essentially the protocol of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Clark and Adams, 1977), with the exception that 125 I-labelled γ-globulin is substituted for the γ-globulin enzyme conjugate; the bound 125 I-γ-globulin is dissociated by acidification from the double-antibody sandwich. The radioactivity is proportional to virus concentration, and cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) could be detected at concentrations as low as 5 and 2 ng/ml, respectively. Direct evidence of the adverse effects of conjugation with enzyme on the binding abilities of antibodies is presented. The RISA procedure should prove valuable with viruses for which the ELISA values are too low to be dependable. (author)

  14. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals at drinking water purification plants in Japan and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simazaki, Dai; Kubota, Reiji; Suzuki, Toshinari; Akiba, Michihiro; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine the occurrence of 64 pharmaceuticals and metabolites in source water and finished water at 6 drinking water purification plants and 2 industrial water purification plants across Japan. The analytical methods employed were sample concentration using solid-phase extraction cartridges and instrumental analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS), or trimethylsilyl derivatization followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-seven of the 64 target substances were detected in the source water samples. The maximum concentrations in the source water were mostly below 50 ng/L except for 13 substances. In particular, residual concentrations of iopamidol (contrast agent) exceeded 1000 ng/L at most facilities. Most of the residual pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the source water samples were removed in the course of conventional and/or advanced drinking water treatments, except for 7 pharmaceuticals and 1 metabolite, i.e., amantadine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, epinastine, fenofibrate, ibuprofen, iopamidol, and oseltamivir acid. The removal ratios of the advanced water treatment processes including ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration were typically much higher than those of the conventional treatment processes. The margins of exposure estimated by the ratio of daily minimum therapeutic dose to daily intake via drinking water were substantial, and therefore the pharmacological and physiological impacts of ingesting those residual substances via drinking water would be negligible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and concentration of uranium-bearing solutions at the plants of the Societe industrielle des minerais de l'Ouest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollerin, G.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the various processes for purification of uranium-bearing solutions used at the plants of the Societe industrielle des minerais de l'Ouest (SIMO) from their commissioning up to the present time, together with the purification circuit adopted at the two plants at present operating in Niger. (author)

  16. Kinetic studies on purification capability of channel flow type wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, S [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan); Furukawa, K; Kim, J [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1990-10-01

    In order to develop a wastewater treatment process of secondary effluent and a wastewater treatment process of a farm village, some experiments have been carried out using bench scale and full scale hydroponic type wastewater treatment plant. This wastewater treatment system mainly consists of water channels and hydroponic water tanks. The authors carried out of a kinetic study for purification capability of the water channels while assuring the growth of microorganism in the treatment scheme. It was shown experimentally that the channel flow type wastewater treatment plant had a high TOC removal capability regardless of the kind of contact material and treatment time. Activated sludge microorganism concentration in water channels was obtained by kinetic estimation from the measured effluent suspended solid concentration. Estimated amount of activated sludge in water channels comprised only 11.5-37.4 percent of the measured amounts of withdrawn sludge, indicating high photosynthesis production of algae in water channels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  18. Feasibility of nondestructive assay measurements in uranium enrichment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.B.

    1978-04-01

    Applications of nondestructive assay methods to measurement problems in uranium enrichment facilities are reviewed. The results of a number of test and evaluation projects that were performed over the last decade at ORGDP and Portsmouth are presented. Measurements of the residual holdup in the top enrichment portion of the shut-down K-25 cascade were made with portable neutron and gamma-ray detectors, and inventory estimates based on these data were in good agreement with ORGDP estimates. In the operating cascade, the tests showed that portable NaI detectors are effective for monitoring NaF and alumina media for gaseous effluent traps and that gas phase enrichments and inventories, as well as large deposits of uranium, can be detected with portable neutron and gamma-ray instrumentation. A wide variety of scrap and waste materials, including barrier and compressor blades, incinerator ash and trapping media, and miscellaneous waste, were measured using passive gamma-ray and neutron methods and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. Methods developed for rapid verification of UF/sub 6/ in shipping containers with portable neutron and gamma-ray instruments are now used routinely by safeguards inspectors. Passive assay methods can also be used to measure continuously the enrichments of /sup 235/U and /sup 234/U in the UF/sub 6/ product and tails withdrawals of a gaseous diffusion plant. A system that was developed and installed in the extended-range product withdrawal station of the Portsmouth facility measures enrichment with a relative accuracy of 0.5%. A stand-alone neutron detector has also been successfully evaluated for the measurement of the isotopic abundance of /sup 234/U in UF/sub 6/ in sample cylinders, an application of potential importance to Minor Isotope Safeguards Technology. Recommendations are made on the role of NDA measurements for enrichment plant safeguards, including additional tests and evaluations that may be needed, particularly for advanced uranium

  19. Purification of fuel and nitrate contaminated ground water using a free water surface constructed wetland plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, T.; Heuermann, E.; Schramm, K.W.; Kettrup, A.

    1999-10-01

    Contaminated ground water from a former coke plant site was purified in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland plant during a 3-mo short-term experiment. The pilot plant (total surface area 27 m{sup 2}) was filled with a 1 m thick lava-gravel substrate planted with cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustrls). Major contaminants were low to moderate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, nitrate, and nitrite. The wetland was dosed at hydraulic loading rates of q{sub A} = 4.8 and 9.6 cm d{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 13.7 and 6.8 d. The surface removal rates of PAH were between 98.8 and 1914 mg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Efficiency was always {gt}99%. Extraction of lava gravel showed that approx. 0.4% of the applied PAH were retained on the substratum. The ratio of {Sigma}2,3-ring PAH and {Sigma}4,5,6-ring PAH showed a shift from 1:0.11 in water to 1:2.5 in lava. The removal of BTEX was {gt}99%, but might be in part due to volatilization. The efficiency in the removal of nitrate was 91% and of nitrite was 97%. Purification performance was not influenced by hydraulic loading rates or after die-back of the macrophytes.

  20. Dosimetric assessment from 212Pb inhalation at a thorium purification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M. P.; Pecequilo, B. R. S.

    2004-01-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo (Brazil)), there is a facility (thorium purification plant) where materials with high thorium concentrations are manipulated. In order to estimate afterwards the lung cancer risk for the workers, the thoron daughter ( 212 Pb) levels were assessed and the committed effective and lung committed equivalent doses for workers in place. A total of 28 air filter samples were measured by total alpha counting through the modified Kusnetz method, to determine the 212 Pb concentration. The committed effective dose and lung committed equivalent dose due to 212 Pb inhalation were derived from compartmental analysis following the ICRP 66 lung compartmental model, and ICRP 67 lead metabolic model. (authors)

  1. Summary of the last step of active test at separation facility and purification facility in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroishi, Yuuki; Iseki, Tadahiro; Mitani, Akira; Takahashi, Naoki; Tsujimura, Akino; Sato, Nobuharu; Inaba, Makoto; Itagaki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    During the last step of Active Test (AT) at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the performance of the Separation Facility, mainly for pulsed columns and mixer-settlers were tested; Diluent washing efficiency, Plutonium extraction and stripping efficiency, Decontamination factors of fission products and Uranium and plutonium losses into wastes. Also, those of the Plutonium purification unit in the Purification Facility have been checked; Diluent washing efficiency, Plutonium extraction and stripping efficiency and Plutonium losses into wastes. Test results were equivalent to or better than expected values. (author)

  2. Thermoeconomic cost analysis of CO_2 compression and purification unit in oxy-combustion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoeconomic cost analysis for CO_2 compression and purification unit is conducted. • Exergy cost and thermoeconomic cost occur in flash separation and mixing processes. • Unit exergy costs for flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical. • Multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. • Thermoeconomic performance for optimized CPU is enhanced. - Abstract: High CO_2 purity products can be obtained from oxy-combustion power plants through CO_2 compression and purification unit (CPU) based on phase separation method. To identify cost formation process and potential energy savings for CPU, detailed thermoeconomic cost analysis based on structure theory of thermoeconomics is applied to an optimized CPU (with double flash separators). It is found that the largest unit exergy cost occurs in the first separation process while the multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. In two flash separation processes, unit exergy costs for the flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical but their unit thermoeconomic costs are different once monetary cost for each device is considered. For cost inefficiency occurring in CPU, it mainly derives from large exergy costs and thermoeconomic costs in the flash separation and mixing processes. When compared with an unoptimized CPU, thermoeconomic performance for the optimized CPU is enhanced and the maximum reduction of 5.18% for thermoeconomic cost is attained. To achieve cost effective operation, measures should be taken to improve operations of the flash separation and mixing processes.

  3. Study on the extraction, purification and quantification of jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng Juan; Jin, You Ju; Xu, Xing You; Lu, Rong Chun; Chen, Hua Jun

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are important plant hormones. Plant hormones are difficult to analyse because they occur in small concentrations and other substances in the plant interfere with their detection. To develop a new, inexpensive procedure for the rapid extraction and purification of IAA, ABA and JA from various plant species. Samples were prepared by extraction of plant tissues with methanol and ethyl acetate. Then the extracts were further purified and enriched with C(18) cartridges. The final extracts were derivatised with diazomethane and then measured by GC-MS. The results of the new methodology were compared with those of the Creelman and Mullet procedure. Sequential elution of the assimilates from the C(18 )cartridges revealed that IAA and ABA eluted in 40% methanol, while JA subsequently eluted in 60% methanol. The new plant hormone extraction and purification procedure produced results that were comparable to those obtained with the Creelman and Mullet's procedure. This new procedure requires only 0.5 g leaf samples to quantify these compounds with high reliability and can simultaneously determine the concentrations of the three plant hormones. A simple, inexpensive method was developed for determining endogenous IAA, ABA and JA concentrations in plant tissue.

  4. Biodiesel purification methodology produced in the RECOPE experimental plant, using ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Hernandez, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    A methodology was proposed for the biodisel purification of crude palm oil produced in a plant located on the Refinadora Costarricense de Petroleo (RECOPE) campus in Alto de Ochomogo, using ion exchange resins. A comparison between two resins was carried out: the USF C-211H, which had been acquired together with the RECOPE experimental plant and the PD206 resin, which was in the process of being acquired at the time of starting the project. The biodisel was eluted by glass columns packed with each resin, to determine the saturation of the same. The percentage of free and bound glycerin and the presence of soaps were analyzed as response variables. With the results obtained, it was determined that the PD206 resin is more efficient in the removal of glycerin, soaps and methanol than the resin USF C-211H. However, neither of the two resins diminishes the acidity of the biodisel. A biodisel sample was eluted by the PD206 resin and the quality of the obtained product was analyzed. A flash point of 145 degrees was obtained. A total acid number of 0.82 mg KOH / G was shown, no presence of water or sediment was observed. The percentage value of carbon residue was 0.01% m / m, the cloud point was 12 degrees, the density at 15 degrees was 0.8713 g / cm 3 , the viscosity at 40 degrees was 2.75 mm 2 /s; the stability to oxidation was 14.5 h, the percentage of free glycerin was 0.01% m / m and the percentage of total glycerin was 0.06% m / m, finally a percentage of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAME) of 98,6%. Of the analyzed parameters, all are within the limits established in the Reglamento Tecnico Centroamericano except the acidity value, which exceeds the maximum value of 0.05 mg KOH / g sample. An economic analysis was carried out to evaluate which resin provides the best option to complete the purification process of the biodisel produced. The PD206, despite being more expensive, purifies a larger volume of biodiesel, so for a better negotiation in the purchase price, this

  5. Application of electrochemically synthesized ferrate(VI in the purification of wastewater from coal separation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative and coagulation efficiency of Na2FeO4 solution, electrochemically generated by trans-passive anodic oxidation of electrical steel in 10M NaOH solution, is confirmed in the process of purification of heavily contaminated wastewater from coal separation plant. The decontamination efficiency is evaluated comparing the values of selected contamination parameters obtained by chemical and biochemical analysis of plant effluent water and water obtained after decontamination with ferrate(VI solution in relatively simple laboratory procedure. The sample of 450 ml of wastewater is treated in laboratory conditions with 100cm3 solution of 1 mg dm-3 Na2FeO4 in 10M NaOH. The chemical analysis of effluent water after treatment have shown almost 3 times lower permanganate index, about 3 times lower iron content, 1.45 times lower As3+ content, 7.35 times lower ammonia content. Turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD is reduced for more than 5.77and 13.4 times, respectively. The suspended and colloid matter is eliminated from effluent water after treatment with ferrate(VI solution. Also, biochemical exploration has confirmed high efficiency of ferrate(VI in organics and microbial elimination showing 7.1 times lower 5-days bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and total elimination of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from effluent water. According to standards on quality of industrial wastewater effluents, it may be concluded that ferrate(VI treatment of wastewater almost completely eliminates excess of dangerous chemicals and pathogen bacteria, with the exemption of arsenic. Thus, ferrate(VI shows capable performance in treatment of coal separation plant wastewater.

  6. Antioxidant activities of traditional plants in Sri Lanka by DPPH free radical-scavenging assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of several plants harvested in Sri Lanka through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. These plants have traditionally been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below. (English name, “local name in Sri Lanka,” (scientific name.bougainvillea plant, “bouganvilla,” (Bougainvillea grabla, purple fruited pea eggplant,”welthibbatu,” (Solanum trilobatum [1], country borage plant, “kapparawalliya,” (Plectranthus amboinicus [2], malabar nut plant, “adhatoda,” (Justicia adhatoda [3], long pepper plant,”thippili,” (Piper longum [4], holy basil plant, “maduruthala,” (Ocimum tenuiflorum [5], air plant, “akkapana,” (Kalanchoe pinnata [6], plumed cockscomb plant, “kiri-henda,” (Celosia argentea [7], neem plant,”kohomba,” (Azadirachta indica [8], balipoovu plant, “polpala,” (Aerva lanata [9], balloon-vine plant, “wel penera,” (Cardiospermum halicacabum [10], emblic myrobalan plant, “nelli,” (Phyllanthus emblica [11], indian copperleaf plant, “kuppameniya,” (Acalypha indica [12], spreading hogweed plant, “pita sudu sarana,” (Boerhavia diffusa [13], curry leaf plant, “karapincha,” (Murraya koenigii [14], indian pennywort plant, “gotukola,” (Centera asiatica [15], jewish plum plant, “ambarella,”(Spondias dulcis [16]. Keywords: Antioxidative activity, DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Traditional plant, Medical herb

  7. Purification Simulation With Vapor Permeation and Distillation-Adsorption In Bioethanol Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Misri Gozan; Mia Sari Setiawan; Kenny Lischer

    2017-01-01

    High purity of Bioethanol is required in biofuel mixing with gasoline (EXX). In bioethanol production line, the azeotropic property of ethanol-water becomes the barrier for purification process. This study examined two bioethanol separation processes by support of simulation tools, Superpro Designer 9.0 software. Ethanol purity and a low costeconomical process were the major considerations. Purification method of vapor permeation membrane technology was compared with distillation-adsorption m...

  8. Assessment of Trace Metal Ions on Raw and Treated Water in Dakahlia Drinking water Purification Stations .Behaviour of aluminium in water purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Defrawy, M.M.; El-Fadaly, H.; El-Zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

    1999-01-01

    The technology of improvement of water quality at water purification plants can be characterised by a large diversity of method and processes employed and by substantial differences in the design and process structure and equipment. The effect of operational parameters as ph, pre-, post- chlorination, coagulant index and mixing intensities on the level of some metal ions concentration in different sources of drinking water plants were studied. Results of the chemical analysis indicated that the dissolved and total AI 3+ concentration in treated water was much higher than raw water and sometimes with values over the international maximum limit. Much of the overall variation in aqua aluminium ion in treated water could be explained on the basis of ph, solubility, and filtration models efficiency, while ions as Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ were found within the acceptable limits. The data obtained indicated that relation between watershed inputs (CI 2 , H CI, alum dose) and output of soluble aluminium was not necessary simple and straightforward. The investigated water samples were collected from main stations and compact units in Dakahlia Governorate

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay Of Plants Used In Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the probable therapeutic basis of these traditional plants based on their secondary metabolite profiles and for the first time draws research attention to Bukoba Rural district as a source for plants with potential pharmaceutical applications. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Secondary metabolites, ...

  10. Assessing the performance of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection and subtyping of high-risk suptypes of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) without DNA purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatensky, Mitchell G; Livingstone, Devon M; Mintchev, Paul; Barnes, Heather K; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Demetrick, Douglas J; Dort, Joseph C; van Marle, Guido

    2018-02-08

    Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing in incidence despite a decline in traditional risk factors. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), specifically subtypes 16, 18, 31 and 35, has been implicated as the high-risk etiologic agent. HPV positive cancers have a significantly better prognosis than HPV negative cancers of comparable stage, and may benefit from different treatment regimens. Currently, HPV related carcinogenesis is established indirectly through Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for p16, a tumour suppressor gene, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that directly tests for HPV DNA in biopsied tissue. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is more accurate than IHC, more rapid than PCR and is significantly less costly. In previous work we showed that a subtype specific HPV LAMP assay performed similar to PCR on purified DNA. In this study we examined the performance of this LAMP assay without DNA purification. We used LAMP assays using established primers for HPV 16 and 18, and new primers for HPV 31 and 35. LAMP reaction conditions were tested on serial dilutions of plasmid HPV DNA to confirm minimum viral copy number detection thresholds. LAMP was then performed directly on different human cell line samples without DNA purification. Our LAMP assays could detect 10 5 , 10 3 , 10 4 , and 10 5 copies of plasmid DNA for HPV 16, 18, 31, and 35, respectively. All primer sets were subtype specific, with no cross-amplification. Our LAMP assays also reliably amplified subtype specific HPV DNA from samples without requiring DNA isolation and purification. The high risk OPSCC HPV subtype specific LAMP primer sets demonstrated, excellent clinically relevant, minimum copy number detection thresholds with an easy readout system. Amplification directly from samples without purification illustrated the robust nature of the assay, and the primers used. This lends further support HPV type specific LAMP assays, and these specific primer sets and assays

  11. The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinal plants domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari Jr., Ilio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil studies with native medicinal plants are usually performed using non-domesticated plants and as a result the genetic variability of wild species could express different levels of active principles changing their therapeutic effect. Based on that, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that extract of different half- sib families Cordia verbenacea (DC, widely used as medicinal plant in Brazil, have different efficacy in the Total Growth Inhibition (TGI of 5 different human tumor cell lines. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA follow by Tuckey test and a heritability estimation of the plant families was performed. The results showed that TGI are different for each plant family according with each human tumor cell line. For instance, extracts obtained from families 3,11 and 12 were more effective to inhibit the U-251 and Ht-29 cell lines compared to the other families, while extracts obtained from the family 32 was more effective against thethe PC-3 line. The heritability coefficient indicated that plant population selection could promote a genetic improvement related to its active principle and their pharmacological effect and could provide the identification of the best families according to their pharmacological efficacy. In conclusion, this study suggests that the domestication of a wild medicinal plant should be better monitored by its pharmacological effect.

  12. The Analysis of the System of special water purification of Beloyarskaya Nuclear Power Plant unit BN-800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtseva, A. I.; Bibik, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses how the latest system of special water purification KPF-30, designed specifically for the fourth power unit of Beloyarskaya nuclear power plant, which has a number of advantages over other water purification systems as chemical-physical and technical-economic, environmental, and other industrial indicators. The scheme covered in this article systems of special water purification involves the use of a hydrocyclone at the preliminary stage of water treatment, as a worthy alternative to ion-exchange filters, which can significantly reduce the volume of toxic waste. The world community implements the project of closing the nuclear fuel cycle, there is a need to improve the reliability of the equipment for safe processes and development of critical and supercritical parameters in the nuclear industry. Essentially, on operated NPP units, the only factor that can cost-effectively optimize to improve the reliability of equipment is the water chemistry. System KPF30 meets the principles and criteria of ecological safety, demonstrating the justification for reagent less method of water treatment on the main stages, in which no formation of toxic wastes, leading to irreversible consequences of environmental pollution and helps to conserve water.

  13. Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing

  14. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masure, H.R.; Donovan, M.G.; Storm, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca 2+ to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca 2+ and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells

  15. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masure, H.R.; Donovan, M.G.; Storm, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca{sup 2}{sup +} to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca{sup 2}{sup +} and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells.

  16. A simple procedure for the purification of active fractions in aqueous extracts of plants with allelopathic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Borghetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most studies conducted to test the allelopathic activity of plant parts have made use of water as solvent. However, the presence of polar, water-soluble substances, such as proteins and carbohydrates, tends to hamper the purification of active compounds. In this study, we present a simple purification procedure that separates the active fraction of the extract from the undesirable substances, thus facilitating the search for active molecules through standard chromatographic methods. Aqueous leaf extracts of three Cerrado species (Caryocar brasiliense, Qualea parviflora and Eugenia dysenterica were prepared at 5% concentration (w/v and stored at 4ºC (crude extracts. After 24 h, these solutions were filtered and freeze-dried. The powder obtained was dissolved in methanol, filtered again, evaporated and dissolved in water for bioassays (purified extracts. For the bioassays, seedlings of Sesamum indicum were grown for five days in aqueous solutions prepared from crude and purified extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% (w/v. Seedling growth in distilled water was set as a control. In comparison with the control, we found that test solutions prepared from both crude and purified extracts significantly inhibited sesame seedling growth. However, solutions prepared from purified extracts were two to ten times more inhibitory to seedling growth than were those prepared from crude extracts. The inhibition of root growth ranged from 35% to 77%, depending on the plant species, at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Roots were more affected than were shoots. The effects of purified extracts on seedling morphology were similar to those observed when crude extracts were employed, indicating that the procedure of purification of crude extracts did not interfere with the mode of action of the active substances

  17. Reliability of plant root comet assay in comparison with human leukocyte comet assay for assessment environmental genotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Gabriela Barreto Dos; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Moraes, Isabella de Campos; César, Pedro Henrique Souza; Marcussi, Silvana; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2017-08-01

    Comet assay is an efficient test to detect genotoxic compounds based on observation of DNA damage. The aim of this work was to compare the results obtained from the comet assay in two different type of cells extracted from the root tips from Lactuca sativa L. and human blood. For this, Spent Pot Liner (SPL), and its components (aluminum and fluoride) were applied as toxic agents. SPL is a solid waste generated in industry from the aluminum mining and processing with known toxicity. Three concentrations of all tested solutions were applied and the damages observed were compared to negative and positive controls. It was observed an increase in the frequency of DNA damage for human leukocytes and plant cells, in all treatments. On human leukocytes, SPL induced the highest percentage of damage, with an average of 87.68%. For root tips cells of L. sativa the highest percentage of damage was detected for aluminum (93.89%). Considering the arbitrary units (AU), the average of nuclei with high levels of DNA fragmentation was significant for both cells type evaluated. The tested cells demonstrated equal effectiveness for detection of the genotoxicity induced by the SPL and its chemical components, aluminum and fluoride. Further, using a unique method, the comet assay, we proved that cells from root tips of Lactuca sativa represent a reliable model to detect DNA damage induced by genotoxic pollutants is in agreement of those observed in human leukocytes as model. So far, plant cells may be suggested as important system to assess the toxicological risk of environmental agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-chemical water purification a Westinghouse/Wallenius product for nuclear power plant needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetberg, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand for ecologically effective water treatment technologies has resulted in the development of several new oxidation methods. These technologies are generally labelled Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) or Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) and currently represent the most widely recognized alternative for ecologically sound, high-tech water purification. Many years of intensive research have culminated in the innovative Wallenius-AOT technology, a patented method that is remarkable in several ways. It imitates nature's own water purification method. This means no chemical additives are needed. The technology utilizes the ability of light, together with photo-catalytic semiconductor surfaces, to produce free radicals, like nature does. These reactive radicals create an environment in which organic and inorganic substances oxidize, whereby a broad spectrum of organisms is rendered harmless more effectively than with conventional UV technology. The entire process takes just a few micro-seconds. A major advantage of the technology is that it can be adjusted according to the desired degree of purification. By altering the dynamics of the process, the purification can be designed for specific applications. In this way, AOT tackles precise problems, regardless of flow and whether the problem is chemical or biological. The product was originally introduced for ballast treatment in the shipping industry. Ballast water has created severe damages to the biology at many locations. By moving an organism from one ocean to another we have introduced a possible threat to the local ecosystem. This has been prevented by using the AOT water treatment units. During ballasting and de-ballasting, the units create radicals with the help of a catalyst and a light source. These radicals then destroy the cell membrane of microorganisms. The radicals, which never leave the unit, have a lifetime of only a few milliseconds and pose no risk to the environment or crew

  19. Quantitative genotoxicity assays for analysis of medicinal plants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Graziela; Adam, Mônica Lucia; Silva, Caroline Dadalt; Soley, Bruna Silva; de Mello-Sampayo, Cristina; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Correr, Cassyano Januário; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2016-02-03

    Medicinal plants are known to contain numerous biologically active compounds, and although they have proven pharmacological properties, they can cause harm, including DNA damage. Review the literature to evaluate the genotoxicity risk of medicinal plants, explore the genotoxicity assays most used and compare these to the current legal requirements. A quantitative systematic review of the literature, using the keywords "medicinal plants", "genotoxicity" and "mutagenicity", was undertakenQ to identify the types of assays most used to assess genotoxicity, and to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The database searches retrieved 2289 records, 458 of which met the inclusion criteria. Evaluation of the selected articles showed a total of 24 different assays used for an assessment of medicinal plant extract genotoxicity. More than a quarter of those studies (28.4%) reported positive results for genotoxicity. This review demonstrates that a range of genotoxicity assay methods are used to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The most used methods are those recommended by regulatory agencies. However, based on the current findings, in order to conduct a thorough study concerning the possible genotoxic effects of a medicinal plant, we indicate that it is important always to include bacterial and mammalian tests, with at least one in vivo assay. Also, these tests should be capable of detecting outcomes that include mutation induction, clastogenic and aneugenic effects, and structural chromosome abnormalities. In addition, the considerable rate of positive results detected in this analysis further supports the relevance of assessing the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Membrane Distillation and Applications for Water Purification in Thermal Cogeneration. Pilot Plant Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullab, Alaa; Martin, Andrew

    2007-12-15

    Water treatment is an important auxiliary process in all thermal cogeneration plants. In this context membrane distillation (MD) is a novel technology that is potentially advantageous to technologies like reverse osmosis in the following ways: ability to utilize low-grade heat; reduced sensitivity to fluctuations in pH or salt concentrations; and lower capital and operation and maintenance costs (assumed in the case of fully-developed technology only). This research is a continuation of a Varmeforsk prestudy (report no. 909) and encompasses field trials at Idbaecken Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Facility (Nykoeping). Target groups for this study include environmental engineers with particular interest in emerging water purification technologies. The test rig consisted of a five-module MD unit capable of producing 1-2 m3/day purified water. District heating supply was employed for heating; feed stocks include municipal water and flue gas condensate. Field trials can be divided into three phases: (1) parametric study of yield; (2) long term operation with municipal water as feed stock; and (3) evaluation of flue gas condensate as a feed stock. Testing commenced in the beginning of April 2006. The performance of MD concerning production rate is highly dependent on the feed stock temperature, flow rate and temperature difference across the membrane. Initial results for municipal water feed stocks showed that product water fluxes were in line with previous experiments, thus confirming the findings made in the prestudy. Connecting several MD modules in series has the advantage of reducing the electrical energy consumption needed for recirculation; the penalty comes in less efficient operation from flux point of view. This is more critical in the case of low flow rates, and hence much careful design studies are needed to optimize the system. Regarding the long term performance, the test period lasted for 13 days on a continuous operation basis before the first flux

  1. The validation of waste assay systems during active test at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Takayuki; Miura, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Tomonori

    2007-01-01

    In order to implement accurate material accountancy at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) as a large scale reprocessing plant, it is necessary to introduce accurate measurement systems not only for mainstream material, but also appropriate measurement systems for solid waste materials. In this sense, the generated wastes by the active test operation have been measured with the Non-Destructive Assay Systems, such as Rokkasho Hulls Measurement System (RHMS) and Waste Crate Assay System (WCAS) for accountancy. This paper describes the experience of the NDA operation and the evaluation results for accountancy. (author)

  2. Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Communities in the Different Compartments of a Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Nederlof, M.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Stams, A.J.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The origin, structure, and composition of biofilms in various compartments of an industrial full-scale reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular biological methods. Samples were taken when the RO installation suffered from a substantial pressure drop and

  3. Molecular characterization of the bacterial communities in the different compartments of a full-scale reverse-osmosis water purification plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Nederlof, M.M.; Loosdracht, van M.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The origin, structure, and composition of biofilms in various compartments of an industrial full-scale reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular biological methods. Samples were taken when the RO installation suffered from a substantial pressure drop and

  4. Application of the comet assay in studies of programmed cell death (PCD in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD in plants is an intensively investigated process. One of the main characteristics of PCD in both animal and plant organisms is the non-random, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA, usually analysed using total DNA gel electrophoresis or TUNEL method. In this paper we present application of the "comet assay" (Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis for detection of nDNA degradation in studies of PCD during plant life cycle. We analyzed three types of tissue: anther tapetum, endosperm and mesophyll which were prepared in different ways to obtain a suspension of viable cells (without cell walls. The comet assay gives a possibility of examination of the nDNA degradation in individual cell. This method is significant for studies of the plant tissue differentiation and senescence especially in the cases when it is not possible to isolate large number of cells at the same developmental stage.

  5. Identification and assay of the flavonoids in medicinal plants with hepatoprotective action

    OpenAIRE

    Cojocaru-Toma M.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the identification and assay of the flavonoids in medicinal plants with hepatoprotective action, harvested as a culture at the Cultivation Center of the Medicinal Plants within State University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Nicolae Testemițanu” from the Republic of Moldova, using Pharmacopoeia methods. The flavonoids, found in the examined medicinal product, are responsible for hepatoprotective activity due to antioxidant activity, exhibited by neutralizing free radicals. Th...

  6. Purification Simulation With Vapor Permeation and Distillation-Adsorption In Bioethanol Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misri Gozan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High purity of Bioethanol is required in biofuel mixing with gasoline (EXX. In bioethanol production line, the azeotropic property of ethanol-water becomes the barrier for purification process. This study examined two bioethanol separation processes by support of simulation tools, Superpro Designer 9.0 software. Ethanol purity and a low costeconomical process were the major considerations. Purification method of vapor permeation membrane technology was compared with distillation-adsorption method. Data from previous lab experiments and some literatures were used. The results showed that distillation-adsorption method is more economical compared to vapor permeation technology. Payback period of the simulation is 3.9 years and 4.3 years to distillation adsorption and vapor permeation respectively with each IRR value is 20.23% and 17.89%. Initial investment value of vapor permeation is 9.6% higher than distillation method. Significant difference observed in operating costs, since more units involved in vapor permeation require more labors to operate.

  7. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants; Efecto del proceso de purificacion de agua en el contenido radiactivo: analisis en plantas purificadoras a pequena escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000, Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail: hlopez@uaz.edu.mx

    2009-10-15

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  8. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  9. Comparison of spectrophotometric and radioisotopic methods for the assay of Rubisco in ozone-treated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, C.D.; Tissue, D.T.; Fiscus, E.L.; Strain, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopic and spectrophotometric assays for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) initial and final activities and Rubisco content were compared in plants chronically exposed to ozone (O 3 ) in a greenhouse and the field. In a greenhouse experiment, Glycine max was treated in exposure chambers with either charcoal-filtered air (CF air) or 100 nl O 3 l -1 for 6 h daily during vegetative growth. Samples were collected after 7 days of exposure. In a field experiment, G. max was treated in open-top chambers with either CF air or non-filtered air with O 3 added at 1.5 times ambient O 3 for 12 h daily. Average daily O 3 concentrations were 21 and 92 nl l -1 in the CF and O 3 treatments, respectively. Samples were collected during vegetative and reproductive growth. Both assays generally yielded comparable Rubisco initial and final activities for greenhouse-grown plants regardless of the O 3 treatment. However for field-grown plants, Rubisco initial and final activities average 15 and 23% lower when assayed by the spectrophotometric rather than the radioisotopic method. For Rubisco content estimated by the spectrophotometric method, lower values for the regression of Rubisco activity vs concentration of carboxyarabinitol-1.5-bisphosphate were observed in O 3- than in CF-treated plants. Both assays yielded comparable Rubisco contents in the greenhouse and in the field although the variation was larger with the spectrophotometric method in field-grown plants. Growth conditions, field vs greenhouse, were more critical to the spectrophotometric assay performance than the O 3 treatments for measurement of Rubisco activity and content. (au) 40 refs

  10. An assay for secologanin in plant tissues based on enzymatic conversion into strictosidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallard, Didier; van der Heijden, Robert; Contin, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    strictosidine, a reaction catalysed by the enzyme strictosidine synthase (STR; E.C. 4.3.3.2). Subsequently, the formation of strictosidine is quantified by HPLC. STR was isolated from transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cells expressing a cDNA-derived gene coding for STR from Catharanthus roseus. The high specificity......The secoiridoid glucoside secologanin is the terpenoid building block in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. A method for its determination in plant tissues and cell suspension cultures has been developed. This assay is based on the condensation of secologanin with tryptamine, yielding...... of STR for secologanin, in combination with a sensitive and selective HPLC system, allows a simple extraction of secologanin from plant tissue. The detection limit of this methos is 15 ng secologanin. Using this assay, secologanin contents were determined in tissues of various plant species; Lonicera...

  11. Environmental Management in the Process of Purification of Cuban Furfural in the Chemical Bioactive Center Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Liset Rodríguez-Machín

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to establish in the installed equipment, operating conditions and quality specifications in the purification of furfural produced in Cuba. To do this some literature review and experiments are carried out. The approved batches by the quality control are quantified as well as the heat and evaporation losses and the impact on workers health. Energy management is performed by identifying electricity as the energy source of higher consumption. Some measures are applied like coating the evaporator portions that are required together with condenser modification and improvement of the room ventilation. As a result it was shown that it is possible to purify the Cuban furfural in the installed equipment, the process efficiency increases in 5,5 %, the evaporation losses decrease and non-acceptance by quality control drops. If the imported furfural is replaced by the Cuban are saved about 39 000 • per year production.

  12. Authentication of nuclear-material assays made with in-plant instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Russo, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper develops a general approach for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) authentication of nuclear material assays made with in-plant instruments under facility operator control. The IAEA is evaluating the use of in-plant instruments as a part of international safeguards at large bulk-handling facilities, such as reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication plants, and enrichment plants. One of the major technical problems associated with IAEA use of data from in-plant instruments is the need to show that there has been no tampering with the measurements. Two fundamentally different methods are discussed that can be used by IAEA inspectors to independently verify (or authenticate) measurements made with in-plant instruments. Method 1, called external authentication, uses a protected IAEA measurement technique to compare in-plant instrument results with IAEA results. Method 2, called internal authentication, uses protected IAEA standards, known physical constants, and special test procedures to determine the performance characteristics of the in-plant instrument. The importance of measurement control programs to detect normally expected instrument failures and procedural errors is also addressed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of factors that should be considered by the designers of new in-plant instruments in order to facilitate IAEA authentication procedures

  13. Prediction model for exhausted point of ion exchange resin column of moderator purification circuit at Korean CANDU plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Wook; Kang, Duck-Won; Ahn, Hyun Kyoung; Rhee, In Hyoung

    2005-01-01

    Most of the carbon-14 produced at CANDU plants are removed by an Ion eXchange (IX) resin column of the moderator purification circuit, and a column is replaced based on an empirical guideline. Since the amount of carbon-14 released from CANDU plants is governed by the performance of a column, optimal operation of IX resin columns through the timely replacement based on an objective criterion is very important. For this, the model for predicting the exhausted point of an IX resin column has been developed based on local chemical equilibrium. The performance evaluation at Wolsong Unit 3 showed that the model was able to simulate the removal of species by an IX resin column to such a high degree that the model could provide an objective criterion to replace an IX resin column timely. The derived maximum service time of a fresh IX resin column was 4,080 h, about twice that of the existing empirical guideline (up to 2,000h). Accordingly, if the maximum service time derived in this paper is applied to Wolsong Unit 3, it is expected to reduce the cost needed for the replacement of IX resin column by about 50%. (author)

  14. Good manufacturing practices production of a purification-free oral cholera vaccine expressed in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Koji; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Suzuki, Yuji; Minakawa, Satomi; Takeyama, Natsumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Tamura, Minoru; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    The first Good Manufacturing Practices production of a purification-free rice-based oral cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) from transgenic plants in a closed cultivation system yielded a product meeting regulatory requirements. Despite our knowledge of their advantages, plant-based vaccines remain unavailable for human use in both developing and industrialized countries. A leading, practical obstacle to their widespread use is producing plant-based vaccines that meet governmental regulatory requirements. Here, we report the first production according to current Good Manufacturing Practices of a rice-based vaccine, the cholera vaccine MucoRice-CTB, at an academic institution. To this end, we established specifications and methods for the master seed bank (MSB) of MucoRice-CTB, which was previously generated as a selection-marker-free line, evaluated its propagation, and given that the stored seeds must be renewed periodically. The production of MucoRice-CTB incorporated a closed hydroponic system for cultivating the transgenic plants, to minimize variations in expression and quality during vaccine manufacture. This type of molecular farming factory can be operated year-round, generating three harvests annually, and is cost- and production-effective. Rice was polished to a ratio of 95 % and then powdered to produce the MucoRice-CTB drug substance, and the identity, potency, and safety of the MucoRice-CTB product met pre-established release requirements. The formulation of MucoRice-CTB made by fine-powdering of drug substance and packaged in an aluminum pouch is being evaluated in a physician-initiated phase I study.

  15. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  16. Simultaneous column chromatographic extraction and purification of abscisic acid in peanut plants for direct HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Wen; Fan, Wei-Wei; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hai-Hang

    2015-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a universal signaling molecule, plays important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. The low contents and complex components in plants make it difficult to be accurately analyzed. A novel one-step sample preparation method for ABA in plants was developed. Fresh peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plant materials were fixed by oven-drying, microwave drying, boiling or Carnoy's fixative, and loaded onto a mini-preparing column. After washed the impurities, ABA was eluted with a small amount of solvent. ABA in plant materials was completely extracted and purified in 2mL solution and directly analyzed by HPLC, with a 99.3% recovery rate. Multiple samples can be simultaneously prepared. Analyses using this method indicated that the endogenous ABA in oven-dried peanut leaves increased 20.2-fold from 1.01 to 20.37μgg(-1) dry weight within 12h and then decreased in 30% polyethylene glycol 6000 treated plants, and increased 3.34-fold from 0.85 to 2.84μgg(-1) dry weight in 5 days and then decreased in soil drought treated plants. The method combined the column chromatographic extraction and solid-phase separation technologies in one step and can completely extracted plant endogenous ABA in a purified and highly concentrated form for direct HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of whole plant extracts of Kalanchoe laciniata by Ames and MTT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Ali; Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Akhtar, Bushra; Saleem, Ammara; Manan, Maria; Shabbir, Maryam; Ashraf, Muneeb; Peerzada, Sohaib; Ahmed, Shoaib; Raza, Moosa

    2017-01-01

    Lack of data on safety of herbal medicines have endangered human health and life. The present study evaluated the genotoxic and mutagenic effect of Kalanchoe laciniata to access the safety and usefulness of the medicinal plant. Aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of K. laciniata were evaluated for the genotoxic potential using Ames assay and cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. Ames assay was conducted using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 and TA-102 whereas MTT assay was performed on baby hamster kidney cell line BHK-21. Aqua-methanolic extract of K. laciniata exhibited significant mutagenicity when exposed to TA-102 strain with a mutagenic index of 50.66 and 54.74 at maximum dose 150 mg/plate. The extract was also mutagenic to TA-100 strain but to a lesser extent. M.I of n-hexane extract was 12.15 and 15.51 for TA-100 and TA-102 respectively. n-hexane extract was mutagenic but little difference was observed between results of two strains. Both extracts were found to be cytotoxic with an IC 50 of 321.9 and 638.5 µg/mL for aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts respectively. On the basis of results it was concluded that aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of K. laciniata possess mutagenic and cytotoxic potential. It is suggested to explore the plant further to evaluate its safety in rodents and other species.

  18. Biological conversion assay using Clostridium phytofermentans to estimate plant feedstock quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott J; Warnick, Thomas A; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Alvelo-Maurosa, Jesús G; Serapiglia, Michelle J; McCormick, Heather; Brown, Virginia; Young, Naomi F; Schnell, Danny J; Smart, Lawrence B; Hahn, Michael G; Pedersen, Jeffrey F; Leschine, Susan B; Hazen, Samuel P

    2012-02-08

    There is currently considerable interest in developing renewable sources of energy. One strategy is the biological conversion of plant biomass to liquid transportation fuel. Several technical hurdles impinge upon the economic feasibility of this strategy, including the development of energy crops amenable to facile deconstruction. Reliable assays to characterize feedstock quality are needed to measure the effects of pre-treatment and processing and of the plant and microbial genetic diversity that influence bioconversion efficiency. We used the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans to develop a robust assay for biomass digestibility and conversion to biofuels. The assay utilizes the ability of the microbe to convert biomass directly into ethanol with little or no pre-treatment. Plant samples were added to an anaerobic minimal medium and inoculated with C. phytofermentans, incubated for 3 days, after which the culture supernatant was analyzed for ethanol concentration. The assay detected significant differences in the supernatant ethanol from wild-type sorghum compared with brown midrib sorghum mutants previously shown to be highly digestible. Compositional analysis of the biomass before and after inoculation suggested that differences in xylan metabolism were partly responsible for the differences in ethanol yields. Additionally, we characterized the natural genetic variation for conversion efficiency in Brachypodium distachyon and shrub willow (Salix spp.). Our results agree with those from previous studies of lignin mutants using enzymatic saccharification-based approaches. However, the use of C. phytofermentans takes into consideration specific organismal interactions, which will be crucial for simultaneous saccharification fermentation or consolidated bioprocessing. The ability to detect such phenotypic variation facilitates the genetic analysis of mechanisms underlying plant feedstock quality.

  19. Biological conversion assay using Clostridium phytofermentans to estimate plant feedstock quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently considerable interest in developing renewable sources of energy. One strategy is the biological conversion of plant biomass to liquid transportation fuel. Several technical hurdles impinge upon the economic feasibility of this strategy, including the development of energy crops amenable to facile deconstruction. Reliable assays to characterize feedstock quality are needed to measure the effects of pre-treatment and processing and of the plant and microbial genetic diversity that influence bioconversion efficiency. Results We used the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans to develop a robust assay for biomass digestibility and conversion to biofuels. The assay utilizes the ability of the microbe to convert biomass directly into ethanol with little or no pre-treatment. Plant samples were added to an anaerobic minimal medium and inoculated with C. phytofermentans, incubated for 3 days, after which the culture supernatant was analyzed for ethanol concentration. The assay detected significant differences in the supernatant ethanol from wild-type sorghum compared with brown midrib sorghum mutants previously shown to be highly digestible. Compositional analysis of the biomass before and after inoculation suggested that differences in xylan metabolism were partly responsible for the differences in ethanol yields. Additionally, we characterized the natural genetic variation for conversion efficiency in Brachypodium distachyon and shrub willow (Salix spp.. Conclusion Our results agree with those from previous studies of lignin mutants using enzymatic saccharification-based approaches. However, the use of C. phytofermentans takes into consideration specific organismal interactions, which will be crucial for simultaneous saccharification fermentation or consolidated bioprocessing. The ability to detect such phenotypic variation facilitates the genetic analysis of mechanisms underlying plant feedstock quality.

  20. Application of the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Assay to Genotoxicity Evaluation in Plants and Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu

    2007-10-01

    Application of the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Assay to Genotoxicity Evaluation in Plants and Animals. Recently, the importance of ionizing radiation and chemicals has been recognized since radio- and chemical therapy is directly related to the control of various diseases such as cancer. Radiation and the chemicals can cause biological damages while they have great applicability. It is of necessity to analyze rapidly, easily and accurately the biological effects, especially DNA damage due to those factors. Recently SCGE (single cell gel electrophoresis assay, alias comet assay) has been developed for the efficient evaluation of DNA damage. In this report, the comprehensive review will be given on the rationale, the technical applications and the advantages and shortcomings of SCGE assay. This method can be directly applied to study on toxicity, cancer, and aging in terms of the evaluation of DNA damages due to radiation and chemicals on human cellular level. It is also suggested that comet assay be used for testing genotoxicity of suspected substances, detecting irradiated foods, screening radioprotective candidates, and studying DNA repair process in various biological systems

  1. Application of the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Assay to Genotoxicity Evaluation in Plants and Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu

    2007-10-15

    Application of the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Assay to Genotoxicity Evaluation in Plants and Animals. Recently, the importance of ionizing radiation and chemicals has been recognized since radio- and chemical therapy is directly related to the control of various diseases such as cancer. Radiation and the chemicals can cause biological damages while they have great applicability. It is of necessity to analyze rapidly, easily and accurately the biological effects, especially DNA damage due to those factors. Recently SCGE (single cell gel electrophoresis assay, alias comet assay) has been developed for the efficient evaluation of DNA damage. In this report, the comprehensive review will be given on the rationale, the technical applications and the advantages and shortcomings of SCGE assay. This method can be directly applied to study on toxicity, cancer, and aging in terms of the evaluation of DNA damages due to radiation and chemicals on human cellular level. It is also suggested that comet assay be used for testing genotoxicity of suspected substances, detecting irradiated foods, screening radioprotective candidates, and studying DNA repair process in various biological systems.

  2. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  3. Purification of ammonia-containing trap waters from atomic power plant by ozone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachok, M.A.; Prokudina, S.A.; Shulyat'ev, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of research was to study the process of ozonation of ammonia-containing trap waters from the Kursk Atomic Power Plant both on the model solutions and on real ones. Different factors (pH of the medium, temperature, concentration of the initial substances) have been studied for their effect on ozonation of aqueous ammonia solutions, model solutions of trap waters from the Kursk Atomic Power Plant as well as ammonia-containing trap waters and liquid radioactive wastes delivered to special water treatment at the Kursk Atomic Power Plant. It is shown that in all the cases the highest rate of ammonia oxidation by ozone is observed in the alkaline medium (pH 1.4-11.0) and at 55 deg C. The obtained results have shown that a method of ozonation followed by evaporation of water to be purified can be used to treat ammonia-containing waters from atomic power plant

  4. Standardization of human thyrotropin radioimmunoassay and its application to the purification of this hormone to the preparation of the assay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The various steps that are necessary for setting up the thyrotropin radioimmunoassay are presented below. Radioiodination was carried out through the Chloramine T method and the labeled purification performed on Sephadex G-100. Purification of human thyrotropin from side fractions obtained during the purification of growth hormone was carried out in order to obtain a pure reagent for use in the radioimmunoassay. The employment of the hormone obtained was evaluated as the radioimmunoassay tracer in comparison with that prepared from the hormone received from the NIDDKD, U.S.A. The results indicated that although it was not possible to obtain a hormone with a purity degree adequate to be used as the tracer, enough experience was acquired for the isolation of thyrotropin. (author)

  5. Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S H [Osmania Univ., Ecology and Environmental Studies Div., Hyderabad (India)

    1995-12-01

    This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic lifeforms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11{sup o}C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63-75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light. (author) 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  6. Design of a Prototype of Water Purification by Plasma Technology as the Foundation for an Industrial Wastewater Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillas, L

    2015-01-01

    In order to mitigate the contamination of water sources due to the spill of sewage without any kind of treatment, mainly generated by the industrial sector; a prototype of water purification by plasma technology has been designed. The prototype will transform liquid water into plasma to eliminate the pathogens from the water, due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation, electric fields and shock waves, which aid in the destruction of pollutants. The sewage will be accelerated at high speed to convert it into a liquid-gas mixture in order to transform it into plasma, which is achieved when the electrical discharge (of the type dielectric barrier discharge or DBD) is applied to the water by means of high voltage electrodes, from a source of alternating current (AC). Subsequently, the mixture slows down to be return into liquid phase and obtain clean water, all of these without a significantly rise of temperature. The device also has an automatic power control system. Finally, a short feasibility study was conducted in order to use this type of water cleaner in the future as a basis for a treatment plant of industrial waste water, so it comes to replace the current secondary and tertiary treatments used among the industry. It is intended that this new system will be more efficient and cheaper than the current waste water treatments. (paper)

  7. Design of a Prototype of Water Purification by Plasma Technology as the Foundation for an Industrial Wastewater Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, L.

    2015-03-01

    In order to mitigate the contamination of water sources due to the spill of sewage without any kind of treatment, mainly generated by the industrial sector; a prototype of water purification by plasma technology has been designed. The prototype will transform liquid water into plasma to eliminate the pathogens from the water, due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation, electric fields and shock waves, which aid in the destruction of pollutants. The sewage will be accelerated at high speed to convert it into a liquid-gas mixture in order to transform it into plasma, which is achieved when the electrical discharge (of the type dielectric barrier discharge or DBD) is applied to the water by means of high voltage electrodes, from a source of alternating current (AC). Subsequently, the mixture slows down to be return into liquid phase and obtain clean water, all of these without a significantly rise of temperature. The device also has an automatic power control system. Finally, a short feasibility study was conducted in order to use this type of water cleaner in the future as a basis for a treatment plant of industrial waste water, so it comes to replace the current secondary and tertiary treatments used among the industry. It is intended that this new system will be more efficient and cheaper than the current waste water treatments.

  8. In vitro antioxidant assay of selected aqueous plant extracts and their polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga Raju M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To support the use of selected plant extracts in Ayurveda, naturopathy, the antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vincarosea (VR, Gymnemasylvestre (GS, Tinosporacordifolia (TC and Emblicaofficinalis (EO and their mixture (PHF of Indian origin was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity by using in vitro models like superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxide inhibition assay. The results were compared with standard (ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant. The various phytoconstituents identified in the above selected plants extracts were poly phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids. The terpenoids were reported to protect lipids, blood and body fluids against the attack of free radicals, some types of reactive oxygen, hydroxylic groups, peroxides and superoxide radicals. The presence of these phytoconstituents in selected plants might be responsible for antioxidant activity with that of known antioxidant ascorbic acid.

  9. Expression, purification and crystallization of a plant polyketide cyclase from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmei; Matsui, Takashi; Mori, Takahiro; Taura, Futoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Plant polyketides are a structurally diverse family of natural products. In the biosynthesis of plant polyketides, the construction of the carbocyclic scaffold is a key step in diversifying the polyketide structure. Olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC) from Cannabis sativa L. is the only known plant polyketide cyclase that catalyzes the C2-C7 intramolecular aldol cyclization of linear pentyl tetra-β-ketide-CoA to generate olivetolic acid in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids. The enzyme is also thought to belong to the dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein family. However, because of a lack of functional analysis of other plant DABB proteins and low sequence identity with the functionally distinct bacterial DABB proteins, the catalytic mechanism of OAC has remained unclear. To clarify the intimate catalytic mechanism of OAC, the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.40 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 47.3, c = 176.0 Å. Further crystallographic analysis will provide valuable insights into the structure-function relationship and catalytic mechanism of OAC.

  10. Operating conditions of T.B.P. line uranium purification plant, for uranium dioxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardich, R.N.; La Gamma, A.M.; Anasco, R.; Soler, S.M.G. de; Isnardi, E.; Gea, V.; Chiaraviglio, R.; Matyjasczyk, E.; Aramayo, R.

    1992-01-01

    In this contribution are presented the operative conditions and the results obtained step of the Uranium dioxide production plant of Argentina. The refining step involve the Uranium concentrate dissolution, the silica ageing, the filtration and liquid - liquid extraction with n-tributyl phosphate solution in kerosene. The established operative conditions allow to obtain Uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear purity in industrial scale. (author)

  11. Expression and purification of plant fructan exohydrolases and their potential applications in fructose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wenyue; Jin, Lijin; Jiao, Jiao; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Haiyan; Liang, Mingxiang

    2018-03-01

    Inulinases from microorganisms have been extensively studied for their role in the production of fructose from fructan. Fructan can also be hydrolyzed by plant fructan exohydrolases (FEHs), but these enzymes have not been used to produce fructose commercially. Two Ht1-FEHs (Ht1-FEH I and Ht1-FEH II) were recently characterized in Jerusalem artichoke. In this study, we cloned the third member of the Ht1-FEH family in Jerusalem artichoke (i.e., Ht1-FEH III). When heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, Ht1-FEH III not only demonstrated hydrolysis activity towards β (2, 1)-linked fructans and β (2, 6)-linked levan, but also towards sucrose. To explore the potential industrial applications, we heterologously expressed and purified six plant 1-FEHs from two typical fructan plants (i.e., chicory and Jerusalem artichoke) and showed that chicory Ci1-FEH IIa had the highest hydrolysis capacity to fructan in vitro. Furthermore, we immobilized Ci1-FEH IIa on resin and optimized the immobilization conditions. We found that inulin-type fructan or the tuber extract from Jerusalem artichoke could be rapidly degraded into fructose and sucrose by immobilized Ci1-FEH IIa. The capacity of Ci1-FEH IIa to release fructose from fructans was comparable to that of some inulinases from microorganisms. Thus, plant FEHs have potential applications in fructose production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Hyun Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with indoor plants and went through the latter observation term without any indoor plants. Results The household of continuation showed a continual decrease in the indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs during the entire observation period, but the household of withdrawal performed an increase in the indoor concentrations of VOCs, except formaldehyde and toluene during the latter observation term after the decrease during the former observation term. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR increased in the households of continuation with the value of 13.9 L/min in the morning and 20.6 L/ min in the evening, but decreased in the households of withdrawal with the value of -24.7 L/min in the morning and -30.2 L/min in the evening in the first experimental season. All of the households exhibited a decrease in the value of PEFR in the second experimental season. Conclusions Limitations to the generalizability of findings regarding the presence of plants indoors can be seen as a more general expression of such a benefit of human-environment relations.

  13. Sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. [Cauliflower mosaic virus, lettuce mosaic virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, S A; Shepherd, R J [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA); California Univ., Davis (USA))

    1980-06-01

    A simple and highly sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of plant viruses is described. The RISA procedure is a microplate method based on the principle of 'double-antibody sandwich' and follows essentially the protocol of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Clark and Adams, 1977), with the exception that /sup 125/I-labelled ..gamma..-globulin is substituted for the ..gamma..-globulin enzyme conjugate; the bound /sup 125/I-..gamma..-globulin is dissociated by acidification from the double-antibody sandwich. The radioactivity is proportional to virus concentration, and cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) could be detected at concentrations as low as 5 and 2 ng/ml, respectively. Direct evidence of the adverse effects of conjugation with enzyme on the binding abilities of antibodies is presented. The RISA procedure should prove valuable with viruses for which the ELISA values are too low to be dependable.

  14. Simplified riboprobe purification using translucent straws as gel tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, S; Ben-Shlomo, I; Adashi, E Y; Rohan, R M

    1996-01-01

    Gel purification of radioactive riboprobes enhances the quality of the ribonuclease protection assay. A simple and effective method for riboprobe purification is described. The method uses acrylamide gels in plastic tubes to achieve electrophoretic separation of the RNA polymerase products.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a plant subtilase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Rolf; Huttenlocher, Franziska; Cedzich, Anna; Kaiser, Markus; Schaller, Andreas; Ottmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The first crystallographic study of a plant subtilase, SBT3 from S. lycopersicum, is reported. The subtilase SBT3 from Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) was purified from a tomato cell culture and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A native data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. For experimental phasing, CsCl-derivative and tetrakis(acetoxymercuri)methane (TAMM) derivative crystals were employed for MIRAS phasing. Three caesium sites and one TAMM site were identified, which allowed solution of the structure

  16. Purification of anaerobic digestion biogas from a wastewater treatment plant for its use as bio fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Robles, F.; Torres Rojo, J. C.; Sanchez Bas, M.; Moya Sanchez, N.

    2009-01-01

    The first phase of the investigation whose results are presented in this article, consists on the optimization of the biogas desulphurization. In our case this process was made by chemical way. Besides the scrubbing towers, the pilot plant used included filters of activated carbon at the end of the line. The H 2 S inflow concentrations were quite high. After the carried out rehearsals, the effluent biogas from the scrubbing towers presents a H 2 S concentration less than 1 ppm and zero or undetectable values of up to fifty eight analyzed trace elements. (Author) 12 refs

  17. Nondestructive assay technology and in-plant dynamic materials control: ''DYMAC''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppin, G.R.; Maraman, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced system of in-plant materials control known as DYMAC, Dynamic Materials Control, is being developed. This major safeguards R and D effort merges state-of-the-art nondestructive assay instrumentation and computer technology, with the clear objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent, real time control of nuclear materials in a modern plutonium processing facility. Emphasis is placed on developing practical solutions to generic problems of materials measurement and control, so that resulting safeguards techniques and instrumentation will have widespread applicability throughout the nuclear community. (auth)

  18. Selected nondestructive assay instrumentation for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Baker, M.P.; Strittmatter, R.; Jain, M.; Evans, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A selected set of nondestructive assay instruments for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants is currently under development. These instruments are of three types: in-line enrichment meters for feed, product, and tails streams; area radiation monitors for direct detection of high-enriched uranium production, and an enrichment meter for spent alumina trap material. The current status of the development of each of these instruments is discussed, with supporting data, as well as the role each would play in a total international safeguards system. 5 figures

  19. Resistance of solanum species to phytophthora infestans evaluated in the detached-leaf and whole-plant assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, K.P.; Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of 82 tomato genotypes belonging to 8 Solanum and a Lycopersicon species against Phytophthora infestans causing late blight was determined using detached-leaf and whole-plant assays. None of the test genotypes was immune or highly resistant. Of the 82 commercial and wild genotypes only TMS-2 (male-sterile and characterized by indeterminate growth) belonging to Lycopersicon esculentum was resistant with severity index of 2.4 in the detached-leaf assay on 0-5 scale (where 5 was highly susceptible) and percent disease index (%DI) of 23.3% under the whole-plant assay. Among the remaining genotypes, 41 were susceptible and 40 were highly susceptible under the detached-leaf assay, while 18 were susceptible and 63 were highly susceptible under the whole-plant assay. However, there was a significant difference in %DI for genotypes under the whole-plant assay. The response of whole-plants to inoculation with P. infestans in the detached-leaf assay was similar in all cases. The overall screening results indicate that TMS-2 is a good source of resistance and it can be useful for the development of tomato hybrid cultivars resistant to late blight. (author)

  20. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute ( 60 Co) and chronic ( 137 Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation ( 32 P), lethality (LD 50 , LD 100 ), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD 50 and LD 100 for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation

  1. A comparison of high-throughput techniques for assaying circadian rhythms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Andrew J; Waller, Jade; Greenwood, Mark; Gould, Peter D; Hartwell, James; Hall, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the development of high-throughput techniques has enabled us to probe the plant circadian clock, a key coordinator of vital biological processes, in ways previously impossible. With the circadian clock increasingly implicated in key fitness and signalling pathways, this has opened up new avenues for understanding plant development and signalling. Our tool-kit has been constantly improving through continual development and novel techniques that increase throughput, reduce costs and allow higher resolution on the cellular and subcellular levels. With circadian assays becoming more accessible and relevant than ever to researchers, in this paper we offer a review of the techniques currently available before considering the horizons in circadian investigation at ever higher throughputs and resolutions.

  2. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanowska Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity. The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.

  3. Expression and Purification of the Main Component Contained in Camel Milk and Its Antimicrobial Activities Against Bacterial Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeian, Abbas; Shahriari Ahmadi, Farajollah; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Mamarabadi, Mojtaba

    2018-04-04

    Lactoferrin is the most dominant protein in milk after casein. This protein plays a crucial role in many biological processes including the regulation of iron metabolism, induction and modulation of the immune system, the primary defense against microorganisms, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and presenting antimicrobial activity against various pathogens such as parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The major antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin is related to its N-terminal tail where different peptides for instance lactoferricin and lactoferrampin which are important for their antimicrobial abilities are present. The growth rate of bacterial cells in camel milk is lower than that of the cow milk due to having more antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we have fused a codon-optimized partial camel lactoferrcin and lactoferrampin DNA sequences in order to construct a fused peptide via a lysine. This chimeric 42-mer peptide consists of complete and partial amino acid sequence of camel lactoferrampin and lactoferricin, respectively. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells were used for synthesizing this recombinant peptide. Finally, the antibacterial activities of this constructed peptide were investigated under in vitro condition. The result showed that, all construction, cloning and expression processes were successfully performed in HEK-293. One His-tag tail was added to the chimera in order to optimize the isolation and purification processes and also reduce the cost of production. Additionally, His-tag retained the antimicrobial activity of the chimera. The antimicrobial tests showed that the growth rate in the majority of bacterial plant pathogens, including gram negative and positive bacteria, was inhibited by recombinant chimera as the level of MIC values were evaluated between 0.39 and 25.07 μg/ml for different bacterial isolates.

  4. Chronic toxicity, genotoxic assay, and phytochemical analysis of four traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Sortibrán, América; Téllez, María Guadalupe Ordaz; Ocotero, Verónica Muñoz; Carballo-Ontiveros, Marco Antonio; García, Angélica Méndez; Valdés, Rocio Jimena Jiménez; Gutiérrez, Elizabeth Romero; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2011-09-01

    Four medicinal plants--Tecoma stans, Ligusticum porteri, Monarda austromontana, and Poliomintha longiflora, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical countries of the American continent--are widely used in folk medicine to treat diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. In addition, T. stans and P. longiflora are extensively used as hypoglycemic agents, and M. austromontana and P. longiflora are used as condiments. The plants were collected, identified, dried, and pulverized. Solvent extraction was prepared by maceration of the plant samples, and the phytochemical composition of the extracts was determined by using standard analysis procedures. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids/steroids, flavonoids, and phenols/tannins and, in L. porteri, traces of alkaloids. After the elimination of solvents in vacuo, the extracts were administrated to Drosophila larvae to test their toxicity and genotoxicity. Third instar larvae were chronically fed with the phytoextracts. The extract from L. porteri was toxic, whereas those from T. stans, P. longiflora, and M. austromontana were not. Genotoxic activities of the 4 plants were investigated by using the wing-spot assay of D. melanogaster. Mitomycin C was used as a positive control. No statistically significant increase was observed between treated sample series and a concurrent negative (water) or solvent control sample series.

  5. Purification and properties of the glycoprotein processing N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II from plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumilo, T.; Kaushal, G.P.; Elbein, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GlcNAc-transferase) capable of adding a GlcNAc residue to GlcNAcMan3GlcNAc was demonstrated in mung bean seedlings. This enzyme was purified about 3400-fold by using (diethylaminoethyl)cellulose and phosphocellulose chromatographies and chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose. The transferase was assayed by following the change in the migration of the [ 3 H]mannose-labeled GlcNAc beta 1,2Man alpha 1,3(Man alpha 1,6)Man beta 1,4GlcNAc on Bio-Gel P-4, or by incorporation of [ 3 H]GlcNAc from UDP-[3H]GlcNAc into a neutral product, (GlcNAc)2Man3GlcNAc. Thus, the purified enzyme catalyzed the addition of a GlcNAc to that mannose linked in alpha 1,6 linkage to the beta-linked mannose. GlcNAc beta 1,2Man alpha 1,3(Man alpha 1,6)Man beta 1,4GlcNAc was an excellent acceptor while Man alpha 1,6(Man alpha 1,3)Man beta 1,4GlcNAc, Man alpha 1,6(Man alpha 1,3)Man alpha 1,6(Man alpha 1,3)Man beta 1,4GlcNAc, and Man alpha 1,6(Man apha 1,3)Man alpha 1,6[GlcNAcMan alpha 1,3]Man beta 1,4GlcNAc were not acceptors. Methylation analysis and enzymatic digestions showed that both terminal GlcNAc residues on (GlcNAc)2Man3GlcNAc were attached to the mannoses in beta 1,2 linkages. The GlcNAc transferase had an almost absolute requirement for divalent cation, with Mn2+ being best at 2-3 mM. Mn2+ could not be replaced by Mg2+ or Ca2+, but Cd2+ showed some activity. The enzyme was also markedly stimulated by the presence of detergent and showed optimum activity at 0.15% Triton X-100. The Km for UDP-GlcNAc was found to be 18 microM and that for GlcNAcMan3GlcNAc about 16 microM

  6. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4 3 2 1 2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof [Center for Biocrystallographic Research, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland); Bujacz, Grzegorz [Center for Biocrystallographic Research, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Food Chemistry and Biotechnology, Technical University of Lodz (Poland); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Center for Biocrystallographic Research, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  9. Non-destructive assay of leached hulls in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Henderson, B.C.; Gray, J.H.; Huff, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The hull monitor at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) will be a remotely controlled, fully automated system designed to quantitatively assay leached hulls for undissolved U and Pu. The hull monitor will assay the hulls from one metric ton of fuel per dissolver basket with the design goal of detecting 0.1% undissolved fuel and yet remain within the framework of the BNFP materials flow of five hull baskets per day. The non-destructive assay will be accomplished using a computer-based gamma-ray pulse height analysis system employing a 5 x 5 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The intense radiations from the fission product isotopes and the activation product isotopes produced in the reactor prevent direct assay of the undissolved fuel left in the hulls. The measurement will be made indirectly by demonstrating a correlation between the amount of 144 Ce undissolved and the remaining U. The isotope 144 Ce is a direct fission product with high cumulative yield. The daughter isotope 144 Pr has a gamma ray at 2.18 MeV well above other predominant radiations in the spectrum from the major interferences 60 Co, 58 Co, 95 Zr( 95 Nb), 137 Cs and 106 Ru( 106 Rh). Segmented scanning operation of the hull monitor is accomplished by rotation and vertical transversal of the hulls container past the detector station. Proper collimation and absorbers are required to maximize the 144 Ce( 144 Pr) to background ratio. A basket indexer is provided which monitors the scanning rate and ensures repositioning. The leached hull monitor system will be interfaced to a computer-based multichannel analyzer for ease of operation and data handling. A calibration basket has been fabricated to accomodate radioactive sources and inactive Zircaloy hulls

  10. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  11. Reverse osmosis and its use at the nuclear power plants. Purification of primary circuit coolant by the means of reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kus, Pavel; Vonkova, Katerina; Kunesova, Katerina; Bartova, Sarka; Skala, Martin; Moucha, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is focused on the use of membrane technologies (e.g. reverse osmosis) for the primary coolant purification at the nuclear power plants. Currently, boric acid present in the primary coolant is preconcentrated at the evaporators, but their operation is very inefficient and expensive. Therefore, reverse osmosis was proposed as one of promising methods possibly replacing evaporators. The aim of the purification process is to achieve boric acid solution of a defined concentration (40 g/l) in the retentate stream in order to recycle it and reuse it in the primary circuit. Additionally, permeate flow should consist solely of pure water. To study the efficiency of several reverse osmosis modulus in the boric acid removal form the water solutions, experimental apparatus was constructed in our laboratory. It consists of the solution reservoir, pump and reverse osmosis modulus. The arrangement of experiments was batch and the retentate flow was refluxed to the feed solution. Several modulus of commercial reverse osmosis membranes were tested. The feed solution contained various concentrations of H 3 BO 3 , KOH, LiOH and NH 3 in order to simulate real primary coolant composition. Based on the experimental results, mathematical model was developed in order to optimize experimental conditions for the best results in primary coolant purification and boric acid preconcentration. (author)

  12. Purification and biochemical characterization of NpABCG5/NpPDR5, a plant pleiotropic drug resistance transporter expressed in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Frédéric; Pierman, Baptiste; Bertin, Aurélie; Lévy, Daniel; Boutry, Marc

    2017-05-04

    Pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters belong to the ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and are involved in the transport of various molecules across plasma membranes. During evolution, PDR genes appeared independently in fungi and in plants from a duplication of a half-size ABC gene. The enzymatic properties of purified PDR transporters from yeast have been characterized. This is not the case for any plant PDR transporter, or, incidentally, for any purified plant ABC transporter. Yet, plant PDR transporters play important roles in plant physiology such as hormone signaling or resistance to pathogens or herbivores. Here, we describe the expression, purification, enzymatic characterization and 2D analysis by electron microscopy of NpABCG5/NpPDR5 from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , which has been shown to be involved in the plant defense against herbivores. We constitutively expressed NpABCG5/NpPDR5, provided with a His-tag in a homologous system: suspension cells from Nicotiana tabacum (Bright Yellow 2 line). NpABCG5/NpPDR5 was targeted to the plasma membrane and was solubilized by dodecyl maltoside and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The ATP-hydrolyzing specific activity (27 nmol min -1  mg -1 ) was stimulated seven-fold in the presence of 0.1% asolectin. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that NpABCG5/NpPDR5 is monomeric and with dimensions shorter than those of known ABC transporters. Enzymatic data (optimal pH and sensitivity to inhibitors) confirmed that plant and fungal PDR transporters have different properties. These data also show that N. tabacum suspension cells are a convenient host for the purification and biochemical characterization of ABC transporters. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Assay for the antioxidant and radioprotectant activity of extracts form endemic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Woo, Hyun Jung; Plewa, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Since radiation damage and oxygen poisoning occur through the formation of reactive oxygen species, it is a challenging task to develop agents with high antioxidant and radioprotectant activities from plant species. In this study, several species of Korean endemic plants were chosen as experimental candidates. Water-and ethanol extracts were made from the candidates and tested for their antioxidant and radioprotectant activities. In vitro antioxidant assay of the aqueous-organic extracts was carried out using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging method. Radioprotective effects were tested by means of experimental on irradiated cell cultures and animals. Among others, the water-extract of Ixeris dentata leaves showed a marked effect on the viability of B16 melanoma cells and provided a radioprotective effect on the number of the leukocytes in the irradiated rodents. DNA damage in the lymphocytes after γ-irradiation decreased in the extract administered animals. Many of the extracts tested in this study showed a slightly lower activity in free radical scavenging than the well-known chemical antiozidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytuluene, and glutathione. However, some extracts showed an antioxidant activity similar to that of α-tocopherol acetate and caffeine. These results support the optimistic view for developing radioprotective agents from the Korean endemic plants that showed a strong antioxidant activity

  14. Development of fluorescence imaging-based assay for screening cardioprotective compounds from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gao, Xiumei; Nie, Xiaojing; Yang, Yingxin; Fan, Xiaohui

    2011-09-19

    Medicinal plants have been widely recognized as a renewable resource for the discovery of novel leads and drug. In this study, an approach for screening and identification compounds with cardioprotective activity from medicinal plant extracts by cellular-fluorescence imaging technique was developed. It is a cell-based assay for measuring mitochondrial membrane potential changes in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells exposed to H(2)O(2) by using a fluorescence automatic microscopy screening platform. Rhodamine 123 was used as the fluorescent dye to indicate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential. The sensitivity and linear range of the proposed approach were evaluated and validated using vitamin C, an antioxidative compound. The method was applied to screen active components with potent cardioprotective effects from a traditional Chinese formula. The potential cardioprotective components were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Moreover, the utility of the proposed approach was further validated by three compounds (salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, and tanshinone II A) identified from the formula which showed cardioprotective effects in a dose-dependent manner. These applications suggested that the proposed rapid and sensitive screening approach offers an efficient way to discover active components or compounds from medicinal plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assay for the antioxidant and radioprotectant activity of extracts form endemic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Woo, Hyun Jung [KAERI, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Plewa, Michael J. [University of Illinois, Illinosi (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since radiation damage and oxygen poisoning occur through the formation of reactive oxygen species, it is a challenging task to develop agents with high antioxidant and radioprotectant activities from plant species. In this study, several species of Korean endemic plants were chosen as experimental candidates. Water-and ethanol extracts were made from the candidates and tested for their antioxidant and radioprotectant activities. In vitro antioxidant assay of the aqueous-organic extracts was carried out using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging method. Radioprotective effects were tested by means of experimental on irradiated cell cultures and animals. Among others, the water-extract of Ixeris dentata leaves showed a marked effect on the viability of B16 melanoma cells and provided a radioprotective effect on the number of the leukocytes in the irradiated rodents. DNA damage in the lymphocytes after {gamma}-irradiation decreased in the extract administered animals. Many of the extracts tested in this study showed a slightly lower activity in free radical scavenging than the well-known chemical antiozidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytuluene, and glutathione. However, some extracts showed an antioxidant activity similar to that of {alpha}-tocopherol acetate and caffeine. These results support the optimistic view for developing radioprotective agents from the Korean endemic plants that showed a strong antioxidant activity.

  16. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant; Reaproveitamento do torio contido em residuos provenientes da Usina de Purificacao do Torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao Filho, D; Hespanhol, E C.B.; Baba, S; Miranda, L E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author).

  17. The compost with the OFMSW as a solution for the sludges from the wastewater purification plants; Compostaje con FORSU como una solucion para los fangos de depuradora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica Perez, A.; Diaz Rubio, M. M.; Mohedo Gaton, J. J.; Martin Martin, A. [Universidad de Cardoba (Spain); Revilla Alvarez, J. R.

    2001-07-01

    The correct management of the sludges coming from the municipal wastewater purification plants (mwpp) is an unsolved problem in many cases and its volume is quickly increasing. As a solution for its treatment and disposal the composting process of the sludges combined with the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) selectively collected is proposed in this work. A suitable compost for agricultural use is obtained. Using respirometer methods better than using other analytical parameters can monitor the stabilisation process of the mixture of sludges from MWPP and OFMSW. The measurement of the maximum oxygen intake specific rate indicates an appropriate stabilisation of the mixture after third treatment month. (Author) 32 refs.

  18. Single molecule Raman spectroscopic assay to detect transgene from GM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Ulhas S; Chavhan, Rahul L; Schulz, Burkhard; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Substantial concerns have been raised for the safety of transgenics on human health and environment. Many organizations, consumer groups, and environmental agencies advocate for stringent regulations to avoid transgene products' contamination in food cycle or in nature. Here we demonstrate a novel approach using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect and quantify transgene from GM plants. We show a highly sensitive and accurate quantification of transgene DNA from multiple transgenic lines of Arabidopsis. The assay allows us to detect and quantify the transgenes as low as 0.10 pg without need for PCR-amplification. This technology is relatively cheap, quick, simple, and suitable for detection at low target concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Status of operation of radionuclides assay system in Korean nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K.H.; Lee, K.J.; Jeong, C.W.; Ahn, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, 17 nuclear power plants composed of 13 pressurized water reactors and 4 CANDU reactors are currently in operation. The cumulative amounts of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in nuclear power plant reached 58,718 drums (unit: 200 liter) in 2001. Efforts to construct LILW disposal facility are continued and its first operation is planned in the year 2008. Its first stage capacity is assumed to be 100,000 drums and total capacity will reach to 800,000 drums. Radwaste disposal site selection is an urgent national project at present time. Regulations and guidelines require detailed information about the radioactive waste package and its contents prior to the transport to the disposal sites. The Enforcement Decree of the Korean Atomic Energy Act (articles 234-17) requires the Minister of Science and Technology (MOST) of Korea to establish regulation for the waste acceptance (MOST notice. 1196-10). It requires detailed information about the radioactive waste package and its contents such as activity of radionuclides, total activities, types and characteristics of waste. For the measurement of the concentrations and activities of radionuclides in radwaste drum, a radionuclides assay system is installed at Korean nuclear power plant (KORI site) in 1996. The waste drum can be measured in the vertical direction with eight vertical segments while in the radial direction also with eight segments. Using this measurement method, homogeneous and non-homogeneous waste drum can be measured. Scaling factor methods have been played a dominant role in the determination of the radionuclides concentration in this system. For corrosion product, generic scaling factors were used due to the similarity and better-characterized properties of Korean analyzed data as compared with the worldwide data base of PWR industry. For fission product and TRU nuclides, it is not easy to determine the generic scaling factors. Thus simple model reflecting the operation history of power

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Putalun, Waraporn; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    Immunoassays are antibody-based analytical methods for quantitative/qualitative analysis. Since the principle of immunoassays is based on specific antigen-antibody reaction, the assays have been utilized worldwide for diagnosis, pharmacokinetic studies by drug monitoring, and the quality control of commercially available products. Berson and Yalow were the first to develop an immunoassay, known as radioimmunoassay (RIA), for detecting endogenous plasma insulin [1], a development for which Yalow was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1977. Even today, after half a century, immunoassays are widely utilized with some modifications from the originally proposed system, e.g., radioisotopes have been replaced with enzymes because of safety concerns regarding the use of radioactivity, which is referred to as enzyme immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, progress has been made in ELISA with the recent advances in recombinant DNA technology, leading to increase in the range of antibodies, probes, and even systems. This review article describes ELISA and its applications for the detection of plant secondary metabolites.

  1. TCA precipitation and ethanol/HCl single-step purification evaluation: One-dimensional gel electrophoresis, bradford assays, spectrofluorometry and Raman spectroscopy data on HSA, Rnase, lysozyme - Mascots and Skyline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkis Eddhif

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “Study of a Novel Agent for TCA Precipitated Proteins Washing - Comprehensive Insights into the Role of Ethanol/HCl on Molten Globule State by Multi-Spectroscopic Analyses” (Eddhif et al., submitted for publication [1]. The suitability of ethanol/HCl for the washing of TCA-precipitated proteins was first investigated on standard solution of HSA, cellulase, ribonuclease and lysozyme. Recoveries were assessed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Bradford assays and UPLC-HRMS. The mechanistic that triggers protein conformational changes at each purification stage was then investigated by Raman spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Finally, the efficiency of the method was evaluated on three different complex samples (mouse liver, river biofilm, loamy soil surface. Proteins profiling was assessed by gel electrophoresis and by UPLC-HRMS.

  2. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator from ... Screening antibody was performed using rhPA milk in an ELISA-elution assay. ... useful for purifying other tPA mutants or other novel recombinant milkderived proteins.

  3. Kinetic assays for determining in vitro APS reductase activity in plants without the use of radioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychkova, Galina; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Sagi, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (APR; EC 1.8.4.9) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of APS to sulfite and AMP, a key step in the sulfate assimilation pathway in higher plants. In spite of the importance of this enzyme, methods currently available for detection of APR activity rely on radioactive labeling and can only be performed in a very few specially equipped laboratories. Here we present two novel kinetic assays for detecting in vitro APR activity that do not require radioactive labeling. In the first assay, APS is used as substrate and reduced glutathione (GSH) as electron donor, while in the second assay APS is replaced by an APS-regenerating system in which ATP sulfurylase catalyzes APS in the reaction medium, which employs sulfate and ATP as substrates. Both kinetic assays rely on fuchsin colorimetric detection of sulfite, the final product of APR activity. Incubation of the desalted protein extract, prior to assay initiation, with tungstate that inhibits the oxidation of sulfite by sulfite oxidase activity, resulted in enhancement of the actual APR activity. The reliability of the two methods was confirmed by assaying leaf extract from Arabidopsis wild-type and APR mutants with impaired or overexpressed APR2 protein, the former lacking APR activity and the latter exhibiting much higher activity than the wild type. The assays were further tested on tomato leaves, which revealed a higher APR activity than Arabidopsis. The proposed APR assays are highly specific, technically simple and readily performed in any laboratory.

  4. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinases are important targets for drug development because many proteins in the PI3 kinase signaling pathway are mutated, hyperactivated, or overexpressed in human cancers. Here, the authors coexpressed the human class Ia PI3 kinase p110alpha catalytic domain with an N-terminal....... In parallel, a second assay format using the AlphaScreen technology was optimized to measure PI3 kinase activity. Both assay formats used should be suitable for high-throughput screening for the identification of PI3 kinase inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening XXXX:xx-xx)....

  5. Tuning a 96-Well Microtiter Plate Fluorescence-Based Assay to Identify AGE Inhibitors in Crude Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Séro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Among them, cellular accumulation of AGEs contributes to vascular complications in diabetes. Besides using drugs to lower blood sugar, a balanced diet and the intake of herbal products potentially limiting AGE formation could be considered beneficial for patients’ health. The current paper presents a simple and cheap high-throughput screening (HTS assay based on AGE fluorescence and suitable for plant extract screening. We have already implemented an HTS assay based on vesperlysines-like fluorescing AGEs quickly (24 h formed from BSA and ribose under physiological conditions. However, interference was noted when fluorescent compounds and/or complex mixtures were tested. To overcome these problems and apply this HTS assay to plant extracts, we developed a technique for systematic quantification of both vesperlysines (λexc 370 nm; λem 440 nm and pentosidine-like (λexc 335 nm; λem 385 nm AGEs. In a batch of medicinal and food plant extracts, hits were selected as soon as fluorescence decreased under a fixed threshold for at least one wavelength. Hits revealed during this study appeared to contain well-known and powerful anti-AGE substances, thus demonstrating the suitability of this assay for screening crude extracts (0.1 mg/mL. Finally, quercetin was found to be a more powerful reference compound than aminoguanidine in such assay.

  6. Evaluation of the antioxidants activities of four Slovene medicinal plant species by traditional and novel biosensory assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzios, Spiridon; Papageorgiou, Katerina; Yiakoumettis, Iakovos; Baricevic, Dea; Kusar, Anita

    2010-11-02

    We investigated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea). Their free radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH. free radical was studied with a spectrophotometric assay, while their biological activity with the help of a laboratory-made biosensor based on immobilized fibroblast cells (assay duration: 3 min). The observed antioxidant activity of the extracts from the four investigated medicinal plant species was dependent on both the solvent used for extraction and the assay method (conventional or biosensor-based). Independently from the assay method and the solvent used for extraction, the lowest scavenging activity was observed in root extracts of G. lutea. Treatment of the immobilized cells with the plant extracts resulted in an increase of the cell membrane potential (membrane hyperpolarization), possibly due to the reduction of membrane damage due to oxidation. The novel cell biosensor could be utilized as a rapid, high throughput tool for screening the antioxidant properties of plant-derived compounds. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Choosing the best plant for the job: a cost-effective assay to prescreen ancient plant remains destined for shotgun sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Wales

    Full Text Available DNA extracted from ancient plant remains almost always contains a mixture of endogenous (that is, derived from the plant and exogenous (derived from other sources DNA. The exogenous 'contaminant' DNA, chiefly derived from microorganisms, presents significant problems for shotgun sequencing. In some samples, more than 90% of the recovered sequences are exogenous, providing limited data relevant to the sample. However, other samples have far less contamination and subsequently yield much more useful data via shotgun sequencing. Given the investment required for high-throughput sequencing, whenever multiple samples are available, it is most economical to sequence the least contaminated sample. We present an assay based on quantitative real-time PCR which estimates the relative amounts of fungal and bacterial DNA in a sample in comparison to the endogenous plant DNA. Given a collection of contextually-similar ancient plant samples, this low cost assay aids in selecting the best sample for shotgun sequencing.

  8. Can Physiological Endpoints Improve the Sensitivity of Assays with Plants in the Risk Assessment of Contaminated Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavina, Ana; Antunes, Sara C.; Pinto, Glória; Claro, Maria Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific risk assessment of contaminated areas indicates prior areas for intervention, and provides helpful information for risk managers. This study was conducted in the Ervedosa mine area (Bragança, Portugal), where both underground and open pit exploration of tin and arsenic minerals were performed for about one century (1857 – 1969). We aimed at obtaining ecotoxicological information with terrestrial and aquatic plant species to integrate in the risk assessment of this mine area. Further we also intended to evaluate if the assessment of other parameters, in standard assays with terrestrial plants, can improve the identification of phytotoxic soils. For this purpose, soil samples were collected on 16 sampling sites distributed along four transects, defined within the mine area, and in one reference site. General soil physical and chemical parameters, total and extractable metal contents were analyzed. Assays were performed for soil elutriates and for the whole soil matrix following standard guidelines for growth inhibition assay with Lemna minor and emergence and seedling growth assay with Zea mays. At the end of the Z. mays assay, relative water content, membrane permeability, leaf area, content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), malondialdehyde levels, proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII) parameters were evaluated. In general, the soils near the exploration area revealed high levels of Al, Mn, Fe and Cu. Almost all the soils from transepts C, D and F presented total concentrations of arsenic well above soils screening benchmark values available. Elutriates of several soils from sampling sites near the exploration and ore treatment areas were toxic to L. minor, suggesting that the retention function of these soils was seriously compromised. In Z. mays assay, plant performance parameters (other than those recommended by standard protocols), allowed the identification of more phytotoxic soils. The

  9. Can physiological endpoints improve the sensitivity of assays with plants in the risk assessment of contaminated soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gavina

    Full Text Available Site-specific risk assessment of contaminated areas indicates prior areas for intervention, and provides helpful information for risk managers. This study was conducted in the Ervedosa mine area (Bragança, Portugal, where both underground and open pit exploration of tin and arsenic minerals were performed for about one century (1857-1969. We aimed at obtaining ecotoxicological information with terrestrial and aquatic plant species to integrate in the risk assessment of this mine area. Further we also intended to evaluate if the assessment of other parameters, in standard assays with terrestrial plants, can improve the identification of phytotoxic soils. For this purpose, soil samples were collected on 16 sampling sites distributed along four transects, defined within the mine area, and in one reference site. General soil physical and chemical parameters, total and extractable metal contents were analyzed. Assays were performed for soil elutriates and for the whole soil matrix following standard guidelines for growth inhibition assay with Lemna minor and emergence and seedling growth assay with Zea mays. At the end of the Z. mays assay, relative water content, membrane permeability, leaf area, content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids, malondialdehyde levels, proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII parameters were evaluated. In general, the soils near the exploration area revealed high levels of Al, Mn, Fe and Cu. Almost all the soils from transepts C, D and F presented total concentrations of arsenic well above soils screening benchmark values available. Elutriates of several soils from sampling sites near the exploration and ore treatment areas were toxic to L. minor, suggesting that the retention function of these soils was seriously compromised. In Z. mays assay, plant performance parameters (other than those recommended by standard protocols, allowed the identification of more phytotoxic soils

  10. Conceptual design of the special nuclear material nondestructive assay and accountability system for the HTGR fuel refabrication pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.D.; McNeany, S.R.; Rushton, J.E.

    1975-07-01

    The conceptual design of the fissile material assay and accountability system for the HTGR refabrication pilot plant has been established. The primary feature affecting the design is the high, time varying, gamma activity of the process material due to the unavoidable presence of uranium-232. This imposes stringent requirements for remote operation and remote maintainability of system components. At the same time, the remote operation lends itself to implementation of an automated data collection and processing system for real-time accountability. The high time-varying gamma activity of the material also precludes application of a number of techniques presently employed for light-water reactor fuel assay. The techniques selected for application in the refabrication facility are (1) active thermal neutron interrogation with fast-fission or delayed-neutron counting for fuel-rod and small-sample assay, (2) calorimetry for high-level waste assay, and (3) passive gamma scanning for low-level waste assay, and rapid on-line relative rod-loading measurements. The principal nondestructive assay subsystems are identified as (1) on-line devices for 100 percent product fuel rod assay and quality control, (2) a multipurpose device in the sample inspection laboratory for small- sample assay and secondary standards calibration, and (3) equipment for assay of high- and low-uranium content scrap and waste materials. A data processing system, which coordinates data from these subsystems with information from other process control sensors, is included to provide real-time material balance information. (U.S.)

  11. Isolation and Purification of Oridonin from the Whole Plant of Isodon rubescens by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYue Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successfully used for isolation and purification of oridonin from Isodon rubescens by using a two-phase-solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2.8:5:2.8:5, v/v/v/v. The targeted compound isolated, collected and purified by HSCCC was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A total of 40.6 mg of oridonin with the purity of 73.5% was obtained in less than 100 min from 100 mg of crude Isodon rubescens extract. The chemical structure of the compound was identified by IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  12. Design of the low-temperature rectification plant KRETA including the pre-purification units ADAMO and REDUKTION and first operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, R. v.; Hutter, E.; Leichsenring, C.H.; Weinlaender, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the off-gas treatment system developed by the GfK Karlsruhe the noble gases Kr and Xe are removed by means of a low-temperature rectification process, in which the Kr-85 is largely separated from the inactive Xe. The Xe can then be released to the environment, while the radioactive Kr must be stored in steel cylinders. Prior to the above treatment the oxygen is removed to minimize ozone formation. This is effected, together with the removal of residual oxides of nitrogen, by catalytic reduction with hydrogen. At a subsequent stage of the pre-purification process all the gaseous components which could freeze out in the cryogenic section, i.e. H 2 O, CO 2 and NH 3 , and are removed by adsorption. These stages of the process are being investigated in the reduced-scale KRETA, REDUKTION and ADAMO pilot plants, which have a gas through-put of 50 m 3 /h (at N.T.P.), using simulated inactive gas mixtures. The design of the three plants is described. The initial tests on the KRETA plant showed that an experimental decontamination factor of >= 10 3 could be achieved for the first column for rectification of the N 2 -Kr-Xe system. Instances of xenon freezing out were also observed, these being accompanied by a drop in the decontamination factor. Separation of Kr from Xe in the second column proceeded smoothly with high enrichment of both components. Both the capacity and the efficiency of the ADAMO plant are very high for the separat ion of H 2 O and CO 2 . Coadsorbed Kr can be fully desorbed under normal conditions by flushing with N 2 . Following preliminary laboratory tests for the REDUKTION plant a ruthenium catalyst has been selected, which is particularly insensitive to poisoning, e.g. by iodine. (orig./ORU) [de

  13. Novel NAD+-Farnesal Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves. Purification and Characterization of Enzyme in Juvenile Hormone III Biosynthetic Pathway in Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Faris Seman-Kamarulzaman

    Full Text Available Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that's highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate

  14. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P R; Sautray, R R; Girard, B R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence sur la decontamination. L'activite en

  15. Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation technique: a rapid and reliable assay for studying plant-bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalapati Srinivasa R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem is one of the most widely used systems to understand the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and plant innate immunity. Several inoculation methods have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions in this model system. However, none of the methods reported to date are similar to those occurring in nature and amicable to large-scale mutant screens. Results In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable seedling flood-inoculation method based on young Arabidopsis seedlings grown on MS medium. This method has several advantages over conventional soil-grown plant inoculation assays, including a shorter growth and incubation period, ease of inoculation and handling, uniform infection and disease development, requires less growth chamber space and is suitable for high-throughput screens. In this study we demonstrated the efficacy of the Arabidopsis seedling assay to study 1 the virulence factors of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, including type III protein secretion system (TTSS and phytotoxin coronatine (COR; 2 the effector-triggered immunity; and 3 Arabidopsis mutants affected in salicylic acid (SA- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs-mediated pathways. Furthermore, we applied this technique to study nonhost resistance (NHR responses in Arabidopsis using nonhost pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. tabaci, pv. glycinea and pv. tomato T1, and confirmed the functional role of FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 in NHR. Conclusions The Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation assay provides a rapid, efficient and economical method for studying Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interactions with minimal growth chamber space and time. This assay could also provide an excellent system for investigating the virulence mechanisms of P. syringae. Using this method, we demonstrated that FLS2 plays a critical role in conferring NHR against nonhost pathovars of P. syringae, but not to

  16. Two novel assays for the detection of haemin-binding properties of antimalarials evaluated with compounds isolated from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, J C P; Phelps, R J; Simmonds, M S J; Warhurst, D C; Meyer, D J

    2002-07-01

    Forty-two compounds isolated from nine plants used within South America for the treatment of malaria were tested for haemin binding using two novel, rapid screening methods. The data obtained were analysed with respect to IC(50) values for in vitro toxicity to Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. One method, a multiwell assay based on the inhibition of the interaction of haemin with glutathione (GSH), is sensitive in the 10 microM range, takes c. 1 h and is suitable for either a high throughput screen or rapid assay during natural product isolation. Of 19 compounds showing antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 40% inhibition of GSH-haemin reaction. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. The positive predictive value was 0.81 and the negative predictive value 0.86. A more sensitive assay (0.1 microM range) is based on the reversal by haemin-binding compounds of the haemin inhibition of the L-dopachrome-methyl ester tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor. This assay gives a better idea of the affinity of interaction and uses very small amounts of test compound. The log[RI(50)] of eight of the compounds that tested positive in the above assays together with those of quinine and chloroquine showed a positive correlation with log[antiplasmodial IC(50)] for strain T9-96 (r = 0.824) and strain K1 (r = 0.904). Several of the antimalarial compounds that bind haemin are isoquinolines, a class not shown previously to interact with haemin.

  17. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  18. Contribution to the optimization of the chemical and radiochemical purification of pressurized water nuclear power plants primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elain, L.

    2004-12-01

    The primary coolant of pressurised water reactors is permanently purified thanks to a device, composed of filters and the demineralizers furnished with ion exchange resins (IER), located in the chemical and volume control system (CVCS). The study of the retention mechanisms of the radio-contaminants by the IER implies, initially, to know the speciation of the primary coolant percolant through the demineralizers. Calculations of theoretical speciation of the primary coolant were carried out on the basis of known composition of the primary coolant and thanks to the use of an adapted chemical speciation code. A complementary study, dedicated to silver behaviour, considered badly extracted, suggests metallic aggregates existence generated by the radiolytic reduction of the Ag + ions. An analysis of the purification curves of the elements Ni, Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, Sb and their principal radionuclides, relating to the cold shutdown of Fessenheim 1-cycle 20 and Tricastin 2-cycle 21, was carried out, in the light of a model based on the concept of a coupling well term - source term. Then, a thermodynamic modelling of ion exchange phenomena in column was established. The formation of the permutation front and the enrichment zones planned was validated by frontal analysis experiments of synthetic fluids (mixtures of Ni(B(OH) 4 ) 2 , LiB(OH) 4 and AgB(OH) 4 in medium B(OH) 3 )), and of real fluid during the putting into service of the device mini-CVCS at the time of Tricastin 2 cold shutdown. New tools are thus proposed, opening the way with an optimised management of demineralizers and a more complete interpretation of the available experience feedback. (author)

  19. Assay and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris of plant cell wall type-II membrane anchored glycosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Egelund, Jack; Damager, Iben

    2009-01-01

    .011 to 0.013 U (1 U = 1 nmol conversion of substrate * min(-1) * microl medium(-1)) similar to those of RGXT1 and RGXT2 expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect Sf9 cells. In summary, the data presented suggest that Pichia is an attractive host candidate for expression of plant glycosyltransferases.......Two Arabidopsis xylosyltransferases, designated RGXT1 and RGXT2, were recently expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect cells and by use of the free sugar assay shown to catalyse transfer of D-xylose from UDP-alpha-D-xylose to L-fucose and derivatives hereof. We have now examined expression...

  20. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  1. Recovery of radiogenic lead-208 from a residue of thorium and rare earths obtained during the operation of a thorium nitrate purification pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneda, Jose Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has a long tradition in thorium technology, from mineral dressing (monazite) to the nuclear grade thorium compounds. The estimate reserves are 1200,000. ton of ThO 2 . As a consequence from the work of thorium purification pilot plant at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-CNEN/SP, about 25 ton of a sludge containing thorium and rare earths was accumulated. It comes as a raffinate and washing solutions from thorium solvent extraction. This sludge, a crude hydroxide named RETOTER contains thorium, rare earths and minor impurities including the radiogenic lead-208, with abundance 88.34 %. This work discusses the results of the studies and main parameters for its recovery by anionic ion exchange technique in the hydrochloric system. The isotope abundance of this lead was analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometer (ICPMS) and thermoionic mass spectrometer (TIMS) and the data was used to calculate the thermal neutron capture cross section. The value of s ? o = 14.6 +/- 0.7 mb was found, quite different from the s ? o = 174.2 +/- 7.0 mb measure cross section for the natural lead. Preliminary study for the thorium and rare earths separation and recovery was discussed as well. (author)

  2. Recovery of radiogenic lead-208 from a residue of thorium and rare earths obtained during the operation of a thorium purification pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneda, Jose Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has a long tradition in thorium technology, from mineral dressing (monazite) to the nuclear grade thorium compounds. The estimate reserves are 1200,000. ton of ThO 2 . As a consequence from the work of thorium purification pilot plant at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-CNEN/IPEN-SP, about 25 ton of a sludge containing thorium and rare earths was accumulated. It comes as a raffinate and washing solutions from thorium solvent extraction. This sludge, a crude hydroxide named RETOTER contains thorium, rare earths and minor impurities including the radiogenic lead-208, with abundance 88.34 %. This work discusses the results of the studies and main parameters for its recovery by anionic ion exchange technique in the hydrochloric system. The isotope abundance of this lead was analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometer (ICPMS) and thermoionic mass spectrometer (TIMS) and the data was used to calculate the thermal neutron capture cross section. The value of σγ 0 = 14.6±0.7 mb was found, quite different from the σγ 0 = 174.2 ± 7.0 mb measure cross section for the natural lead. Preliminary study for the thorium and rare earths separation and recovery was discussed as well. (author)

  3. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-01

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) & 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) &29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  4. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-01-01

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232 Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted

  5. Thorium, Uranium and Rare Earth Elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, W.M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6 Bq/ kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9 ± 17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/ kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/ kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/ kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232 Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/ kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6 % and 4.7 ± 0.1 % respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04 %, 1.6 %, 0.22 % and 0.06 % respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be re

  6. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Majid, Amran Ab., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Sarmani, Sukiman, E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  7. Assay of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant Tissues under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2018-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase, which generates the proton gradient across the outer membrane of plant cells, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many physiological processes fundamental for growth and development of plants. It is involved in the uptake of nutrients from external solutions, their loading into phloem and long-distance transport, stomata aperture and gas exchange, pH homeostasis in cytosol, cell wall loosening, and cell expansion. The crucial role of the enzyme in resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stress factors has also been well documented. Such great diversity of physiological functions linked to the activity of one enzyme requires a suitable and complex regulation of H + -ATPase. This regulation comprises the transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional levels. Herein, we describe the techniques that can be useful for the analysis of the plasma membrane proton pump modifications at genetic and protein levels under environmental factors.

  8. Isolation, production, purification, assay and characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fibrin plate method were 10 U, 5 U and 15 U, respectively. Key words: Anticoagulant activity, submerge fermentation, fibrinolytic enzyme activity, protein fraction precipitation, casein, serum and plasminogen plate technique, enzyme thermodynamics, haemolytic activity, enzyme screening, expression system, zymography, ...

  9. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.

  10. Multiplex PCR assay for detection of recombinant genes encoding fatty acid desaturases fused with lichenase reporter protein in GM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevets, Iryna N; Shimshilashvili, Hristina R; Gerasymenko, Iryna M; Sindarovska, Yana R; Sheludko, Yuriy V; Goldenkova-Pavlova, Irina V

    2010-07-01

    Thermostable lichenase encoded by licB gene of Clostridium thermocellum can be used as a reporter protein in plant, bacterial, yeast, and mammalian cells. It has important advantages of high sensitivity and specificity in qualitative and quantitative assays. Deletion variants of LicB (e.g., LicBM3) retain its enzymatic activity and thermostability and can be expressed in translational fusion with target proteins without compromising with their properties. Fusion with the lichenase reporter is especially convenient for the heterologous expression of proteins whose analysis is difficult or compromised by host enzyme activities, as it is in case of fatty acid desaturases occurring in all groups of organisms. Recombinant desaturase-lichenase genes can be used for creating genetically modified (GM) plants with improved chill tolerance. Development of an analytical method for detection of fused desaturase-lichenase transgenes is necessary both for production of GM plants and for their certification. Here, we report a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for detection of desA and desC desaturase genes of cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus vulcanus, respectively, fused to licBM3 reporter in GM plants.

  11. Development of Purification Protocol Specific for Bacteriocin 105B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-09

    Bacillus anthracis. As the current application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials promotes the development of multi- drug resistant microorganisms...SPECTRUM TARGETED ANTIMICROBIALS ASSAYS PURIFICATION BACILLUS ANTHRACIS DRUG- RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS...through the purification procedure. The wide-spread use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents has led to the development of drug resistant

  12. Standard assays do not predict the efficiency of commercial cellulase preparations towards plant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Maarel, van der M.J.E.C.; Klip, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial cellulase preparations are potentially effective for processing biomass feedstocks in order to obtain bioethanol. In plant cell walls, cellulose fibrils occur in close association with xylans (monocotyls) or xyloglucans (dicotyls). The enzymatic conversion of cellulose/xylans is a complex

  13. Standard Assays Do Not Predict the Efficiency of Commercial Cellulase Preparations Towards Plant Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, Mirjam A.; Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Klip, Gert; Voragen, Alphons G.J.; Schols, Henk A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial cellulase preparations are potentially effective for processing biomass feedstocks in order to obtain bioethanol. In plant cell walls, cellulose fibrils occur in close association with xylans (monocotyls) or xyloglucans (dicotyls). The enzymatic conversion of cellulose/xylans is a complex

  14. Operating experience of centrifugal contactors used in a third plutonium purification cycle at the Marcoule reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, J.A.; Breschet, C.A.; Delafontaine, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Multistage centrifugal contactors of the type SGN-ROBATEL LX 208 NSC are used in a third plutonium cycle at the Marcoule Reprocessing Plant, they have been smooth-running since the commissioning in 1984. The four centrifugal contactors, totalling 32 stages, are used for Extraction. Scrub and Acidic Strip, and a bank of three flat mixer-settlers is used for plutonium blocking, and soda washing of the solvent. The plutonium product, the residual activity of which is less than one microcurie per gram, is diluent washed in a bank of three flat mixer-settlers, before been concentrated in a zirconium evaporator to 200 g. 1 -1

  15. Studies on luciferin-luciferase ATP assay in plants (etiolated wheat germs, and bean leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For ATP determination by the method of bioluminescence apparatus of home production was adapted from the equipment available in any isotope laboratory. The measurement error did not exceed 1.5 per cent. Methodical experiments concerned the choice of the extraction, fixation and storage methods of plant material for determination at the given moment of the amount of ATP in the tissues, unchanged by the analytical procedure. The highest ATP amounts were recovered by extraction with perchloric acid at high (25% concentrations of the tissue in the homogenate. The best way of fixation of the material for later analyses was found to be freezing of ready extracts. Lyophilization and freezing of the plant material caused a several-fold decrease of the ATP level in the tissues. These results suggest the necessity of working in conditions of low temperature during the entire analytical procedure and strict observation of time limitation.

  16. Char characterization and DTF assays as tools to predict burnout of coal blends in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ulloa; A.G. Borrego; S. Helle; A.L. Gordon; X. Garcia [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study is to predict efficiency deviations in the combustion of coal blends in power plants. Combustion of blends, as compared to its single coals, shows that for some blends the behavior is non-additive in nature. Samples of coal feed and fly ashes from combustion of blends at two power plants, plus chars of the parent coals generated in a drop-tube furnace (DTF) at temperatures and heating rates similar to those found in the industrial boilers were used. Intrinsic kinetic parameters, burning profiles and petrographic characteristics of these chars correlated well with the burnout in power plants and DTF experiments. The blend combustion in a DTF reproduces both positive and negative burnout deviations from the expected weighted average. These burnout deviations have been previously attributed to parallel or parallel-series pathways of competition for oxygen. No deviations were found for blends of low rank coals of similar characteristics yielding chars close in morphology, optical texture and reactivity. Negative deviations were found for blends of coals differing moderately in rank and were interpreted as associated with long periods of competition. In this case, fly-ashes were enriched in material derived from the least reactive char, but also unburnt material attributed to the most reactive char was identified. Improved burnout compared to the weighted average was observed for blends of coals very different in rank, and interpreted as the result of a short interaction period, followed by a period where the less reactive char burns under conditions that are more favorable to its combustion. In this case, only unburned material from the least reactive char was identified in the fly-ashes. 20 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay

  18. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rambir Singh; Shariq Hussain; Rajesh Verma; Poonam Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urticadioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Results: Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μg/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacteriumsemegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. Conclusions: C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica.

  20. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rambir; Hussain, Shariq; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-05-13

    To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urtica dioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μ g/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacterium semegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  2. Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors plays a critical role in treating hypertension. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate ACE inhibition activity of 50 Iranian medicinal plants using an in vitro assay. Methods The ACE activity was evaluated by determining the hydrolysis rate of substrate, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL), using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Results Six extracts revealed > 50% ACE inhibition activity at 330 μg/ml concentration. They were Berberis integerrima Bunge. (Berberidaceae) (88.2 ± 1.7%), Crataegus microphylla C. Koch (Rosaceae) (80.9 ± 1.3%), Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) (66.3 ± 1.2%), Onopordon acanthium L. (Asteraceae) (80.2 ± 2.0%), Quercus infectoria G. Olivier. (Fagaceae) (93.9 ± 2.5%) and Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (51.3 ± 1.0%). Q. infectoria possessed the highest total phenolic content with 7410 ± 101 mg gallic acid/100 g dry plant. Antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria (IC50 value 1.7 ± 0.03 μg/ml) was more than that of BHT (IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.15 μg/ml) and Trolox (IC50 value of 3.2 ± 0.06 μg/ml) as the positive controls. Conclusions In this study, we introduced six medicinal plants with ACE inhibition activity. Despite the high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria, due to its tannin content (tannins interfere in ACE activity), another plant, O. acanthium, which also had high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, but contained no tannin, could be utilized in further studies for isolation of active compounds. PMID:24359711

  3. Fast probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues via plasmonic affinity sandwich assay with molecularly-imprinted extraction microprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Pir; Liu, Jia; Xing, Rongrong; Wen, Yanrong; Wang, Yijia; Liu, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Determination of specific target compounds in agriculture food and natural plant products is essential for many purposes; however, it is often challenging due to the complexity of the sample matrices. Herein we present a new approach called plasmonic affinity sandwich assay for the facile and rapid probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues. The approach mainly relies on molecularly imprinted plasmonic extraction microprobes, which were prepared on gold-coated acupuncture needles via boronate affinity controllable oriented surface imprinting with the target monosaccharide as the template molecules. An extraction microprobe was inserted into plant tissues under investigation, which allowed for the specific extraction of glucose or fructose from the tissues. The glucose or fructose molecules extracted on the microprobe were labeled with boronic acid-functionalized Raman-active silver nanoparticles, and thus affinity sandwich complexes were formed on the microprobes. After excess Raman nanotags were washed away, the microprobe was subjected to Raman detection. Upon being irradiated with a laser beam, surface plasmon on the gold-coated microprobes was generated, which further produced plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering of the silver-based nanotags and thereby provided sensitive detection. Apple fruits, which contain abundant glucose and fructose, were used as a model of plant tissues. The approach exhibited high specificity, good sensitivity (limit of detection, 1 μg mL -1 ), and fast speed (the whole procedure required only 20 min). The spatial distribution profiles of glucose and fructose within an apple were investigated by the developed approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P=0.044, P=0.014, and P=0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P<0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P<0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P=0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. (author)

  5. Application of pressure assisted forward osmosis for water purification and reuse of reverse osmosis concentrate from a water reclamation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Jamil, Shazad

    2016-07-26

    The use of forward osmosis (FO) is growing among the researchers for water desalination and wastewater treatment due to use of natural osmotic pressure of draw solute. In this study pressure assisted forward osmosis (PAFO) was used instead of FO to increase the water production rate. In this study a low concentration of draw solution (0.25 M KCl) was applied so that diluted KCl after PAFO operation can directly be used for fertigation. The performance of PAFO was investigated for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a water reclamation plant. The water production in PAFO was increased by 9% and 29% at applied pressure of 2 and 4 bars, respectively, to feed side based on 90 h of experiments. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment and HCl softening were used to reduce organic fouling and scaling prior to application of PAFO. It reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) by around 90% and 85%, respectively from untreated ROC. Subsequently, this led to an increase in permeate flux. In addition, GAC pretreatment adsorbed 12 out of 14 organic micropollutants tested from ROC to below detection limit. This application enabled to minimise the ROC volume with a sustainable operation and produced high quality and safe water for discharge or reuse. The draw solution (0.25 M KCl) used in this study was diluted to 0.14 M KCl, which is a suitable concentration (10 kg/m3) for fertigation, due to water transport from feed solution. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Expression, purification and characterization of the interferon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... utilizing a single-step affinity purification with an appreciable yield of the highly purified protein. Recombinant RNase L was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and MALDI-TOF analysis. A semi-quantitative agarose-gel-based ribonuclease assay was developed for measuring its 2-5A-dependent ...

  7. Purification and characterization of protease enzyme from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Purification and ... ting into small peptides and free amino acids, which can ... Isolated strain was cultured in synthetic medium- casein (SMC; ... Protease activity was assayed by sigma's non-specific protease ... following buffers: 0.05 M citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 5 to 6), Tris-.

  8. Neutron interrogator assay system for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste canisters and spent fuel: preliminary description and operating procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.; Close, D.A.; Speir, L.G.

    1978-05-01

    A neutron interrogation assay system is being designed for the measurement of waste canisters and spent fuel packages at the new Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to be operated by Allied Chemical Corp. The assay samples consist of both waste canisters from the fluorinel dissolution process and spent fuel assemblies. The assay system is a 252 Cf ''Shuffler'' that employs a cyclic sequence of fast-neutron interrogation with a 252 Cf source followed by delayed-neutron counting to determine the 235 U content

  9. Behaviour analysis of uranium purification pilot plant taking into consideration the incorporation of a second column of extraction in the process flow chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Barbosa, E.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    This work analyses the effect of the incorporation of a second column of extraction by solvents in pulsed plate columns in the Process of Uranium Purification. Operating with the aqueous phase of washing this second column of extraction recovers the dragged Uranium, increasing the efficiency of the process. The experiments were carried out in the display unit of Uranium purification in the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Researches in Sao Paulo, where the dimension and the performance were studied with the following parameters: real increase in the efficiency and decontamination in the process. An efficiency superior to 98% in mass was obtained against 84,6% in the conventional process. With a performance similar to the first column of extract on the decontamination, about 99%, obtained in this column, maintained the grade of nuclear purity peculiar to the Process of Uranium Purification by solvents in pulsed plate columns. (author) [pt

  10. Development of a quantitative assay amenable for high-throughput screening to target the type II secretion system for new treatments against plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nini; Zielke, Ryszard A; Vining, Oliver B; Azevedo, Mark D; Armstrong, Donald J; Banowetz, Gary M; McPhail, Kerry L; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2013-09-01

    Plant-pathogenic bacteria are the causative agents of diseases in important agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The severe economic burden of these diseases requires seeking new approaches for their control, particularly because phytopathogenic bacteria are often resistant to available treatments. The type II secretion (T2S) system is a key virulence factor used by major groups of phytopathogenic bacteria. The T2S machinery transports many hydrolytic enzymes responsible for degradation of the plant cell wall, thus enabling successful colonization and dissemination of the bacteria in the plant host. The genetic inactivation of the T2S system leads to loss of virulence, which strongly suggests that targeting the T2S could enable new treatments against plant-pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, we have designed and optimized an assay to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the T2S system. This assay uses a double parametric output: measurement of bacterial growth and the enzymatic activity of cellulase, which is secreted via the T2S pathway in our model organism Dickeya dadantii. The assay was evaluated by screening natural extracts, culture filtrates isolated from rhizosphere bacteria, and a collection of pharmaceutically active compounds in LOPAC(1280). The calculated Z' values of 0.63, 0.63, and 0.58, respectively, strongly suggest that the assay is applicable for a high-throughput screening platform.

  11. Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts Katie B. Paul 1.2, Ruth Marfil-Vega 1 Marc A. Mills3, Steve 0. Simmons2, Vickie S. Wilson4, Kevin M. Crofton2 10ak Rid...

  12. In vitro screening of six anthelmintic plant products against larval Haemonchus contortus with a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium reduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hördegen, P; Cabaret, J; Hertzberg, H; Langhans, W; Maurer, V

    2006-11-03

    Because of the increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes. Phytotherapy could be one of the major options to control these pathologies. Extracts or ingredients of six different plant species were tested against exsheathed infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus using a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Pyrantel tartrate was used as reference anthelmintic. Bromelain, the enzyme complex of the stem of Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae), the ethanolic extracts of seeds of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Asteraceae), and the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Fumaria parviflora (Papaveraceae) and of the fruit of Embelia ribes (Myrsinaceae) showed an anthelmintic efficacy of up to 93%, relative to pyrantel tartrate. Based on these results obtained with larval Haemonchus contortus, the modified MTT reduction assay could be a possible method for testing plant products with anthelmintic properties.

  13. Vegetation characteristics and water purification by artificial floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. Environmental pollution poses a grave menace to the ... major functions; 1) water purification, 2) providing habitats for certain animals ... areas. The aims were to; 1) select certain emerging plants effective at ...

  14. An efficient and economical MTT assay for determining the antioxidant activity of plant natural product extracts and pure compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-07-23

    Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, singlet oxygen, and electrons in cellular redox reactions. The yellow MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] is reduced to a purple formazan by mitochondrial enzymes. NADPH is the basis of established in vitro cell viability assays. An antioxidant assay has been developed utilizing the redox reaction between MTT and selected natural product extracts and purified compounds. This simple, fast, and inexpensive MTT antioxidant assay is comparable with the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay and can be mechanized to achieve high throughput.

  15. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  16. Contribution to the optimization of the chemical and radiochemical purification of pressurized water nuclear power plants primary coolant; Contribution a l'optimisation de la purification chimique et radiochimique du fluide primaire des centrales nucleaires a eau sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elain, L

    2004-12-15

    The primary coolant of pressurised water reactors is permanently purified thanks to a device, composed of filters and the demineralizers furnished with ion exchange resins (IER), located in the chemical and volume control system (CVCS). The study of the retention mechanisms of the radio-contaminants by the IER implies, initially, to know the speciation of the primary coolant percolant through the demineralizers. Calculations of theoretical speciation of the primary coolant were carried out on the basis of known composition of the primary coolant and thanks to the use of an adapted chemical speciation code. A complementary study, dedicated to silver behaviour, considered badly extracted, suggests metallic aggregates existence generated by the radiolytic reduction of the Ag{sup +} ions. An analysis of the purification curves of the elements Ni, Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, Sb and their principal radionuclides, relating to the cold shutdown of Fessenheim 1-cycle 20 and Tricastin 2-cycle 21, was carried out, in the light of a model based on the concept of a coupling well term - source term. Then, a thermodynamic modelling of ion exchange phenomena in column was established. The formation of the permutation front and the enrichment zones planned was validated by frontal analysis experiments of synthetic fluids (mixtures of Ni(B(OH){sub 4}){sub 2}, LiB(OH){sub 4} and AgB(OH){sub 4} in medium B(OH){sub 3})), and of real fluid during the putting into service of the device mini-CVCS at the time of Tricastin 2 cold shutdown. New tools are thus proposed, opening the way with an optimised management of demineralizers and a more complete interpretation of the available experience feedback. (author)

  17. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria and determination of its kinetic properties. ... Many of the cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds store phosphorus in phytate form. Phytases can be produced by plants, animals and microorganisms. However, the ones with microbial origin ...

  18. Analysis of Bioelectrical Potential When Plant Purifies Air Pollution(Bioelectronic and Sensor)(Recent Progress in Organic Molecular Electronics)

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 有貴; 浅田, 茂裕; KATSUBE, Teruaki; 池口, 、徹

    2004-01-01

    Some plants have air purification ability. This purification ability of plants is considered a promising method for indoor air purification because of the low cost and high purification performance. Therefore, several studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the air purification ability of plants and environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the purification mechanism and process have not been clarified yet. In this paper, we investigated the air purification proces...

  19. Necessity of purification during bacterial DNA extraction with environmental soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and heterogeneity of soil samples have often implied the inclusion of purification steps in conventional DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Unfortunately the purification steps are also time and labor intensive. Therefore the necessity of DNA purification was re-visited and investigated for a variety of environmental soil samples that contained various amounts of PCR inhibitors. Bead beating and centrifugation was used as the baseline (without purification method for DNA extraction. Its performance was compared with that of conventional DNA extraction kit (with purification. The necessity criteria for DNA purification were established with environmental soil samples. Using lysis conditions at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes with 0.1 mm glass beads, centrifugation time of 10 minutes and 1:10 dilution ratio, the baseline method outperformed conventional DNA extraction on cell seeded sand samples. Further investigation with PCR inhibitors (i.e., humic acids, clay, and magnesium [Mg] showed that sand samples containing less than 10 μg/g humic acids and 70% clay may not require purifications. Interestingly, the inhibition pattern of Mg ion was different from other inhibitors due to the complexation interaction of Mg ion with DNA fragments. It was concluded that DNA extraction method without purification is suitable for soil samples that have less than 10 μg/g of humic acids, less than 70% clay content and less than 0.01% Mg ion content.

  20. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  1. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease.

  2. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Ikten

    Full Text Available Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.. Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease.

  3. In vitro screening of six anthelmintic plant products against larval Haemonchus contortus with a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium reduction assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hördegen, P.; Cabaret, J.; Hertzberg, H.; Langhans, W.; Maurer, V.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes. Phytotherapy could be one of the major options to control these pathologies. Extracts or ingredients of six different plant species were tested against exsheathed infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus using a modified methyl-thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Pyrantel tartrate was u...

  4. Photometric assay of maltose and maltose-forming enzyme activity by using 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (DPE2) from higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Julia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Spahn, Christian M T; Steup, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Maltose frequently occurs as intermediate of the central carbon metabolism of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Various mutants possess elevated maltose levels. Maltose exists as two anomers, (α- and β-form) which are rapidly interconverted without requiring enzyme-mediated catalysis. As maltose is often abundant together with other oligoglucans, selective quantification is essential. In this communication, we present a photometric maltose assay using 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (AtDPE2) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Under in vitro conditions, AtDPE2 utilizes maltose as glucosyl donor and glycogen as acceptor releasing the other hexosyl unit as free glucose which is photometrically quantified following enzymatic phosphorylation and oxidation. Under the conditions used, DPE2 does not noticeably react with other di- or oligosaccharides. Selectivity compares favorably with that of maltase frequently used in maltose assays. Reducing end interconversion of the two maltose anomers is in rapid equilibrium and, therefore, the novel assay measures total maltose contents. Furthermore, an AtDPE2-based continuous photometric assay is presented which allows to quantify β-amylase activity and was found to be superior to a conventional test. Finally, the AtDPE2-based maltose assay was used to quantify leaf maltose contents of both Arabidopsis wild type and AtDPE2-deficient plants throughout the light-dark cycle. These data are presented together with assimilatory starch levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. High throughput multiplex real time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants

    OpenAIRE

    Otti, Gerald; Bouvaine, Sophie; Kimata, Bernadetha; Mkamillo, Geoffrey; Kumar, Lava; Tomlins, Keith; Maruthi, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa.\\ud \\ud Methods and Results: The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause t...

  6. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  7. Chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals: protocols for expression, purification, or oral delivery and functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N Dolendro; Ding, Yi; Daniell, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Many vaccine antigens and biopharmaceutical proteins have been expressed at high levels via the chloroplast genome and their functionality has been evaluated using in vitro assays in cell cultures (i.e., macrophage lysis assay, inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus-induced cytopathicity in baby hamster kidney cells, or inhibition of human HIV infection in TZM-BL cells) as well as protection after challenge with bacterial or viral pathogens or antitumor assays or delay the onset of insulitis in suitable animal models. Production of therapeutic proteins in chloroplasts eliminates the expensive fermentation technology. Moreover, oral delivery of chloroplast-derived therapeutic proteins eliminates expensive purification steps, cold storage, cold transportation, and delivery via sterile needles, thereby further decreasing their cost. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for chloroplast transformation including the construction of chloroplast transformation vectors, delivery of DNA into plant cells using particle bombardment, selection and regeneration of transformants by tissue culture, confirmation of transgene integration into the chloroplast genome and homoplasmy, evaluation of foreign gene expression, purification of foreign protein, or oral delivery via bioencapsulation, functional evaluation using in vitro and in vivo assays, and evaluation of immunity after challenge with pathogens in suitable animal models.

  8. Influence of Influent Concentration and Hydraulic Retention Time on Purification Effect of Three Floating Plants%进水浓度和水力停留时间对浮水植物净化效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小娟; 陈年来; 褚润

    2016-01-01

    以浮萍、大薸、凤眼莲3种浮水植物为试材,分别在水力停留2d、4d、8d、10d、12d和14d测定污水中DO、COD、TP、NH3-N含量。通过比较植物在不同浓度污水中的净化效果,确定其在最佳浓度污水中对各污染物处理的最佳停留时间。结果表明,3种植物在适宜污水浓度均表现出较强净化效果。净化周期内,NH3-N、TP去除率变化趋势与DO变化趋势一致,大薸、浮萍、凤眼莲在低浓度污水中对NH3-N、TP去除率最好,NH3-N最佳停留时间分别为8 d、12 d、14 d, TP去除的最佳停留时间均为10 d,中浓度污水适合COD去除,大薸、浮萍、凤眼莲对COD去除的最佳停留时间分别为14 d、8 d、10 d。%Taking three floating plants Pistia stratiotes L., Lemna minor L.and Eichhornia crassipes ( Mart.) Solme as test materials , the concentration of DO , COD, TP, NH3 -N in sewage were determined by setting hydraulic residence time as 2 d, 4 d, 8 d, 10 d, 12 d and 14 d, respectively.Comparing the plant purification effect in different concentration sewage , the optimal hydraulic retention time ( HRT) of plants in the optimal sewage concentration was determined , Results showed that these three floating plants had strong purifying effect on appropriate concentration sewage .During the purification cycle , Pistia stratiotes L., Lemna minor L. and Eichhornia crassipes ( Mart.) Solme had the best removal rate of NH 3 -N and TP in low concentration .The optimal HRT of NH3 -N removal were 8 d, 12 d and 14 d, respectively.The best HRT of TP removal were all 10 d.Medium concentration sewage was appropriate for COD removal .The optimal residence time of Pistia stratiotes L., Lemna minor L., and Eichhournia crassipes ( Mart.) Slome on COD removal were 14 d, 8 d and 10 d, respectively .

  9. Preparative isolation and purification of three stilbene glycosides from the tibetan medicinal plant Rheum tanguticum maxim. Ex Balf. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Han, Fa; Li, Yu-Lin; Yue, Hui-Lan

    2013-02-01

    Stilbene glycosides are the primary constituents of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf., to which different bioactivities has been attributed, including: anti-HIV, anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, anti-malarial, and anti-allergy activity. However, effective methods for the isolation and purification of stilbene glycosides, such as trans-rhapontin, cis-rhapontin and trans-desoxyrhaponticin, from this herb are not currently available. To develop an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of three stilbene glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. via high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A solvent system composed of chloroform:n-butanol:methanol:water (4:1:3:2, v/v/v/v) was developed for the separation. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.8 mL/min. The apparatus was controlled at 800 rpm and 25 °C, and the effluent was monitored at 280 nm. Chemical constituents were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their structures were identified by ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR. Under the optimised conditions, 25.5 mg trans-rhapontin, 16.0 mg cis-rhapontin and 20.5 mg trans-desoxyrhaponticin were separated from 80 mg crude sample; the isolates had purities of 99.6, 97.2 and 99.2%, respectively. A simple and efficient HSCCC method has been optimised for the preparative separation of stilbene glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Powerful qPCR assays for the early detection of latent invaders: interdisciplinary approaches in clinical cancer research and plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchi, Nicola; Capretti, Paolo; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinzani, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Latent invaders represent the first step of disease before symptoms occur in the host. Based on recent findings, tumors are considered to be ecosystems in which cancer cells act as invasive species that interact with the native host cell species. Analogously, in plants latent fungal pathogens coevolve within symptomless host tissues. For these reasons, similar detection approaches can be used for an early diagnosis of the invasion process in both plants and humans to prevent or reduce the spread of the disease. Molecular tools based on the evaluation of nucleic acids have been developed for the specific, rapid, and early detection of human diseases. During the last decades, these techniques to assess and quantify the proliferation of latent invaders in host cells have been transferred from the medical field to different areas of scientific research, such as plant pathology. An improvement in molecular biology protocols (especially referring to qPCR assays) specifically designed and optimized for detection in host plants is therefore advisable. This work is a cross-disciplinary review discussing the use of a methodological approach that is employed within both medical and plant sciences. It provides an overview of the principal qPCR tools for the detection of latent invaders, focusing on comparisons between clinical cancer research and plant pathology, and recent advances in the early detection of latent invaders to improve prevention and control strategies.

  11. Design and evaluation of an on-line fuel rod assay device for an HTGR fuel refabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushton, J.E.; Allen, E.J.; Chiles, M.M.; Jenkins, J.D.

    1979-11-01

    Refabricated HTGR fuel rods will contain from approx. 0.15 to 0.5 g 233 U and/or 235 U. The fuel rods are approx. 16 mm in diameter and 62 mm long. A typical commercial fuel refabrication facility will have six fuel rod production lines, each producing approximately one fuel rod every 4 seconds at design capacity. One on-line assay device will be present for each two production lines. The relative standard deviation in an individual fuel rod fissile material measurement must be less than 3% to satisfy process and quality control requirements. Systematic errors must be kept less than approx. 0.3% for fissile material measured in fuel rods produced over two months to satisfy material accountability requirements. Several nondestructive assay (NDA) methods were investigated. Because the gamma-ray activity of the refabricated fuel is relatively high due to the presence of 232 U in the fuel and because the gamma-ray activity is not directly related to total or fissile uranium content, NDA methods employing gamma-ray detection did not appear practicable. A method using thermal neutron irradiation and fast-fission neutron detection was selected. An experimental assay device was fabricated based on this NDA method. Experiments were performed to determine the precision and accuracy of the measurements and to investigate potential interferences and systematic errors. Operating procedures were evaluated, and analysis procedures were identified

  12. Heterologous Expression of Three Plant Serpins with Distinct Inhibitory Specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, inhibitory plant serpins, including WSZ1 from wheat, BSZ4, and the previously unknown protein BSZx from barley, have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and a procedure for fast purification of native plant serpins has been developed, BSZx, BSZ4, and WSZ1 were assayed...... favorable P-2 Leu. BSZ4 inhibited cathepsin G (k(a) = 2.7 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) at P-1 Met but was hydrolyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The three plant serpins formed stable SDS-resistant complexes with the proteinases in accordance with the kinetic data....

  13. Water purification in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell' Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  14. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from Escherichia coli O157:H7. ... (SDS-PAGE) and StxB2 yield was 450 μg ml-1 confirmed by Bradford assay. Recombinant Stx2B protein was produced in highly pure yield using ...

  16. Identification of isolates of the plant pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans with resistance to the triazole fungicide fluquinconazole using a novel In Planta assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P Van de Wouw

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans is the major pathogen of canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus worldwide. In Australia, the use of azole fungicides has contributed to the 50-fold increase in canola production in the last 25 years. However, extensive application of fungicides sets the stage for the selection of fungal populations with resistance. A high-throughput in planta assay was developed to allow screening of thousands of isolates from multiple populations. Using this screen, isolates were identified with decreased sensitivity to the fungicide fluquinconazole when applied at field rates as a protective seed dressing: these isolates cause significantly larger lesions on cotyledons and true leaves and increased disease severity at plant maturity. This increased in planta resistance was specific to fluquinconazole, with no cross resistance to flutriafol or tebuconazole/prothioconazole. In a limited set of 22 progeny from a cross between resistant and susceptible parents, resistance segregated in a 1:1 ratio, suggesting a single gene is responsible. A survey of 200 populations from across canola growing regions of Australia revealed fungicide resistance was present in 15% of the populations. Although in vitro analysis of the fungicide resistant isolates showed a significant shift in the average EC50 compared to the sensitive isolates, this was not as evident as the in planta assays. The development of this novel, high-throughput in planta assay has led to the identification of the first fungicide resistant L. maculans isolates, which may pose a threat to the productivity of the Australian canola industry.

  17. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration...

  18. Phospholipases A2: enzymatic assay for snake venom (Naja naja karachiensis) with their neutralization by medicinal plants of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Muhammad H H B; Durr-E-Sabih; Yaqab, Tahir; Murtaza, Ghulam; Hussain, Muhammad S; Hussain, Muhammad S; Nasir, Muhammad T; Azhar, Saira; Khan, Shujaat A; Hussain, Izhar

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are the most lethal and noxious component of Naja naja karachiensis venom. They are engaged to induce severe toxicities after their penetration in victims. Present study was designed to highlight hydrolytic actions of PLA. in an egg yolk mixture and to encounter their deleterious effects via medicinal plants of Pakistan. PLA2 were found to produce free fatty acids in a dose dependent manner. Venom at concentration of 0.1 mg was found to liberate 26.6 pmoles of fatty acids with a decline in pH1 of 0.2 owing to the presence of PLA2 (133 Unit/mg). When quantity of venom was increased up to 8 mg, it caused to release 133 pmoles of free fatty acids with a decrease in 1.0 pH due to abundance in PLA, (665 Unit/mg). The rest of other doses of venom (0.3-4.0 mg) was found to liberate fatty acids between these two upper and lower limits. Twenty eight medicinal plants (0.1-0.6 mg) were tried to abort PLA, hydrolytic action, however, all were found useful (50-100%) against PLA,. Bauhinia variegate L., Citrus limon (L.). Burm.f. Enicostemnma hyssopifolium (Willd.) Verdoorn, Ocimum sanctum. Psoralea corylifolia L. and Stenolobium stans (L.) D. Don were found excellent in switching off 100% phospholipases A, at their lowest concentration (0.1 mg). Three plants extract were found useful only at lower concentration (0.1 mg), however, their higher doses were seemed to aggravate venom response. Eight medicinal plants failed to neutralize PLA, rather their higher doses were found effective. Standard antidote and rest of other plants extract were able to show maximum of 50% efficiencies. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and isolate bioactive constituent(s) from above cited six medicinal plants to eradicate the problem of snake bite in the future.

  19. An in vivo root hair assay for determining rates of apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Bridget V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Arabidopsis thaliana we demonstrate that dying root hairs provide an easy and rapid in vivo model for the morphological identification of apoptotic-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD in plants. The model described here is transferable between species, can be used to investigate rates of AL-PCD in response to various treatments and to identify modulation of AL-PCD rates in mutant/transgenic plant lines facilitating rapid screening of mutant populations in order to identify genes involved in AL-PCD regulation.

  20. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  1. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Rosangela de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.

  2. Feasibility Study on Manufacturing Lightweight Aggregates from Water Purification Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Fang; Chen, How-Ji

    2018-02-01

    This study mainly discussed the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight aggregates from water purification sludge in Taiwan. They were analysed for the physical and chemical composition before the sintering test for lightweight aggregates in a laboratory. Then the physical and mechanical properties of the synthesized aggregates were assessed. The result showed that the chemical composition of sludge in the water purification plants was within the appropriate range for manufacturing lightweight aggregate as proposed in the literature. The sintering test demonstrated that the particle density of aggregates from the ten types of water purification sludge were mostly less than 1.8 g/cm3. In addition, the dry unit weight, the organic impurity, the ignition loss, and other characteristics of synthesized aggregates met the requirement of CNS standards, while its water absorption and crushing strength also fulfilled the general commercial specifications. Therefore, reclamation of water purification sludge for production of lightweight aggregate is indeed feasible.

  3. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  4. In vitro assay for the anti-Brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-07-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50-400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study.

  5. In vitro assay for the anti-brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50–400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study. PMID:20593515

  6. Directly Transforming PCR-Amplified DNA Fragments into Plant Cells Is a Versatile System That Facilitates the Transient Expression Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yuxuan; Wang, Yanping; He, Yuqing; Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments) based transient expression system (PCR-TES) for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells. PMID:23468926

  7. Directly transforming PCR-amplified DNA fragments into plant cells is a versatile system that facilitates the transient expression assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Lu

    Full Text Available A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments based transient expression system (PCR-TES for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells.

  8. A cytogenetic study of Korean native goat bred in the nuclear power plant using the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Mo; Ji, Young-Hoon; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Se-Ra; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cytogenetic and hematological analysis was performed on the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) obtained from Korean native goats bred in two nuclear power plants (Wolsong and Uljin) and a control area. The frequencies of gamma-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in the cytokinesis-blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three Korean native goats. The measurements performed after irradiation showed dose-related increases in the MN frequency in each of the donors. The results were analyzed using a linear-quadratic model with a line of best fit of y=0.1019D+0.0045D 2 +0.0093 (y=number of MN/GB cells and D=irradiation dose in Gy). The MN rates in the goats from the Wolsong and Uljin nuclear power plant, and the control area were 9.60±2.88, 6.83±1.47 and 9.88±4.32 per 1,000 CB lymphocytes, respectively. The apparent difference is not statistically significant. The MN frequencies of PBLs from goats bred in three areas means that the values are within the background variation in this experiment. The MN frequencies and hematological values were similar regardless of whether the goats were bred in the nuclear power plant or the control area. (author)

  9. Improving the large scale purification of the HIV microbicide, griffithsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua, Joshua L; Wanga, Valentine; Palmer, Kenneth E

    2015-02-22

    Griffithsin is a broad spectrum antiviral lectin that inhibits viral entry and maturation processes through binding clusters of oligomannose glycans on viral envelope glycoproteins. An efficient, scaleable manufacturing process for griffithsin active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is essential for particularly cost-sensitive products such as griffithsin -based topical microbicides for HIV-1 prevention in resource poor settings. Our previously published purification method used ceramic filtration followed by two chromatography steps, resulting in a protein recovery of 30%. Our objective was to develop a scalable purification method for griffithsin expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that would increase yield, reduce production costs, and simplify manufacturing techniques. Considering the future need to transfer griffithsin manufacturing technology to resource poor areas, we chose to focus modifying the purification process, paying particular attention to introducing simple, low-cost, and scalable procedures such as use of temperature, pH, ion concentration, and filtration to enhance product recovery. We achieved >99% pure griffithsin API by generating the initial green juice extract in pH 4 buffer, heating the extract to 55°C, incubating overnight with a bentonite MgCl2 mixture, and final purification with Capto™ multimodal chromatography. Griffithsin extracted with this protocol maintains activity comparable to griffithsin purified by the previously published method and we are able to recover a substantially higher yield: 88 ± 5% of griffithsin from the initial extract. The method was scaled to produce gram quantities of griffithsin with high yields, low endotoxin levels, and low purification costs maintained. The methodology developed to purify griffithsin introduces and develops multiple tools for purification of recombinant proteins from plants at an industrial scale. These tools allow for robust cost-effective production and purification of

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Cindy [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Mueller, Uwe [Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Panjikar, Santosh [European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Outstation Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Lianli [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Ruppert, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Zhao, Yu [Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Stöckigt, Joachim [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China)

    2006-12-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å.

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222 1 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å

  12. PURIFICATION AND FRACTIONAL ANALYSIS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WEDELIA TRILOBATA POSSESSING APOPTOTIC AND ANTI-LEUKEMIC ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Uday; Javarasetty, Chethan; Murari, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch (WT), commonly known as yellow dots or creeping daisy, is a shrub possessing potent biological activities, and is traditionally used a medicinal plant in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicines, and it has also been tried against leukemia cell line MEG- 01. In the present study, purification and screening of the plant was done for bioactive compounds in methanolic extract of WT for apoptotic and anti-leukemia activity. Materials and methods: The methanolic extract of WT was initially purified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and screened for the apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities. The positive band of TLC was subjected to silica gel column chromatography for further purification and the fractions obtained from it were screened again for anti-leukemia activity through thymidine uptake assay and apoptotic activity by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining and flow cytometry assays. The fraction with positive result was subjected to HPLC for analysis of bioactive components. Results: Out of many combinations of solvents, the methanol and dichloromethane combination in the ratio 6:4 has revealed two bands in TLC, among which the second band showed positive results for apoptotic and anti-leukemic activities. Further purification of second band through silica gel chromatography gave five fractions in which the 3rd fraction gave positive results and it shows single peak during compositional analysis through HPLC. Conclusion: The single peak revealed through HPLC indicates the presence of pure compound with apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities encouraging for further structural analysis. PMID:28480428

  13. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva D. Bhatter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome, Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf, Piper nigrum L. (seed, and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549 infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity.

  14. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF 6 -HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF 6 -HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  15. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Panjikar, Santosh [European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Outstation Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Barleben, Leif [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Stöckigt, Joachim [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 353 Yan An Road, 310031 Hangzhou (China)

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C2221 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å. PMID:17142919

  18. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å

  19. Assay of uranium in crude diuranate cakes and MgF2 slag produced at the natural uranium conversion plants by γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.; Iyer, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    A transmission-corrected γ-ray counting method has been employed for the assay of uranium in crude Na 2 U 2 O 7 cakes produced at the Uranium Conversion Facilities. A 3''*3'' NaI(Tl) detector was used in conjunction with a 400-channel analyzer. The observed count rate of the 1 MeV γ-ray emitted by the 238 U in the sample was corrected for sample self-attenuation, measured with a 65 Zn (γ-energy ≅ 1115 keV) transmission source. A calibration factor determined by measuring a standard of known amount of radioactive material in the same form and geometry as the unknown sample was used to convert the transmission corrected count rate to the amount of uranium in the weighed sample. Another γ-spectrometric method is described for the assay of the U-content in the MgF 2 slag produced during the magnesiothermic reduction of UF 4 to U-metal ingots at the natural U-conversion plant. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Assay of free urinary cortisol with inverted phase liquid chromatography and radiocompetition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, C.; Patricot, M.C.; Mathian, B.; Revol, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present an assay method for free urinary cortisol using inverted phase liquid chromatography for purification and radiocompetition for the assay. The usual values for adult men and women were established. The results of 150 routine assays were compared with those of 17 OHCS revealing the value of this assay [fr

  1. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P.R.; Sautray, R.R.; Girard, B.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence

  2. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 A, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 A.

  3. Heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 in the radiation chemical purification of exhaust gases of thermoelectric power plants from oxides of nitrogen and sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, T.S.; Gerasimov, G.Ya.; Tokmacheva, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions associated with numerical modeling of the heterogeneous oxidation of SO 2 in exhaust gases of thermoelectric power plants, induced by irradiation of the gas with a flux of fast electrons, are discussed. In constructing a mathematical model of the process it is considered that a phase equilibrium exists between the gas and the aerosol drops formed in the gas under the radiation influence, and the rate of the process is determined by the rate of liquid-phase oxidation of SO 2 by nitrogen dioxide in dissolved form. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. Assessment of toxicity of radioactively contaminated sediments of the Yenisei River for aquatic plants in laboratory assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.; Trofimova, E.; Medvedeva, M.; Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysic SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River has been subjected to radioactive contamination due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Rosatom) (MCC) producing weapon-grade plutonium for more than fifty years (1958-2010). As a result, high activities of long-lived artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Pu-238, 239, 241, Am-241) were deposited in sediments of the river. Bottom sediments of the Yenisei River downstream of the Krasnoyarsk city are also polluted with heavy metals because of industrial discharges and from the water catchment area. The purpose of this research was to estimate the ability of submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum to serve as indicators of toxicity of bottom sediments of the Yenisei River. Activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of aquatic plants sampled in the Yenisei River upstream of the MCC were below detection limit (< 0.5 Bq/kg of dry mass for Cs-137). The activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of macrophytes sampled in the Yenisei River in the vicinity of the MCC in autumn 2012 were (Bq/kg of dry mass): 67±4 for Co-60, 16±2 for Cs-137, and 8±1 for Eu-152. For eco-toxicological experiments, top 20-cm layers of bottom sediments (BS) were collected from the Yenisei River at three sites in the vicinity of the MCC (No. 2-4) and at one site upstream of the MCC (No. 1). Samples of sediments contained natural isotope K-40 (240-330 Bq/kg, fresh mass) and artificial radionuclides: Co-60 (up to 70 Bq/kg), Cs-137 (0.8-1400 Bq/kg), Eu-152, 154 (up to 220 Bq/kg), Am-241 (up to 40 Bq/kg). The total activity concentration of radionuclides measured on an HPGe-Gamma-spectrometer (Canberra, U.S.) in samples of BS No. 1-4 was 330, 500, 880 and 1580 Bq/kg of fresh mass, respectively. Apical shoots of submersed macrophytes were planted in sediments (6-9 shoots per sediment sub-sample in three replicates). Endpoints of shoot and root growth were used as toxicity indicators; the number of cells with chromosome

  5. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.schiliro@unito.it [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Porfido, Arianna [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino (Italy); Gilli, Giorgio [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17{beta}-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 {+-} 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 {+-} 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 {+-} 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 {+-} 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 {+-} 26% and 52 {+-} 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  6. Two novel real time cell-based assays quantify beta-blocker and NSAID specific effects in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Kevin; Stahl, Cordula; Martens, Regina; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita; Scheurer, Marco; Frey, Manfred

    2017-05-15

    Pharmaceuticals, such as beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as their metabolites are introduced into the water cycle via municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in all industrialized countries. As the amino acid sequences of the biological target molecules of these pharmaceuticals - the beta-1 adrenergic receptor for beta-blockers and the cyclooxygenase for NSAIDs - are phylogenetically conserved among vertebrates it is reasonable that wildlife vertebrates including fish physiologically respond in a similar way to them as documented in humans. Consequently, beta-blockers and NSAIDs both exhibit their effects according to their mode of action on one hand, but on the other hand that may lead to unwanted side effects in non-target species. To determine whether residuals of beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists and cyclooxygenase inhibitors may pose a risk to aquatic organisms, one has to know the extent to which such organisms respond to the total of active compounds, their metabolites and transformation products with the same modes of action. To cope with this demand, two cell-based assays were developed, by which the total beta-blocker and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity can be assessed in a given wastewater or surface water extract in real time. The measured activity is quantified as metoprolol equivalents (MetEQ) of the lead substance metoprolol in the beta-blocker assay, and diclofenac equivalents (DicEQ) in the NSAID assay. Even though MetEQs and DicEQs were found to surpass the concentration of the respective lead substances (metoprolol, diclofenac), as determined by chemical analysis by a factor of two to three, this difference was shown to be reasonably explained by the presence and action of additional active compounds with the same mode of action in the test samples. Thus, both in vitro assays were proven to integrate effectively over beta-blocker and NSAID activities in WWTP effluents in a very sensitive

  7. Purification, cloning, functional expression and characterization of perakine reductase: the first example from the AKR enzyme family, extending the alkaloidal network of the plant Rauvolfia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Sheludko, Yuri; Warzecha, Heribert; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) catalyzes an NADPH-dependent step in a side-branch of the 10-step biosynthetic pathway of the alkaloid ajmaline. The enzyme was cloned by a "reverse-genetic" approach from cell suspension cultures of the plant Rauvolfia serpentina (Apocynaceae) and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli as the N-terminal His(6)-tagged protein. PR displays a broad substrate acceptance, converting 16 out of 28 tested compounds with reducible carbonyl function which belong to three substrate groups: benzaldehyde, cinnamic aldehyde derivatives and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. The enzyme has an extraordinary selectivity in the group of alkaloids. Sequence alignments define PR as a new member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) super family, exhibiting the conserved catalytic tetrad Asp52, Tyr57, Lys84, His126. Site-directed mutagenesis of each of these functional residues to an alanine residue results in >97.8% loss of enzyme activity, in compounds of each substrate group. PR represents the first example of the large AKR-family which is involved in the biosynthesis of plant monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. In addition to a new esterase, PR significantly extends the Rauvolfia alkaloid network to the novel group of peraksine alkaloids.

  8. Purification of thyrotropin from human hypophysis: preliminary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, V.C.; Lin, L.H.; Bartolini, P.

    1988-07-01

    The adequacy of stored crude preparations for isolation of human tyrotropin (TSH) was evaluated according to Ross et al from a side fraction obtained during the purification of growth hormone from frozen pituitaries (SOMATORMON). Six crude TSH preparations were stored at - 20 0 C during several years for further purification. One of these preparations was purified by sucessive chromatographies on Sephadex G-100, hydroxylapatite and SP-Sephadex C50. The TSH content present in the chromatographic fractions and in the pools was assayed by specific radioimmunoassay developed at our laboratory. The protein determination of the fractions and pools was performed by absorbance at 280 nm and by the method of Lowry at al, respectively. The TSH activity increased eight times during the purification and the TSH purified had a radioimmunological potency around half that de scribed by Roos at al. The results suggest the fitness of long time stored preparations in the attainment of pure TSH. (author) [pt

  9. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is ∼ as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous

  10. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å. PMID:16511316

  11. Purification and Structural and Kinetic Characterization of the Pyrophosphate:Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase from the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant, Pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, KEJ.; Podesta, F. E.

    1997-03-01

    Pyrphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PFP) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from illuminated pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaves. The purified enzyme consists of a single subunit of 61.5 kD that is immunologically related to the potato tuber PFP [beta] subunit. The native form of PFP likely consists of a homodimer of 97.2 kD, as determined by gel filtration. PFP's glycolytic activity was strongly dependent on pH, displaying a maximum at pH 7.7 to 7.9. Gluconeogenic activity was relatively constant between pH 6.7 and 8.7. Activation by Fru-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) was dependent on assay pH. In the glycolytic direction, it activated about 10-fold at pH 6.7, but only 2-fold at pH 7.7. The gluconeogenic reaction was only weakly affected by Fru-2,6-P2. The true substrates for the PFP forward and reverse reactions were Fru-6-phosphate and Mg-pyrophosphate, and Fru-1,6-P2, orthophosphate, and Mg2+, respectively. The results suggest that pineapple PFP displays regulatory properties consistent with a pH-based regulation of its glycolytic activity, in which a decrease in cytosolic pH caused by nocturnal acidification during Crassulacean acid metabolism, which could curtail its activity, is compensated by a parallel increase in its sensitivity to Fru-2,6-P2. It is also evident that the [beta] subunit alone is sufficient to confer PFP with a high catalytic rate and the regulatory properties associated with activation by Fru-2,6-P2.

  12. Water Purification Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  13. Gas purification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.

    1975-06-01

    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  14. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabel, P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to

  15. Modelling a water purification process for quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der F.H.; Luca, S.; Overal, G.; Dubbeldam, J.L.A.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Jongbloed, G.; Dubbeldam, J.; Groenevelt, W.; Heemink, A.W.; Lahaye, D.; Meerman, C.; Meulen, van der F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a quality engineering problem introduced by ‘Waterlaboratorium Noord’ (WLN) situated at the Netherlands. In-terest lies in determining an optimal sampling frequency that provides suÿcient information on the water quality in a drinking water purifica-tion plant. The water

  16. Potential for sustainable energy with biogas from sewage purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J.; Van Gastel, M.; De Jong, K.

    2005-04-01

    Insight is given into the possibility to produce biogas from sewage purification plants in the Netherlands. Attention is paid to the estimated potential of sustainable energy from biogas, the economic effectiveness of several scenarios, the critical success factors and bottlenecks [nl

  17. Evaluation of indigenous anion exchange resins for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, R.; Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Thite, B.S.; Ajithlal, R.T.; Sinalkar, Nitin; Dharampurikar, G.R.; Janardhanan, C.; Michael, K.M.; Vijayan, K.; Jambunathan, U.; Dey, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary data with pure plutonium nitrate solution indicate that indigenous anion exchange resin can be used for the purification and concentration of plutonium. However, further studies are required to be conducted on larger scale with actual plant feed solutions before arriving to final conclusions. This includes repeated loading and elution cycles studies with the same bed and evaluation of the performance after each cycle

  18. Purification technology for flue/off gases using electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes research and development on purification technology using electron beams for flue/off gases containing pollutants: removal of sulfate oxide and nitrogen oxide from flue gases of coal/oil combustion power plants, decomposition of dioxins in waste incineration flue gas, and decomposition/removal of toxic volatile organic compounds from off gas. (author)

  19. Impact of ubiquitous inhibitors on the GUS gene reporter system: evidence from the model plants Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice and correction methods for quantitative assays of transgenic and endogenous GUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerola Paolo D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β-glucuronidase (GUS gene reporter system is one of the most effective and employed techniques in the study of gene regulation in plant molecular biology. Improving protocols for GUS assays have rendered the original method described by Jefferson amenable to various requirements and conditions, but the serious limitation caused by inhibitors of the enzyme activity in plant tissues has thus far been underestimated. Results We report that inhibitors of GUS activity are ubiquitous in organ tissues of Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice, and significantly bias quantitative assessment of GUS activity in plant transformation experiments. Combined with previous literature reports on non-model species, our findings suggest that inhibitors may be common components of plant cells, with variable affinity towards the E. coli enzyme. The reduced inhibitory capacity towards the plant endogenous GUS discredits the hypothesis of a regulatory role of these compounds in plant cells, and their effect on the bacterial enzyme is better interpreted as a side effect due to their interaction with GUS during the assay. This is likely to have a bearing also on histochemical analyses, leading to inaccurate evaluations of GUS expression. Conclusions In order to achieve reliable results, inhibitor activity should be routinely tested during quantitative GUS assays. Two separate methods to correct the measured activity of the transgenic and endogenous GUS are presented.

  20. Dust removal in power plant. Practical experiences with textile filter media in the flue gas purification coal-fired plants; Entstaubung von Kraftwerken. Praxiserfahrungen mit textilen Filtermedien in der Rauchgasreinigung von kohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnig, Joachim [BWF Envirotec, Offingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Beside carbon dioxide, coal-fired power plants also produce particle emissions which have to be removed by filtering units from the flue gas. In the Federal Republic of Germany, this is enabled by means of electrostatic filters. In South Africa, the bag filter is the preferential method of dust removal. In the People's Republic of China, already large power plants with bag filters are dedusted. With regard to the cost structure, no significant differences between bag filters and electrostatic filters appear. Suitable measures can prevent the destruction of bag filters by an excess temperature in the case of disturbances of operation. Bag filters offer a higher efficiency of separation with fine dust and very fine dust. Using a professional conception of a filter plant, an operation of bag filters for the dedusting of coal-fired power plants is possible without problems. A service life of several years can be achieved.

  1. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  2. Statistical and Judgmental Criteria for Scale Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Durach, Christian F.; Kembro, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    of scale purification, to critically analyze the current state of scale purification in supply chain management (SCM) research and to provide suggestions for advancing the scale-purification process. Design/methodology/approach A framework for making scale-purification decisions is developed and used...

  3. In-plant measurements of gamma-ray transmissions for precise K-edge and passive assay of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundance in product solutions at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Y.; Kondo, I.; Masui, J.; Shoji, K.; Russo, P.A.; Hsue, S.T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Johnson, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    A field test has been carried out for more than 2 years for determination of plutonium concentration by K-edge absorption densitometry and for determination of plutonium isotopic abundance by transmission-corrected passive gamma-ray spectrometry. This system was designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation as a part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX). For K-edge measurement of plutonium concentration, the transmissions at two discrete gamma-ray energies are measured using the 121.1- and 122.1-keV gamma rays from 75 Se and 57 Co. Intensities of the plutonium passive gamma rays in the energy regions between 38 and 51 keV and between 129 and 153 keV are used for determination of the isotopic abundances. More than 200 product solution samples have been measured in a timely fashion during these 2 years. The relative precisions and accuracies of the plutonium concentration measurement are shown to be within 0.6% (1 sigma) in these applications, and those for plutonium isotopic abundances are within 3% for 238 Pu, 0.4% for 239 Pu, 1.2% for 240 Pu, 1.3% for 241 Pu, and 7% for 242 Pu. The time required is 10 min for the concentration assay, 10 min for the isotopics assay, and about 15 min for handling procedures in the laboratory

  4. Assay of uranium in fused salt cake generated at the natural uranium metal fuel fabrication plants by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.; Bhanu, A.U.; Sahoo, S.; Iyer, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    A passive gamma-ray spectroscopic method is employed for the assay of uranium in fused salt cake, a scrap produced at the natural uranium metal fuel fabrication plants. The method makes use of NaI(TI) detector coupled with a multichannel analyser. The 1 MeV gamma-ray of 238 U was used for the calibration. The calibration curve was made by counting synthetic mixtures made of U 3 O 8 powder, the heat treatment salt and iron in the form of fine powder. The uranium content in these synthetic mixtures was kept in the range of 1-11 per cent. 23 lots of the fused salt cake taken from three different batches of the salt cake were then analysed by this method. The uranium content of fused salt cake was found to be in the range of 1.70-11.43 per cent. To compare the gamma spectrometric results with a completely independent method, chemical analysis of all the fused salt cakes were also carried out. The NDA results were found to agree within ± 17 per cent with the chemical analysis results. (author)

  5. Future of antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  6. Simple purification for E. coli putrescine aminopropyl-transferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavagan, J.E.; Anton, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Putrescine aminopropyltransferase transfers an aminopropyl group from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine forming spermidine. They have recently developed a rapid assay based on the separation of the spermidine product from the unreacted [ 14 C-met] labeled decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine substrate by charcoal adsorption. Using this assay they have developed a simple protocol for the purification of putrescine aminopropyltransferase from E. coli HT 527. The procedure involves ammonium sulfate fractionation, phenyl Sepharose chromatography, and FPLC. The enzyme is greater than 80% pure as judged by SDS-PAGE and has an apparent subunit molecular weight of 35,000. The kinetics of this enzyme are being reinvestigated

  7. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, Rian [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael J [Aurora, IL; Lee, Guang-Chung [Houston, TX; Eng, Wayne W. Y. [League City, TX; Sinclair, Iain [Warrington, GB; Lodgson, Jeffery S [Naperville, IL

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  8. Indoor Air Purification by Potted Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit

    by allowing air exchange and continuous emission of a VOC or VOC mixture. The system was operational in dynamic and semi-dynamic mode which highlighted that experimental set-up can affect calculated removal rates. With exposure to toluene Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was not affected by an increase in light...

  9. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  10. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  11. New concept of gas purification by electron attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamon, Hajime; Mizota, Hirotoshi; Sano, Noriaki; Schulze, S.; Okazaki, Morio

    1995-01-01

    Recently, the public has become interested in the following types of gas purification: (1) removal of indoor air pollutants; (2) complete removal of dioxin from incineration plants; (3) complete removal of radioactive iodine compounds; (4) simultaneous removal of NOx and SOx in exhaust gases from cogeneration plants; (5) removal and decomposition of halocarbons; (6) ultrahigh purification of gas sued for semiconductor industries. A new concept of gas purification by electron attachment is proposed. Low-energy electrons generated in a corona-discharge reactor are captured by electronegative impurities, producing negative ions. The ions drift to the anode in the electric field and are removed at the anode of the reactor. Two types of reactors were used to remove the negative ions: a deposition-type reactor, which deposits negative ions at the anode surface; a sweep-out-type reactor, which sweeps out enriched electronegative impurities through the porous anode. Removals of dilute sulfur compounds, oxygen and iodine from nitrogen were conducted to verify the concept of gas purification. Simulation models were used to estimate removal efficiencies of these compounds, by taking into account electron attachment, and experimental constants of the models were determined. The removal efficiency correlated by the models agreed well with the experimental one

  12. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  13. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Quantitative and specific detection of the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica, in plant extracts using a real-time TaqMan® assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A Serratia plymuthica-specific TaqMan® assay was designed based on the consensus nucleotide sequence from the 3'- end of the luxS gene present in all S. plymuthica strains tested. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by testing 21 Serratia spp. strains and 30 isolates belonging to various

  16. Quantitative and specific detection of the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica, in plant extracts using a real-time TaqMan(A (R)) assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A Serratia plymuthica-specific TaqManA (R) assay was designed based on the consensus nucleotide sequence from the 3'- end of the luxS gene present in all S. plymuthica strains tested. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by testing 21 Serratia spp. strains and 30 isolates belonging to

  17. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  18. Liquid metal purification device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takao; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns a liquid metal purification device for removing and purifying impuries in liquid metal sodium used as coolants of an FBR type reactor. A vessel having a group of pipes made of hydrogen permeable metal at the inside thereof is disposed to the inlet pipeline of a cold trap. The group of hydrogen permeable metal pipes is connected to an exhaust pipe and a vacuum pump, so that the inside of the pipes is exhausted. Liquid metal sodium branched from the main pipeline of a coolant system passes through the outer side of the group of the hydrogen permeable metal pipes. In this cae, hydrogen contained as impurities in the liquid metal sodium diffuses and permeates the hydrogen permeation metal pipes and enters into the pipe group and is discharged out of the system by the vacuum pump. This can mitigate the hydrogen removing burden of the cold trap, to extend the device life time. (I.N.)

  19. Robotic high-throughput purification of affinity-tagged recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesler, Simone C; Weinzierl, Robert O J

    2015-01-01

    Affinity purification of recombinant proteins has become the method of choice to obtain good quantities and qualities of proteins for a variety of downstream biochemical applications. While manual or FPLC-assisted purification techniques are generally time-consuming and labor-intensive, the advent of high-throughput technologies and liquid handling robotics has simplified and accelerated this process significantly. Additionally, without the human factor as a potential source of error, automated purification protocols allow for the generation of large numbers of proteins simultaneously and under directly comparable conditions. The delivered material is ideal for activity comparisons of different variants of the same protein. Here, we present our strategy for the simultaneous purification of up to 24 affinity-tagged proteins for activity measurements in biochemical assays. The protocol described is suitable for the scale typically required in individual research laboratories.

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of asclepain c I from the latex of Asclepias curassavica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggieri, Constanza; Arribére, M Cecilia; Trejo, Sebastián A; Canals, Francesc; Avilés, Francesc X; Priolo, Nora S

    2004-08-01

    In this work we report the isolation, purification and characterization of a new protease from latex of Asclepias curassavica L. Crude extract (CE) was obtained by gathering latex on 0.1 M citric-phosphate buffer with EDTA and cysteine with subsequent ultracentrifugation. Proteolytic assays were made on casein or azocasein as substrates. Caseinolytic activity was completely inhibited by E-64. Stability at different temperatures, optimum pH and ionic strength were evaluated by measuring the residual caseinolytic activity at different times after the incubation. CE showed the highest caseinolytic activity at pH 8.5 in the presence of 12 mM cysteine. CE was purified by cation exchange chromatography (FPLC). Two active fractions, homogeneous by SDS-PAGE, were isolated. The major purified protease (asclepain cI) showed a molecular mass of 23.2 kDa by mass spectrometry and a pI higher than 9.3. The N-terminal sequence showed a high similarity with those of other plant cysteine proteinases. When assayed on N-alpha-CBZ-aminoacid-p-nitrophenyl esters, the enzyme showed higher preference for the glutamine derivative. Determinations of kinetic parameter (km and Kcat) were performed with PFLNA.

  1. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  2. Partial Purification of Antimicrobial Compounds Isolated from Mycelia of Tropical Lentinus cladopus LC4

    OpenAIRE

    SUDIRMAN, LISDAR IDWAN

    2010-01-01

    Lentinus cladopus LC4 produced at least eight antimicrobial compounds (ACs) which are active against plant and human pathogens. Three ACs in its crude mycelial were extracted with methanol and partial purification was carried out with silicic acid column chromatography and by thin layer chromatography (PTLC). The antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc method and antibiographic method. The chromatography purification eluted with dichloromethane containing 5% methanol gave one active f...

  3. RELIGION AND PURIFICATION OF SOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  4. Antimicrobial Peptide Production and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Srinivas; Field, Des; Barron, Niall

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural defense compounds which are synthesized as ribosomal gene-encoded pre-peptides and produced by all living organisms. AMPs are small peptides, usually cationic and typically have hydrophobic residues which interact with cell membranes and have either a narrow or broad spectrum of biological activity. AMPs are isolated from the natural host or heterologously expressed in other hosts such as Escherichia coli. The proto-typical lantibiotic Nisin is a widely used AMP that is produced by the food-grade organism Lactococcus lactis. Although AMP production and purification procedures require optimization for individual AMPs, the Nisin production and purification protocol outlined in this chapter can be easily applied with minor modifications for the production and purification of other lantibiotics or AMPs. While Nisin is produced and secreted into the supernatant, steps to recover Nisin from both cell-free supernatant and cell pellet are outlined in detail.

  5. Partial Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Protease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... Purification of the enzyme by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G75 following ammonium sulphate precipitation gave 2.26 fold increase in purification with specific activity of 46.13 units/mg protein while purification on Sephadex CM50 resulted in reduced ...

  6. Materials for Molybdenum 99 purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M. Victoria; Mondino, Angel V.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) produces fission Mo 99, an isotope of wide use in nuclear medicine. In order to simplify the current Mo 99 production process, to shorten its duration and reduce impurities in the final product, alternative methods for purification steps were looked for. In this work a variety of new materials for the purification columns were designed, all of them with carbon. These materials were studied and a material which contribute with the best results for molybdenum retention, was selected. The preparation procedure and the working conditions were determined. (author)

  7. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  8. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  9. Monoclonal antibodies against plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, E.; Dietzgen, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since antigenic properties of plant viruses were discovered antisera have been raised and used for plant virus diagnosis and for the analysis of virus structure as well. From the early qualitative diagnosis method of precipitating the virus in clarified sap of an infected plant and the first quantitative application of the precipitin test vast progress has been made with regard to the development of highly sensitive and highly quantitative methods for virus detection. Of equal importance was the improvement of methods for separating virus from host cell components since the specificity of antisera raised against a virus could be increased by using an antigen for immunization highly concentrated and largely freed from contaminating host substances. The introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into plant virology allows detection of virus in nanogram quantities. Still, the conventionally raised antisera, no matter how pure an antigen was used for immunization, are polyclonal. They contain products of thousands of different antibody-secreting plasma cell clones which can be directed against all antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the virus, but also against antigens of the host plant that may not have been entirely separated from the immunizing virus during the purification procedure. Even after cross adsorption of polyclonal antisera some residual heterogeneity can be expected to remain. Within these boundaries the information gained with polyclonal antisera on virus structure and on virus diagnosis has to be interpreted

  10. Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao

    2010-06-15

    In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyaluronidase: Purification and Inhibition by a Gold Complex and a Steroid Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-11

    isolated from rat liver, honey bee venom, and pig liver is difficult due to the different assay procedures. The marked difference in assay conditions of...for honey bee venom versus those used in the present study (0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 4.0) preclude a direct comparison of enzyme activity...21 Protein Concentration and Specific Activity 22 Purification of Hyaluronidase...........22 Sephadex G-75-120 Chromotography. ........ 23

  12. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.

    2017-09-01

    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  13. Analysis of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymatic activity by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection combined with an assay of oxidation with a peroxidase and its application to MAO inhibitors from foods and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Tomás; Flores, Andrea; Fernández, Lidia

    2018-01-15

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes catalyze the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines and neurotransmitters and produce ammonia, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide which is involved in oxidative processes. Inhibitors of MAO-A and -B isozymes are useful as antidepressants and neuroprotectants. The assays of MAO usually measure amine oxidation products or hydrogen peroxide by spectrophotometric techniques. Those assays are often compromised by interfering compounds resulting in poor results. This research describes a new method that combines in the same assay the oxidative deamination of kynuramine to 4-hydroxyquinoline analyzed by HPLC-DAD with the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) (or Amplex Rex) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The new method was applied to study the inhibition of human MAO-A and -B by bioactive compounds including β-carboline alkaloids and flavonoids occurring in foods and plants. As determined by HPLC-DAD, β-carbolines, methylene blue, kaempferol and clorgyline inhibited MAO-A and methylene blue, 5-nitroindazole, norharman and deprenyl inhibited MAO-B, and all of them inhibited the oxidation of TMB in the same extent. The flavonoids catechin and cyanidin were not inhibitors of MAO by HPLC-DAD but highly inhibited the oxidation of TMB (or Amplex Red) by peroxidase whereas quercetin and resveratrol were moderate inhibitors of MAO-A by HPLC-DAD, but inhibited the peroxidase assay in a higher level. For some phenolic compounds, using the peroxidase-coupled assay to measure MAO activity led to mistaken results. The new method permits to discern between true inhibitors of MAO from those that are antioxidants and which interfere with peroxidase assays but do not inhibit MAO. For true inhibitors of MAO, inhibition as determined by HPLC-DAD correlated well with inhibition of the oxidation of TMB and this approach can be used to assess the in vitro antioxidant activity (less hydrogen peroxide production) resulting

  14. Polyalkoxybenzenes from plants. 5. Parsley seed extract in synthesis of azapodophyllotoxins featuring strong tubulin destabilizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Marina N; Kiselyov, Alex S; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Firgang, Sergei I; Semenov, Roman V; Malyshev, Oleg R; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Fuchs, Fabian; Stielow, Anne; Lantow, Margareta; Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Zefirov, Nikolay S; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Semenov, Victor V

    2011-10-27

    A series of 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives with modified rings B and E have been synthesized using allylpolyalkoxybenzenes from parsley seed oil. The targeted molecules were evaluated in vivo in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic and tubulin destabilizing activity. The most active compounds identified by the in vivo sea urchin embryo assay featured myristicin-derived ring E. These molecules were determined to be more potent than podophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic effects of selected molecules were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with A549 and Jurkat human leukemic T-cell lines including cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cellular microtubule disruption, and induction of apoptosis. The ring B modification yielded 6-OMe substituted molecule as the most active compound. Finally, in Jurkat cells, compound induced caspase-dependent apoptosis mediated by the apical caspases-2 and -9 and not caspase-8, implying the involvement of the intrinsic caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  15. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  17. Drug Development and Conservation of Biodiversity in West and Central Africa: Performance of Neurochemical and Radio Receptor Assays of Plant Extracts Drug Discovery for the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Erythrophleum guineensis 1909 MeOH --/38 --/52 P. nitida SU1905 MeOH --/50 4 Scoparia dulcis (whole plant) SU1912 MeOH 10 --/64 182... Scoparia dulcis SU 1913 CH2Cl2 12 11 --/74 Triumfetta tomentosa SU Aneilema umbrosum (whole plant) SU2302 CH2Cl2 10/45 --/77... Scoparia dulcis and Cissus quandrangularis. Studies of P. zenkeri were initiated because this plant is used by cattle herders in parts of Cameroon as

  18. Development of a purification system at Dhruva to treat oil contaminated and chemically impure heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttraway, S.K.; Mishra, V.; Bitla, S.V.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Dhruva, a 100 MW (thermal) Research reactor uses Heavy Water as moderator, reflector and coolant. Normally during plant operation, the Heavy water from the system gets removed during operational and maintenance activities and this collected heavy water gets degraded and contaminated in the process. The degraded heavy water meeting the chemical specification requirement of the up gradation plant is sent for up gradation. Part of the Heavy water collected is contaminated with various organic and inorganic impurities and therefore cannot be sent for IP up gradation as it does not meet the chemical specification of the up gradation plant. This contaminated Heavy water was being stored in SS drums. Over the years of Reactor operation reasonable amount of contaminated Heavy water got collected in the plant. This Heavy water collected from leakages, during routine maintenance, operational activities and fuelling operation had tritium activity and variety of contamination including oil, chlorides, turbidity due to which the specific conductivity was very high. It was decided to purify this Heavy water in house to bring it up to up gradation plant chemical specification requirement. There were number of challenges in formulating a scheme to purify this Heavy water. The scheme needed to be simple and compact in design which could be set up in the plant itself. It should not pose radiological hazards due to radioactive Heavy water during its purification and handling. The contaminated Heavy water collected in drums had varying chemistry and IP. The purification plant should be able to do batch processing so that the different IP and chemical quality of Heavy water stored in different drums are not mixed during purification. It should be capable of removing the oil, chlorides, turbidity and decrease the conductivity to acceptable limits of the Up gradation plant. A purification plant was developed and commissioned after detail laboratory studies and trials. This paper explains

  19. Discussion on runoff purification technology of highway bridge deck based on water quality safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sheng-guang; Liu, Xue-xin; Zou, Guo-ping; Xiong, Xin-zhu; Tao, Shuang-cheng

    2018-06-01

    Aiming at the actual problems existing, including a poor purification effect of highway bridge runoff collection and treatment system across sensitive water and necessary manual emergency operation, three kinds of technology, three pools system of bridge runoff purification, the integral pool of bridge runoff purification and ecological planting tank, are put forward by optimizing the structure of purification unit and system setting. At the same time, we come up with an emergency strategy for hazardous material leakage basing on automatic identification and remote control of traffic accidents. On the basis of combining these with the optimized pool structure, sensitive water safety can be guaranteed and water pollution, from directly discharging of bridge runoff, can be decreased. For making up for the shortages of green highway construction technology, the technique has important reference value.

  20. High-throughput multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otti, G; Bouvaine, S; Kimata, B; Mkamillo, G; Kumar, P L; Tomlins, K; Maruthi, M N

    2016-05-01

    To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa. The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause the economically important cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) respectively. Our method, developed by analysing PCR products of viruses, was highly sensitive to detect target viruses from very low quantities of 4-10 femtograms. Multiplexing did not diminish sensitivity or accuracy compared to uniplex alternatives. The assay reliably detected and quantified four cassava viruses in field samples where CBSV and UCBSV synergy was observed in majority of mixed-infected varieties. We have developed a high-throughput qPCR diagnostic assay capable of specific and sensitive quantification of predominant DNA and RNA viruses of cassava in eastern Africa. The qPCR methods are a great improvement on the existing methods and can be used for monitoring virus spread as well as for accurate evaluation of the cassava varieties for virus resistance. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Development and Validation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay for the Specific Detection and Quantification of Fusarium fujikuroi in Rice Plants and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Greice Amaral; Matić, Slavica; Ortu, Giuseppe; Garibaldi, Angelo; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-07-01

    Bakanae disease, which is caused by the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi, is found throughout the world on rice. A TaqMan real-time PCR has been developed on the TEF 1-α gene to detect F. fujikuroi in different rice tissues. Three primer/probe sets were tested. The selected set produced an amplicon of 84 bp and was specific for F. fujikuroi with respect to eight Fusarium species of rice and six other rice common pathogens. The assay was validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. The detection limit was set at 27.5 fg of DNA, which is approximately equivalent to one haploid genome of F. fujikuroi. The developed TaqMan real-time assay was able to efficiently detect and quantify F. fujikuroi from rice culms, leaves, roots, and seeds. At 1 week post-germination (wpg), the pathogen was more diffused in the green tissues, while at 3 wpg it was uniformly spread also in the roots. The highest concentration of F. fujikuroi was measured in the M6 cultivar, which showed around 1,450 fungal cells/g. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect a few genomic equivalents in the rice seeds, corresponding to 9.89 F. fujikuroi cells/g. The assay permitted bakanae disease to be detected in asymptomatic tissues at the early rice development stages.

  2. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  3. Cover gas purification in the German LMFBR-programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillings, K.-L.; Wagner, J.; Stade, K. Ch.

    1987-01-01

    A specific problem of sodium-cooled reactor plants is the purity of the noble gas argon which is used to protect the liquid alkali metal sodium in its systems in order to avoid or reduce disagreeable reactions between sodium and gaseous compounds like moisture or air and organic products like oil and grease. But as this contact cannot completely be excluded, we have to recycle such soiled cover gas. Simultaneously this procedure has to correct the release of radioactivity. Therefore the cover gas purification of primary systems of reactor plants contains the removal of the inorganic chemical disposal and of the nuclear waste. (author)

  4. Affinity Purification and Characterization of Functional Tubulin from Cell Suspension Cultures of Arabidopsis and Tobacco1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Seiichi; Noguchi, Masahiro; Demura, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules assemble into several distinct arrays that play important roles in cell division and cell morphogenesis. To decipher the mechanisms that regulate the dynamics and organization of this versatile cytoskeletal component, it is essential to establish in vitro assays that use functional tubulin. Although plant tubulin has been purified previously from protoplasts by reversible taxol-induced polymerization, a simple and efficient purification method has yet to be developed. Here, we used a Tumor Overexpressed Gene (TOG) column, in which the tubulin-binding domains of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) TOG homolog are immobilized on resin, to isolate functional plant tubulin. We found that several hundred micrograms of pure tubulin can readily be purified from cell suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tubulin purified by the TOG column showed high assembly competence, partly because of low levels of polymerization-inhibitory phosphorylation of α-tubulin. Compared with porcine brain tubulin, Arabidopsis tubulin is highly dynamic in vitro at both the plus and minus ends, exhibiting faster shrinkage rates and more frequent catastrophe events, and exhibits frequent spontaneous nucleation. Furthermore, our study shows that an internal histidine tag in α-tubulin can be used to prepare particular isotypes and specifically engineered versions of α-tubulin. In contrast to previous studies of plant tubulin, our mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses failed to detect posttranslational modification of the isolated Arabidopsis tubulin or detected only low levels of posttranslational modification. This novel technology can be used to prepare assembly-competent, highly dynamic pure tubulin from plant cell cultures. PMID:26747285

  5. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  6. Matrix effects of TRU [transuranic] assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of 239 Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  8. Determination of 89Sr and 90Sr in highly radioactive water from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanowski, R.; Radecki, Z.; Duniec, S.

    1994-01-01

    The main criterion in assaying strontium radionuclides is to obtain radiochemically pure strontium sources for beta-particle counting. Nuclear power plant waters contain both 89 Sr and 90 Sr accompanied by many beta-particle and gamma-ray emitting fission and neutron-activation products. The latter activities can sometimes exceed those of strontium by a factor of 10 7 . Efficient purification procedures must be used to remove these products, preferably at an initial stage of analysis to reduce the radiation risk to personnel. A method has been developed in which a water sample is passed through a prefilter installed on top of an ion-exchange column filled with Dowex-50 resin in H + form. This prefilter is impregnated with ferrocyanides and manganese dioxide and retains most of the interfering radionuclides while the underlying cation-exchanger takes up strontium ions. A few additional purification steps result in a strontium salt that is free from other radioactivity. (orig.)

  9. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  10. The bubble method of water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.; Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V.; Panov, V. A.; Saveliev, A. S.; Son, E. E.; Tereshonok, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    The processes of water purification from admixture molecules are analyzed. The purification rate is limited due to a low diffusion coefficient of the admixture molecules in water. At non-small concentrations of the admixture molecules, the water purication can proceed through association of molecules in condensed nanoparticles which fall on the bottom of the water volume. The rate of association may be increased in an external electric field, but in reality this cannot change significantly the rate of the purification process. The bubble method of water purification is considered, where air bubbles formed at the bottom of the water volume, transfer admixture molecules to the interface. This method allows one to clean small water volumes fast. This mechanism of water purification is realized experimentally and exhibits the promises of the bubble purification method.

  11. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay and evaluation of their total phenolic content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Biradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plant-derived cytotoxic constituents and polyphenolic compounds have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. In this context, we have selected six Indian medicinal plants based on the literature claims and an attempt was made to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and total phenolic content (TPC of their methanol extracts and fractions. Materials and Methods: Six plants have been selected for the study, namely, Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae, Oroxylum indicum (Linn. Vent. (Bignoniaceae, Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb. Kunth. (Araceae, Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae, and Premna serratifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae. Authenticated plant materials were subjected to extraction with methanol by cold maceration and hot percolation methods. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out for all extracts and fractions. All extracts and their fractions were subjected to cytotoxicity screening by brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay. The plants with significant cytotoxicity were evaluated for TPC by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium and P. serratifolia and F1 fraction of M. pudica have shown significant cytotoxicity (lethal concentration (LC 50 < 100 ppm compared with other fractions. F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium show the LC 50 values 32.52, 14.27, and 24.02, respectively; F1, F2, and F3 of P. serratifolia show LC 50 values 7.61, 4.01, and 10.91 and same for F1 fraction of M. pudica was 34.82 μg/ml, respectively. TPC was found to be significantly higher (39.11 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g in P. serratifolia compared with other two plants. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity screening system confirmed the proposed anticancer plants used by traditional healers and literature claims.

  12. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  13. Secondary coolant purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiteler, F.Z.; Donohue, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention combines the attributes of volatile chemical addition, continuous blowdown, and full flow condensate demineralization. During normal plant operation (defined as no primary to secondary leakage) condensate from the condenser is pumped through a full flow condensate demineralizer system by the condensate pumps. Volatile chemical additions are made. Dissolved and suspended solids are removed in the condensate polishers by ion exchange and/or filtration. At the same time a continuous blowdown of approximately 1 percent of the main steaming rate of the steam generators is maintained. Radiation detectors monitor the secondary coolant. If these monitors indicate no primary to secondary leakage, the blowdown is cooled and returned directly to the condensate pump discharge. If one of the radiation monitors should indicate a primary to secondary leak, when the temperature of the effluent exiting from the blowdown heat exchanger is compatible with the resin specifications of the ion exchangers, the bypass valve causes the blowdown flow to pass through the blowdown ion exchangers

  14. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  15. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  16. [Efficiency of the preparation "Ekolan-M" for purification of oil polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogina, T M; Dumanskaia, T U; Khomenko, L A; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of purification of oil contaminated loamy chernozem by the preparation "Ekolan-M" was investigated. During 12 months a complex soil bioremediation using the preparation and alfalfa, as the land-improving plant, at the final stage of purification resulted in the reduction of hydrocarbon content by 97.0%, and without the preparation - by 65.5 %. In the version of experiment with the preparation a 100% decrease of soil phytotoxicity was achieved and a significant stimulation of plant growth and development was observed. The process of soil purification was accompanied by intensive development of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, the amount of which during the process of oil concentration gradually decreased, approaching the level in the control uncontaminated soil.

  17. Use of a palladium catalyst in the purification of coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotoh, T; Nakamura, M; Hirooka, N

    1986-01-01

    In the production of hydrogen from coke oven gas (COG) by pressure swing adsorption (PSA), various impurities in the COG have to be removed prior to the PSA. The stages of this purification are as follows: 1) removal of polymerizable substances such as NO gum by compressing the COG and then feeding it through a hot bottle and cooler arrangement; 2) removal of BTX in a scrubber; 3) removal of naphthalene and mist by means of chillers and filters; 4) removal of oxygen in a special reactor using a Pd catalyst. These various purification treatments have enabled the PSA plant to operate smoothly for 3.5 years. The authors report the results of pilot plant tests, and compare the results obtained using alternative purification techniques. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Combined use of a new SNP-based assay and multilocus SSR markers to assess genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca infecting citrus and coffee plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Lopes, Joao R S; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-03-01

    Two haplotypes of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp) that correlated with their host of origin were identified in a collection of 90 isolates infecting citrus and coffee plants in Brazil, based on a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gyrB sequence. A new single-nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) protocol was designed for rapid identification of Xfp according to the host source. The protocol proved to be robust for the prediction of the Xfp host source in blind tests using DNA from cultures of the bacterium, infected plants, and insect vectors allowed to feed on Xfp-infected citrus plants. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses of microsatellite data separated most Xfp populations on the basis of their host source, indicating that they were genetically distinct. The combined use of the SNaPshot protocol and three previously developed multilocus SSR markers showed that two haplotypes and distinct isolates of Xfp infect citrus and coffee in Brazil and that multiple, genetically different isolates can be present in a single orchard or infect a single tree. This combined approach will be very useful in studies of the epidemiology of Xfp-induced diseases, host specificity of bacterial genotypes, the occurrence of Xfp host jumping, vector feeding habits, etc., in economically important cultivated plants or weed host reservoirs of Xfp in Brazil and elsewhere. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  19. Improved real-time PCR assay for detection of the quarantine potato pathogen, Synchytrium endobioticum, in zonal centrifuge extracts from soil and in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Krijger, M.C.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Real-time PCR was used for quantitative detection of the potato pathogen, Synchytrium endobioticum, in different substrates: zonal centrifuge extracts, warts and different plant parts of potato. Specific primers and a TaqMan probe, designed from the internal transcribed spacer region of the

  20. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fooladsaz K

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays immunochemical techniques have played a very important and valuable role in quantitative and qualitative assays of liquid compounds of the body. Producing antibody against immunogenes is the first step to make immunochemical kits. In this study production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin has been considered. This hormone which has several important functions in physiological conditions such as migraine, cirrhosis, mammary gland cancer and other diseases, is the most important pineal gland secretion. This gland is a circumventricular organ of brain and according to histological and anatomical studies, it is a high secretory organ, that secretes active biological substances like melatonin, oxytocin, serotonin and ect. In this study, melatonin has been considered as hapten and has become an immunogen by being linked to the bovine serum Albumin. Then, by the immunization of three white New Zeland rabbits that had the booster injections in regular intervals, the antibody titer was detected to be 1/2000, by using checkboard curves, and with the use of melatonin linked to penicillinase as a labeled antigen, the titer was detected 1/200. Finally an antibody with high purification rate has been obtained, which can be used in immunochemical assays like RIA, ELISA, and EIA.

  1. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed

  2. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  5. Automated genomic DNA purification options in agricultural applications using MagneSil paramagnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Rex M.; Koller, Susan C.

    2002-06-01

    The automated high throughput purification of genomic DNA form plant materials can be performed using MagneSil paramagnetic particles on the Beckman-Coulter FX, BioMek 2000, and the Tecan Genesis robot. Similar automated methods are available for DNA purifications from animal blood. These methods eliminate organic extractions, lengthy incubations and cumbersome filter plates. The DNA is suitable for applications such as PCR and RAPD analysis. Methods are described for processing traditionally difficult samples such as those containing large amounts of polyphenolics or oils, while still maintaining a high level of DNA purity. The robotic protocols have ben optimized for agricultural applications such as marker assisted breeding, seed-quality testing, and SNP discovery and scoring. In addition to high yield purification of DNA from plant samples or animal blood, the use of Promega's DNA-IQ purification system is also described. This method allows for the purification of a narrow range of DNA regardless of the amount of additional DNA that is present in the initial sample. This simultaneous Isolation and Quantification of DNA allows the DNA to be used directly in applications such as PCR, SNP analysis, and RAPD, without the need for separate quantitation of the DNA.

  6. Purification of rhamnolipid using colloidal magnetic nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phospholipid-coated colloidal magnetic nanoparticles with mean magnetite core size of 9 nm are shown to be effective ion exchange media for the recovery and purification of Rhaminolipid from culture mixtures. These particles have high adsorption capacity for purification (an order of magnitude larger than the best ...

  7. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  8. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  9. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Shaharuddin Mohd; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  10. The recovery of cytokinins during extraction and purification of clubroot tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekhuijzen, H.M.; Gevers, E.C.T.

    1975-01-01

    Losses of one naturally occurring cytokinin (zeatin) and one synthetic cytoknin (kinetin) were determined during purification of turnips (Brassica compestris) infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot). A known amount of zeatin and 8‐14C‐kinetin was added after homogenization of plant material

  11. Optimization of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) method for simultaneous assay of potassium and plant-available phosphorus in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulin; Mason, Sean; McNeill, Ann; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    Potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) are two important macronutrients for crops, and are usually applied to soils as granular fertilizer before seeding. Therefore, accurate soil tests prior to planting to predict crop response to fertilizers are important in optimizing crop yields. Traditional methods used for testing both available K and P in soils, which are based on chemical extraction procedures, are to be soil-type dependent, and the predictive relationships across a broad range of soils are generally poor. The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, based on diffusion theory, is extensively used to measure the diffusive supply of trace elements, metals and some nutrients in soils and water. When DGT is used to assess plant-available P in soils, a good relationship is found between crop response to P fertilizer and concentrations of P in soil measured by DGT, and therefore the DGT method provides a more precise recommendation of P fertilizer requirements. Adaptation of the DGT method to measure plant-available K in soils has already been attempted [1], but limitations were reported due to the non-uniform size of the resin gel, decreased K binding rate of the gel at long deployment times and a limited ability to measure a wide range of K concentrations. To eliminate these problems, a new resin gel has been developed by combining Amberlite and ferrihydrite. This mixed Amberlite and ferrihydrite (MAF) gel has improved properties in terms of handling and even distribution of Amberlite in the gel. The elution efficiencies of the MAF gel for K and P were 90% and 96%, respectively. The diffusion coefficient of K through the diffusive gel was 1.30 × 10(-5)cm(2)s(-1) at 22 ± 1°C and was stable through time. Since ferrihydrite is already used in DGT P testing, the ability of the MAF gel to assess available P simultaneously was also assessed. The MAF gel performed the same as the traditional ferrihydrite gel for available P assessment in a wide variety of

  12. Antimicrobial assays of three native British plants used in Anglo-Saxon medicine for wound healing formulations in 10th century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Frances; Pendry, Barbara; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2012-11-21

    Three important Anglo-Saxon medical texts from the 10th century contain herbal formulations for over 250 plant species, many of which have yet to be evaluated for their phytochemical and/or pharmacological properties. In this study, three native British plants were selected to determine antimicrobial activity relevant to treating bacterial infections and wounds. Several preparations of Agrimonia eupatoria L., Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. and Potentilla reptans L. were screened for antimicrobial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of relevance in wounds using a 96 well plate microdilution method (200, 40 and 8μg/mL). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for the most potent extracts from 2 to 0.004mg/mL and HPLC chromatograms examined by multivariate analysis. Principle components analysis (PCA) was used to identify chemical differences between antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts. The HPLC-PCA score plots attributed HPLC peaks to the antimicrobial activity with all three plants inhibiting growth of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus by >50% in four or more extracts. The first two principal components (PC) represented 87% of the dataset variance. The P. reptans 75% ethanol root extract exhibited the greatest range of activity with MIC(50) at 31.25μg/mL to a total MIC that was also the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 1mg/mL. Additionally, the root of P. reptans, inhibited growth of Gram-negative bacteria with the 75% ethanol extract having a MIC(50) at 1mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the decoction a MIC(50) at 3.9μg/mL against Escherichia coli. The results indicate a moderate antimicrobial activity against common wound pathogens for P. reptans suggesting it may well have been effective for treating wound and bacterial infections. Anglo-Saxon literary heritage may provide a credible basis for researching new antimicrobial formulations. Our approach encompassing advanced analytical

  13. Recovery and purification of americium from molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.; Thompson, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Americium recovery and purification development at Rocky Flats involves the testing of a combined anion exchange - bidentate organophosphorus liquid - liquid extraction or extraction chromatography process for separating americium from molten salt extraction residues. Laboratory-scale and preliminary pilot-plant results have shown that americium can be effectively recovered and purified from impurity elements such as aluminum, calcium, magnesium, plutonium, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The purified americium oxide product from the liquid - liquid extraction process contained greater than 95% AmO 2 with less than 1% of any individual impurity element

  14. Design of laboratory cyclone separator for biogas purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Fodora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with calculation of a cyclone separator for biogas purification using physical and chemical methods. There is presented a methodology for determination of operating dimensions of the cyclone separator and description of principal features of the cyclone separator model. Calculations have been performed for the diameter of the cylindrical part of cyclone separator 175 mm and for the biogas volume flow rate 6.9∙10−5 m3∙s−1. The calculations can be used in practice for the design of cyclone separator depending on the flow rate of biogas, size of the biogas plants respectively. The developed cyclone separator has been used for the cleaning of biogas in operating conditions at the biogas plant in Kolinany (Slovakia. The presented method of biogas purification has been used for the removing of hydrogen sulphide, particulate matter and carbon dioxide from the raw biogas at the biogas plant. Removal of these undesirable impurities from the biogas is an important step in the production of a fully valued fuel, biomethane.

  15. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    Natural products are defined as secondary metabolites produced by plants and form a vast pool of compounds with unlimited chemical and functional diversity. Many of these secondary metabolites are high value added chemicals that are frequently used as ingredients in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals...... and other consumer products. Therefore, process technology towards industrial scale production of such high value chemicals from plants has significant value. Natural products can be obtained in pure form via synthetic or semi-synthetic route, but due to their complicated nature these methods have not been...... developed to the extent of industrial production for majority of natural products. Thus, isolation and purification of such natural products from plants is the most viable way to obtain natural products in pure form. This PhD project is mainly concerned with the design of separation process to isolate...

  16. Continuous chemical cold traps for reprocessing off-gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Bauder, U.; Steinhardt, H.J.; Bumiller, W.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption of nitrogen oxides and iodine from simulated reprocessing plant off-gas streams has been studied using nitric acid and nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixtures at low temperatures. The experiments were carried out at the laboratory and on the engineering scale. The pilot plant scale column has 0.8 m diameter and 16 absorption plates at 0.2 m spacing. Cooling coils on the plates allow operating temperatures down to -60 0 C. The NO concentration in the feed gas usually has been 1% by volume and the flow rate 4-32 m 3 (STP) per hour. The iodine behavior has been studied using I-123 tracer. Results of the study are presented. The chemistry of the processes and the advantages and disadvantages in correlation to the various applications for an off-gas purification in a reprocessing plant are compared and discussed. The processes are compatible with the PUREX process and do not produce additional waste

  17. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays....

  18. Study on the levels of activity of radionuclides in products solids of catalan water purification; Estudio sobre los niveles de actividad de radionuclidos en productos solidos de plants de potabilizacion de aguas catalanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montana, M.; Camacho, A.; Cespedes, R.; Devesa, R.; Serrano, I.; Duch, M. A.; Valles, I.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the results of radioactivity are presented in the sludge obtained part of the treatment process of 2 water treatment plants in Catalonia in which it is water from the rivers Ter and Llobregat. He has been also assessed the radiological impact of the sludge generated in these plants when used as raw material for the production of materials for the construction. (Author)

  19. Purification of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts from opossum (Didelphis virginiana) using potassium bromide discontinuous density gradient centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Mansfield, Linda S; Massey, Jeffrey P; Saeed, Mahdi A

    2003-06-01

    This report describes a new, inexpensive procedure for the rapid and efficient purification of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts from opossum small intestine. S. neurona sporocysts were purified using a discontinuous potassium bromide density gradient. The procedure provides a source of sporocyst wall and sporozoites required for reliable biochemical characterization and for immunological studies directed at characterizing antigens responsible for immunological responses by the host. The examined isolates were identified as S. neurona using random amplified polymorphic DNA primers and restriction endonuclease digestion assays. This method allows the collection of large numbers of highly purified S. neurona sporocysts without loss of sporocyst viability as indicated by propidium iodide permeability and cell culture infectivity assays. In addition, this technique might also be used for sporocyst purification of other Sarcocystis spp.

  20. Reverse osmosis based water treatment and purification systems for nuclear power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.; Moskvin, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on the realization and service of specialized water treatment and purification plants based on the principle of reverse osmosis filtration of water at the NPU benches of the A.P. Aleksandrov Scientific Research Technological Institute (SRTI) are analyzed. Membrane-sorption unit including module of micro-, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and ion exchange with productivity to 0.5 m 3 /h is developed and operated at SRTI. It is demonstrated that reverse osmosis purification of manufacturing water significantly improves service conditions of NPU and decreases salinity [ru

  1. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.V.; Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10 4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 10 2 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- 32 P, M- 131 I, M- 99 Mo+ 99m Tc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2+ ) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6+ ). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134 , 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co and 129 I in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)

  2. High-throughput immunoturbidimetric assays for in-process determination of polyclonal antibody concentration and functionality in crude samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Kyhse-Andersen, J.; Thomas, O.R.T.

    2007-01-01

    We present fast, simple immunoturbidimetric assays suitable for direct determination of antibody 'concentration' and 'functionality' in crude samples, such as in-process samples taken at various stages during antibody purification. Both assays display excellent linearity and analytical recovery. ...... antibodies, require only basic laboratory equipment, are robust, fast, cheap, easy to perform, and readily adapted to automation....

  3. Purification of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes from ox heart by a new method.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, C J; Perham, R N

    1980-01-01

    A new method is described that allows the parallel purification of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes from ox heart without the need for prior isolation of mitochondria. All the assayable activity of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes in the disrupted tissue is made soluble by the inclusion of non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or Tween-80 in the buffer used for the initial extraction of the enzyme complexes. The yields of the pyruvate...

  4. Expression, purification and functional reconstitution of slack sodium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yangyang; Yang, Youshan; Bian, Shumin; Sigworth, Fred J

    2012-11-01

    The slack (slo2.2) gene codes for a potassium-channel α-subunit of the 6TM voltage-gated channel family. Expression of slack results in Na(+)-activated potassium channel activity in various cell types. We describe the purification and reconstitution of Slack protein and show that the Slack α-subunit alone is sufficient for potassium channel activity activated by sodium ions as assayed in planar bilayer membranes and in membrane vesicles.

  5. Anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro of extracellular polysaccharides purification of Paecilomyces lilacinus on isolated from Hainan mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiviral activity on HSV-1 of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS purification of Paecilomyces lilacinus (P. lilacinus isolated from mangrove in Hainan province. Methods: The toxicity of the EPS purification on Vero cells and its anti-HSV-1 activity were assessed by cytopathic effect(CPE and MTT assay. The Vero cells survival rates, HSV-1 inhibition rates by the purification and virus titer were calculated. Results: The purification showed little cytotoxic effect on Vero with a CC50 value of 735.49 µg/mL. It could inhibit HSV-1 absorption on Vero cells, and there was a significant difference (P<0.01 compared with control group (virus group, and the highest inhibition ratio was 35.0% at dose of 400 µg/mL; The biosynthesis of HSV-1 could be inhibited by the extract with dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 value to the viruses was 387.26 µg/mL, and the highest inhibition ratio was 61.3% at dose of 400 µg/mL; but the purification couldn’t inactivate HSV-1 directly. Conclusion: The EPS purification had certain antiviral effect, it could inhibit HSV-1 absorption and biosynthesis with a dose effect relationship.

  6. Purification and final concentration of the plutonium obtained by treatment of irradiated uranium at the Fontenay-aux-Roses pilot plant; Purification et concentration finales du plutonium en fin de traitement de l'uranium irradie a l'usine-pilote de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, I; Corpel, J; Regnaut, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper consists of: 1- a recapitulation of the laboratory tests which led to the choice of the method; 2- a description of the latter, with the results obtained at the Fontenay-aux-Roses pilot plant; 3- the analytical methods used for checking and verifying the purity of the plutonium. (author)Fren. [French] Cet expose comprend: 1- le rappel des essais de laboratoire qui ont conduit au choix du procede; 2- la description de ce dernier, avec les resultats obtenus a l'Usine-Pilote de Fontenay-aux-Roses; 3- les methodes analytiques utilisees pour le controle et pour la verification de la purete du plutonium. (auteur)

  7. Fast reactor cover gas purification - The UK position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorley, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The cover gas in the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) provides an inert gas blanket for both primary and secondary sodium circuits, ensures inert gas padding exists between the upper seals associated with penetrations through the reactor roof and provides argon to items of plant such as the control rods and the rotating shield and also to on line instruments such as the secondary circuit Katharometers. In order to meet these and other requirements purification of the argon cover gas is important to ensure: gas fed to purge gaps in the area of the magnetic hold device in the control rod mechanisms is not laden with sodium aerosols and reactive impurities (O 2 , H 2 ) which could cause blocking both within the gaps and pipelines; gas phase detection systems which provide early warning of steam generator failures or oil ingress into the sodium are not affected by the presence of gaseous impurities such as H 2 , CO/CO 2 and CH 4 ; mass transfer processes involving both corrosion products and interstitial atoms cannot be sustained in the cover gas environment due to the presence of high levels of O 2 , N 2 and carburising gases; background levels of radioactivity (eg Xe 133) are sufficiently low to enable gas phase detection of failed fuel pins, and the primary circuit gas blanket activity is sufficiently reduced so that discharges to the atmosphere are minimised. This paper describes how the PFR cover gas purification system is coping with these various items and how current thinking regarding the design of cover gas purification systems for a Civil Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), where larger gas volumes and higher levels of radioactivity may be involved, is being guided by current experience on PFR. The paper also briefly review the experimental work planned to study aerosol and caesium behaviour in cove gas environments and discusses the behaviour of those impurities such as Zn, oil and N 2 which are potentially damaging if certain levels are exceeded in operating

  8. 75__Abdulazeez_Partial purification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    therapeutic target in the treatment ofhypertensi. Common ... The peptide contained seventeen amino acids g/100g ... based on the swelling and solubility properties, ..... assay and properties of angiotensin converting enzyme from rabbit lungs.

  9. Recovery of radiogenic lead-208 from a residue of thorium and rare earths obtained during the operation of a thorium purification pilot plant; Separacao e recuperacao de chumbo-208 dos residuos de torio terras raras gerados na unidade piloto de purificacao de nitrato de torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seneda, Jose Antonio

    2006-07-01

    Brazil has a long tradition in thorium technology, from mineral dressing (monazite) to the nuclear grade thorium compounds. The estimate reserves are 1200,000. ton of ThO{sub 2}. As a consequence from the work of thorium purification pilot plant at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-CNEN/IPEN-SP, about 25 ton of a sludge containing thorium and rare earths was accumulated. It comes as a raffinate and washing solutions from thorium solvent extraction. This sludge, a crude hydroxide named RETOTER contains thorium, rare earths and minor impurities including the radiogenic lead-208, with abundance 88.34 %. This work discusses the results of the studies and main parameters for its recovery by anionic ion exchange technique in the hydrochloric system. The isotope abundance of this lead was analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometer (ICPMS) and thermoionic mass spectrometer (TIMS) and the data was used to calculate the thermal neutron capture cross section. The value of {sigma}{gamma}{sup 0} = 14.6{+-}0.7 mb was found, quite different from the {sigma}{gamma}{sup 0} = 174.2 {+-} 7.0 mb measure cross section for the natural lead. Preliminary study for the thorium and rare earths separation and recovery was discussed as well. (author)

  10. A new QRT-PCR assay designed for the differentiation between elements provided from Agrobacterium sp. in GMOs plant events and natural Agrobacterium sp. bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Nesrine; Chaouachi, Maher; Zellama, Mohamed Salem; Ben Hafsa, Ahmed; Mrabet, Besma; Saïd, Khaled; Fathia, Harzallah Skhiri

    2016-04-01

    The question asked in the present work was how to differentiate between contamination of field samples with and GM plants contained sequences provided from this bacterium in order to avoid false positives in the frame of the detection and the quantification of GMO. For this, new set of primers and corresponding TaqMan Minor Groove Binder (MGB) probes were designed to target Agrobacterium sp. using the tumor-morphology-shooty gene (TMS1). Final standard curves were calculated for each pathogen by plotting the threshold cycle value against the bacterial number (log (colony forming units) per milliliter) via linear regression. The method designed was highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 10CFU/ml. No significant cross-reaction was observed. Results from this study showed that TaqMan real-time PCR, is potentially an effective method for the rapid and reliable quantification of Agrobacterium sp. in samples containing GMO or non GMO samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  12. Replacement of fine particle purification filter of the PHT purification system - 15083

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of chalk river unidentified deposit (CRUD), a particulate corrosion product in PHT (primary heat transport) system with increased operating years of a nuclear power plant causes: -) the problems of increased heavy water decomposition and deuterium formation reaction due to catalytic reaction with CRUD, -) damage to PHT pump seal due to a corrosion product, -) damage to fuel channel closure seal, and increased radiation exposure of workers due to elevated dose rate in steam generator water chamber. Wolsung unit 3 and 4 have replaced fine filter media in PHT purification system in phases reducing the pore size of the filter media (5 μm → 2 μm → 1 μm → 0.45 μm) to solve this problem. The phased replacement of fine filter media by the one with a smaller pore size reduced CRUD in PHT system significantly and also radiation dose rate in steam generator water chamber. Accordingly, many problems related to the aging of a plant (including increased radiation exposure of workers during outage, damage to mechanical seal of PHT pump) have been solved. (author)

  13. Nondestructive assay of plutonium residue in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous plutonium recovery and purification processes often involve the temporary storage of plutonium solutions in holding tanks. Because plutonium is known to precipitate from aqueous solutions under certain conditions, there is a continuing need to assay emptied tanks for plutonium residue. A portable gamma spectrometer system, specifically designed for this purpose, provides rapid assay of such plutonium residues in horizontal storage tanks. A means is thus available for the nondestructive analysis of these tanks on a regular schedule to ensure that significant deposits of plutonium are not allowed to accumulate. 5 figs

  14. Isotopic methods or immuno diagnosis: The Radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso, R.

    1997-01-01

    This work offers an explanation about the more used isotopic techniques for immuno diagnosis: the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). It describes the basic principles of these assays, the antigen-antibody reaction, the radioiodination methods with I-125 for antigens and antibodies, the purification and characterization of labelled compounds. On the order hand they present work gives a review of the methods for separate the bound and free fractions. At the end it offers the principles of the quality control of immunoassay and the future lines of research in the field of RIA and IRMA

  15. Green Fluorescent Protein Purification as a Didactic Tool During Practical Classes For Undergraduates Students of UFAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.Q.A Faria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, originated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has broadly applicability for cellular and molecular biology research. Its spectral characteristics make it practical  to be detect by UV-A (black light lamp during the purification procedure. Moreover, this approach implementation during a practical class allows the exploring of fluorescence features. OBJETIVES: the purpose of this investigation was to teach the concepts and principles of protein purification during a practical class using recombinant GFP protein. MATERIAL E METHODS: Transformed E. coli JM110 expressing GFP were resuspended in buffer solution (Tris-HCl 20 mM pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA, 20% (NH42SO4 following the sonication step. The lysate was submitted to the purification through hydrophobic interaction chromatography column (HIC. After analysis of chromatogram, some collected fractions were quantified by Bradford assay and evaluated by SDS-PAGE. Besides that, the GFP presences were measured at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm on a spectrofluorimeter. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Before the experiments, the students were encouraged to explore the biochemistry characteristics of GFP, assessing protein data banks and published articles. These guided questions conducted to discussion of the purification strategy choosen. The GFP purification enabled the visual observation of chromatography principles necessary for the theory assimilation. During the chromatography running, we used a UV-A lamp which allowed a greatly exploration of concepts beyond this technique such as the sample injection, the GFP column retention, and the elution step. The chromatogram obtaneid were analysed and correlated to the collected fractions. Our next step was the efficiency analysis generated by the GFP measurement, total protein quantification and the analytical method SDS-PAGE. CONCLUSION: Collectively, we observed in this class the clear development

  16. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALOPHILIC PROTEASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Satheeskumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of alkalophilic protease production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the gut of marine and coastal waters shrimp Penaeus monodon. The protease production was assayed in submerged fermentation to produce maximum protease activity (423 ± 0.09 U/ml. The enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography through DEAE Sephadex A-50 column. In 10th fraction showed maximum protease activity (734 ± 0.18 U/ml with increase in purification fold. The molecular weight of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded as 60 kDa. The stability of protease was tested at various pH and temperature; it showed maximum protease activity at pH-9 and temperature 50ºC. Among the various surfactants tested for enzyme stability, maximum activity was retained in poly ethylene glycol. The compatibility of protease enzyme with various commercial detergents; the enzyme retained maximum protease activity in tide. The results are indicated that all these properties make the bacterial proteases are most suitable for wide industrial applications.

  17. Purification of bacteriophage M13 by anion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjezi, Razieh; Tey, Beng Ti; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Wen Siang

    2010-07-01

    M13 is a non-lytic filamentous bacteriophage (phage). It has been used widely in phage display technology for displaying foreign peptides, and also for studying macromolecule structures and interactions. Traditionally, this phage has been purified by cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient ultracentrifugation which is highly laborious and time consuming. In the present study, a simple, rapid and efficient method for the purification of M13 based on anion exchange chromatography was established. A pre-packed SepFast Super Q column connected to a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system was employed to capture released phages in clarified Escherichia coli fermented broth. An average yield of 74% was obtained from a packed bed mode elution using citrate buffer (pH 4), containing 1.5 M NaCl at 1 ml/min flow rate. The purification process was shortened substantially to less than 2 h from 18 h in the conventional ultracentrifugation method. SDS-PAGE revealed that the purity of particles was comparable to that of CsCl gradient density ultracentrifugation method. Plaque forming assay showed that the purified phages were still infectious. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... 2Department of Food Technology, Erzurum Vocational Training School, Ataturk University, 25240, ... facultative anaerobic, catalase-negative, immobile (with ..... Partial purification of phytase from a soil isolate bacterium,.

  19. Purification and Characterization of Thermostable Cellulase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... Methods: Molecular community structure of the newly selected thermophilic bacterial ... Keywords: Thermostable cellulase, Sugarcane bagasse, Purification, Characterization, Hot spring ... Currently, one.

  20. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  1. Multipartite electronic entanglement purification with charge detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Yubo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Long Guilu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-17

    We present a multipartite entanglement purification scheme in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for electrons based on their spins and their charges. This scheme works for purification with two steps, i.e., bit-flip error correction and phase-flip error correction. By repeating these two steps, the parties in quantum communication can get some high-fidelity multipartite entangled electronic systems.

  2. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  3. Modular microfluidics for point-of-care protein purifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, L J; Lucheon, J D; Standaert, R F; Retterer, S T; Doktycz, M J

    2015-04-21

    Biochemical separations are the heart of diagnostic assays and purification methods for biologics. On-chip miniaturization and modularization of separation procedures will enable the development of customized, portable devices for personalized health-care diagnostics and point-of-use production of treatments. In this report, we describe the design and fabrication of miniature ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography modules for on-chip clean-up of recombinantly-produced proteins. Our results demonstrate that these common separations techniques can be implemented in microfluidic modules with performance comparable to conventional approaches. We introduce embedded 3-D microfluidic interconnects for integrating micro-scale separation modules that can be arranged and reconfigured to suit a variety of fluidic operations or biochemical processes. We demonstrate the utility of the modular approach with a platform for the enrichment of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from Escherichia coli lysate through integrated affinity and size-exclusion chromatography modules.

  4. In vivo phosphorylation of a peptide tag for protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goux, Marine; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Cinier, Mathieu; Tellier, Charles

    2016-05-01

    To design a new system for the in vivo phosphorylation of proteins in Escherichia coli using the co-expression of the α-subunit of casein kinase II (CKIIα) and a target protein, (Nanofitin) fused with a phosphorylatable tag. The level of the co-expressed CKIIα was controlled by the arabinose promoter and optimal phosphorylation was obtained with 2 % (w/v) arabinose as inductor. The effectiveness of the phosphorylation system was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (NUT-PAGE) and staining with a specific phosphoprotein-staining gel. The resulting phosphorylated tag was also used to purify the phosphoprotein by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction of phosphate moieties with Fe(III). The use of a single tag for both the purification and protein array anchoring provides a simple and straightforward system for protein analysis.

  5. The development and testing of the new flowsheets for the plutonium purification of the Purex process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugrov, K.V.; Korotaev, V.G.; Korchenkin, K.K.; Logunov, M.V.; Ludin, S.A.; Mashkin, A.N.; Melentev, A.B.; Samarina, N.S. [FSUE ' PAMayak' , Lenin st., 35, Ozersk 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    In order to improve the extraction flowsheet of RT-1 Plant two versions of plutonium purification unit flowsheet were developed: a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(IV) valence pair and Pu, Np co-recovery, and a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(V) valence pair and Pu recovery. The task related to stabilization of the valence pair of the target components in the required state was solved with the use of reactants already applied at RT-1 Plant, namely, hydrogen peroxide, hydrazine nitrate and catalyst (Fe). Both flowsheets were adapted for the plant purification facility with minimum modifications of the equipment, and passed the full scale industrial testing. As a result of this work, reduction in volume and salt content of the raffinate was achieved. (authors)

  6. Cover gas purification experience at KNK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, H; Stade, K Ch [Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H., Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stamm, H H [Institute of Radiochemistry, Nuclear Research Center, Karsruhe (Germany)

    1987-07-01

    KNK II is an experimental, sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The reactor was operated until 1974 with a thermal core (KNK I). The plant was converted into a fast breeder reactor (KNK II) from 1974 to 1977. The commissioning of KNK II was started in October 1977 with the first fast core KNK 11/1. After 400 effective full power days (EFPD) the reactor was shut down in August 1982. After replacing the complete core by the second fast core KNK 11/2, the plant went into operation again in August 1983. In August 1986 nearly 400 EFPD were achieved with the second fast core. Argon is used as cover gas in the primary and secondary sodium systems of KNK. In former times fresh argon was supplied by a bundle of gas cylinders. Later on a liquid argon supply was installed. Purification of cover gas is done by flushing only. During KNK I operation no fuel failures occurred. The primary cover gas activity was characterized by the formation of Ar-41, only small quantities of fission gas were measured, released from 'tramp uranium'. Therefore, no problems existed during KNK I operation with regard to radioactive gas disposal. However, after start-up of KNK II, several fuel elements failed. Until August 1986, five fuel failures were observed, two in KNK 11/1, and three in KNK 11/2. Sometimes, operation with defective fuel pins caused problems when fission gases leaked into the containment atmosphere, and the access had to be restricted. The purging rate of the primary cover gas was limited by the capacity of the charcoal filters in the delay line. Of all non-radioactive impurities, hydrogen (H{sub z}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were of most importance in the primary cover gas. Main source of both impurities was the ingress of air and atmospheric moisture during handling operations in shutdown periods. An other possible source for hydrogen might be a release from the steel-clad zirconium hydride, used as moderator in the moderated driver fuel elements. Additional nitrogen may diffuse

  7. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  8. An improved 96-well turbidity assay for T4 lysozyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Tasha B; Nguyen, Thao P; Watt, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    T4 lysozyme (T4L) is an important model system for investigating the relationship between protein structure and function. Despite being extensively studied, a reliable, quantitative activity assay for T4L has not been developed. Here, we present an improved T4L turbidity assay as well as an affinity-based T4L expression and purification protocol. This assay is designed for 96-well format and utilizes conditions amenable for both T4L and other lysozymes. This protocol enables easy, efficient, and quantitative characterization of T4L variants and allows comparison between different lysozymes. Our method: •Is applicable for all lysozymes, with enhanced sensitivity for T4 lysozyme compared to other 96-well plate turbidity assays;•Utilizes standardized conditions for comparing T4 lysozyme variants and other lysozymes; and•Incorporates a simplified expression and purification protocol for T4 lysozyme.

  9. A rapid and efficient branched DNA hybridization assay to titer lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ayyappan; Xie, Jinger; Joshi, Sarasijam; Harden, Paul; Davies, Joan; Hermiston, Terry

    2008-11-01

    A robust assay to titer lentiviral vectors is imperative to qualifying their use in drug discovery, target validation and clinical applications. In this study, a novel branched DNA based hybridization assay was developed to titer lentiviral vectors by quantifying viral RNA genome copy numbers from viral lysates without having to purify viral RNA, and this approach was compared with other non-functional (p24 protein ELISA and viral RT-qPCR) and a functional method (reporter gene expression) used commonly. The RT-qPCR method requires purification of viral RNA and the accuracy of titration therefore depends on the efficiency of purification; this requirement is ameliorated in the hybridization assay as RNA is measured directly in viral lysates. The present study indicates that the hybridization based titration assay performed on viral lysates was more accurate and has additional advantages of being rapid, robust and not dependent on transduction efficiency in different cell types.

  10. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Purification and characterization of a mucin specific mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis: application for mitogenic and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Kaur, Hemant Preet; Singh, Jatinder

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins or glycoproteins that bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates present on the apposing cells, which are responsible for their ability to agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc. Interest in lectins has been intensified due to their carbohydrate specificity as they can be valuable reagents for the investigation of cell surface sugars, purification and characterization of glycoproteins. The present study reports the purification, characterization and evaluation of mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of a mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis. Affinity chromatography on mucin-sepharose column was carried out for purification of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis lectin. The lectin was characterized for physico-chemical parameters. Mitogenic potential of the lectin was evaluated against splenocytes of Swiss albino mice by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of the purified lectin has also been evaluated by disc diffusion assay. Single-step affinity purification resulted in 18.6-fold purification of the mycelial lectin. The molecular mass of the lectin was found to be 70 kDa and it was composed of two subunits of 34.8 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. pH optima of the lectin was found to be 6.5-9.5, while optimum temperature for lectin activity was 20-30 °C. Lectin was stable within a pH range of 7.0-10.5 and showed fair thermostability. EDTA did not affect lectin activity whereas it was found susceptible to the denaturants tested. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of A. gorakhpurensis lectin at a concentration upto 150 µg/mL. Antimicrobial activity assay showed its potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcous aureus and Escherichia coli and marginal antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is the first report on the mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis lectin. The

  13. Petunia peroxidase a: isolation, purification and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, T; Wijsman, H J; van Loon, L C

    1991-07-01

    The fast-moving anionic peroxidase isoenzyme variant PRXa was purified from leaves of petunia (Petunia hybrida). Over 1300-fold purification was achieved by subjecting extracellular extracts to two sequential acetone precipitations and resuspending the pellets at pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, respectively, followed by gel filtration and chromatofocusing. The purified enzyme had an absorbance ratio (A405 nm/A280 nm) of 3.6, a molecular mass of about 37 kDa and a pI of 3.8. Three molecular forms with slightly different molecular masses were separated by concanavalin-A--Sepharose affinity chromatography, indicating that these three forms differ in their carbohydrate moieties. The absorption spectrum of PRXa had maxima at 496 and 636 nm and a Soret band at 405 nm. Spectra of compounds I and IV were obtained by titrating a batch of PRXa stored for several months at -20 degrees C with H2O2. The addition of 1 mol H2O2/mol freshly purified PRXa caused the formation of compound II, indicating that freshly isolated PRXa contains a bound hydrogen donor which is lost upon storage. Compound III was obtained from both preparations in the presence of excess H2O2. The pH optimum of PRXa for the reaction with H2O2 and guaiacol was 5.0 and its specific activity 61 mkat/g protein. Among various aromatic compounds, coniferyl alcohol was polymerized by PRXa to presumed lignin-like material. The extracellular localization and high affinity of PRXa for the cinnamic acid derivatives suggest that this isoenzyme functions in the polymerization or cross-linking of lignin in the plant cell wall.

  14. Seperation and Purification of Plant Insulin and Its Hypoglycemic Effect on the Experimontal Animals%植物胰岛素的分离纯化及降糖作用的实验动物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军; 吴鹏; 韩林; 张忠; 黄竹青

    2011-01-01

    目的:探寻大量纯化苦瓜中植物胰岛素的技术方法.方法:采用盐析、阴离子交换层析和凝胶过滤层析三步技术纯化苦瓜中植物胰岛素,并行电泳、层析和动物实验鉴定,壳聚糖包封.结果:目的提取物于11000处出现一条电泳带,相对迁移率与胰岛素相同;壳聚糖包封后苦瓜中植物胰岛素的降糖作用更显著.结论:本方法可适用于大量纯化苦瓜中植物胰岛素.%Objective: To explore a technical method to purify the plant insulin in the bitter melon. Methods: applying three - step methods to purify insulin from bitter melon these are salting out, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. And than using electrophoresis chromatography, animal experiments and chitosan envelopment methods to identify it. Results:The extracts appeared electrophoresis band at the 11000 molecular weight, and had the same relative mobility with insulin. The plant insulin from the bitter melons has the hypoglycemic effect significantly after the chitosan envelopment methods. Conclusion: To stabilized extract the plant insulin from the bitter melon can depend on this method mentiond in this paper.

  15. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay reveals a novel recognition sequence for Setaria italica NAC protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Swati; Kumar, Karunesh; Srivastava, Prem S; Prasad, Manoj

    2011-10-01

    The NAC (NAM/ATAF1,2/CUC2) proteins are among the largest family of plant transcription factors. Its members have been associated with diverse plant processes and intricately regulate the expression of several genes. Inspite of this immense progress, knowledge of their DNA-binding properties are still limited. In our recent publication,1 we reported isolation of a membrane-associated NAC domain protein from Setaria italica (SiNAC). Transactivation analysis revealed that it was a functionally active transcription factor as it could stimulate expression of reporter genes in vivo. Truncations of the transmembrane region of the protein lead to its nuclear localization. Here we describe expression and purification of SiNAC DNA-binding domain. We further report identification of a novel DNA-binding site, [C/G][A/T][T/A][G/C]TC[C/G][A/T][C/G][G/C] for SiNAC by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The SiNAC-GST protein could bind to the NAC recognition sequence in vitro as well as to sequences where some bases had been reshuffled. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the DNA-binding specificity of SiNAC protein.

  16. Purification of anaerobic digestion biogas from a wastewater treatment plant for its use as bio fuel; Purificacion del biogas de digestion anaerobia de una depuradora de aguas residuales para uso como biocombustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio Robles, F.; Torres Rojo, J. C.; Sanchez Bas, M.; Moya Sanchez, N.

    2009-07-01

    The first phase of the investigation whose results are presented in this article, consists on the optimization of the biogas desulphurization. In our case this process was made by chemical way. Besides the scrubbing towers, the pilot plant used included filters of activated carbon at the end of the line. The H{sub 2}S inflow concentrations were quite high. After the carried out rehearsals, the effluent biogas from the scrubbing towers presents a H{sub 2}S concentration less than 1 ppm and zero or undetectable values of up to fifty eight analyzed trace elements. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Advanced purification strategy for CueR, a cysteine containing copper(I) and DNA binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balogh, Ria K.; Gyurcsik, Béla; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva

    2016-01-01

    . A detailed understanding of their function may be exploited in potential health, environmental and analytical applications. Members of the MerR protein family sense a broad range of mostly late transition and heavy metal ions through their cysteine thiolates. The air sensitivity of latter groups makes...... the expression and purification of such proteins challenging. Here we describe a method for the purification of the copper-regulatory CueR protein under optimized conditions. In order to avoid protein precipitation and/or eventual aggregation and to get rid of the co-purifying Escherichia coli elongation factor...... any affinity tag. Structure and functionality tests performed with mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays approved the success of the purification procedure....

  18. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  19. Production of nodulation factors by Rhizobium meliloti: fermentation, purification and characterization of glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, B; Baier, R; Niehaus, K; Pühler, A; Flaschel, E

    1997-12-01

    Lipooligosaccharides, synthesized by soil bacteria of the genera Rhizobium, are known to have multifunctional effects on a wide variety of plants as signal substances in symbiosis initiation, cell response elicitation and growth regulation. These so called nodulation (Nod-) factors represent interesting biotechnological products with respect to fundamental studies of symbiotic interactions as well as for potential applications. Therefore, a batch fermentation process on a scale of 30 l has been developed by means of the Rhizobium meliloti strain R.m. 1021 (pEK327) strongly overexpressing the genes for the synthesis of Nod factors. Induction by the flavone luteolin led to growth associated production of the lipooligosaccharides. Ultrafiltration was used for separating the biomass from the filtrate containing the extracellular Nod factors. Simultaneously, ultrafiltration reduced the amount of lipophilic substances, which would otherwise interfere with processes downstream. The second separation step consisted in adsorption on XAD-2, a nonspecific hydrophobic adsorptive resin. Adsorption of Nod factors was carried out by batch operation of a stirred tank. Desorption was performed by elution with methanol in a fixed bed column. A semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC (Polygoprep 100-30 C18) was chosen as the final purification step. The Nod factors were obtained after evaporation and lyophilization. Thus, about 600 mg of Nod factors were produced from 20 l of fermentation broth. The Nod factors produced by Rhizobium meliloti R.m. 1021 (pEK327) were identified by liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry and by reversed-phase HPLC as fluorescent derivatives of 2-aminobenzamide. The biological activity of the products was demonstrated by means of the root hair deformation (HAD-) assay.

  20. Aplicación de una técnica de Cromatografía de Exclusión molecular para la purificación de ADN en plantas de Coffea sp. APPLICATION OF A TECHNIQUE OF MOLECULAR EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE PURIFICATION OF DNA FROM Coffea sp. PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García Cepero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores inconvenientes en la extracción y purificación de biomoléculas a partir de plantas del género Coffea, es un alto contenido de polifenoles y compuestos tánicos. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología que permite obtener ADN de alta pureza. La extracción del ADN del homogeneizado de tejido foliar en siete genotipos de Coffea sp., se realizó mediante la técnica citada por Chaparro (1993 y su purificación se logró mediante cromatografía de exclusión molecular sobre una fase estacionaria de Sephacryl S-1000. Los resultados muestran que la alta eficiencia de separación de ARN degradado, proteínas, pigmentos y compuestos que absorben entre 220 y 300 nm, permiten obtener un ADN de alta pureza a juzgar por los datos espectrofotométricos y electroforéticos.One of the greatest difficulties in extracting and purifying biomolecules from plants in the genus Coffea is the high polyphenol and tannin contents. In this study a methodology is described that allows obtaining high purity DNA from leaf tissues of seven genotypes of Coffea sp. by means of the technique desribed by Chaparro (1993 and its further purification was achieved by molecular exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-1000 (Pharmacia. The results showed that the high separation efficiency of degraded RNA, proteins, pigments, and other compounds that absorb between 220 and 300 nm allowed obtaining high purity DNA as judged by the spectophometric and electroforetic data.

  1. Water purification from radionuclides with using fibroid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R. A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purification waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contamination is one of the important problems today. For solving this problem we have created three types of fibroid sorbents on the base of Polyester: cationic and anionic exchange and carbonic. Main properties of these sorbents are described in this article. For example characteristics of the sorbents for removing radionuclides Co-60,57, Zn-65, Sr-89,90, Cs-134,137, etc., radionuclides containing organic molecules M-P-32, M-I-131, M-Mo-99+Tc-99m, M-C-14, etc., heavy metal ions Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cd, Cr, U, etc., organic molecules (pesticides, phenols, dioxin, benzene, toluene, etc.) were investigated. Influence of pH on percent removal, influence of K, Na and another ions concentrations in the liquid on the percent removal, decreasing of the saturation capacity from number of regeneration and another characteristics are described. Static exchange capacity of the cationic sorbents is 1-2 mg-equ/g and anionic - 0.5-1 mg-equ/g. Capacity of the carbonic sorbents for benzene is 100 mg/g. Time of chemical balance setting is 1-2 s. The sorbents are effective in removing the low concentrations of contamination from the water (lower than 100-200 mg/l) and the air (lower than 100 mg/m 3 ). The use of sorbents in drinking water filters and mini-systems is described. The industrial water purification system consists of coagulating unit, sorbent unit and disinfectant unit. The systems are used in atomic power stations, electroplating plants, matches plants, leather and skin treating plants, car-washing stations, etc

  2. Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2017-03-05

    Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  4. Modeling Xenon Purification Systems in a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ann; Gentile, Charles

    2011-10-01

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) is a proposed method to employ fusion energy to produce electricity for consumers. However, before it can be built and used as such, each aspect of a LIFE power plant must first be meticulously planned. We are in the process of developing and perfecting models for an exhaust processing and fuel recovery system. Such a system is especially essential because it must be able to recapture and purify expensive materials involved in the reaction so they may be reused. One such material is xenon, which is to be used as an intervention gas in the target chamber. Using Aspen HYSYS, we have modeled several subsystems for exhaust processing, including a subsystem for xenon recovery and purification. After removing hydrogen isotopes using lithium bubblers, we propose to use cryogenic distillation to purify the xenon from remaining contaminants. Aspen HYSYS allows us to analyze predicted flow rates, temperatures, pressures, and compositions within almost all areas of the xenon purification system. Through use of Aspen models, we hope to establish that we can use xenon in LIFE efficiently and in a practical manner.

  5. Function and anatomy of plant siRNA pools derived from hairpin transgenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kevin AW

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference results in specific gene silencing by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Synthetic siRNAs provide a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression but high cost suggests that novel siRNA production methods are desirable. Strong evolutionary conservation of siRNA structure suggested that siRNAs will retain cross-species function and that transgenic plants expressing heterologous siRNAs might serve as useful siRNA bioreactors. Here we report a detailed evaluation of the above proposition and present evidence regarding structural features of siRNAs extracted from plants. Results Testing the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells proved to be very challenging and required partial siRNA purification and design of a highly sensitive assay. Using the above assay we found that plant-derived siRNAs are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Plant-derived siRNAs are almost exclusively double-stranded and most likely comprise a mixture of bona fide siRNAs and aberrant partially complementary duplexes. We also provide indirect evidence that plant-derived siRNAs may contain a hitherto undetected physiological modification, distinct from 3' terminal 2-O-methylation. Conclusion siRNAs produced from plant hairpin transgenes and extracted from plants are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Thus our findings establish that a previous claim that transgenic plants offer a cost-effective, scalable and sustainable source of siRNAs is unwarranted. Our results also indicate that the presence of aberrant siRNA duplexes and possibly a plant-specific siRNA modification, compromises the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells.

  6. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  7. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  8. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Atadashi, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quali...

  9. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered 237 Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO 2 for future production of 238 Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously 237 Np, 238 Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  10. Radiation purification of the chemical industry effluents and possibilities of realization of this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Shlyk, V.G.; Savushkin, I.A.; Kazazyan, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-chemical methods for synthetic fibre industry effluents purification from cyanides, sulphides and monomers, as well as for disinfection of circulation water and improvement in sedimental and filtering properties of waste active slurry in petrochemical industry are described. Chemical plant effluents are purified by 70-90% from cyanides at the dose rate of 0,3 - 0,5 Mrad, by 60 - 70% from sulphides and monomers at the dose of 0,2 Mrad. Circulation water of petroleum processing plant is disinfected at the dose of 0,08 Mrad; the rates of filtration and sedimentation of waste active slurry increase two and three fold, correspondingly, at the dose of 0,6 Mrad. The power of radiation sources required for the industrial realization of radiation purification of liquid wastes has been calculated

  11. Lectins as carriers: preparation and purification of a concanavalin A-trypsin conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shier, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The scheme for the preparation and purification of Con A-trypsin demonstrates the presence of Con A in the conjugate by affinity purification and by hemagglutination. The presence of Con A was demonstrated in two additional ways. The conjugate was prepared using trypsin labeled with iodine 125 and unlabeled Con A. The resulting conjugate containing 42,800 cpm/mg protein was used to demonstrate prolonged retention of the conjugated trypsin in mouse footpads. The presence of trypsin was also demonstrated in the conjugate by affinity chromatography and by the esterase activity characteristic of trypsin with tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester as substrate. Con A-trypsin was also assayed for proteolytic activity with a macromolecular substrate azocasein. A comparison of proteolytic activities with these two substrates indicated that 50-80% of the proteolytic activity observed with the small substrate is retained with macromolecular substrates

  12. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  13. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Cadmium purification with a vibrating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, N.; Esna-Ashari, M.; Biallas, H.; Kangas, K.

    1986-01-01

    While electrolytically producing zinc from sulfide concentrates, purification is the most significant step. Impurities such as Co, Sn, Ge, Ni and Sb can cause extensive redissolution of the electrodeposited zinc, thus diminishing current efficiency. Other metals, particularly cadmium, lead and copper, can negatively affect zinc properties by deposition on the cathode. It is standard practice to use atomized zinc dust as a reducing agent in the purification process, either alone or combined with additives. In conventional operations, special facilities are necessary to produce zinc dust in an amount close to 8wt% of cathode production. This paper examines a technique which makes use of zinc granules instead of dust

  16. Inactivation and purification of cowpea mosaic virus-like particles displaying peptide antigens from Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Jamie P.; Dang, Nghiep; Rasochova, Lada

    2007-01-01

    Chimeric cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles displaying foreign peptide antigens on the particle surface are suitable for development of peptide-based vaccines. However, commonly used PEG precipitation-based purification methods are not sufficient for production of high quality vaccine candidates because they do not allow for separation of chimeric particles from cleaved contaminating species. Moreover, the purified particles remain infectious to plants. To advance the CPMV technology furthe...

  17. [Investigation of microbial contamination of the air and equipment of a biological waste water purification station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikbaeva, L A; Figurovskiĭ, A P; Vasil'ev, O D; Ermolaev-Makovskiĭ, M A; Merkur'eva, M A

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a study of ambient air microbiological pollution in the working premises and equipment surfaces in the main shops of the biological waste water purification station of a cardboard-polygraphic plant. The findings suggest that there is high microbial contamination of the working environment, which should be born in mind on developing measures to optimize working conditions and on studying morbidity rates among the workers.

  18. Installation for gas purification and gas mixture preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, Constantin; Dumitrescu, Ioana; Armeanu, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Production Division of ICSI at Rm. Valcea developed advanced facilities for purification of hydrogen, nitrogen, methane gases, etc, with concentrations up to 99.999 % vol. Pure and ultrapure gases are used for analytical purposes in food industry, biology, medicine, research laboratories, chemical and metallurgical industries. In the frame of ICSI the purified gases are used for preparation of usual and special mixtures of gases as for instance for production of Ar + CO 2 , Ar + CH 4 , Ar + H 2 , Ar + N 2 , N 2 + CO 2 , N 2 + O 2 etc. These mixtures are required in diverse sectors of chemical, electrical, machine and food industry, in nuclear power plants for monitoring, in laboratories of equipment calibrations, etc. (authors)

  19. Purification of ADU and high-molybdenum AUC by recrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Huanchang; Wen Jinfeng

    1995-01-01

    The ADU was converted to AUC by preparing pulp with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 concentrated solution, and then the prepared AUC (high-molybdenum AUC) crystals were dissolved with hot soft water for dissolution, and after filtration or clarification and scrubbing of the residue, and the clarified solution was digested and the obtained pulp was thickened and the thickened pulp was converted and recrystallized by adding (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 concentrated solution. The crystals were washed and filtrated, and then the high-purity AUC crystals were prepared. The laboratory and pilot-plant scale experiments showed that the presented purification process was feasible with the solvent extraction step eliminated, so the chemicals consumption would be considerably decreased and the environmental pollution would be lowered. It is easy to realize the process in practice

  20. A robust robotic high-throughput antibody purification platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter M; Abdo, Michael; Butcher, Rebecca E; Yap, Min-Yin; Scotney, Pierre D; Ramunno, Melanie L; Martin-Roussety, Genevieve; Owczarek, Catherine; Hardy, Matthew P; Chen, Chao-Guang; Fabri, Louis J

    2016-07-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become the fastest growing segment in the drug market with annual sales of more than 40 billion US$ in 2013. The selection of lead candidate molecules involves the generation of large repertoires of antibodies from which to choose a final therapeutic candidate. Improvements in the ability to rapidly produce and purify many antibodies in sufficient quantities reduces the lead time for selection which ultimately impacts on the speed with which an antibody may transition through the research stage and into product development. Miniaturization and automation of chromatography using micro columns (RoboColumns(®) from Atoll GmbH) coupled to an automated liquid handling instrument (ALH; Freedom EVO(®) from Tecan) has been a successful approach to establish high throughput process development platforms. Recent advances in transient gene expression (TGE) using the high-titre Expi293F™ system have enabled recombinant mAb titres of greater than 500mg/L. These relatively high protein titres reduce the volume required to generate several milligrams of individual antibodies for initial biochemical and biological downstream assays, making TGE in the Expi293F™ system ideally suited to high throughput chromatography on an ALH. The present publication describes a novel platform for purifying Expi293F™-expressed recombinant mAbs directly from cell-free culture supernatant on a Perkin Elmer JANUS-VariSpan ALH equipped with a plate shuttle device. The purification platform allows automated 2-step purification (Protein A-desalting/size exclusion chromatography) of several hundred mAbs per week. The new robotic method can purify mAbs with high recovery (>90%) at sub-milligram level with yields of up to 2mg from 4mL of cell-free culture supernatant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fast reactor cover gas purification - The UK position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorley, A W

    1987-07-01

    The cover gas in the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) provides an inert gas blanket for both primary and secondary sodium circuits, ensures inert gas padding exists between the upper seals associated with penetrations through the reactor roof and provides argon to items of plant such as the control rods and the rotating shield and also to on line instruments such as the secondary circuit Katharometers. In order to meet these and other requirements purification of the argon cover gas is important to ensure: gas fed to purge gaps in the area of the magnetic hold device in the control rod mechanisms is not laden with sodium aerosols and reactive impurities (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}) which could cause blocking both within the gaps and pipelines; gas phase detection systems which provide early warning of steam generator failures or oil ingress into the sodium are not affected by the presence of gaseous impurities such as H{sub 2}, CO/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}; mass transfer processes involving both corrosion products and interstitial atoms cannot be sustained in the cover gas environment due to the presence of high levels of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and carburising gases; background levels of radioactivity (eg Xe 133) are sufficiently low to enable gas phase detection of failed fuel pins, and the primary circuit gas blanket activity is sufficiently reduced so that discharges to the atmosphere are minimised. This paper describes how the PFR cover gas purification system is coping with these various items and how current thinking regarding the design of cover gas purification systems for a Civil Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), where larger gas volumes and higher levels of radioactivity may be involved, is being guided by current experience on PFR. The paper also briefly review the experimental work planned to study aerosol and caesium behaviour in cove gas environments and discusses the behaviour of those impurities such as Zn, oil and N{sub 2} which are potentially damaging if certain

  2. Venturi purification device and its application in purification of gaseous waste of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Yu Ren; Yang Huanlei

    2013-01-01

    The working principle of Venturi purification device and its purification of aerosol have been described. Then, taking the gaseous iodine as an example, the absorption process of insoluble gas pollutants is discussed, the calculation methods of the gas-liquid contact area, mass transfer rate and efficiency of mass transfer are educed, and the factors that affect the efficiency of mass transfer are analyzed. (authors)

  3. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  4. Purification of functionalized DNA origami nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alan; Benson, Erik; Högberg, Björn

    2015-05-26

    The high programmability of DNA origami has provided tools for precise manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. This manipulation of matter opens up the possibility to arrange functional elements for a diverse range of applications that utilize the nanometer precision provided by these structures. However, the realization of functionalized DNA origami still suffers from imperfect production methods, in particular in the purification step, where excess material is separated from the desired functionalized DNA origami. In this article we demonstrate and optimize two purification methods that have not previously been applied to DNA origami. In addition, we provide a systematic study comparing the purification efficacy of these and five other commonly used purification methods. Three types of functionalized DNA origami were used as model systems in this study. DNA origami was patterned with either small molecules, antibodies, or larger proteins. With the results of our work we aim to provide a guideline in quality fabrication of various types of functionalized DNA origami and to provide a route for scalable production of these promising tools.

  5. Purification and characterization of xylanase from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylanase was subjected to a three-step purification scheme involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Purity was verified by running the extracted protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a single band was ...

  6. Purification, Characterization and Antibacterial Mechanism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out the extraction, purification and biological characterization, and assess the antibacterial activity of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus acidophilus XH1. Methods: Chloroform extraction method was used for bacteriocin extraction while characterization of bacteriocin was carried out by flat-dug well agar ...

  7. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  8. Biodiesel separation and purification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atadashi, I.M.; Aroua, M.K.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel as a biodegradable, sustainable and clean energy has worldwide attracted renewed and growing interest in topical years, chiefly due to development in biodiesel fuel and ecological pressures which include climatic changes. In the production of biodiesel from biomass, separation and purification of biodiesel is a critical technology. Conventional technologies used for biodiesel separation such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration and biodiesel purification such as water washing, acid washing, and washing with ether and absorbents have proven to be inefficient, time and energy consumptive, and less cost effective. The involvement of membrane reactor and separative membrane shows great promise for the separation and purification of biodiesel. Membrane technology needs to be explored and exploited to overcome the difficulties usually encountered in the separation and purification of biodiesel. In this paper both conventional and most recent membrane technologies used in refining biodiesel have been critically reviewed. The effects of catalysts, free fatty acids, water content and oil to methanol ratios on the purity and quality of biodiesel are also examined. (author)

  9. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  10. Partial purification and biochemical characterization of acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is one of the important crops of the North Eastern Region of India. In the present study, acid phosphatase enzyme was isolated and partially purified from germinated local mung bean seeds. The sequential partial purification process was performed using ammonium sulphate precipitation method.

  11. Production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants via the chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry

    2006-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer many advantages, including low cost of production (by elimination of fermenters), storage and transportation; heat stability; and absence of human pathogens. When therapeutic proteins are orally delivered, plant cells protect antigens in the stomach through bioencapsulation and eliminate the need for expensive purification and sterile injections, in addition to development of both systemic and mucosal immunity. Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgene expression, transgene containment via maternal inheritance and multi-gene expression in a single transformation event. Hyper-expression of vaccine antigens against cholera, tetanus, anthrax, plague or canine parvovirus (4-31% of total soluble protein, tsp) in transgenic chloroplasts (leaves) or non-green plastids (carrots, tomato), as well as the availability of antibiotic-free selectable markers or the ability to excise selectable marker genes, facilitate oral delivery. Hyper-expression of several therapeutic proteins, including human serum albumin (11.1% tsp), somatotropin (7% tsp), interferon-gamma (6% tsp), anti-microbial peptide (21.5% tsp), facilitates efficient and economic purification. Also, the presence of chaperones and enzymes in chloroplasts facilitate assembly of complex multi-subunit proteins and correct folding of human blood proteins with proper disulfide bonds. Functionality of chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins has been demonstrated by several assays, including the macrophage lysis assay, GM1-ganglioside binding assay, protection of HeLa cells or human lung carcinoma cells against encephalomyocarditis virus, systemic immune response, protection against pathogen challenge, and growth or inhibition of cell cultures. Thus, transgenic chloroplasts are ideal bioreactors for production of functional human and animal therapeutic proteins in an environmentally friendly manner.

  12. EB technology for the purification of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in flue gas from coal-combustion boilers in power plants, dioxins in flue gas from municipal waste incineration facilities and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gas from painting or cleaning factories are among air pollutants for which emission is regulated by a law in Japan. Electron beam is the effective and easy controllable radiation source for treatment of these flue gases. This report describes outline of the results so far obtained at JAERI on electron beam treatment of flue gas. The removal performance higher than 90% at 10 kGy for flue gas containing 800 ppm SOx and 225 ppm NOx were achieved and being applied to real-scale power plants in Poland and China with expectation of cost reduction of 20% compared to conventional plants. Decomposition of dioxins in flue gas from solid waste incinerators is another project. Using an accelerator of 300 keV and 40 mA for treatment of real incineration gas at 200degC, we obtain 90% decomposition of dioxins at 15 kGy irradiation. Expansion of these flue gas purification technologies combined with low-energy electron accelerators is expected. (S. Ohno)

  13. Two-step purification of scutellarin from Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Gu, Ming; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2006-07-11

    Scutellarin, a flavone glycoside, popularly applied for the treatment of cardiopathy, has been purified in two-step purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) from Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. (Deng-zhan-hua in Chinese), a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant for heart disease. Two solvent systems, n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetic acid-water (1:6:1.5:1:4, v/v/v/v/v) and ethyl acetate-n-butanol-acetonitrile-0.1% HCl (5:2:5:10, v/v/v/v) were used for the two-step purification. The purity of the collected fraction of scutellarin was 95.6%. This study supplies a new alternative method for purification of scutellarin.

  14. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  15. Development of the protocol for purification of artemisinin based on combination of commercial and computationally designed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Karim, Kal; Cutler, Malcolm; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-01-01

    A polymeric adsorbent for extraction of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. was computationally designed. This polymer demonstrated a high capacity for artemisinin (120 mg g(-1) ), quantitative recovery (87%) and was found to be an effective material for purification of artemisinin from complex plant matrix. The artemisinin quantification was conducted using an optimised HPLC-MS protocol, which was characterised by high precision and linearity in the concentration range between 0.05 and 2 μg mL(-1) . Optimisation of the purification protocol also involved screening of commercial adsorbents for the removal of waxes and other interfering natural compounds, which inhibit the crystallisation of artemisinin. As a result of a two step-purification protocol crystals of artemisinin were obtained, and artemisinin purity was evaluated as 75%. By performing the second stage of purification twice, the purity of artemisinin can be further improved to 99%. The developed protocol produced high-purity artemisinin using only a few purification steps that makes it suitable for large scale industrial manufacturing process. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Radioactive wastes assay technique and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Hong, D. S; Kim, T. K.; Bae, S. M.; Shon, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment

  17. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  20. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  2. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  3. Purification and characterization of the V1 vasopressin receptor from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, J.B.; Dickey, B.F.; Attisano, C.; Fine, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The rat liver V1 vasopressin receptor was purified approximately 21,000-fold from rat liver microsomes. The receptor was solubilized from membranes using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate). Since the V1 receptor loses its ability to bind ligand when solubilized, the authors devised a liposome reconstitution system to assay vasopressin binding activity during purification. The purified receptor exhibits a K/sub d/ of 6 nm, when, prior to solubilization, the membranes were exposed to 1 μm vasopressin. This resulted in the association of a pertussis-toxin insensitive guanine-nucleotide binding protein with the receptor during most of the purification procedure. The authors are further characterizing the V1-associated G-proteins. In the absence of this association, the receptor has a K/sub d/ of 30 nM. Crosslinking of 125 I-vasopressin to a partially purified preparation of receptor demonstrated that the receptor had a molecular weight of approximately 68,000 under reducing conditions, and 58,000 under non-reducing conditions. The purification procedure may prove useful in purifying a number of small peptide hormone receptors (e.g., bradykinin, angiotensin II) and perhaps their associated G-proteins as well

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be

  5. Improved radioenzymatic assay for plasma norepinephrine using purified phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, R.R.; Henry, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radioenzymatic assays have been developed for catecholamines using either catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) or phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Assays using PNMT are specific for norepinephrine (NE) and require minimal manipulative effort but until now have been less sensitive than the more complex procedures using COMT. The authors report an improved purification scheme for bovine PNMT which has permitted development of an NE assay with dramatically improved sensitivity (0.5 pg), specificity and reproducibility (C.V. < 5%). PNMT was purified by sequential pH 5.0 treatment and dialysis and by column chromatographic procedures using DEAE-Sephacel, Sepharcryl S-200 and Phenyl-Boronate Agarose. Recovery of PNMT through the purification scheme was 50%, while blank recovery was <.001%. NE can be directly quantified in 25 ul of human plasma and an 80 tube assay can be completed within 4 h. The capillary to venous plasma NE gradient was examined in 8 normotensive male subjects. Capillary plasma (NE (211.2 +/- 61.3 pg/ml)) was lower than venous plasma NE (366.6 +/- 92.5 pg/ml) in all subjects (p < 0.005). This difference suggests that capillary (NE) may be a unique indicator of sympathetic nervous system activity in vivo. In conclusion, purification of PNMT has facilitated development of an improved radioenzymatic for NE with significantly improved sensitivity

  6. Partial purification and characterization of metalloprotease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... their optimal activities at high salt concentrations. (Setyorini et al., 2006). .... and assayed the residual activity (%) at optimum conditions of assay. ... stained cloth pieces were taken in separate flasks (Kanmani et al.,. 2011) and ...

  7. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  8. Complex method of radiation purification of sewage of the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Shlyk, V.G.; Vaninskaya, Yu.M.; Zhalejko, G.A.; Stebunov, O.B.

    1978-01-01

    A radiation-chemistry method of the sewage purification of the cellulose sulphate production from dyed substances and lignin-base compounds is described. The method consists in addition of small quantities of a monomer (methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, styrol) and in the following gamma irradiation. The drainage of cellulose plants have been purified by 60-90% by colour and the content of lignin compounds in the dose range of 0.02 - 0.12 Mrad (with a dose rate of 65 rad/s) with the addition of 0.4 - 0.8% of methyl methacrylate. The rest monomers are also effective as additions to sewage. The ways of using polymer wastes of radiation purification of sewage for production of structural materials have been pointed out

  9. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusemets, V.; Mauring, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD 7 , 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha -1 , respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  10. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  11. CAREM 25: Design of resin bed for purification and boron removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Iglesias, Alberto M.; Jimenez Rebagliati, Raul; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; La Gamma, Ana M.

    2000-01-01

    The purification of the water the primary coolant of a water cooled nuclear reactor as well as the water of many auxiliary systems is controlled by the use of ion exchange resins. In the present paper, the resin beds for three different systems are specified: the purification and control volume system, the suppression pool water and the spent fuel pool water for the reactor CAREM-25. In all cases the dimensioning calculations have been done taking in consideration the amount of contaminants and corrosion products generated under normal operation or post-accident. Also, the results have been contrasted with the experience of the nuclear power plants in operation in Argentina, international design criteria and international standards. For the primary coolant, the boron-removal beds have been sized and an estimation of the maximum dose received by the resins have been calculated. It have been found that the result is well below the damaging threshold reported in the literature. (author)

  12. Direct osmosis method of purification and desalination of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Drinking water quality is one of the general factors influencing people's health. The human activity in industry and agriculture has led to pollution of the environment: soil, air, both surface and ground waters that are polluted with chemical substances. It has a disastrous effect on the health of the population, especially of children. At present, the known equipment, based on ion exchange, electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, require great expense, energy expenditures, and highly qualified personnel that are inaccessible to the population especially living in remote regions. Methods, which are usually used in water supplying plants, cannot remove spore forms of bacteria and many types of chemical substances. The purpose of this Project is to create an absolutely new method for purification of drinking water from chemical and biological agents. The method is based on using direct osmosis process that removes all contaminants except one and removing last contaminant. This method will be used for making new low energy-consuming and cheap mini-systems for individual and collective use for desalination of drinking water and purification from bacteria, radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants. Preliminary experiments and calculations conducted in Uzbekistan show that the energy consumption is 0.8 MW per 1 m 3 of water. Advantage of the method is low energy consumption, potentially purifying water without pretreatment and removing different types of bacteria including spore forms, radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contaminants. Devices can be powered by solar units in remote locations. The purpose of this work is further elaboration of this technology creation of new method and its accommodation to conditions of different countries. Test models will be made and tested in laboratories of interested countries

  13. The Viability of Photocatalysis for Air Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen O. Hay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO air purification technology is reviewed based on the decades of research conducted by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC and their external colleagues. UTRC conducted basic research on the reaction rates of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The knowledge gained allowed validation of 1D and 3D prototype reactor models that guided further purifier development. Colleagues worldwide validated purifier prototypes in simulated realistic indoor environments. Prototype products were deployed in office environments both in the United States and France. As a result of these validation studies, it was discovered that both catalyst lifetime and byproduct formation are barriers to implementing this technology. Research is ongoing at the University of Connecticut that is applicable to extending catalyst lifetime, increasing catalyst efficiency and extending activation wavelength from the ultraviolet to the visible wavelengths. It is critical that catalyst lifetime is extended to realize cost effective implementation of PCO air purification.

  14. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  15. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Yasuji; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  16. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  17. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi....../L and 95 and 400 mg F/L respectively in natural and synthetic solutions. The fluoride removal capacities observed were 4.6 mg F/g bone char for the column system and 2.7 mg F/g bone char for the batch system in case of synthetic magadi solution. It is however concluded that the batch system is the best...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  18. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-10-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification.

  19. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification

  20. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  1. Propagation and Purification of Baculovirus oryctes Huger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolate of Baculovirus oryctes, a possible biological control agent for coconut beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Huger from East Java was propagated and purified. The virus could be transmitted by feeding the imago with 10% sucrose containing virus from homogenate of infected beetles. Effectivity of virus to 9 healthy females by sexual copulation. Virus be succesfully purified by a method of Payne. Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, transmission, purification

  2. Isolation and bioactivities of the flavonoids morin and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis-A wild Arabian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Jabeen, Farah; Kim, Jong-Sang; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2014-10-31

    Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the reported data for the known constituents. The pure isolates were subjected to various biological assays for their bioactivities. The compounds 1 and 2 were significantly active against the growth of various pathogenic fungi and phytotoxic against lettuce seed at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activities, anti-lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxic effects against HepG2, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines were also assayed and the results are presented in this paper.

  3. Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Devakul, Trithep; Halbasch, Matthew G.; Zaletel, Michael P.; Swingle, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Purification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  4. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  5. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  6. Overview of the purification of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2015-04-01

    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995, protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches, many of which were described and mentioned throughout Current Protocols in Protein Science. In the interim, there has been a shift toward an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein, and whether to engineer a self-cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also, although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification, other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and, apart from cell-breakage methods, protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  8. Entanglement purification of multi-mode quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J; Knoell, L; Welsch, D-G

    2003-01-01

    An iterative random procedure is considered allowing entanglement purification of a class of multi-mode quantum states. In certain cases, complete purification may be achieved using only a single signal state preparation. A physical implementation based on beam splitter arrays and non-linear elements is suggested. The influence of loss is analysed in the example of purification of entangled N-mode coherent states

  9. A Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the require...

  10. Denitrification of acid wastes from uranium purification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, F.E.; Francis, C.W.; Francke, H.C.; Strohecker, J.W.

    1975-11-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant investigations have shown the technical feasibility of removing nitrates from neutralized acid wastes from uranium purification processes by biological denitrification, a dissimilatory process in which the nitrate ion is reduced to nitrogen gas by specific bacteria. The process requires anaerobic conditions and an organic carbon source, as well as other life-sustaining constituents. These denitrification studies produced process design information on a columnar denitrification plant and on continuous-flow, stirred-bed reactors. Denitrification, using packed columns, was found to be desirable for soluble salts, such as those of sodium and ammonium; denitrification, using stirred reactors, was found to be desirable for mixtures containing insoluble salts, such as those of calcium and aluminum. Packed columns were found to have denitrification rates ranging up to 122 grams of nitrate per day per cubic decimeter of column volume; stirred-bed reactors have been shown to have reaction rates near 10 grams of nitrate per day per cubic decimeter of reactor volume. The continuous-flow, stirred-bed reactors were selected for scaleup studies because of the solids-removal problems associated with packed columns when operating on feeds containing high concentrations of insoluble salts or ions which form insoluble salts with the products of the denitrification reaction

  11. The isolation and purification of a caribbean maitotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.E.; Knoepp, S.M.; Lanoue, B.A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The phenomenon known as red tide has been a topic of great interest in that there is concern that the scale and complexity of this natural phenomenon are expanding. It is known that the benthic dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, produces a variety of polyether toxins that contaminate seafood and result in human illness. Maitotoxin (MTX) is one of the toxins that have been implicated in ciguatera seafood poisoning. There is a need for the development of a much broader understanding of the nature of the poisoning toxins. MTX cogeners can be difficult to isolate due to its size and chemical nature. A major goal is to obtain a purified standard of a Caribbean MTX so that more efficient assays can be developed to test seafood for the presence of toxins and thus avoid human harm. The primary goal of this project is to obtain large amounts of pure maitotoxin. The procedure described is also useful as a starting point for the purification of other toxins.

  12. Expression, Purification, and Characterisation of Dehydroquinate Synthase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Negron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway to aromatic compounds. DHQS from the archaeal hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli but was partially solubilised when KCl was included in the cell lysis buffer. A purification procedure was developed, involving lysis by sonication at 30∘C followed by a heat treatment at 70∘C and anion exchange chromatography. Purified recombinant P. furiosus DHQS is a dimer with a subunit Mr of 37,397 (determined by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and is active over broad pH and temperature ranges. The kinetic parameters are KM (3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate 3.7 μM and kcat 3.0 sec-1 at 60∘C and pH 6.8. EDTA inactivates the enzyme, and enzyme activity is restored by several divalent metal ions including (in order of decreasing effectiveness Cd2+, Co2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+. High activity of a DHQS in the presence of Cd2+ has not been reported for enzymes from other sources, and may be related to the bioavailability of Cd2+ for P. furiosus. This study is the first biochemical characterisation of a DHQS from a thermophilic source. Furthermore, the characterisation of this hyperthermophilic enzyme was carried out at elevated temperatures using an enzyme-coupled assay.

  13. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  14. 'Crud' detection and evaluation during the Embalse nuclear power plant's thermal cycle for powers of 100%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Rosales, A.H.; Mura, V.R.; Sentupery, C.; Rascon, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the 'crud' measurements performed during the Embalse nuclear power plant's thermal cycle for a power of 100% (645 MWe) under different purification conditions. The aim of this work is to optimize the four steam generators' tube plate cleaning in function of the sweeping produced by their purification. (Author)

  15. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  16. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  17. Purification and radiodination of gyroxin, toxin like trombin, of crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, Maria A.P.; Paes, Paulo C.A.; Ribela, Maria T.C.P.; Rogero, Jose R.

    1997-01-01

    Snake's venoms have attracted special interest in research because they are rich in bioactive compounds, which are scientific tools to study many physiological processes and are also important source of new therapeutic agents. Some thrombin-like enzymes are used as a reagent in laboratorial assays as well as in medical drugs. However, a neurotoxic syndrome called gyroxin syndrome or barrel rotation seems to be related to those enzymes. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies of these toxins can contribute to clarifly this mechanisms and consequently, it will help to elaborate safer clinical prescriptions giving more information about possible nocive effects. This paper describes the first step of these studies with the thrombin-like enzyme (or gyroxin) from Crotalus durissus terrificus's venom. The purification and radioiodination methods as well as electrophoretic analysis and biological assay are presented. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Rapid purification of radioiodinated peptides with Sep-Pak reversed phase cartridges and HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.J.; Schultz, G.S.; Levy, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, rapid method is described for the purification of radioiodinated peptides for use in radioimmuno- and in radioreceptor assays. Iodinated reaction mixtures are applied directly onto Sep-Pak disposable, reversed phase cartridges equilibrated with phosphate buffer. Unreacted 125-iodide and other non-peptide reaction components are eluted with buffer. The peptide fraction is then eluted with 70% buffer:30% acetonitrile. The peptide fraction is further purified by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography to separate the native peptide and the mono- and diiodo-derivatives. In this study the method is used to prepare 125-iodide-labeled monoiodo-leucine enkephalin and monoiodo-angiotensin II, which are free of the parent peptides and diiodo-derivatives and are of maximum obtainable specific radioactivity. The usefulness of these labeled peptides in radioimmuno- and radioreceptor assays is demonstrated by their binding to specific antibodies and receptors, respectively. (author)

  19. Effect of Different Purification Techniques on the Characteristics of Heteropolysaccharide-Protein Biopolymer from Durian (Durio zibethinus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirhosseini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural biopolymers from plant sources contain many impurities (e.g., fat, protein, fiber, natural pigment and endogenous enzymes, therefore, an efficient purification process is recommended to minimize these impurities and consequently improve the functional properties of the biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different purification techniques on the yield, protein content, solubility, water- and oil-holding capacity of a heteropolysaccharide-protein biopolymer obtained from durian seed. Four different purification methods using different chemicals and solvents (i.e., A (isopropanol and ethanol, B (isopropanol and acetone, C (saturated barium hydroxide, and D (Fehling solution] to liberate the purified biopolymer from its crude form were compared. In most cases, the purification process significantly (p < 0.05 improved the physicochemical properties of heteropolysaccharide-protein biopolymer from durian fruit seed. The present work showed that the precipitation using isopropanol and acetone (Method B resulted in the highest purification yield among all the tested purification techniques. The precipitation using saturated barium hydroxide (Method C led to induce the highest solubility and relatively high capacity of water absorption. The current study reveals that the precipitation using Fehling solution (Method D most efficiently eliminates the protein fraction, thus providing more pure biopolymer suitable for biological applications.

  20. Exergy costs analysis of water desalination and purification techniques by transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquer, Beatriz; Martínez-Gracia, Amaya; Uche, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A procedure to estimate the unit exergy cost of water treatment techniques is provided. • Unit exergy costs of water purification and desalination are given as a function of design and operating parameters. • Unit exergy costs range from 3.3 to 6.8 in purification and from 2 to 26 in desalination. • They could be used in their preliminary design as good indicators of their energy efficiency. - Abstract: The unit exergy costs of desalination and purification, which are two alternatives commonly used for water supply and treatment, have been characterized as a function of the energy efficiency of the process by combining the Exergy Cost Analysis with Transfer Function Analysis. An equation to assess the exergy costs of these alternatives is then proposed as a quick guide to know the energy efficiency of any water treatment process under different design and operating conditions. This combination, was satisfactory applied to groundwaters and water transfers. After identifying the boundaries of the system, input and output flows are calculated in exergy values. Next, different examples are analyzed in order to propose a generic equation to assess the exergy cost of the water restoration technologies, attending to their main features. Recovery ratio, energy requirements and salts concentrations (for desalination), and plant capacity and organic matter recovery (for water purification) are introduced in the calculations as their main endogenous parameters. Values obtained for typical operation ranges of commercial plants showed that unit exergy costs of water purification ranged from 3.3 to 6.8; maximum values, as expected, were found at low plant capacities and high organic matter removal ratios. For water desalination, values varied from 2 to 7 in membrane technologies and from 10 to 26 in thermal processes. The recovery ratio and salts concentration in raw water increased the unit exergy costs in membrane techniques. In distillation processes

  1. Development and optimization of a direct plaque assay for human and avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan; Li, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae and family Paramyxoviridae includes only two viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), which cause respiratory disease in humans and birds, respectively. These two viruses grow poorly in cell culture and other quantitation methods, such as indirect immuno-staining and immuno-fluorescent assays, are expensive, time consuming, and do not allow for plaque purification of the virus. In order to enhance research efforts for studying these two viruses, a direct plaque assay for both hMPV and aMPV has been developed. By optimizing the chemical components of the agarose overlay, it was found that both hMPV with a trypsin-independent F cleavage site and aMPV formed clear and countable plaques in a number of mammalian cell lines (such as Vero-E6 and LLC-MK2 cells) after 5 days of incubation. The plaque forming assay has similar sensitivity and reliability as the currently used immunological methods for viral quantitation. The plaque assay is also a more simple, rapid, and economical method compared to immunological assays, and in addition allows for plaque purification of the viruses. The direct plaque assay will be a valuable method for the quantitation and evaluation of the biological properties of some metapneumoviruses. PMID:22684013

  2. Microfluidic cartridges for DNA purification and genotyping processed in standard laboratory instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Maximilian; Mark, Daniel; Stumpf, Fabian; Müller, Martina; Roth, Günter; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Two microfluidic cartridges intended for upgrading standard laboratory instruments with automated liquid handling capability by use of centrifugal forces are presented. The first microfluidic cartridge enables purification of DNA from human whole blood and is operated in a standard laboratory centrifuge. The second microfluidic catridge enables genotyping of pathogens by geometrically multiplexed real-time PCR. It is operated in a slightly modified off-the-shelf thermal cycler. Both solutions aim at smart and cost-efficient ways to automate work flows in laboratories. The DNA purification cartridge automates all liquid handling steps starting from a lysed blood sample to PCR ready DNA. The cartridge contains two manually crushable glass ampoules with liquid reagents. The DNA yield extracted from a 32 μl blood sample is 192 +/- 30 ng which corresponds to 53 +/- 8% of a reference extraction. The genotyping cartridge is applied to analyse isolates of the multi-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) by real-time PCR. The wells contain pre-stored dry reagents such as primers and probes. Evaluation of the system with 44 genotyping assays showed a 100% specificity and agreement with the reference assays in standard tubes. The lower limit of detection was well below 10 copies of DNA per reaction.

  3. Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein; purification and use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Borre, M B; Jepsen, S

    1991-01-01

    New Guinea (MAD20) and Honduras (HB3) completely absorbed specific antibodies, indicating the presence of conserved epitopes produced by all isolates of P. falciparum. Recombinant GLURP489-1271 ELISA is sensitive and rapid, and therefore well-suited for sero-epidemiological studies, and for control...

  4. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  5. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  6. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  7. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  8. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  9. Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...

  10. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic, stage 1.6. Research into methods and technologies for CO2 treatment and compression. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupal, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    Czech brown coal contain many components which complicate the technological process of CO 2 separation a treatment. A system coping with this problem is proposed. The following topics are treated: Specification of the flue gas at the boiler outlet; Requirements for CO 2 purity; Purification of the flue gases (Denitrificatio; Dust removal; Flue gas fan; Desuphurisation; Flue gas condenser); CO 2 purification and compression; Expected purification process; and Effect of the purification on the power plant unit. (P.A.)

  11. Purification and characterization of a mucin specific mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis: application for mitogenic and antimicrobial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sarup Singh

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins or glycoproteins that bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates present on the apposing cells, which are responsible for their ability to agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc. Interest in lectins has been intensified due to their carbohydrate specificity as they can be valuable reagents for the investigation of cell surface sugars, purification and characterization of glycoproteins. The present study reports the purification, characterization and evaluation of mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of a mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis.Affinity chromatography on mucin-sepharose column was carried out for purification of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis lectin. The lectin was characterized for physico-chemical parameters. Mitogenic potential of the lectin was evaluated against splenocytes of Swiss albino mice by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of the purified lectin has also been evaluated by disc diffusion assay.Single-step affinity purification resulted in 18.6-fold purification of the mycelial lectin. The molecular mass of the lectin was found to be 70 kDa and it was composed of two subunits of 34.8 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. pH optima of the lectin was found to be 6.5-9.5, while optimum temperature for lectin activity was 20-30 °C. Lectin was stable within a pH range of 7.0-10.5 and showed fair thermostability. EDTA did not affect lectin activity whereas it was found susceptible to the denaturants tested. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of A. gorakhpurensis lectin at a concentration upto 150 µg/mL. Antimicrobial activity assay showed its potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcous aureus and Escherichia coli and marginal antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae.This is the first report on the mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis

  12. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  13. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  14. Numerical simulation of Venturi ejector reactor in yellow phosphorus purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao-jing; Tang, Lei, E-mail: alanleyfly@gmail.com; Jiang, Zeng

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Venturi ejector reactor is used in yellow phosphorus purification system to obtain high purity phosphorus. • We study the changes of vacuum region and the performances of Venturi ejector reactor with different operating pressure. • The whole study is aim to investigate the operating conditions, rather than to find out the small details of the chemical reaction. - Abstract: A novel type of Venturi ejector reactor, which was used in a pilot plant test in a factory in Guizhou in China, was developed to overcome the insufficiency of chemical reaction in the stirred-tank reactor in yellow phosphorus purification system. The effects of different working medium, the changes of vacuum region, and the performances of the Venturi ejector reactor with different operating pressure were investigated by FLUENT. Results show that the absolute value of vacuum pressure of single-phase flow was smaller than two-phase flow at the same operating conditions, which meat two-phase flow has a higher suction capability. Reflow phenomena occurred near the exit of suction pipe and nozzle. The former reflow which leads to energy loss of vacuum region was undesirable, and the latter was beneficial to the dispersion of liquid yellow phosphorus. With a flow rate ratio below 0.45, the performance of the Venturi ejector reactor was effective. By adjusting the operating pressure, a proper flow rate ratio could be satisfied to meet the production needs in yellow phosphorus purification system.

  15. First Study of Helium Gas Purification System as Primary Coolant of Co-Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping Supriatna

    2009-01-01

    The technological progress of NPP Generation-I on 1950’s, Generation-II, Generation-III recently on going, and Generation-IV which will be implemented on next year 2025, concept of nuclear power technology implementation not only for generate electrical energy, but also for other application which called cogeneration reactor. Commonly the type of this reactor is High Temperature Reactor (HTR), which have other capabilities like Hydrogen production, desalination, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), etc. The cogeneration reactor (HTR) produce thermal output higher than commonly Nuclear Power Plant, and need special Heat Exchanger with helium gas as coolant. In order to preserve heat transfer with high efficiency, constant purity of the gas must be maintained as well as possible, especially contamination from its impurities. In this report has been done study for design concept of HTR primary coolant gas purification system, including methodology by sampling He gas from Primary Coolant and purification by using Physical Helium Splitting Membrane. The examination has been designed in physical simulator by using heater as reactor core. The result of study show that the of Primary Coolant Gas Purification System is enable to be implemented on cogeneration reactor. (author)

  16. Partial Purification of Antimicrobial Compounds Isolated from Mycelia of Tropical Lentinus cladopus LC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus cladopus LC4 produced at least eight antimicrobial compounds (ACs which are active against plant and human pathogens. Three ACs in its crude mycelial were extracted with methanol and partial purification was carried out with silicic acid column chromatography and by thin layer chromatography (PTLC. The antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc method and antibiographic method. The chromatography purification eluted with dichloromethane containing 5% methanol gave one active fraction (FII. This fraction which was active against X. campestris pv. glycines and showing two inhibition zones against Bacillus subtilis on bioautographic plates with the Rfs 0.8 and 0.7. FI and FIII fractions eluted with dichloromethane containing 0 and 10% methanol performed one inhibition zone with Rfs 0.8 and 0.7 respectively. However, their activities were lower than that of FII fraction. The PLTC purification gave one separate fraction with Rf value of 0.73 and it was active against X. campestris pv. glycines. The compound of Rf 0.73 fraction should be further studied using TLC and HPLC to obtain the pure substance for molecule characterization.

  17. PTH Assays: Understanding What We Have and Forecasting What We Will Have

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto H. Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH assays have evolved continuously for the last 50 years. Since the first radioimmunoassay was described in 1963, several assays based on immunological identification have been published (first generation assays. The routine assays used nowadays are immunometric “sandwich-type”. They are based on two different monoclonal antibodies, one amino-terminal and the other carboxyl terminal specific. These second generation assays are widely available and adapted to most of the automation platforms. The specificity of the amino terminal antibody defines if the immunometric assay measures only the bioactive PTH circulating form (including the first amino terminal amino acids or the “intact” PTH, which includes, besides bioactive PTH, other “long” carboxyl-terminal forms, for example, 7–84-PTH. Assays for “intact” PTH are the most commonly available and the potential advantage of the bioactive PTH assays is still debatable. Next generation of assays will be based on different principles, mainly mass spectrometry in samples submitted to a prior purification and fragmentation steps. These assays will provide information about the whole spectra of PTH peptides in circulation, with a significant increase of the information regarding this biologically important peptide hormone.

  18. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries

    OpenAIRE

    USMANOVA R.R.; ZAIKOV G.E.

    2014-01-01

    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  19. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  20. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the isolation and purification of peroxidase from low cost material; moreover, no significant work has been done on the isolation and purification of peroxidase from such cost effective sources (apple and orange seeds). Peroxidases had attracted considerable interest in recent years because of their ...

  1. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of. 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa.

  2. Purification and characterization of three laccase isozymes from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... improve wine quality by removing fermentation inhibitors so as to increase yield of ethanol (Baldrian, 2006). They have also been used .... Summary of purification of laccase isozymes from Trametes sp. HS-03a. Purification .... and kinetics of a thermostable laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus. (SCC 108).

  3. Optimization of laboratory scale production and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcystin content is however highly variable and optimised culture conditions are essential to produce viable yields of microcystin for purification. We describe the optimization of culture conditions and evaluation of various purification methods to enhance the yield of microcystin from laboratory scale culture.

  4. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  5. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  6. Single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B; De Souza, Colin P; Osmani, Stephen A

    2010-05-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  7. Single-Step Affinity Purification for Fungal Proteomics ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H.; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B.; De Souza, Colin P.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  8. Overview of the recombinant proteins purification by affinity tags and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From protein within isolation process which the same matter increases labor costs further and prevents application of these tags in industrial scale. Therefore proper replacement is emphasized for enzymatic removal of purification tags. Keywords: protein purification; recombinant proteins; self-cleavable tags; Intein tags; ...

  9. Purification and fluorescent labeling of the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren G F; Gether, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    To establish a purification procedure for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) we expressed in Sf9 insect cells an epitope-tagged version of the transporter containing a FLAG epitope at the N-terminus and a polyhistidine tail at the C-terminus (FLAG-hSERT-12H). For purification, the transporter...

  10. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  11. Phase equilibria at the Zirconium metal purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani-Sudjoko; Busron-Masduki; Sunardjo; Budi-Sulistyo

    1996-01-01

    It was investigated the research in the purification of zirconium metal, which was results from the reduction process, by adding heat in the vacuum environment. The process was done in batch in the stainless steel reactor, equiped with vacuum pump and electric heater. The investigated variable were process temperature and pressure. From this research it was obtained that equilibrium constant for MgCl 2 and Mg were expressed in the equation K M g C l 2 = 0.9011 P 1 .3779 1.06552 T and K M g = 6.0115P + 1.35256T - 6.93912

  12. [Purification of 67Cu]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents progress made in several areas of research and describes results which have not yet been published. These areas include: Purification of 67 Cu; Macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy; Studies of biologic activation associated with molecular receptor increase and tumor response in ChL6/L6 protocol patients; Lym-1 single chain genetically engineered molecules; Analysis of molecular genetic coded messages to enhance tumor response; Human dosimetry and therapeutic human use radiopharmaceuticals; studies in phantoms; Quantitative SPECT; Preclinical studies; and Clinical studies

  13. Process for purification of gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, S Z; Letitschevskij, V I; Maergojz, I I; Michailov, L A; Puschkarev, L I

    1977-06-23

    The process relates to the purification of gas mixtures of N, H, and Ar, or N and H, or N and O which contain CO, CO/sub 2/ and water vapour. Single-stage adsorption occurs under standard pressure at temperatures from -40 to +4/sup 0/C up to the point of CO penetration through the zeolite layer. Zeolite is of type A or X combined with Ca, Na, Ag, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn or a natural zeolite of the type klinoptilolite. Regeneration is achieved at constant temperature and pressure of 1-5x10/sup -1/ Torr or by heating to 120-600/sup 0/C.

  14. CAREM-25. Purification and volume control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Chocron, Mauricio; Goya, Hector E.; Ortega, Daniel A.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The purification and volume control system has the following main functions: water level control inside reactor pressure vessel (RPR) in all the reactor operational modes, pressure control when the reactor operates in solid state, and maintenance of radiological, physical and chemical parameters of primary water. In case of Hot Shutdown operational mode and also after Scram the system is capable of extraction of nuclear decay heat. The design of the system is in accordance with the Requirements of ANSI/ ANS 51.1; 58.11 and 56.2 standards. (author)

  15. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  16. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  17. Precursor uptake assays and metabolic analyses in isolated tomato fruit chromoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angaman Djédoux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are the most widespread group of pigments found in nature. In addition to their role in the physiology of the plant, carotenoids also have nutritional relevance as their incorporation in the human diet provides health benefits. In non-photosynthetic tissues, carotenoids are synthesized and stored in specialized plastids called chromoplasts. At present very little is known about the origin of the metabolic precursors and cofactors required to sustain the high rate of carotenoid biosynthesis in these plastids. Recent proteomic data have revealed a number of biochemical and metabolic processes potentially operating in fruit chromoplasts. However, considering that chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation is a very rapid process during fruit ripening, there is the possibility that some of the proteins identified in the proteomic analysis could represent remnants no longer having a functional role in chromoplasts. Therefore, experimental validation is necessary to prove whether these predicted processes are actually operative in chromoplasts. Results A method has been established for high-yield purification of tomato fruit chromoplasts suitable for metabolic studies. Radiolabeled precursors were efficiently incorporated and further metabolized in isolated chromoplast. Analysis of labeled lipophilic compounds has revealed that lipid biosynthesis is a very efficient process in chromoplasts, while the relatively low incorporation levels found in carotenoids suggest that lipid production may represent a competing pathway for carotenoid biosynthesis. Malate and pyruvate are efficiently converted into acetyl-CoA, in agreement with the active operation of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the chromoplast. Our results have also shown that isolated chromoplasts can actively sustain anabolic processes without the exogenous supply of ATP, thus suggesting that these organelles may generate this energetic

  18. Precursor uptake assays and metabolic analyses in isolated tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; Petrizzo, Rocco; Hernández-Gras, Francesc; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Pateraki, Irene; Busquets, Montserrat; Boronat, Albert

    2012-01-13

    Carotenoids are the most widespread group of pigments found in nature. In addition to their role in the physiology of the plant, carotenoids also have nutritional relevance as their incorporation in the human diet provides health benefits. In non-photosynthetic tissues, carotenoids are synthesized and stored in specialized plastids called chromoplasts. At present very little is known about the origin of the metabolic precursors and cofactors required to sustain the high rate of carotenoid biosynthesis in these plastids. Recent proteomic data have revealed a number of biochemical and metabolic processes potentially operating in fruit chromoplasts. However, considering that chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation is a very rapid process during fruit ripening, there is the possibility that some of the proteins identified in the proteomic analysis could represent remnants no longer having a functional role in chromoplasts. Therefore, experimental validation is necessary to prove whether these predicted processes are actually operative in chromoplasts. A method has been established for high-yield purification of tomato fruit chromoplasts suitable for metabolic studies. Radiolabeled precursors were efficiently incorporated and further metabolized in isolated chromoplast. Analysis of labeled lipophilic compounds has revealed that lipid biosynthesis is a very efficient process in chromoplasts, while the relatively low incorporation levels found in carotenoids suggest that lipid production may represent a competing pathway for carotenoid biosynthesis. Malate and pyruvate are efficiently converted into acetyl-CoA, in agreement with the active operation of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the chromoplast. Our results have also shown that isolated chromoplasts can actively sustain anabolic processes without the exogenous supply of ATP, thus suggesting that these organelles may generate this energetic cofactor in an autonomous way. We have set up a

  19. Purification of the Drain Water and Distillation Residues from Organic Compounds, Transuranic Elements and Uranium at the Chernobyl NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko, L.I.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Article examines the purification of drain water and distillation residue from organic (polymeric compounds, tran suranic elements and uranium. We propose the pretreatment method with the use of a type «Sizol» coagulant-flocculant and catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ultrafiltration. This method prevents evaporator coking by dustsuppression and other organic substances, which are vulcanized by heating. Removing alpha-emitting radionuclides increases safety level at the nuclear power plant.

  20. A simple and rapid method of purification of impure plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Rakshe, P.R.; Dharmpurikar, G.R.; Thite, B.S.; Lokhande, Manisha; Sinalkar, Nitin; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Impure plutonium oxides are conventionally purified by dissolution in HNO 3 in presence of HF followed by ion exchange separation and oxalate precipitation. The method is tedious and use of HF enhances corrosion of the plant equipment's. A simple and rapid method has been developed for the purification of the oxide by leaching with various reagents like DM water, NaOH and oxalic acid. A combination of DM water followed by hot leaching with 0.4 M oxalic acid could bring down the impurity levels in the oxide to the desired level required for fuel fabrication. (author)