WorldWideScience

Sample records for plantlets

  1. Automatic Dissection Of Plantlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Harris, I. P.; Marchant, J. A.; Tillett, R. D.

    1989-03-01

    Micropropagation is a technique used in horticulture for generating a monoclonal colony of plants. A tiny plantlet is cut into several parts, each of which is then replanted. At the moment, the cutting is performed manually. Automating this task would have significant economic benefits. A robot designed to dissect plants would need to be equipped with intelligent visual sensing. This article is concerned with the image acquisition and processing techniques which such a machine might use. A program, which can calculate where to cut a plant with an "open" structure, is presented. This is expressed in the ProVision language, which is described in another article presented at this conference. (Article 1002-65)

  2. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  3. Shoot and plantlet regeneration from meristems of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... In vitro culture media capable of regenerating moderate to high shoots and/or plantlets from meristems of two yam ..... Pvt. Ltd, Naraina, New Delhi, India, pp. ... development in medicinal yam in relation to planting material and.

  4. Organelles genome stability of wheat plantlets produced by anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... detected between doubled haploid plantlets and parental plants at the level of ctDNA and mtDNA organization. ... 2009). In breeding programmes of wheat cultivars, in vitro ... employed in releasing several barley cultivars (Muñoz- ..... Cuthbert JL, Somers DJ, Brûlé-Babel AL, Brown PD, Crow GH (2008).

  5. Identification of phytochemical components of aloe plantlets by gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRT Pack 20 DVDs

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... ... components of aloe plantlets by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... number is wild harvested or cultivated for natural products prepared .... fused silica capillary column Hp- 5ms (5% phenyl : 95% dimethyl siloxane 30 M × 0.25 .... 29.11 1-Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. C27H54O4Si2.

  6. Molecular Detection of Endophytic Bacteria on Plantlet Tissue of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIK EKO WIDAYATI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria live in plant host tissues without causing any symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the indigenous endophytic bacteria on sugarcane plantlets produced from the young leaf cells by using tissue culture techniques. To detect the existence of endophytic bacteria in the plantlet tissue, a series of molecular method based on PCR were applied by using ribosomal intergenic spacer (RIS primer followed by 16S rDNA partial sequence and single strand conformation polymorphism (SCCP. The results showed that the molecular method could detect the existence of bacteria in the tissues. Using the same methods, the bacteria were also found in other developmental stages of sugarcane (explants, differentiated tissues and callus.

  7. New butenolides in plantlets of Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Santos, Pierre Alexandre Dos; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Yoshida, Massayoshi

    2004-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation in plantlets of the Brazilian medicinal tree Virola surinamensis resulted in the isolation and structural determination of four new compounds: 3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(11'-piperonyl-n-undecyl)-butenolide; 3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(7'-piperonyl-n-heptyl)-butanolide; 9'-(3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl)-nonanoic acid and 13'-(3,4-methylene-dioxyphenyl)-tridecanoic acid. Thirteen compounds previously isolated from seeds and adult plants were also reported.

  8. A new monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid from Hamelia patens micropropagated plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Vega, David; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2012-11-01

    Chemical studies on Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) micropropagated plantlets allowed production of a new monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid, named (-)-hameline (7), together with eight known alkaloids, tetrahydroalstonine (1), aricine (2), pteropodine (3), isopteropodine (4), uncarine F (5), speciophylline (6), palmirine (8), and rumberine (9). The structure of the new alkaloid was assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and molecular modeling.

  9. Origination of asexual plantlets in three species of Crassulaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiansheng; Liu, Hailiang; He, Yangyang; Cui, Xianghuan; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    During asexual plant reproduction, cells from different organs can be reprogrammed to produce new individuals, a process that requires the coordination of cell cycle reactivation with the acquisition of other cellular morphological characteristics. However, the factors that influence the variety of asexual reproduction have not yet been determined. Here, we report on plantlet formation in Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Graptopetalum paraguayense, and Crassula portulacea (Crassulaceae) and analyse the effect of initiating cells on asexual reproduction in these three species. Additionally, the roles of WUSCHEL (WUS) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1) in the asexual reproduction of these species were analysed through qRT-PCR. Our results indicated that pre-existing stem cell-like cells at the sites of asexual reproduction were responsible for the formation of plantlets. These cells were arrested in different phases of the cell cycle and showed different cell morphological characteristics and cell counts. The accumulation of auxin and cytokinin at the sites of asexual plantlet formation indicated their important functions, particularly for cell cycle reactivation. These differences may influence the pattern and complexity of asexual reproduction in these Crassulaceae species. Additionally, the dynamic expression levels of CUC1 and WUS may indicate that CUC1 functions in the formation of callus and shoot meristems; whereas, WUS was only associated with shoot induction.

  10. Crinivirus and begomovirus detection in tomato plantlets and weeds associated to nurseries in Cartago province

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to detect plant infections caused by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and begomoviruses in tomato plantlets, as well as in weeds growing around nursery greenhouses. During one year, starting in April 2008, 168 leaf tissue samples were collected, 90 tomato plantlets and 78 weed...

  11. Differential alkaloid profile in Uncaria tomentosa micropropagated plantlets and root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Palencia, Gabriela R; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana A; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2013-05-01

    The alkaloids of Uncaria tomentosa micropropagated plantlets and root cultures were isolated and identified by NMR and mass spectrometry. Plantlets yielded pteropodine (1), isopteropodine (2), mitraphylline (3), isomitraphylline (4), uncarine F (5), speciophylline (6), rhynchophylline (7) and isorhynchophylline (8). In plantlets growing under continuous light, tetracyclic alkaloids 7 and 8 decreased from 20 ± 1.8 at 2 months to 2.2 ± 0.33 mg/g dry wt at 6 months, while the pentacyclic alkaloids 1-4 increased from 7.7 ± 1.4 to 15 ± 0.05 mg/g dry wt, supporting their biogenetic conversion. Micropropagated plantlets produced four times more alkaloids (27.6 ± 3.1 mg/g dry wt) than greenhouse plants. Plantlet roots yielded 3, 4, 8 and the glucoindole alkaloids 3α-dihydrocadambine (9) and dolichantoside (10), the last one not previously found in Uncaria.

  12. [Morphology and AFLP analysis of tetraploid plantlets of Atractylodes macrocephala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-juan; Li, Ya-ting; Xiang, Zeng-xu

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the genetic basis of morphological variation of tetraploid plantlets of Atractylodes macrocephala, diploid plantlets were taken as experimental material, sterile filtration colchicine was used to soak 0.5-1.0 cm long buds. The difference between morphology and stomatal of diploid and tetraploid of A. macrocephala was compared, and genome polymorphism was explored by AFLP. The results showed that the buds dipped in 0.1% colchicine solution for 36 h was optimal conditions to induce tetraploid of A. macrocephala with induction rate of 32.0%. Morphological indexes such as leaf area index, leaf length and width, the density of stomas and the number of chloroplast of tetraploid were distinctly different from diploid. Four hundred and fifty-one bands ranging with 80-500 bp were amplified with 24 pairs of primers, the rate of polymorphism was 32.59%. These amplification sites of diploid were different from tetraploid of A. macrocephala, and the differences in morphology of them were reflected in the DNA polymorphism.

  13. Viability of post acclimatized plantlets of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Iman Santoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research related to the storage method of planting materials in the form of post acclimatized plantlets of Robusta coffee multiplied by somatic embryogenesis using plastic film that wraped the whole of plantlets. This information is important to support the delivery of clonal planting materials to distribution points, especially Robusta coffee plantlets viability based on condition of the container, storage period and density of plantlets. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, located at 45 m asl. D rainfall type (Schmidt—Ferguson classification. The first experiment determind the effect of container condition and storage duration on viability of Robusta coffee plantlets. Each experimental unit contained 100 plantlets and each treatment was repeated three times with completely randomized design in factorial. The first factor was condition of storage container, i.e. airtight and non air tight. The second factor was storage period levels: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. The storage container was cardboard volume 11 dm3. The second experiment was conducted for the optimization of storage volume and storage period. Each treatment using 100 plantlets was repeated three times in completly randomized design with factorial. The first factor was storage volume of 7 dm3 and 11 dm3, the second factor was storage period levels: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. The results indicated that the maximum store period was obtained in an airtight storage treatment with 10 days, 96.3% plantlets viability, 1% fallen leaves, 3.3% water loss and not significantly different to control. For packing 100 plantlets with height 8—10 cm and leaf number 4—6 can use the volume of container store up to 7 dm3, which showed no significant difference to container volume 11 dm3 in the percentage of viability, the percentage of fallen leaves, loss of water. Key words : Robusta coffee, plantlets, storage

  14. RAPD and phytochemical analysis of Thymus moroderi plantlets after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Medina, Ana; Casas, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation is at present the most reliable strategy to preserve plant germplasm. When aromatic plants are the object of conservation it is necessary to assess not only the genetic but also the phytochemical stability to ensure that plant material maintains its qualities after storage. In this work we present molecular and phytochemical stability data related to a previously described vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for Thymus moroderi Pau ex Martínez. RAPD markers have been used to assess the genetic stability of T. moroderi explants and revealed 0.34 percent of variation in the cryopreserved material studied. Phytochemical data collected from GC-MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts from cryopreserved plantlets rendered a profile in which 1,8-cineole (14.5 percent), camphor (5.9 percent) and borneol (5.2 percent) were the major components. Both data confirmed the suitability of the cryopreservation protocol applied.

  15. Production of eleutherosides in in vitro regenerated embryos and plantlets of Eleutherococcus chiisanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J H; Jung, S J; Murthy, H N; Yu, K W; Paek, K Y; Moon, H K; Choi, Y E

    2005-05-01

    High frequency somatic embryogenesis of Eleutheorcoccus chiisanensis was achieved through suspension culture of embryogenic cells in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog liquid medium supplemented with 30 g sucrose l-1. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were germinated and converted into plantlets using 20 microM: gibberellic acid which were then grown in a 10 l airlift bioreactor. HPLC analysis revealed the accumulation of eleutheroside B, E and E1 in the embryos and plantlets. Thus mass production of embryos and plantlets of E. chiisanensis can be achieved in liquid cultures and the biomass produced may become an alternative source of eleutherosides.

  16. [Study on Rapid Micropropagation in Vitro Technique of Guangfeng Medicinal Yam (Dioscorea opposita) Plantlets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Sheng-qin; Lv, Si-Jie; Zeng, Yan-hong; Fu, You-zhang; Hong, Sen-rong

    2015-11-01

    In order to provide methodology reference for virus-free and germplasm conservation of Guangfeng medicinal yam (Dioscorea opposita) plantlets, rapid micropropagation in vitro technique of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was studied. Using the method of plant tissue culture, single factor test and flow-cytometry, the basic procedure of Guangfeng medicinal yam tissue culture was established and the DNA content of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets and its potted seedlings was detected. The best disinfection procedure of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was washed with sterile water for three times after sterilized with 70% alcohol for 20 - 30 s and then washed with sterile water for three times again after sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride for 10 - 12 min; The best explants of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was slightly woody and more mature stems witha bud; The best proliferation culture medium of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1 mg/L; The best rooting culture medium of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L; The best culture method of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was liquid culture; The best transplanting matrix of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was the mixture of paddy clay and fine sand (1: 2) or the mixture of perlite and vermiculite (1: 2); The DNA content between Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets and its potted seedlings had no significant difference. A fast and efficient micropropagation in vitro technological system of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam is established, and the flow cytometry detect results also show the genetic stability of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets, whose results provide the technical and theoretical basis for the large-scale production of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets.

  17. Development and growth of plantlets of Pinus contorta regenerated from adventitious buds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flygh, G.; Groenroos, R.; Arnold, S. von [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics; Hoegberg, K.A. [The Association for Forest Tree Breeding, Svaloev (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    Before micropropagation techniques can be applied to a particular species, it is crucial to optimize the method and to determine how the micropropagated plants grow in the field. Adventitious shoots developed on embryos of Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. after a 2 h pulse treatment with 250 {mu}M N6-benzyladenine. The time to first subculture after the pulse treatment influenced the yield of adventitious shoots. On average, 68% of the adventitious shoots had developed roots 12 weeks after treatment with 1.25 mM indole-3-butyric acid for 6 h. The auxin treatment stimulated early rooting (i.e. within 6 weeks) but had no effect on late rooting (i.e. after 6 weeks). The size of the plantlets was of importance for the survival when potted. All plantlets with a distinct stem elongated during the first growth period while some without did not. The relative height growth rate of plantlets was similar to that of seedlings. In the field the increase of height was similar for plantlets and seedlings. Plagiotropy was higher for the plantlets than for the seedlings (35 and 10% respectively). We concluded that most plantlets of P. contorta elongate normally and have a similar gross morphology to seedlings 23 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Pemanfataan Pupuk Daun, Air Kelapa dan Bubur Pisang sebagai Komponen Medium Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Dendrobium Kelemense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhwatul Hasanah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahan alternatif alami diperlukan untuk menggantikan bahan kimia yang mahal untuk kegiatan kultur jaringan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh merk, konsentrasi pupuk daun, interaksinya terhadap pertumbuhan plantlet anggrek Dendrobium dan menentukan konsentrasi yang paling optimal dalam menginduksi pertumbuhan plantlet. Percobaan dilakukan dengan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial yang terdiri dari dua perlakuan yaitu merk pupuk dan konsentrasi pupuk, masing-masing dengan tiga taraf perlakuan yaitu merk pupuk (growmore, hyponex, gandasil dan konsentrasi (1 g/l, 2 g/l, 3 g/l. Pertumbuhan plantlet anggrek pada penelitian ini diukur berdasarkan parameter tinggi plantlet, jumlah daun, luas daun, jumlah akar dan panjang akar. Data dianalisis dengan anava dua arah, bila signifikan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Hasil anava menunjukkan merk pupuk berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penambahan jumlah daun, luas daun dan jumlah akar, konsentrasi pupuk berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penambahan tinggi plantlet dan panjang akar sedangkan interaksi merk pupuk dengan konsentrasi pupuk signifikan terhadap penambahan tinggi plantlet dan luas daun. Kombinasi perlakuan yang paling optimal yang menginduksi penambahan tinggi plantlet dan luas daun adalah pupuk hyponex dengan konsentrasi 2 g/l (5,40 cm dan 5,43 cm2. Untuk mendapatkan pertumbuhan plantlet paling tinggi dan luas daun paling optimal digunakan media pupuk hyponex dengan konsentrasi pupuk 2 g/l.Natural alternative materials needed to replace expensive chemicals for tissue culture activities. This study aimed to examine the influence of the brand, the concentration of foliar fertilizer, interaction on the growth of dendrobium orchid Dendrobium and determine the optimal concentration in inducing the growth of plantlets. Experiments were carried out with completely randomized factorial design consisting of two treatments, the brand of fertilizer and manure concentration, each with three levels

  19. Pemanfataan Pupuk Daun, Air Kelapa dan Bubur Pisang sebagai Komponen Medium Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Dendrobium Kelemense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhwatul Hasanah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahan alternatif alami diperlukan untuk menggantikan bahan kimia yang mahal untuk kegiatan kultur jaringan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh merk, konsentrasi pupuk daun, interaksinya terhadap pertumbuhan plantlet anggrek Dendrobium dan menentukan konsentrasi yang paling optimal dalam menginduksi pertumbuhan plantlet. Percobaan dilakukan dengan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial yang terdiri dari dua perlakuan yaitu merk pupuk dan konsentrasi pupuk, masing-masing dengan tiga taraf perlakuan yaitu merk pupuk (growmore, hyponex, gandasil dan konsentrasi (1 g/l, 2 g/l, 3 g/l. Pertumbuhan plantlet anggrek pada penelitian ini diukur berdasarkan parameter tinggi plantlet, jumlah daun, luas daun, jumlah akar dan panjang akar. Data dianalisis dengan anava dua arah, bila signifikan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Hasil anava menunjukkan merk pupuk berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penambahan jumlah daun, luas daun dan jumlah akar, konsentrasi pupuk berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penambahan tinggi plantlet dan panjang akar sedangkan interaksi merk pupuk dengan konsentrasi pupuk signifikan terhadap penambahan tinggi plantlet dan luas daun. Kombinasi perlakuan yang paling optimal yang menginduksi penambahan tinggi plantlet dan luas daun adalah pupuk hyponex dengan konsentrasi 2 g/l (5,40 cm dan 5,43 cm2. Untuk mendapatkan pertumbuhan plantlet paling tinggi dan luas daun paling optimal digunakan media pupuk hyponex dengan konsentrasi pupuk 2 g/l.Natural alternative materials needed to replace expensive chemicals for tissue culture activities. This study aimed to examine the influence of the brand, the concentration of foliar fertilizer, interaction on the growth of dendrobium orchid Dendrobium and determine the optimal concentration in inducing the growth of plantlets. Experiments were carried out with completely randomized factorial design consisting of two treatments, the brand of fertilizer and manure concentration, each with three levels

  20. Proteome of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus co-cultivated with sugarcane plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marise Fonseca; Muniz de Pádua, Vânia Lúcia; de Matos Nogueira, Eduardo; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa

    2010-03-10

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a micro-aerobic bacterium able to fix atmospheric nitrogen in endophytic mode. A proteomic approach was used to analyze proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of sugarcane plantlets. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) showed 42 spots with altered levels of expression. Analysis of these spots by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight in tandem (MALDI-TOF-TOF) identified 38 proteins. Differentially expressed proteins were associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, folding, sorting and degradation processes, and transcription and translation. Among proteins expressed in co-cultivated bacteria, four belong to membrane systems; others, like a transcription elongation factor (GreA), a 60 kDa chaperonin (GroEL), and an outer membrane lipoprotein (Omp16) have also been described in other plant-bacteria associations, indicating a common protein expression pattern as a result of symbiosis. A high protein content of 60kDa chaperonin isoforms was detected as non-differentially expressed proteins of the bacteria proteome. These results allow the assessment of the physiological significance of specific proteins to G. diazotrophicus metabolism and to the pathways involved in bacteria-host endophytic interaction.

  1. Organ and plantlet regeneration of Menyanthes trifoliata through tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Adamczyk-Rogozińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the regeneration of plants through organogenesis from callus tissues of Menyanthes trifoliata are described. The shoot multiplication rate was affected by basal culture media, the type and concentration of cytokinin and subculture number. The best response was obtained when caulogenic calli were cultured on the modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH-M containing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0,5 mg/l and 6-benzyladenine (BA 1 mg/l or zeatin (2 mg/l. Under these conditions ca 7 shoots (mostly 1 cm or more in length per culture in the 5th and 6th passages could be developed. In older cultures (after 11-12 passages there was a trend for more numerous but shorter shoot formation. All regenerated shoots could be rooted on the SH-M medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA within 6 weeks; 80% of in vitro rooted plantlets survived their transfer to soil.

  2. Assessment of mint (Mentha spp. species for large-scale production of plantlets by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Teixeira Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Mentha produce essential oils which are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study evaluates the potential for in vitro propagation and estimates mass production of plantlets of Mentha species. Nine species (M. piperita, M. suaveolens, M. canadensis, M. longiflora, M. aquatica, M. arvensis, Mentha x gracilis, M. gracilis and M. spicata were propagated with five successive 30-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 µM and BAP (4.4 µM. Shoots were rooted in MS with IBA, IAA or NAA (0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 2.5 or 5.0 µM. The rooted plantlets were finally acclimatized in a greenhouse. Studied species increased in multiplication rates between 4.2 and 9.0-fold per month. M. piperita, M. longiflora, M. arvensis, M. x gracilis and M. gracilis showed the greatest potential for plantlet production since the estimated production varied between 6,000 and 27,000 plantlets after five 30-days subcultures. The addition of auxin to the medium did not influence root induction. However, IAA at a concentration of 5 µM provided the best results for root length and fresh weight, with averages 11.1 cm and 0.16 g, respectively. Survival of plantlets reached 100% during the greenhouse acclimatization process.

  3. Impact of LED irradiance on plant photosynthesis and action spectrum of plantlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Most Tahera; Lefsrud, Mark G.

    2014-09-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be selected to target the wavelengths absorbed by plantlets, enabling the users to customize the wavelengths of light required for maximum production. The primary purpose of this experiment was to test the effect of different ratios of red to blue LEDs on tomato plantlets photosynthetic action spectrum. Four light treatments including: red LED (100%) and three ratios of red (661 nm) to blue (449 nm) light (5:1, 10:1 and 19:1) at 60 umol m-2 s-1 for this study. The tomato plantlets cultured without blue light showed a three and half-fold decrease in photosynthesis rate. The highest photosynthetic action spectrum was observed at 10:1 but was not significantly difference from the 5:1 and the lowest action spectrum was observed at 100% red LED light. The tomato plantlets grown without the blue light showed a single-fold increase in plantlet height but were not significantly different from the 10:1 red to blue LED light. This research will allow for improved selection of LED lighting for plant tissue culture.

  4. THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS DERIVED FROM SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS PLANTLET AND SCION STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Friyanti Devy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE of callus culture in vitro is one of citrus propagation ways for producing free virus and genetically true-to-type plantlets. To induce growing of plantlets derived from this technology, they should be grafted ex vitro onto a citrus rootstock. The research aimed to evaluate the growth performance of citrus plants cv. Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis L. that used both plantlets and scions as their stocks. The research was conducted at Tlekung Research Station, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from June 2011 to December 2012. The treatments were done at nursery house by grafting a plantlet and budding a scion onto an eight-month-old Japanese Citroon (JC rootstock plant. The grafted and budded plants of one-year old were maintained at nursery house then transplanted into the field. In the field, the research was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and used 15 plants as unit samples. The results showed that the vegetative growth of Siam Kintamani seedling derived from SE or grafted plant was faster than that of budded plant started from 10 to 12 months after treatment in the nersery house. In the field, the growth of SE grafted plant was only significantly different up to 6 months after transplanting. Plantlets produced from SE in vitro propagation can be used as a good alternative stock material for producing healthy citrus plants. Therefore, a further research is required especially on varieties used, reproductive growth and massive planlets production.

  5. Large-Scale Plantlet Conversion and Ex Vitro Transplantation Efficiency of Siberian Ginseng by Bioreactor Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve large-scale low-cost ex vitro acclimatization of Siberian ginseng plants, heart- and torpedo-shaped secondary somatic embryos (SEs induced from germinated SEs on agar medium were collected and then inoculated to 10-l bubble column bioreactor, respectively. For plantlet conversion, inoculation of torpedo-shaped secondary SEs was more effective than heart-shaped SEs. TS2 (culture of torpedo-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval plantlets had a higher root number and leaf number and larger leaf area than did HS3 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 3-week subculture interval and HS2 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval plantlets. Of these converted plants, TS2 plantlets had higher survival rate (83.7% and growth characteristics after transplantation in a simple shed covered with a 50% sunshade net only for 6 months. TS2 plantlets also showed significantly lower H2O2 content and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and glutathione transferase (GST expression levels as compared to HS2 plants when exposure to ex vitro conditions.

  6. Genetic transformation of calli from maize and regen-eration of herbicide-resistant plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The herbicide-resistant gene als of Arabidopsis thaliana has been transferred into embryonic calli of maize by microprojectile bombardment. We have obtained chlor-sulfuron-resistant calli and regenerated plantlets through selection by herbicide chlorsulfuron. The results of PCR analysis and Southern blotting indicate that gene als has been transferred into some plantlets. The test of spraying chlorsulfuron indicated that the transgenic plantlets had favorable herbicide-resistant trait. The purpose of the re-search was to obtain chlorsulfuron-resistant transgenic ma-ize and hope that this kind of high efficient herbicide could be widely used in rotation soil of wheat and maize. In addi-tion, through spraying herbicide, we could eliminate the hybrid plants and thereby increase the purity of F1 seeds.

  7. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  8. Effects of Lanthanum on Root Growth and Senescence of GF43(Prunus domestica) Plantlet in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫平; 顾福根; 于佳; 沈叶; 溪群华; 刘佳佳

    2004-01-01

    The effect and the action mechanism of lanthanum on GF43 plantlet in vitro were studied. The results of experiments show that root growth rate and dry weight of GF43 by LaCl3 treatments increase. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in root system such as superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT) and peroxidase(POD) apparently enhance. Moreover *O-2 and malond ialdehyde(MDA) contents and cell membrane permeability of GF43 are decreased by LaCl3. The relatively stable membrane structure of cell could also be maintained and the root ageing of GF43 plantlet in vitro delays.

  9. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Juan eGao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. ‘Longshu No. 3’ plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl with two consequent observations (two and six weeks, respectively. The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1 the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2 cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3 mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4 leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5 leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased significantly, and (6 leaf malondialdehyde (MDA content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  10. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  11. Micropropagation of loblolly pine by somatic organogenesis and RAPD analysis of regenerated plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐巍

    2000-01-01

    Organogenesis was induced in callus derived from mature zygotic embryos of six families (J-56, S-1003, E-22, E-311, E-440, and Mc) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) within 24 weeks of culture. Elongation of adventitious buds was achieved on TE medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA). The most suitable medium for root formation proved to be TE medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 IBA, 2 mg·L-1 BA , and 0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA3). 169 regenerated plantlets were transferred to a perlite∶peatmoss∶vermiculite (1:1:1) soil mixture, and 98 plantlets survived in the field. Total DNA was extracted from the needles of the regenerated plantlets of the six families of loblolly pine. Analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 20 arbitrary oligonucleotide 10-mers, show that amplification products were monomorphic for all the plantlets of family J-56, S-1003, E-22, E-311, E-440, and Mc of loblolly pine. These results suggested that organogenesis can be used for clonal micropropagation of some families of loblolly pine.

  12. SIGNAL MEDIATORS AT INDUCTION OF HEAT RESISTANCE OF WHEAT PLANTLETS BY SHORT-TERM HEATING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpets, Yu V; Kolupaev, Yu E; Yastreb, T O

    2015-01-01

    The effects of functional interplay of calcium ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cells of wheat plantlets roots (Triticum aestivum L.) at the induction of their heat resistance by a short-term influence of hyperthermia (heating at the temperature of 42 degrees C during 1 minute) have been investigated. The transitional increase of NO and H2O2 content, invoked by heating, was suppressed by the treatment of plantlets with the antagonists of calcium EGTA (chelator of exocellular calcium), lanthanum chloride (blocker of calcium channels of various types) and neomycin (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipase C). The rise of hydrogen peroxide content, caused by hardening, was partially suppressed by the action of inhibitors of nitrate reductase (sodium wolframate) and NO-synthase (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester--L-NAME), and the increasing of nitric oxide content was suppressed by the treatment of plants with the antioxidant ionol and with the scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (dimethylthiourea). These compounds and antagonists of calcium also partially removed the effect of the rise of plantlets' heat resistance, invoked by hardening heating. The conclusion on calcium's role in the activation of enzymatic systems, generating reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, and on the functional interplay of these signal mediators at the induction of heat resistance of plantlets by hardening heating is made.

  13. Improvement of In Vitro Date Palm Plantlet Acclimatization Rate with Kinetin and Hoagland Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mona M

    2017-01-01

    In vitro propagation of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. is an ideal method to produce large numbers of healthy plants with specific characteristics and has the ability to transfer plantlets to ex vitro conditions at low cost and with a high survival rate. This chapter describes optimized acclimatization procedures for in vitro date palm plantlets. Primarily, the protocol presents the use of kinetin and Hoagland solution to enhance the growth of Barhee cv. plantlets in the greenhouse at two stages of acclimatization and the appropriate planting medium under shade and sunlight in the nursery. Foliar application of kinetin (20 mg/L) is recommended at the first stage. A combination between soil and foliar application of 50% Hoagland solution is favorable to plant growth and developmental parameters including plant height, leaf width, stem base diameter, chlorophyll A and B, carotenoids, and indoles. The optimum values of vegetative growth parameters during the adaptation stage in a shaded nursery are achieved using planting medium containing peat moss/perlite 2:1 (v/v), while in a sunlight nursery, clay/perlite/compost at equal ratio is the best. This protocol is suitable for large-scale production of micropropagated date palm plantlets.

  14. Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Cattleya sp. dengan Perlakuan Benzyl Amino Purine pada Media Dasar Pupuk Daun Modifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HESTIN YUSWANTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Plantlets of Cattleya Orchid on The Fooliar Fertilizer-Based Medium added with Benzyl Amino Purine. The aim of the current research was to investigate the appropriate concentrationof plant growth regulator BAP on the growth of Cattleya plantlet. The experiment was utilized a Randomized Completely Design with five treatments and six replications. The basal medium used was modification of foliar fertilizer of Growmore (trade mark with addition of fish emulsion, Vitamin B1 and active charcoal. BAP concentration used as treatment were 0 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 1.5 ppm and 2.0 ppm. Variables observed were height, leaf number, root number, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plantlets. The result showed that concentration of 1 ppm BAP resulted in the highest value for plantlet height (5.67 cm, leaf number (4.67, root length (2.07 cm, fresh weight (0.36 g and dry weight (0.043 g.

  15. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  17. Cosmeceuticals based on Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocini, G; Saint Aroman, M

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that acne vulgaris begins as an inflammation in and around the sebaceous gland and alterations in the lipid content of sebum, which drive hyperproliferation and increased desquamation of keratinocytes within sebaceous follicles. This prevents sebum drainage, causing the formation of microcomedones, which spontaneously regress or become acne lesions when the pilosebaceous unit is further blocked by the accumulation of corneocytes. These conditions are favourable for the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, which further aggravates acne by enhancing abnormal desquamation, sebum production and inflammation. Also, skin fragility due to inflammation or irritation by anti-comedogenic agents can worsen the situation. Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract (Pierre Fabre Dermo Cosmetique) soothes and restores fragile skin in acne by reducing inflammation and inhibits bacterial adhesion of Propionibacterium acnes. Cosmeceuticals combining Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract and hydro-compensating actives, which are available with or without anti-comedogenic hydroxy acids, provide a balanced, multifaceted approach for acne patients.

  18. Rooting and acclimatization of in vitro plantlets of mtl-D gene modified Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jun-wen; Li Min; Chen Shou-yi; Sun De-you; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho' (Robinia × ambigua 'Idahoensis', R. pseudoacacia × R. viscosa) modified by a mtl-D gene went through five lines and had characteristics of drought tolerance. Three stages of their micropropagation had been studied by previous investigators. The other two stages, in vitro shoot rooting and plantlet acclimatization, still remained unsolved in the laboratory.For this paper, we studied the later two stages based on the previous achievements. Results showed that the highest rooting rate of Idaho locust was 98.4% when the in vitro shoots, over 2.5 cm in height and 0.08 cm in diameter, were placed on a half strength MS was 98.3% when the rooted plantlets were potted in vermiculite. All the stages for micropropagation of the Idaho locust, modified by the mtl-D gene, were assembled completely. The tissue culture plants grow well in the field.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  20. Identification of Discriminant Factors after Exposure of Maize and Common Bean Plantlets to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions limit crop yield and better understanding of plant response to stress will assist the development of more tolerant cultivars. Maize and common bean plantlets were evaluated under salinity, high temperature, drought and waterlogged conditions to identify biochemical markers which could be useful for rapid identification of putative stress tolerant plants. The levels of phenolics (free, cell wall-linked, total, aldehydes including malondialdehyde and chlorophylls (a, b, total were measured on stressed plantlets.  Only two indicators were statistically non-significant:  chlorophyll b in maize plantlets stressed with sodium chloride and malondialdehyde content in drought stressed maize. The most remarkable effects of abiotic stresses can be summarized as follows: (i salinity increased levels of free phenolics in maize plantlets and chlorophylls (a, b, total in common bean; (ii high temperature (40 °C elevated levels of chlorophylls (a, b, total in maize but decreased chlorophylls (a, b, total and free phenolics in common bean; (iii drought increased phenolics and decreased chlorophylls (a, b, total in maize and increased chlorophyll pigments (a, b, total in common bean; (iv waterlogging increased free phenolics and decreased chlorophylls (a, b, total in maize and increased chlorophyll (a, total in common bean. Free phenolics and chlorophylls, especially a, were the most responsive indicators to stress and can, therefore, be considered putative biochemical markers for abiotic stress tolerance in maize and common bean. The use of Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis to differentiate non-stressed and stressed plants in breeding programs is also a novel aspect of this report. Fisher’s linear discriminant functions classified correctly 100% of non-stressed or stressed originally grouped plants.

  1. EFFECTS INDUCED BY DIETHYL SULPHATE ON SOME CYTOGENETICAL PARAMETERS AND LENGTH GROWTH OF HEMP PLANTLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The hemp seeds were treated with diethyl sulphate, in four concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% and in two variants of alkylant exposure (3 and 6 hours. The length growth of plantlets, mitotic index and frequency of chromosomal aberrations were the analyzed parameters. Significant modifications were obtained at the level of parameters in variants treated with DES, comparatively with control.

  2. [Effects of lingfasu on embryoid and plantlet formation of Panax notoginseng in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyuan; Meng, Aidong; Li, Chunxia; Deng, Xiqing; Zhou, Qiwei; Yang, Meichun

    2004-10-01

    On the medium MS added the right amount of 2,4-D and LFS (Angustmycin) and cultured under dark condition, the callus from stem segments of Panax notoginseng could induce a lot of embryoids. In 2-3 months, the ratio of embryoid formation reached about 90%. Then transplanted on MS + 2,4-D 1.5 mg/L + LFS 2 mg/L and cultured under light 20001x, near 30% embryoids could grow and develop as robust plantlets.

  3. Diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple plantlets during acclimatization

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effect of inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple cv. 'Vitória' plantlets during the acclimatization period. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campos dos Goytacazes, in randomized blocks, using a 2x5x5 factorial scheme, with the factors being two types of inocula (absence or presence of a mixture of diazotrophic bacteria that contained Burkholderia sp. UENF 114111, Burkholder...

  4. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses of poplar (Populus yunnanensis plantlets exposed to high temperature and drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantlets of Populus yunnanensis Dode were examined in a greenhouse for 48 h to analyze their physiological and proteomic responses to sustained heat, drought, and combined heat and drought. Compared with the application of a single stress, simultaneous treatment with both stresses damaged the plantlets more heavily. The plantlets experienced two apparent response stages under sustained heat and drought. During the first stage, malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS contents were induced by heat, but many protective substances, including antioxidant enzymes, proline, abscisic acid (ABA, dehydrin, and small heat shock proteins (sHSPs, were also stimulated. The plants thus actively defended themselves against stress and exhibited few pathological morphological features, most likely because a new cellular homeostasis was established through the collaborative operation of physiological and proteomic responses. During the second stage, ROS homeostasis was overwhelmed by substantial ROS production and a sharp decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, while the synthesis of some protective elements, such as proline and ABA, was suppressed. As a result, photosynthetic levels in P. yunnanensis decreased sharply and buds began to die, despite continued accumulation of sHSPs and dehydrin. This study supplies important information about the effects of extreme abiotic environments on woody plants.

  5. Signal mediators at induction of heat resistance of wheat plantlets by short-term heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Karpets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of functional interplay of calcium ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO in the cells of wheat plantlets roots (Triticum aestivum L. at the induction of their heat resistance by a short-term influence of hyperthermia (heating at the temperature of 42 °С during 1 minute have been investigated. The transitional increase of NO and H2O2 content, invoked by heating, was suppressed by the treatment of plantlets with the antagonists of calcium EGTA (chelator of exocellular calcium, lanthanum chloride (blocker of calcium channels of various types and neomycin (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipase C. The rise of hydrogen peroxide content, caused by hardening, was partially suppressed by the action of inhibitors of nitrate reductase (sodium wolframate and NO-synthase (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester – L-NAME, and the increasing of nitric oxide content was suppressed by the treatment of plants with the antioxidant ionol and with the scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (dimethylthiourea. These compounds and antagonists of calcium also partially removed the effect of the rise of plantlets’ heat resistance, invoked by hardening heating. The conclusion on calcium’s role in the activation of enzymatic systems, generating reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, and on the functional interplay of these signal mediators at the induction of heat resistance of plantlets by hardening heating is made.

  6. Plantlet Regeneration of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) in Vitro Tissue Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Long; Dong, Xue-Ni; Ding, Meng-Qi; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Wu, Yan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Shao, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat is an ancient annual dicotyledonous herb, which is widely distributed around the world, specifically in the high altitude area of southwestern China and in the hill region of Himalayan. The plantlet regeneration of tartary buckwheat via somatic embryogenesis or multiple shoot induction was investigated in two different tartary buckwheats, Yuanzi and Xichang. The regeneration ability of Yuanzi was better than Xichang tartary buckwheat, and the hypocotyls were better than cotyledons as tartary buckwheat plantlet regeneration explants via somatic embryogenesis. The most suitable medium for callus induction was Murashige and Skoog basal medium added 2 mg/L 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L Kinetin, which could reach up to 98.96% callus induction percentage. The plantlet regeneration percentage from callus of tartary buckwheat could reach up to 55.77%, which induced on 2.0 mg/L Benzyladenine and 1.0 mg/L KT in MS basal medium. In addition, maximum of multiple shoot induction percentage was 69.05%, which was observed in case of Yuanzi tartary buckwheat in MS basal medium with added 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 1.0 mg/L Thidiazuron. Roots induction of regenerated plants were achieved on 1/2 MS basal medium with added 1mg/L Indole-3-Butytric acid, which has 75% survival after transferred regenerated plants to soil under field conditions.

  7. Diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple plantlets during acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurilena de Aviz Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study examines the effect of inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple cv. 'Vitória' plantlets during the acclimatization period. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campos dos Goytacazes, in randomized blocks, using a 2x5x5 factorial scheme, with the factors being two types of inocula (absence or presence of a mixture of diazotrophic bacteria that contained Burkholderia sp. UENF 114111, Burkholderia silvatlantica UENF 11711, and Herbaspirillum seropedicae HRC 54, five levels of urea (0, 2, 5, 7, and 10g L-1, and five evaluation periods (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days following the planting of plantlets in trays, and with four replications of each treatment. An increase in the dried weight of shoots and roots of micropropagated pineapple cv. 'Vitória' plants depended on inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, and plantlets acclimatization could be reduced by up to 57 days, depending on the concentration of urea fertilizer.

  8. STUDIES ON HARDENING AND ACCLIMITIZATION OF MICROPROPAGATED PLANTLETS OF BANANA CV. GRAND NAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S AHMED

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental plant material of cv. Grand Naine was raised through tissue culture on MS medium using suckers as explants. The MS medium supplemented with BAP 4.00 mg/L+ IAA 2.00 mg/L was used for shoot multiplication. The rooting was obtained on MS (half strength medium fortified with IBA 1.00 mg/L and activated charcoal 200 mg/L. The in vitro rooted plantlets were hardened and acclimatized by using different treatments. Plants transplanted at the age of 4 weeks after root initiation gave maximum survival (100.00 % during transplanting. These plants were hardened in glass beaker and polythene bags singly or in cluster. The maximum survival during hardening (100.00 % was observed by covering the plantlets with glass beaker individually and kept in culture room. Out of various potting mixture tried, the potting mixture containing soil: sand and FYM (2:1:1 v/v/v gave maximum height and survival of plantlets. The results showed that out of different potting mixtures used for hardening soil: sand and FYM (2:1:1 v/v/v showed cent percent survival.

  9. In vitro sensitivity of fig plantlets to gamma rays; Sensitividade in vitro de brotacoes de figueira a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ester Alice [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico Triangulo e Alto Paranaiba], e-mail: ester@epamig.br; Pasqual, Moacir [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura; Tulmann Neto, Augusto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas

    2009-07-15

    Fig breeding programs through conventional methods are rare in many countries, e.g. Brazil, since the wasp Blastophaga psenes, which is responsible for the natural pollination, is not present. For these cases a low cost alternative for the breeding program is the induction of physical mutagenesis by radiation. The sensitivity of fig explant buds of different sizes to gamma radiation were evaluated. Fig plantlets 'Roxo de Valinhos' already established in vitro were classified by size in 2.5 to 4.5 cm, 5 to 9 7 cm and 8 to 10 cm long, and irradiated with: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy doses. After irradiation each plantlet was cut in pieces containing one-bud and transferred to WPM culture medium, according to the bud position: medium and apical. Explants were grown in a growth room for 90 days when, explant mortality, root formation, height of aerial part, number of buds and plantlet weight were evaluated. Doses of up to 50 Gy do not cause plantlet death and that doses larger than 30 Gy inhibit root formation. Therefore, the 30 Gy dose may be recommended for the irradiation of fig plantlets larger than 2.5 cm. (author)

  10. Inoculation of somatic embryos of sweet potato with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus improves embryo survival and plantlet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, W; de Carvalho, C H; Sylvia, D M

    2000-08-01

    Responses of somatic embryos of sweet potato (Ipomoea batata (L.) Poir., cv. White Star) at different developmental stages to in vitro inoculation with Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerdemann) (isolate INVAM FL329) were evaluated. Somatic embryos were grown in glass tubes containing sterilized vermiculite and sand. A layer of natrosol plus White's medium was used as a carrier for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal spores. Survival of embryos inoculated with AM fungi was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of noninoculated embryos at the rooted-cotyledonary-torpedo and rooted-elongated-torpedo developmental stages. Mycorrhizae significantly (P < 0.05) increased plantlet formation only when inoculation occurred at the rooted-elongated-torpedo developmental stage. The growth stage at which the embryos were inserted into the glass tubes exerted a significant influence upon plantlet formation, and plantlet formation was further enhanced by inoculation with G. etunicatum. Plantlet formation was greatest at the rooted-elongated-torpedo stage. These results demonstrate that inoculation of somatic embryos with AM fungi improves embryo survival and plantlet formation, and could enhance use of somatic embryos as synthetic seeds.

  11. Suppression of maize plantlets growth under mutual action of chromium and nickel

    OpenAIRE

    О. М. Piskova; O. M. Vinnychenko; V. М. Grishko

    2008-01-01

    Mutual toxicity of chromium and nickel sulphates for growth and development of maize plantlets was studied. Its combined action at low concentrations (10 –5 M) results to significant suppression of growth of both above-ground and root systems of maize. At the beginning of growth the greater negative effect of the salts mixture at high concentration (10 –4 M) was observed for the plantlets’ roots. Then, on the sixth day, the growth of above-ground and root system was inhibited equally. Applica...

  12. A Novel System for Proliferation,Maintenance and Plantlet Germinationfrom Somatic Embryo of Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPing; WANGGang; JIJing; WUYing

    2004-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis was successfully induced with auxin in high concentration from immature cotyledons of 18genotypes of soybean(Glycin emax(L)Merr.)adaptable for planting in Northeast China.The frequency of somatic embryogenesis varied from 0.29%to77.62%among 18genotypes of soybean.The proliferative somatic embryos were obtained from 10genotypes of soybean at rate of 5.2%-22.1%.For the first time.plantlets were obtained even after subcultured and maintained on solid medium for over one year.This system provided a new and efficient receptor for genetic transformation of soybean.

  13. Effects of antibiotics on plantlet regeneration via organogenesis in Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Xia; Chen Xiao-yang; Li Wei; Du Zhi-yan

    2006-01-01

    Four antibiotics, kanamycin, geneticin, carbenicillin and cefotaxime, were evaluated for their effect on the regeneration of adventitious buds, shoot differentiation, rooting from regenerated shoots of Populus euphratica as well as on their control of Agrobacterium-mediated transformations. Results showed that the optimum concentration ranges of kanamycin and geneticin were 15-20 and 10-15 mg·L-1 at the stage of transgenic plantlet selection. The inhibitory effects of cefotaxime and carbenicillin varied among different genotypes of Agrobacterium. The inhibition of cefotaxime on Agrobacterium C58 was stronger than that of carbenicillin.LBA4404 and their optimum concentrations were both 150 mg·L-1.

  14. Induction of callus from axillary buds of taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta, Araceae) and subsequent plantlet regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, T W; Young, J L; Fan, K P; Arditti, J

    1990-12-01

    Axillary buds of taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta, Araceae) cultured on half strength Murashige-Skoog medium (HMS) containing taro extract (HMSTE) and 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid produce a compact, hard, slow growing callus which is not very active morphogenetically and produces only a few plantlets. When cultured on HMSTE plus 5 mg 1(-1) each of naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyl adenine (HMSNB) the buds produce a fast growing, friable and morphogenetically active callus. Meristematic regions form on the friable callus after 30 days on HMSNB. If transferred to HMSTE at this point the callus gives rise to plantlets. Addition of taro extract to the media is required for the culture of buds, induction of callus and plantlet regeneration.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of off-type and normal phenotype somatic plantlets derived from somatic embryos of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Hugo Pacheco de Freitas; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Caprestano, Clarissa Alves; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Morphological disorders in a relevant portion of emerged somatic embryos have been a limiting factor in the true-to-type plantlet formation in Acca sellowiana. In this sense, the present study undertook a comparison between normal phenotype and off-type somatic plantlets protein profiles by means of the 2-D DIGE proteomics approach. Off-type and normal phenotype somatic plantlets obtained at 10 and 20 days conversion were evaluated. Results indicated 12 exclusive spots between normal and off-type plantlets at 10 days conversion, and 17 exclusive spots at 20 days conversion. Also at 20 days conversion, 4 spots were differentially expressed, up- or down-regulated. Two proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism were only expressed in off-types at 10 days conversion, suggesting a more active respiratory pathway. A vicilin-like storage protein was only found in off-types at 20 days conversion, indicating that plantlets may present an abnormality in the mobilization of storage compounds, causing reduced vigor in the development of derived plantlets. The presence of heat shock proteins were only observed during formation of normal phenotype somatic plantlets, indicating that these proteins may be involved in normal morphogenesis of plantlets formed. These new findings shed light on possible genetic or epigenetic mechanisms governing A. sellowiana morphogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anther Culture of Chinese Radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. Longinnatus Bailey): Response of Different Genotypes to the Embryogenesis and the Traits of Regenerated Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aims were to ① conduct anther culture of Chinese radish varieties; ② observe the development of embryos from anther culture; ③ study the response of different genotypes to embryogenesis in anther culture; ④ observe the morphology of regenerated plantlets; ⑤ analyze the ploidy level of regenerated plantlets arising from the anther culture process. [ Method]Anthers of 15 genotypes with diverse genetic backgrounds of Chinese radish have been cultured in vitro and induced to undergo embryogenesis and plant formation. [Result] Of 15 genotypes evaluated, four produced embryos. The genotype was the main factor to influence the embryogenesis. The morphology and the ploidy of the regenerated plantlets were observed, and the anther-derived plantlets included a mix of haploids, diploids and hexaploids. Of the plants that regenerated from anther embryos 60% were diploid. [ Conclusion] The plantlets had the high ability to double spontaneously.

  17. Short Communication: Effect of mulching materials on mini tuber production of potato from in vitro plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.N. MAJUMDER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Majumder DAN, Nath SC, Kabir MA, Majumder S. 2016. Effect of mulching materials on mini tuber production of potato from in vitro plantlets. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 123-127. This paper describes the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato mini tuber production in Bangladesh. The field experiment was carried out during the Rabi season of 2013-2014 to 2014-2015 with virus free in vitro cultured plantlets of var. Diamant. The mulching materials of water hyacinth mulch (WHM, rice straw mulch (RSM and black polythene mulch (BPM were compared to no-mulching (control to find out suitable mulching material (s for obtaining higher tuber yield. During the whole production period morphological characters, yield characters as well as of soil temperature and soil moisture were assessed. The results showed that WHM (5.28 t/ac and RSM (4.59 t/ac had a positive effect on increased the proportion of tuber size above 28 mm and on increasing of tuber yields by 54.0% to 77.2% compared with control (2.98 t/ac. Higher soil temperatures were recorded with plastic mulch caused lower potato tuber yield (3.04 t/ac while WHM and RSM decreased soil temperatures and increased the moisture percentage. The mulching of mini tubers had negative effect on tubers quality in regards of scab, green tuber and weed biomass.

  18. Effects of mechanical vibration on root development of Actinidia chinensis plantlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-cheng; DING Jian-ping; WANG Bo-chu

    2007-01-01

    The root development of Actinidia chinensis plantlets was studied in exposure to environmental stress of mechanical vibration at respectively 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, 4 Hz and 5 Hz. The plantlets exposed to vibration stimuli at all those frequencies have a larger total number and a larger total length of roots and a smaller permeability of root plasma-membrane, compared with those cultivated in an environment without vibration stress. Vibration at respectively 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz enhances root activity and the 3 Hz vibration is the most favorable. There is an obvious negative correlation between root activity and permeability of root plasma-membrane. The effects may be explained by the likelihood that mechanical vibration at an appropriate frequency facilitates roots' absorbing water and minerals which are indispensable to inducing and synthesizing in roots some active substances favorable to growth. Nevertheless, overstress damages the integrity of root plasm-membrane, increases the permeability, and results in the disability of protecting root cells.

  19. [Infection progress of arbuscular mycorrhizae on tissue-cultured plantlets of Pinellia ternata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuelian; Guo, Qiaosheng; Liu, Zuoyi; Zhu, Guosheng; Liu, Yongxiang

    2011-01-01

    To study the Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) formation progress and infection characteristics between tissue culture plantlets of Pinellia ternata and Glomus mosseae. The tissue culture plantlets of P. ternata were inoculated with G. mosseae, the formation of AM were sampled and observed with microscopy by staining. The hyphae of G. mosseae began to penetrate the root epidermis after 10 days of inoculation. Lots of intracellular hyphae formed in cortex cells at the 15th day. Arbuscules started to form and there were some hyphae on the root at the 20th day. At the 25th day, many arbuscules formed and most as Arum type. Some arbuscles started to disintegrate at the 30th day, and a few of vesicles occurred. Lots of spores formed after 35 days. At the 40th day, some vesicles began to decline. The hand section showed that the intercellular hyphae gradually formed in intercellular space, and the hyphae branched in cortex cells and occupied most cell lumen finally. It is expounded that P. ternata and G. mosseae could recognize each other quickly and form a symbiont system.

  20. Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem artichoke plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zengrong; Zhao, Long; Chen, Dandan; Liang, Mingxiang; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Long, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Proline accumulation is an important mechanism for osmotic regulation under salt stress. In this study, we evaluated proline accumulation profiles in roots, stems and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plantlets under NaCl stress. We also examined HtP5CS, HtOAT and HtPDH enzyme activities and gene expression patterns of putative HtP5CS1, HtP5CS2, HtOAT, HtPDH1, and HtPDH2 genes. The objective of our study was to characterize the proline regulation mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke, a moderately salt tolerant species, under NaCl stress. Jerusalem artichoke plantlets were observed to accumulate proline in roots, stems and leaves during salt stress. HtP5CS enzyme activities were increased under NaCl stress, while HtOAT and HtPDH activities generally repressed. Transcript levels of HtP5CS2 increased while transcript levels of HtOAT, HtPDH1 and HtPDH2 generally decreased in response to NaCl stress. Our results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role. Both HtPDH genes may function in proline degradation.

  1. Vetiver plantlets in aerated system degrade phenol in illegally dumped industrial wastewater by phytochemical and rhizomicrobial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Teeratitayangkul, Pimpawat; Prasertsung, Isarawut; Parichatprecha, Rattapoohm; Jitsangiam, Peerapong; Chomchalow, Narong; Wichai, Siriwan

    2017-05-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using vetiver plantlets (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) on a floating platform with aeration to degrade phenol (500 mg/L) in illegally dumped industrial wastewater (IDIWW). The IDIWW sample was from the most infamous illegal dumping site at Nong Nae subdistrict, Phanom Sarakham district, Chachoengsao province, Thailand. Laboratory results suggested that phenol degradation by vetiver involves two phases: Phase I, phytopolymerization and phyto-oxidation assisted by root-produced peroxide (H2O2) and peroxidase (POD), followed by phase II, a combination of phase I with enhanced rhizomicrobial degradation. The first 360-400 h of phenol degradation were dominated by phytopolymerization and phyto-oxidation yielding particulate polyphenols (PPP) or particulate organic matter (POM) as by-products, while phenol decreased to around 145 mg/L. In Phase II, synergistically, rhizomicrobial growth was ∼100-folds greater on the roots of the vetiver plantlets than in the IDIWW and participated in the microbial degradation of phenol at this lower phenol concentration, increasing the phenol degradation rate by more than three folds. This combination of phytochemical and rhizomicrobiological processes eliminated phenol in IDIWW in less than 766 h (32 days), while without the vetiver plantlets, phenol degradation by aerated microbial degradation alone may require 235 days. To our knowledge, this is the first that systematically reveals the complete phenol degradation mechanism by vetiver plantlets in real aerated wastewater.

  2. How Age of Transplants from In Vitro Derived Potato Plantlets Affects Crop Growth and Seed Tuber Yield After Field Transplanting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro produced plantlets are used in potato seed systems for production of minitubers under protected conditions or for production of transplants to be transplanted to the field. Three field experiments were carried out to analyse how transplant age (Age) affected the field performance. In the

  3. Nitric Oxide and Brassinosteroids Mediated Fungal Endophyte-Induced Volatile Oil Production Through Protein Phosphorylation Pathways in Atractylodes lancea Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Gang Ren; Chuan-Chao Dai

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have been isolated from almost every plant, infecting their hosts without causing visible disease symptoms, and yet have still proved to be involved in plant secondary metabolites accumulation. To decipher the possible physiological mechanisms of the endophytic fungus-host interaction, the role of protein phosphorylation and the relationship between endophytic fungus-induced kinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) and brassinolide (BL) in endophyte-enhanced volatile oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea plantlets were investigated using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Inoculation with the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 enhanced the activities of total protein phosphorylation, Ca2þ-dependent protein kinase, and volatile oil accumulation in A. lancea plantlets. The upregulation of protein kinase activity could be blocked by the BL inhibitor brassinazole. Furthermore, pretreatments with the NO-specific scavenger cPTIO significantly reduced the increased activities of protein kinases in A. lancea plantlets inoculated with endophytic fungus. Pretreatments with different protein kinase inhibitors also reduced fungus-induced NO production and volatile oil accumulation, but had barely no effect on the BL level. These data suggest that protein phosphorylation is required for endophyte-induced volatile oil production in A. lancea plantlets, and that crosstalk between protein phosphorylation and the NO pathway may occur and act as a downstream signaling event of the BL pathway.

  4. In vitro callus induction and plantlet regeneration of Achyranthes aspera L., a high value medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monokesh Kumer Sen; Shamima Nasrin; Shahedur Rahman; Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study callus induction from different explants (internode, leaf, root) and in vitro plantlets propagation from medicinally important plant Achyranthes aspera L. Methods:Sterilized explants were prepared by using 0.1%HgCl2 and 0.5%Bavistin and callus was obtained when cultured onto Murashige Skoog’s (MS) medium by using different concentrations and combination of 2,4-D, NAA, BAP, IAA, IBA with 3%sucrose and 0.8%agar. Induced callus was immediately transferred to MS medium containing at different concentrations of phytohormones for shootlets and rootlets induction respectively. Results:Sterilization treatment of 0.1%HgCl2 for 2-3 min and Bavistin 0.5%for 10-12 min showed the highest percentage of asepsis and survival rate. Maximum induction of callus was obtained from a combination of 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L NAA from leaf. Highest shootlets number (4.83±0.17) and length (3.8±0.16) cm were observed on full strength MS medium when fortified with BAP 4.0 mg/L and KIN 0.5 mg/L. Concerted efforts of BAP 2.0 mg/L and NAA 0.5 mg/L on full strength MS medium showed highest leaf number (6.77±0.94). In vitro raised shoots were allowed to root on different strengths of MS medium fortified with IAA and IBA at different concentrations. Experimentally, 3.0 mg/L IBA was enabled to induce maximum rootlets number (10.0±9.82) on full strength MS medium. Afterwards, regenerated shoots with well developed roots were successfully subjected to hardening process and were acclimatized. The survived plantlets showed 66.67%survival frequency without any morphological abnormality. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that different explants were good source of callus induction, morphology analysis as well as indirect plantlets regeneration.

  5. Asymbiotic culture of Cattleya intermedia Graham (Orchidaceae: the influence of macronutrient salts and sucrose concentrations on survival and development of plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Hisayuki Sasamori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCattleya intermediais an Atlantic Forest species endemic to Brazil that is classed as vulnerable on the list of threatened species. In this study, C. intermedia plantlets were micropropagated in an asymbiotic culture and the influence of different concentrations of sucrose (15, 30, 45 and 60 g L-1, plus a zero sucrose medium and macronutrient salts (complete Murashige and Skoog (MS medium and half MS medium (with half-strength macronutrients on survival and development of the plantlets was evaluated. In all treatments 100% plantlet survival was achieved. The integrated analysis of height of aerial part, number of leaves per plantlet, fresh mass, number of roots per plantlet and length of the longest root showed that the plantlets exhibited greatest development at the half-strength macronutrient concentrations with 45 or 60 g L-1 of sucrose, as well as at the complete macronutrient concentration with 60 g L-1 of sucrose. Plantlets acclimatized and reintroduced to an environment in which the species occurs naturally exhibited 98.6% survival. The results obtained in this study allowed the establishment of optimal conditions for asymbiotic micropropagation, which is a requisite for future studies focused on conservation of C. intermedia.

  6. Suppression of maize plantlets growth under mutual action of chromium and nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. М. Piskova

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutual toxicity of chromium and nickel sulphates for growth and development of maize plantlets was studied. Its combined action at low concentrations (10–5 M results to significant suppression of growth of both above-ground and root systems of maize. At the beginning of growth the greater negative effect of the salts mixture at high concentration (10–4 M was observed for the plantlets’ roots. Then, on the sixth day, the growth of above-ground and root system was inhibited equally. Application of high nickel concentration and low chrome concentration, in contrast to high chromium and low nickel levels, depresses the biomass gain. Meanwhile the length of roots and leaves was affected by both variants of concentrations identically.

  7. Asymbiotic germination, seedling development and plantlet propagation of Encyclia aff. oncidioides - an endangered orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łojkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the best germination conditions of Encyclia aff. oncidioides seeds, five different media (Fast, Knudson C modified by Vajrabhaya, Murashige and Skoog, PB2 and modified Vacin and Went with different concentrations of plant growth regulators such as benzyladenine (BA, naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and gibberellic acid (GA3 were tested. No beneficial effect was observed when BA and NAA were applied to the germination medium and GA3 inhibited germination. The effect of light, activated charcoal, coconut water and casein hydrolysate on seed germination was also studied. The growth rate of seedlings on three different media supplemented with activated charcoal and plant growth regulators was checked. The applied plant growth regulators had no beneficial effect on the further growth of seedlings. Fast and PB2 media with 0.2% activated charcoal proved to be the best for E. aff. oncidioides seed germination, seedling development and plantlet propagation.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet from petal cultures of pomegranate, Punica granatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraja, K; Neelambika, G K

    1996-07-01

    Somatic embryos were induced through petal cultures on MS supplemented with various growth adjuvants individually or in different combinations. Numerous embryoids formed from friable callus on MS with 5 mg/L of IAA, IBA or NAA developed only roots, but those formed on MS with 5 mg/L of BAP or KN developed shoots. Explants reared on MS supplemented with IAA (5 mg/L) and BAP (5 mg/L) though differentiated numerous embryoids but developed multilobed or fused cotyledons. However, callus induced on MS with IAA (1 mg/L) or IBA (1 mg/L) on subculturing in the same medium with half-strength salts and sucrose (4%) produced both roots and shoots resulting in plantlets.

  9. Rhealba® oat plantlet extract: evidence of protein-free content and assessment of regulatory activity on immune inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeau, Anne; Aries, Marie-Françoise; Boé, Jean-François; Brenk, Manuela; Crebassa-Trigueros, Véronique; Vaissière, Clémence; Teysseyre, Valérie; Bieber, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Owing to their high content of flavonoids and saponins, plantlets of Avena sativa L. (Poaceae) are likely to possess anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties of value in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). With a view to its potential use in atopic subjects at risk of developing sensitisation to dietary proteins, we prepared a plantlet extract without proteins and isolated 2 flavonoids, isoorientin-2''- O-arabinoside (1) and isovitexin-2''- O-arabinoside (2), and two saponins, avenacosides A (3) and B (4). The absence of protein in this extract was evidenced by electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. Furthermore, Western immunoblotting demonstrated the absence of cross-reaction between grain and plantlet proteins. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the plantlet extract and its compounds IN VITRO in a model of keratinocyte inflammation: 6-keto prostaglandin F1 α production was inhibited by the plantlet extract (- 35 % and - 57 % at 10 and 30 µg/mL, respectively; p isoorientin-2''- O-arabinoside (- 31 %, - 51 %, and - 56 % at 3, 10, and 30 µg/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). Intracellular interleukin-2 production in activated T lymphocytes was also inhibited by 16 %, 27 %, and 31 % with 3, 10, and 30 µg/mL plantlet extract, respectively, and by 23 % and 32 % with 3 and 10 µg/mL avenacoside A, respectively, (p < 0.001), demonstrating their immunoregulatory activity IN VITRO. The plantlet extract was also effective on the phenotype and function of dendritic cells (DC) differentiated from monocytes. It decreased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on DC and significantly impaired their stimulatory activity on autologous T-cell proliferation (-25 %, p < 0.05). In conclusion, this protein-free oat plantlet extract exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities in vitro.

  10. Establishment of multiple shoot clumps from maize(Zea mays L.) and regeneration of herbicide-resistant transgenic plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国圣; 张卿伟; 张举仁; 毕玉平; 单雷

    2002-01-01

    A kind of quick, efficient and season-free inducing embryoid and multiple shoot clumps system from shoot tip meristems that derived from elite inbreds of maize was established. The herbicide-resistant gene als(coding Acetolactate synthase) isolated from a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred to tissue pieces of maize multiple shoot clumps by microprojectile bombardment. Herbicide-resistant tissue and regenerants were obtained through selections with herbicide chlorsulfuron. PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization indicated that gene als has been transferred to some regenerants. The test of spraying chlorsulfuron displayed that the transgenic plantlets and R1 plants had favorable herbicide-resistant trait. We have established a new genotype-free system of maize which could rapidly and efficiently produce large quantities of transgenic plantlets.

  11. Evaluation of Streptomyces sp. strain g10 for suppression of Fusarium wilt and rhizosphere colonization in pot-grown banana plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getha, K; Vikineswary, S; Wong, W H; Seki, T; Ward, A; Goodfellow, M

    2005-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain g10 exhibited strong antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) races 1, 2 and 4 in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. Treating the planting hole and roots of 4-week-old tissue-culture-derived 'Novaria' banana plantlets with strain g10 suspension (10(8) cfu/ml), significantly (P < 0.05) reduced wilt severity when the plantlets were inoculated with 10(4) spores/ml Foc race 4. The final disease severity index for leaf symptom (LSI) and rhizome discoloration (RDI) was reduced about 47 and 53%, respectively, in strain g10-treated plantlets compared to untreated plantlets. Reduction in disease incidence was not significant (P < 0.05) when plantlets were inoculated with a higher concentration (10(6) spores/ml) of Foc race 4. Rhizosphere population of strain g10 showed significant (P = 0.05) increase of more than 2-fold at the end of the 3rd week compared to the 2nd week after soil amendment with the antagonist. Although the level dropped, the rhizosphere population at the end of the 6th week was still nearly 2-fold higher than the level detected after 2 weeks. In contrast, the root-free population declined significantly (P = 0.05), nearly 4-fold after 6 weeks when compared to the level detected after 2 weeks. Neither growth-inhibiting nor growth-stimulating effects were observed in plantlets grown in strain g10-amended soil.

  12. Protocol for acclimatization of in vitro cultured Potamogeton praelongus – aspect of plantlet size and type of substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Prausová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine suitable substrate type and optimal plant size for transfer of plantlets from in vitro to ex vitro under experimental outdoor conditions. Tests focused on the effect of substrate type (muddy and sandy and starting size of plantlets gained through in vitro seed germination (0–3, 3.1–5,5.1–6, 6.1–10 cm on plant growth. Three parameters (fresh weight, length, and the number of leaves were compared to evaluate growth. Basic water parameters in experimental water tanks were regularly measured (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, shadow intensity and controlled to reach similar conditions to those in the natural habitat of this species. Overwintering was studied in a cellar with newly defined size categories (≤6, 6.1–8, 8.1–10, 10.1–12, 12.1–15 cm. Both substrate type and starting size of plantlets significantly impacted growth. Plantlets grew better in the muddy substrate while a 100% success rate of rooting was gained with a starting size of 6.1–10 cm in both substrates. The biggest increase in fresh weight was observed with a starting size of 3.1–5 cm and 5.1–6 cm in both substrates. The greatest increase in fresh weight was observed in plants with a starting size of 3.1–5 cm in the muddy substrate (more than 95% increase. The best overwintering results were gained in the 6.1–8 cm size category.

  13. Induction of reactive oxygen species and the potential role of NADPH oxidase in hyperhydricity of garlic plantlets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Cheng, Yaqi; Kong, Xiangyu; Liu, Min; Jiang, Fangling; Wu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder associated with oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in plants is initiated by various enzymatic sources, including plasma membrane-localized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, cell wall-bound peroxidase (POD), and apoplastic polyamine oxidase (PAO). The origin of the oxidative burst associated with hyperhydricity remains unknown. To investigate the role of NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO in ROS production and hyperhydricity, exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and inhibitors of each ROS-producing enzyme were applied to explore the mechanism of oxidative stress induction in garlic plantlets in vitro. A concentration of 1.5 mM H2O2 increased endogenous ROS production and hyperhydricity occurrence and enhanced the activities of NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO. During the entire treatment period, NADPH oxidase activity increased continuously, whereas POD and PAO activities exhibited a transient increase and subsequently declined. Histochemical and cytochemical visualization demonstrated that specific inhibitors of each enzyme effectively suppressed ROS accumulation. Moreover, superoxide anion generation, H2O2 content, and hyperhydric shoot frequency in H2O2-stressed plantlets decreased significantly. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor was the most effective at suppressing superoxide anion production. The results suggested that NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO were responsible for endogenous ROS induction. NADPH oxidase activation might play a pivotal role in the oxidative burst in garlic plantlets in vitro during hyperhydricity.

  14. [Induction of hairy roots and plantlet regeneration of Bupleurum chinense DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Xu, Jie-sen; Zhao, Li-zi; Wei, Jian-he; Yang, Hong-yi; Sui, Chun

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the induction of hairy roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. was explored and established after experiments at different conditions: A. rhizogenes A4 was used to infect the leaves bases of B. chinense tube seedlings. The explants were co-cultured on Phytagel-solidified media for 3 days and then, were turned into solid media, similar with the co-culture media except that bacteriostat was added. After 10 days, rootlets began to appear and after 4 to 5 weeks, rootlets can be converted into liquid shaking culture stage. Plants regeneration from hairy root was useful for the research of new germplasm production and the variety improvement breeding. In the present study, the regenerated plants were obtained. One approach was to continuously culture under light conditions the seedlings which parting off spontaneously from the hairy roots during liquid shaking culture. The other approach was to culture the callus-like tissues produced by hairy roots with the optimized regeneration media for the induction of regenerated plants. The results of present study provide a technique to induce hairy roots and plantlet regeneration of B. chinense and this technique is helpful for the researches on metabolism, especially on the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of B. chinense.

  15. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  16. Micropropagation of an Exotic Ornamental Plant, Calathea crotalifera, for Production of High Quality Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahril Efzueni Rozali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v NaOCl, 70% (v/v ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP, 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA. The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera.

  17. Growing Tomato Plantlets on Various Mixtures of Peat and Sand or Peat and Perlite. Note 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Patruno

    Full Text Available Given the considerable interest in use of substrates derived from various mixtures in the nursery sector and in light of the enormous variety of possibilities offered by this technique, in contrast with the still small number of researches dedicated to this theme, this study was set out to examine in-depth the growing of tomato plantlets on peat-based substrates. Two series of peat mixtures were produced, one with sand and the other with perlite, with a volume ratio of the other two components with respect to the peat of 1:0, 2.5:1, 1:1 and 1:2.5. Tomato seedlings were cultivated for 30 or 25 days in small perforated pots containing these mixtures. The irrigation was calculated by weighing each pot daily, measuring the water lost by evaporation-transpiration, then just past an established lower threshold value bringing the water back up to a defined upper threshold. Two water regimes were compared in the sand series and three in the perlite series.

  18. Micropropagation of an exotic ornamental plant, Calathea crotalifera, for production of high quality plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozali, Shahril Efzueni; Rashid, Kamaludin A; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera.

  19. In vitro high frequency regeneration of plantlets of Vigna mungo and their ex vitro growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, S; Singh, R R; Chaturvedi, H C

    2001-09-01

    Of the five explants of V. mungo var. T9 used, the excised shoot tips gave best response with regard to offshoot formation followed by the embryonal axis explants. While a treatment comprising 0.5 mgL(-1) BAP, 0.5 mgL(-1) 2iP and 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA induced differentiation of an average 10 offshoots in shoot tip explants, only 3 offshoots were formed in the explants of embryonal axis in a treatment containing 0.5 mgL(-1) BAP and 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA, found optimum for them. Multiple shoots differentiated when explants with earlier regenerated and growing offshoots were first cultured in a treatment containing 0.1 mgL(-1) BAP, 0.25 mgL(-1) IAA and 5 mgL(-1) CCC and then subcultured in the same treatment but having only 1 mgL(-1) CCC. The isolated shoots rooted in 0.5 mgL(-1) IAA resulted in the formation of complete plantlets of an average height of 15 cm in 20 days. The in vitro-regenerated plants grew normally under field conditions and came to flowering as well.

  20. Effects of Lanthanum and Europium on Rooting of Plantlet Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl. in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫平; 洪法水; 万志刚; 周玉珍

    2002-01-01

    The effect of La3+ and Eu3+ on the rooting of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. plantlet in vitro was studied with adding La3+ and Eu3+ to the rooted medium. The rooting rate, the number of root and the length of root were studied after transplanting 20 d. The activity of peroxidase, nitrate reductase and fresh weight of roots were determined after transplanting 44 d. The results show that the optimum concentration range of La3+ (1.0~3.0 μmol·L-1), Eu3+ (2.0~3.0 μmol*L-1) in the rooted medium can increase the rooting rate and the fresh weight of roots, and promote the length of root and raise the activities of peroxidase and nitrate reductase significantly. La3+ has more effect in improving the rooting rate, root length and the activities of peroxidase and less effect in promoting root fresh weight and the activities of nitrate reductase than Eu3+.

  1. Iron oxide nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin polluted of Zea mays plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Racuciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental investigation is focused on the study of assimilatory pigments and nucleic acid levels in young plants intended for agricultural use (Zea mays in presence of water based magnetic fluid added in culture medium. The magnetic fluid was constituted by coating the nanosized magnetic nanoparticles (with 10.55 nm average value of the physical diameter with β-cyclodextrin (C42H70O35 and further dispersion in water. After germination, various volume fractions (between 10 mL/L and 500 mL/L of the magnetic fluid was added daily in the culture medium of Zea mays plants still at their early ontogenetic stages. Toxicity symptoms leaded to brown spots covering the leaf surface for the highest magnetic fluid volume fractions used, a putative oxidative stress generated by iron excess treatment. Relatively small volume fraction of magnetic fluid solutions induced the increase of chlorophyll a level (up to 38%, the main photosynthesis pigment, as well that the nucleic acid level (up to 57% in Zea mays plantlets. All volume fractions of magnetic fluid solutions analyzed may have severe disruptive effects such as the ratio chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b (about 50% decreasing.

  2. Direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection of suitable propagation method for consistent plantlets production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) is an emerging sugar alternative and anti-diabetic plant in Pakistan. That is why people did not know the exact time of propagation. The main objective of the present study was to establish feasible propagation methods for healthy biomass production. In the present study, seed germination, stem cuttings and micropropagation were investigated for higher productivity. Fresh seeds showed better germination (25.51–40%) but lost viability after a few days of storage. In order to improve the germination percentage, seeds were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 Gy gamma doses. But gamma irradiation did not show any significant change in seed germination. A great variation in survival of stem cutting was observed in each month of 2012. October and November were found the most suitable months for stem cutting survival (60%). In order to enhance survival, stem cuttings were also dipped in different plant growth regulators (PGRs) solution. Only indole butyric acid (IBA; 1000 ppm) treated cutting showed a higher survival (33%) than control (11.1%). Furthermore, simple and feasible indirect regeneration system was established from leaf explants. Best callus induction (84.6%) was observed on MS-medium augmented with 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; 2.0 mg l−1). For the first time, we obtained the highest number of shoots (106) on a medium containing BA (1.5 mg l−1) and gibberellic acid (GA3; 0.5 mg l−1). Plantlets were successfully acclimatized in plastic pots. The current results preferred micropropagation (85%) over seed germination (25.51–40%) and stem cutting (60%). PMID:25473365

  4. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Samrina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%, followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%. Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the

  5. Physiological responses of the hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis Henry) to cadmium exposure and distribution of cadmium in plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne; Faugeron, Céline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction of Cd is a growing biotechnology although we currently know few Cd hyperaccumulators, i.e., plant species able to accumulate at least 0.1 mg Cd g(-1) dry weight in aerial organs. Owing their deep root system and high biomass, trees are more and more preferred to herbaceous species for phytoextraction. Assuming that conifers could be relevant models under cold climates, we investigated cadmium tolerance of the hybrid larch Larix × eurolepis Henry (Larix decidua × Larix kaempferi) and the efficiency of this species to store this metal. In vitro grown larches were chosen in order to reduce time of exposure and to more rapidly evaluate their potential efficiency to accumulate Cd. One-month-old plantlets were exposed for 2 and 4 weeks to 250 and 500 μM Cd. Results showed that they tolerated a 4-week exposure to 250 μM Cd, whereas the content of photosynthetic pigment strongly dropped in plantlets growing in the presence of 500 μM Cd. In the presence of 250 μM Cd, shoot growth slightly decreased but photosynthetic pigment and total soluble carbohydrate contents were not modified and no lipid peroxidation was detected. In addition, these plantlets accumulated proline, particularly in shoots (two to three times more than control). In roots, Cd concentration in the intracellular fraction was always higher than in the cell wall fraction contrary to shoots where Cd concentration in the cell wall fraction increased with time and Cd concentration in the medium. In shoots, Cd concentration was lower than in roots with a ratio of 0.2 after 4 weeks of exposure but stayed around 0.2 mg g(-1) dry weight, thus a value higher than the threshold requested for Cd hyperaccumulators. Hybrid larch would thus be a relevant candidate for field test of Cd phytoextraction.

  6. Effects of quantum flux density of photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in tissue-cultured plantlets and seedlings of Liquidambar styraciflua L. towards improved acclimatization and field survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.; Wetzstein, H.Y.; Sommer, H.E.

    1985-07-01

    Liquidambar styraciflua L. seedlings and tissue-cultured plantlets were grown under high, medium, or low quantum flux densities. Net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and chloroplast ultrastructure of leaves differentiated from these conditions were investigated. Seedling photosynthetic rates at light saturation were positively related to light pretreatments. Cultured plantlets under all light conditions had appreciably higher photosynthetic rates than noncultured seedlings. Chlorophyll in seedlings and plantlets was significantly higher in low light-treated plants. Seedling leaves had chloroplasts with abundant starch regardless of light pretreatment. In high light, starch granules were predominant and associated with disrupted granal structure. Low light seedling chloroplasts had smaller starch grains and well-formed grana. In contrast, tissue culture-differentiated leaves were devoid of starch; grana were well organized in higher quantum flux density treatments, but disorganized at low flux densities. 29 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  7. 唐菖蒲试管苗叶片结构的研究%Research on the Leaf Structure of Gladiolus Plantlet and Field Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐蓉; 张继花; 韦梅芹; 龚维红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为更好地了解试管苗生长情况,并对其生长进行调控.[方法]采用石蜡切片技术,对唐菖蒲试管苗和大田苗叶片结构进行观察.[结果]试管苗与大田苗叶片结构存在明显差异.试管苗叶片厚度、中脉厚度以及叶肉组织厚度与上下表皮厚度明显薄于大田生长的叶片,试管苗表皮细胞较小,排列也比较松散,但规则,其细胞间隙较大、叶片维管组织分化无大田生长叶片明显,叶片上气孔多,因此水分极易散失.[结论]该研究为更好地调控试管苗的生长提供了参考.%[Objective] The adjustment and control of gladiolus plantlet growth was better done through the understanding of its growth. [ Method] The leaf structure of gladiolus plantlet and field seedling was observed with paraffin section technology. [ Result] There was a obvious difference in the leaf structure between plantlet and field seedling. The thickness of leaf, vein, mesophyll tissue and between upper and lower epidermal of plantlet was significantly thinner than those of field leaf. The epidermal cell of plantlet was smaller, which arrangement was relatively loose, but regulate, with the larger gap among cells and non-significant differentiation of vascular tissue compared with that of field leaf, many more stomata in leaf resulting in easily water-losing. [ Conclusion] The reference for the study on the better adjustment and control plantlet growth was provided.

  8. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  9. Application of DNA (RAPD and ultrastructure to detect the effect of cadmium stress in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Aly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn recent years, several plant species have been used as bioindicators to evaluate the toxicity of environmental contaminants on vegetal organisms. In this study, Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd concentration levels (0.0, 25, 50 and 100 µM in MS media to analyze growth responses, Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots of plantlets, proline contents, chlorophylls content and MDA levels of both plantlets. As well as RAPD analysis and leaves ultrastructure were detected.ResultsThe results showed that there was a significant decrease in root and shoot lengths, Chl a, Chl b, total Chl and carotenoids contents for both Egyptian clover and Sudan grass. However, there was a significant increase in Cd accumulation, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. The genetic variation between Egyptian clover and Sudan grass were evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR markers to establish specific DNA markers associated with Cd stress. The results of transimssion electron microscopy (TEM showed a clear disorder in the Cd treated Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings.ConclusionIn conclusion, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructure changes in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass could be used as a useful biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of Cd stress on plants. However, it is necessary to be further confirmed and optimized in the future research.

  10. MOLECULAR CONFIRMATION OF SEX IN REGENERATED PLANTLETS OF SPINE GOURD (Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex. WILD BY USING RAPD MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture techniques offer a great opportunity to overcome the limitations associated with the large scale cultivation of spine gourd. Present study was carried out to formulate the best possible media for large scale production of spine gourd and result of the study revealed that highest percentage (85% of embryogenic callus was obtained from MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L each of 2, 4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D and 6- Benzylamino Purine (BAP in leaf explants of spine gourd. Maximum number of shoots (12.15 ± 1.51 shoots were observed on MS medium augmented with BAP (4.0 mg/L in combination with L-glutamine (2.0 mg/L from leaf derived embryogenic callus of spine gourd. Identification of sex by using morphological characters in the newly regenerated plantlets of spine gourd at fourth leaf stage is another problem for large scale propagation of female plants. PCR based molecular marker OPA-15, a Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD primer can be used as a differential marker to identify female plants form male plants at pre-flowering stage in newly regenerated plantlets (in vitro and as well as in field plants (in vivo of spine gourd. A unique amplification band (700 bp in size appeared only in female samples, but not in male samples of spine gourd.

  11. CO2, H2O exchange and stomatal regulation of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets during ex vitro acclimatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-mei; LI Yan-hua; GAO Yin-xiang; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    For finding the changes in CO2, H2O exchange and their stomatal regulation during ex vitro acclimatization of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Lc) and light saturation point (Ls), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency(WUE) were measured during 37 days of ex vitro acclimatization. The results showed that Pn sharply increased until 29 days, then slightly decreased. A substantial decrease in Lc and a substantial increase of Ls in the former two weeks were observed, indicating the light regime enlargement for effective leaf photosynthesis. Tr and gs abruptly decreased during the first week then linearly increased until 29days ex vitro acclimatization, reflecting the strong regulation effect of stomata on water changes of ex vitro acclimating plantlets. Stomatal regulation effect on CO2 exchange was different from that on water exchange, i.e. Pn was almost independent of gs during the first week, while Pn was significantly correlated with gs thereafter (i.e. dual patterns). Different from dual patterns of gs-Pn relation, the Tr monotonously linearly increased with gs. Furthermore, WUE was almost independent on gs during the first week, while a marked decreasing tendency with gs was found thereafter. At the beginning of the acclimatization, WUE was mainly determined by photosynthetic capacity, while transpiration becomes a main determinant factor for WUE from 7 to 37 days' acclimatization.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF YAM IN VITRO GENEBANKING: EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND DARKNESS ON PLANTLETS OF THREE ACCESSIONS FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbidinoukoun Arnaud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro preservation of yam genetic resources through reduction of the number of subcultures. Effects of different concentrations of activated charcoal (1 g.l-1, 2 g.l-1and 3 g.l-1 and temporary darkness were tested on the in vitro morphogenesis of three beninese yam accessions (Dcr28, Dcr164 and Da93G1. Galzy glutamine was used as basis culture medium and explants were microcuttings obtained from four months old plantlets. The results indicated that the activated charcoal, alone or combined with temporary darkness has an inhibitory effect on the aerial organs formation but favors root development with a greater mean number of root shoots (9.3±1.67 with 3 g.l-1 of activated charcoal than the subtract without activated charcoal (2.5±0.17. A significant interaction was noted between accessions and concentration of activated charcoal indicating genotypic variability from the activated charcoal effect. The different accession plantlets growing in high concentration of activated charcoal culture media combined with temporary darkness were vigorous after eight month without subculture and subsequently allow doing one subculture per year

  13. Measurement of Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of the Antisense Fragment of CYP86MF Gene Transgenic Male Sterile Plantlets in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; CAO Jia-shu; DONG De-kun

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the transgenic male sterility induced by the antisense fragment of gene CYP86MF, some physiological and biochemical indexes were compared between the transgenic plantlets of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) and their controls.Results showed that there was significant difference between content of the endogenous hormones in leaves and floral buds. GA3 contents in leaves of the transgenic plantlets of B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino cv.Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 31.72 and 46.88% respectively as compared with those of their controls, and GA3 contents in floral buds of them were reduced by 62.92 and 80.57 % respectively. In addition, ZT contents in leaves of cv. Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 11.81 and 181.20%respectively as compared with those of their controls and those in floral buds were reduced by 105.94 and 128.75% respectively. But, ABA content in transgenic plantlets was significantly higher than that in nontransgenic plantlets. However, differences among respiratory rate and cyanide-resistant respiratory rate, the photosynthesic rate and the content of total flavones in floral buds were not significant. In this study, the results indicated that the gene CYP86MF might be one of the key functional genes to control fertility of Chinese cabbage.

  14. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity of Enicostema axillare(Lam. Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume Raynal: An important medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousalya Loganathan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations using ex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major contributor of antioxidant activity of both plants grown from nature and nodal culture.

  15. Photoautotrophic Growth and Net Photosynthetic Rate of Sweet Potato Plantlets In Vitro as Affected by the Number of Air Exchanges of the Vessel and Type of Supporting Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yulan; Kozai Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    To produce high-quality sweet potato plantlets rapidly at low production costs, single nodal leafy cuttings of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) plantlets were cultured in vitro for 14 days on sugar- and phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium, at a photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 μmol·m-2·s-1 and a CO2 concentration (v/v) of 1.8×10-3. A factorial experiment was conducted with two levels of the number of air exchanges of the vessel (NAE), 8.7-12.2 h-1 and >12.2 h-1, and two types of supporting material, vermiculite and Florialite (a porous material). The control treatment consisted of a photomixotrophic culture using a sugar- and NAA-containing agar MS medium with an NAE of 2.4 h-1. PPF and CO2 concentrations were the same as the photoautotrophic treatments. In comparison with the control treatment, the photoautotrophic treatments with NAE of 8.7-12.2 h-1 (MF treatment) and ≥12.2 h-1 (HF treatment) were, respectively, 2.2 and 2.8 times in dry weight, and 3.7 and 4.2 times in net photosynthetic rate, when Florialite was used. The survival percentages of the plantlets in the field were, respectively, 86% and 97% in the MF and HF treatments, and 35% and 46% higher than that in the control treatment. The plantlets cultured with Florialite showed greater growth, compared with those cultured with vermiculite. Photoautotrophic micropropagation system with high NAE and the use of porous supporting material can produce high-quality plantlets and make it possible to reduce production costs.

  16. Proline Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Plantlets in Response to Iso-Osmotic Salt and Water-Deficit Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriyan Cha-um; Chalennpol Kirdmanee

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugarcane to iso-osmotic salt and water-deficit stress. Disease-free sugarcane plantlets derived from meristem cuttings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS media and subsequently exposed to-0.23 (control), -0.67 or -1.20 Mpa iso-osmotic NaCI (salt stress) or mannitol (water-deficit stress). Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSⅡ(φPSⅡ), stomatal conductance(Gs)and transpiration rate(E)in the stressed plantlets were significantly reduced when compared to those of plantlets of the control group (without mannitol or NaCI), leading to net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth reduction with positive correlation. In addition, physiological changes and growth parameters of plantlets in the salt stress conditions were more sharply reduced than those in water-deficit stress conditions. On the other hand, the proline content and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the leaves of stressed plantlets increased significantly, especially in response to iso-osmotic salt stress. The chlorophyll pigments in iso-osmotic stressed leaves were significantly degraded (r2=0.93), related to low water oxidation (r2=0.87), low net-photosynthetic rate (r2=0.81), and growth reduction (r2=0.97). The multivariate biochemical, physiological and growth parameters in the present study should be further used to develop salt, or drought, tolerance indices in sugarcane breeding programs.

  17. A novel combination of plant growth regulators for in vitro regeneration of complete plantlets of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Gill, K S; Pruthi, V; Dhugga, K S; Randhaw, G S

    2013-12-01

    A novel combination of plant growth regulators comprising indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) in Murashige and Skoog basal medium has been formulated for in vitro induction of both shoot and root in one culture using cotyledonary node explants of guar, (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Highest percentages of shoot (92%) and root (80%) induction were obtained in the medium containing (mg/L) 2 IBA, 3 BA and 1 GA3. Shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary node explants was observed after 10-15 days. Regeneration of roots from these shoots occurred after 20 to 25 days. The regenerated plantlets showed successful acclimatization on transfer to soil. This protocol is expected to be helpful in carrying out various in vitro manipulations in this economically and industrially important legume.

  18. High frequency embryoid and plantlet formation from tissue cultures of the Finger millet-Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadas, P; Kothari, S L; Chandra, N

    1990-07-01

    Compact nodulated embryogenic callus differentiated from cultured seeds of Eleusine coracana (Finger Millet) on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.0, 3.0 mg (l)). This embryogenic callus was maintained on a medium with a lower level of 2,4 - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. At every subculture the embryogenic callus had some preexisting embryoids in it. With this method of subculture the callus has retained its morphogenic potential for four years. Following transfer to media with different levels of auxins and cytokinins, the callus showed varied patterns of growth and morphogenesis. Embryoids could be germinated in profusion to form plantlets which could be transferred to the field. Shoot buds also differentiated from the whole surface of the embryoid or from the flattened meristemoids.

  19. High-frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration from apical bud as a novel explant of Carum copticum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoureh Salehi; Bahman Hosseini; Zohreh Jabbarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an in vitro regeneration system to increase the recovery of Carum copticum L. plantlets as a part of developing a metabolic engineering program.Methods:3-acetic acid and indole butyric acid on direct shoot regeneration and rooting of ajowan from apical bud explants were assessed. All explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8µ The efficacy of different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyladenine, indole-Results: The maximum shoot regeneration frequency (97.5%) and the highest number of shoots produced from apical buds (34 shoots per explant) were obtained on MS medium fortified with BAP (4.4 µmol/L) and IAA (0.5 µmol/L). Low shoot regeneration frequency was observed in BAP free treatments. The effects of different strengths of MS medium and various concentrations of IAA and indole-3- butyric acid on rooting rate, length and average number of roots were also investigated. Application of indole-3- butyric acid (6 µmol/L) in full-strength MS medium, was more effective than IAA and resulted in highest shoot regeneration frequency with the rooting rate of 100% and highest mean number of roots per shoot (41.8). The rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully in greenhouse conditions with a survival rate of 90%. mol/L) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0, 0.5, 1.1, 2.2 µmol/L). Conclusion: In this study, a simple and reliable regeneration and acclimatization protocol for Carum copticum has been presented. This protocol can be found very advantageous for a variety of purposes, including mass multiplication of Carum species, medicinal plant breeding studies and transgenic plant production.

  20. LEAF TOTAL NITROGEN CONCENTRATION AS AN INDICATOR OF NITROGEN STATUS FOR PLANTLETS AND YOUNG PLANTS OF EUCALYPTUS CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Victor de Oliveira Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of leaf total nitrogen concentration as an indicator for nutritional diagnosis has some limitations. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of total N concentration as an indicator of N status for eucalyptus clones, and to compare it with alternative indicators. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement with plantlets of two eucalyptus clones (140 days old and six levels of N in the nutrient solution. In addition, a field experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of two seasons, two regions, two young clones (approximately two years old, and three positions of crown leaf sampling. The field areas (regions had contrasting soil physical and chemical properties, and their soil contents for total N, NH+4-N, and NO−3-N were determined in five soil layers, up to a depth of 1.0 m. We evaluated the following indicators of plant N status in roots and leaves: contents of total N, NH+4-N, NO−3-N, and chlorophyll; N/P ratio; and chlorophyll meter readings on the leaves. Ammonium (root and NO−3-N (root and leaf efficiently predicted N requirements for eucalyptus plantlets in the greenhouse. Similarly, leaf N/P, chlorophyll values, and chlorophyll meter readings provided good results in the greenhouse. However, leaf N/P did not reflect the soil N status, and the use of the chlorophyll meter could not be generalized for different genotypes. Leaf total N concentration is not an ideal indicator, but it and the chlorophyll levels best represent the soil N status for young eucalyptus clones under field conditions.

  1. In Vitro Selection of Peanut Somatic Embryos on Medium Containing Culture Filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and Plantlet Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSNITA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to identify somaclonal variants of peanut with resistance to Sclerotium stem rot disease due to infection of S. rolfsii were conducted. The objectives of this study were to develop in vitro selection method using culture filtrates of S. rolfsii, identify culture filtrate-insensitive somatic embryo (SE of peanut after in vitro selection and regenerate peanut R0 lines originated from culture filtrate-insensitive SE. To achieve these objectives, peanut embryogenic tissues were cultured on selective medium containing various concentrations of S. rolfsii culture filtrates and sublethal concentration of the filtrates. Medium containing sublethal level of S. rolfsii culture filtrates was used to identify culture filtrate-insensitive SE of peanut. Subsequently, the selected SEs were germinated, plantlets were regenerated and preliminary tested against S. rolfsii. Results of the experiments showed that addition of S. rolfsii culture filtrates into medium for inducing peanut somatic embryos drastically reduced their growth and proliferation. S. rolfsii culture filtrates at 10% concentration has significantly reduced the number of proliferated SE per explant. However, sublethal level was achieved at 30% of culture filtrates concentration. Responses of five peanut cultivars against 30% of culture filtrates were similar, indicating they were similar in their susceptibility against S. rolfsii. A number of culture filtrate-insensitive SE were identified after culturing 1500 clumps of embryogenic tissue of peanut cv. Kelinci for three consecutive passages on medium containing 30% of culture filtrates. Germination of selected SE and regeneration of plantlet from culture filtrate-insensitive SE resulted in 50 peanut R0 lines. These lines have been grown in the plastic house and produced normal seeds for further evaluation. Results of S. rolfsii inoculation indicated the existence of chimera for insensitivity against S. rolfsii.

  2. Biomimetic synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles using in vitro-propagated plantlets of a medicinally important endangered species: Phlomis bracteosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Sumaira; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2016-01-01

    In vitro-derived cultures of plants offer a great potential for rapid biosynthesis of chemical-free antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by enhancing their phytochemical reducing potential. Here, we developed an efficient protocol for in vitro micropropagation of a high-value endangered medicinal plant species, Phlomis bracteosa, in order to explore its biogenic potential in biomimetic synthesis of antimicrobial AgNPs. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L thidiazuron was found to be more efficient in inducing optimum in vitro shoot regeneration (78%±4.09%), and 2.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid was used for maximum root induction (86%±4.457%). Antimicrobial AgNPs were successfully synthesized by using aqueous extract (rich in total phenolics and flavonoids content) of in vitro derived plantlets of P. bracteosa. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy of synthesized AgNPs showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 420–429 nm. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Face-centered cubic AgNPs of almost uniform spherical size (22.41 nm) were synthesized within a short time (1 hour) at room temperature. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the polyphenols were mainly responsible for reduction and capping of synthesized AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further endorsed the presence of elemental silver in synthesized AgNPs. These biosynthesized AgNPs displayed significantly higher bactericidal activity against multiple drug-resistant human pathogens. The present work highlighted the potent role of in vitro-derived plantlets of P. bracteosa for feasible biosynthesis of antimicrobial AgNPs, which can be used as nanomedicines in many biomedical applications. PMID:27217745

  3. Crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira micorrizadas em diferentes recipientes Growth of mycorrhizal micropropagated banana plantlets in different recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes Leal

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de diferentes recipientes e a eficiência da inoculação com fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA, Glomus clarum, no crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2x2, sendo 2 tratamentos microbiológicos: Glomus clarum e controle; e 2 recipientes: blocos prensados e tubetes, com 6 repetições. O substrato utilizado para a confecção dos blocos e para o enchimento dos tubetes foi constituído por uma mistura de materiais orgânicos (bagaço de cana + torta de filtro de usina açucareira e vermiculita. Mudas de bananeira produzidas em blocos prensados e inoculadas com o FMA apresentaram melhores resultados quando comparadas com as produzidas nos tubetes, com incrementos na altura, na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e no acúmulo de N, P e K de 90%, 829%, 2774%, 249% e 403%, respectivamente.An experiment under greenhouse was carried out in order to evaluate different recipients and the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF, Glomus clarum, on the growth of micropropagated banana plantlets. A random block design in a factorial scheme 2x2 (two microbiological treatments: Glomus clarum and control; two types of recipients: pressed blocks and plastic tubes, with six repetitions, was used. The substrate utilized to construct the pressed blocks and to fill the tubes was constituted by a mixture of organic residue (sugarcane bagasse and filter cake and vermiculite. Banana plantlets produced in pressed blocks and inoculated with AMF let to better results than their counterparts grown in tubes, increasing the height, shoot dry weight, contents of N, P and K in 90%, 829%, 2774%, 249% and 403%, respectively.

  4. In vitro Regeneration of Plantlets from Leaf and Nodal explants of Aristolochia indica L.- An Important Threatened Medicinal Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pramod V. Pattar; M.Jayaraj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An efficient reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro regeneration of plantlets from leaf and nodal explants of Aristolochia indica L. Methods: Wild grown plants Aristolochia indica L. were collected and grown in the departmental garden. Leaf and nodal segments (0.5-1.0 cm) from young healthy plants were first washed thoroughly under running tap water for 15 - 20 minutes and then treated with liquid detergent [5% (v/v) Tween-20] for 5-10 minutes. Later these explants were washed with double-distilled water for 5 minutes. Subsequently, explants were immersed in 70% (v/v) ethanol for 2 - 3 minutes and washed with sterile glass double distilled water for 2-3 times. Eventually, the explants were treated with an aqueous solution of 0.1% (w/v) HgCl2 for 1 - 2 minutes and rinsed for two-to-three times in sterile ddH2O to remove all traces of HgCl2. The sterilized explants were inoculated aseptically onto solid basal Murashige and Skoog’s medium with different concentrations and combinations of BAP and NAA for in vitro regeneration of plants. Results: Both leaf and nodal explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.8 mg/L BAP developed into mass of callus. These calli were subcultured for the induction of shoots and roots. Shoots were induced from both calli on MS medium supplemented with 0.8 mg/L BAP+0.5 mg/L NAA. Roots were induced from in vitro shoots on MS medium supplemented with 0.8 mg/L NAA for 4 weeks. Nodal explants were more regenerative with 95 % response compared to leaf explants with 85%. Finally, these in vitro regenerated plantlets were hardened, acclimatised and successfully transferred to the field. Conclusions: The present protocol for in vitro regeneration of Aristolochia indica L. can be used to make this plant available throughout the year for traditional healers, pharmaceutical usages, germplasm conservation, commercial cultivation, and also for the production of secondary metabolites.

  5. Behavior of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire, 1822 to Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis and their influence on development of plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Santiago

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis on the development of mate (Ilex paraguariensis ST. Hill plantlets was assessed in greenhouse and laboratory. The experimental design was randomized. Every plot of each one of the 10 repetitions contained one mate plantlet , inoculated with 5,000 eggs of M. incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4 and M. paranaensis. After 120 days it was observed that mate was a reliable hostess to such nematodes and that they could finish their life cycle. Plant development was significantly modified by M. incognita, races 1 and 2. Dry and green matter weight of shoots changed according to treatment. No changes were observed in fresh root weight. The number of eggs per root was similar for M. incognita, races 1 and 2, and higher for the other treatments. The reproduction factor was above 1 for all treatments, indicating mate plants susceptibility to them.A influência de Meloidogyne incognita e M paranaensis no desenvolvimento de mudas de erva-mate, foi avaliada em casa-de-vegetação e laboratório. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições, sendo cada parcela formada de 1 plântula de erva-mate/vaso, inoculada com 5000 ovos de M. incognita raças 1, 2, 3, 4 e M. paranaensis. Aos 120 dias, observou-se que a erva-mate, além de boa hospedeira destes nematóides, permitiu-lhes completar seu ciclo vital. O desenvolvimento das plantas foi significativamente afetado pelas raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita.; os pesos de matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea sofreram alterações conforme o tratamento. Não houve alteração no peso fresco de raízes e o número de ovos por raízes foi semelhante para as raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita, sendo, porém, mais elevado nos demais tratamentos. O fator de reprodução foi superior a 1 em todos os tratamentos, indicando a susceptibilidade da erva-mate a estes agentes.

  6. Induction of shoot buds, multiplication and plantlet formation in seedling explants of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bryza in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gatz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro shoot bud induction and multiplication as well as plantlets formation from different parts of 21-d old seedlings (shoot tip, cotyledonary node, distal part of cotyledon, acropetal section of hypocotyl of Capsicum annuum L., cv. Bryza were compared. During 4 weeks of primary explant culture on initiation media, first shoot bud primordia appeared; they reminded leaf primordia and subsequently some of them underwent enlargement, some developed into leaves and leaf-like structures (mainly on cotyledon explants. The highest number of shoot bud primordia was noted on cotyledonary node explants, but they were smaller than those on the remaining types of the explants. The best response of shoot regeneration showed cotyledon explants on which most of shoot buds were formed in each from four treated passages. From shoot buds on elongation media after 4 weeks of culture rooted rosettes of leaves were achieved, and the extension of the culture time to eight weeks without subculture caused that the rosettes developed into plantlets. Throughout four successive passages plantlets were obtained from cotyledon and shoot tip explants.

  7. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Arancibia-Miranda, N; Molina, M; Cruces, E

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) can affect plant growth due to its mobility and toxicity. We evaluated the effects of Cd(2+) on the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant response of Vaccinium corymbosum L. Plantlets were exposed to Cd(2+) at 50 and 100µM for 7, 14 and 21 days. Accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant enzyme SOD was determined. The profile of phenolic compounds was evaluated using LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Cd(2+) increased the content of MDA, with the highest increase at 14 days. The presence of Cd(2+) resulted in changes in phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compound found in blueberry plantlets was chlorogenic acid, whose abundance increased with the addition of Cd(2+) to the medium. The changes in the composition of phenolic compounds showed a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity measured using FRAP. Our results suggest that blueberry plantlets produced phenolic compounds with reducing capacity as a selective mechanism triggered by the highest activity of Cd(2+).

  8. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication and Plantlet Formation in Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Siddique

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn effective and improved plant regeneration system was successfully developed using shoot tip explants taken from a two years old mature plant of Cassia angustifolia. The effect of different cytokinins, [6-benzyladenine (BA, Kinetin (Kin and thidiazuron (TDZ] at different concentrations (0.5-10 µM were evaluated as augmented with Murashige and Skoog (MS 1962 medium. Among all the cytokinins tested, TDZ (5.0 µM was optimum in inducing multiple shoots as compared to BA and Kin. The rate of shoot multiplication was increased when optimal concentration (5.0 µM of BA and Kin was tested with different concentration (0.1-1.0 µM of Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA. Among all the combinations tested, the maximum rate of shoot multiplication was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM BA and 0.5 µM IAA. The number of the shoots and shoot length developed in TDZ was increased when transferred to MS medium devoid of TDZ. After every subculture, rate of the shoot multiplication and shoot length showed increment and continued even after fifth subculture without any decline rate. In vitro rooting in regenerated shoots were best obtained in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 µM indole-3- butyric acid (IBA. Plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in earthen pots containing garden soil and grown in greenhouse with 80% survival rate.

  9. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ. SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM were successfully cryopreserved using a vitrification technique. Optimal conditions included the culture of mother-plants for 22 days on medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, culture of excised apices on the same medium for 1 day, loading of apices for 20 min with 2M glycerol + 0.4M glycerol, treatment with a series of diluted PVS2 solution (60 % PVS2 followed by 80 % PVS2 solution for 15 min (cultivar Cocoro Blanco [CB]) or 30 min (cultivars CN and Cl) at each concentration), rapid freezing and thawing, washing of shoot-tips with a 1.2 M sucrose solution, followed by recovery on media with progressively decreasing sucrose concentrations until the standard concentration of 0.1 M was reached. The highest survival percentages achieved ranged between 17 and 38 %, depending on the cultivar.

  10. Structural interaction between GFP-labeled diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória' were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae.

  11. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets Aclimatização e anatomia foliar de plântulas de figo micropropagadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.A sobrevivência de plantas micropropagadas durante e após a aclimatização é um processo limitante para o estabelecimento de plantas. Poucas informações são encontradas de como a anatomia de órgãos vegetativos de Ficus carica pode ser afetada pelas condições de cultivo e aclimatização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo em meio de cultura e substratos durante a aclimatização de plântulas de figueira produzidas in vitro e cultivadas no campo. Plântulas multiplicadas in vitro foram separadas e transferidas para meio WPM, onde foram mantidas por 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Diferentes

  12. Isolation, culture and plantlet regeneration from cotyledon and mesophyll protoplasts of two pickling cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punja, Z K; Tang, F A; Sarmento, G G

    1990-07-01

    Optimal protoplast yields from cotyledons (2.0×10(6) protoplasts/ 0.5 g tissue) and from true leaves (5.0×10(6) protoplasts/g tissue) of two Cucumis sativus genotypes were obtained following a 16 h digestion with, respectively, 1.25% pectinase+0.5% Cellulysin and 0.5 % pectinase+ 1.0% Cellulysin. Enzyme solutions were prepared in modified MS medium containing half-strength major salts, full complement of minor salts and vitamins, 2% sucrose and 0.25 M mannitol. A plating density of 3.5-4.0× 10(4) protoplasts/ml or higher was required for sustained division, with first division occurring in 6-7 days, second-third division in 8-9 days, and minicalli formation by day 13. Embedding in 0.4% agarose provided the highest plating efficiency (proportion that formed minicalli) of mesophyll protoplasts, which was 28.3% for genotype 3672 and 15% for genotype 3676. By comparison, liquid culture and droplet culture gave lower plating efficiencies (10-19%). Cotyledon and mesophyll protoplasts of one genotype formed minicalli on MS medium containing 2,4-D/BA at 1.0/2.5 μM and 5.0/5.0 μM, respectively, within 21 days, while mesophyll protoplasts of the second genotype formed minicalli on MS medium containing NAA/BA at 5.0/5.0 μM within 12 days. Shoot buds or somatic embryos were obtained upon subculture of calli to MS medium containing lower concentrations (0.05-0.01 μM) of 2,4-D/BA or NAA/BA and a few plantlets, ca.18, were recovered on hormone-free medium.

  13. 雪莲果试管苗快繁技术研究%Rapid Propagation of Yacon Plantlets in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚京; 艾辛; 蔡雁平

    2014-01-01

    以雪莲果(Smallanthus Sonchifolius (Poepp.End1.)H.Robinson)带腋芽的茎段为试验材料,研究雪莲果试管苗快繁技术。结果表明:MS+2,4-D 0.15mg·L-1+蔗糖(30g·L-1)+琼脂(6g·L-1)对雪莲果的茎段成苗效果最佳,成苗率达到95%,20d 生根率100%,平均根长6.4cm,培养25d,平均苗高6.2cm;以腐质土:珍珠岩=3:1为基质,对组培苗进行移栽,成活率可达97%。%In this study,yacon stem s with axillary buds were used as experim entalm aterials to explore the rapid propagation of yacon in suitable conditions.The resultsshowthatM S + 2,4-d 0.15m g/L + sucrose (30g/L)+ agar(6g/L)wasofthe optim aleffecton plantletssprouted from the yacon stem s with the rooting rate at100% and average rootlength of 6.4cm after 20 d,and the seedling rate at95% and average heightof6.2 cm after25 d;and the garden soil∶coarse sand∶peat= 1∶1∶1 as a substrate was used fortissue -cultured plantlets to be transplanted on,the seedling survivalrate was97% .

  14. Impact Of Thermotherapy And Chlorothalonil On Plantlets Production Of Some Genotypes Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz Produce In Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava Manihot esculenta is a starchy root plant of great economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Benin. Its production is confronted to virus diseases which cause a considerable losses of yield. This work aims to determine the impact of thermotherapy and chlorothalonil in the production of cassava material of plantation. Cuttings of four varieties RB89509 BEN86052 9102319 92B0057 are cultivated under two conditions of thermotherapy and a control under greenhouse during 4 weeks. These different conditions are a closed drying oven with 16 hours photoperiod at 40 C the day and 36C the night a drying oven Binder with photoperiod of 12 hours at 38C the day and 28C the night and the control carried out under the conditions of the greenhouse. The media used was Murashige and Skoog MS added with various amounts of chlorothalonil 0.6 gl and 2gl and control without chlorothalonil. Both techniques of thermotherapy eliminate the virus symptoms of cassava at the rate of 0 seedling infected in thermotherapy against 16 seedlings in natural condition. The technique of closed drying oven significantly favors the production of nodes at 5 level p0.000 and shoots p0.02 on the other hand Binder drying oven has no significant effect on the production of shoots p0.68. The chlorothalonil had a positive effect on in vitro infestations elimination of cassava p0.05 but influenced the growth and development of cassava explants by reducing of nodes production p0.01 without a lethal effect on the plantlets until the dose of 2gl.

  15. Responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 and PEG-induced drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua eCui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3 and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements towards sustainable development of the agriculture.

  16. An RNA-Seq Analysis of Grape Plantlets Grown in vitro Reveals Different Responses to Blue, Green, Red LED Light, and White Fluorescent Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Xia; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Dong, Rui-Qi; Chang, Sheng-Xin; Wang, Lian-Zhen; Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Tao, Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    Using an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and physiological behaviors of "Manicure Finger" grape plantlets grown in vitro under white, blue, green, and red light. A total of 670, 1601, and 746 DEGs were identified in plants exposed to blue, green, and red light, respectively, compared to the control (white light). By comparing the gene expression patterns with the growth and physiological responses of the grape plantlets, we were able to link the responses of the plants to light of different spectral wavelengths and the expression of particular sets of genes. Exposure to red and green light primarily triggered responses associated with the shade-avoidance syndrome (SAS), such as enhanced elongation of stems, reduced investment in leaf growth, and decreased chlorophyll levels accompanied by the expression of genes encoding histone H3, auxin repressed protein, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase, the ELIP protein, and microtubule proteins. Furthermore, specific light treatments were associated with the expression of a large number of genes, including those involved in the glucan metabolic pathway and the starch and sucrose metabolic pathways; these genes were up/down-regulated in ways that may explain the increase in the starch, sucrose, and total sugar contents in the plants. Moreover, the enhanced root growth and up-regulation of the expression of defense genes accompanied with SAS after exposure to red and green light may be related to the addition of 30 g/L sucrose to the culture medium of plantlets grown in vitro. In contrast, blue light induced the up-regulation of genes related to microtubules, serine carboxypeptidase, chlorophyll synthesis, and sugar degradation and the down-regulation of auxin-repressed protein as well as a large number of resistance-related genes that may promote leaf growth, improve chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast development, increase the ratio of chlorophyll a (chla

  17. Avaliação de substratos para produção de mudas de alface Evaluation of substrates in the production of lettuce plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Espíndola Trani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Normalmente, os substratos disponíveis no mercado são recomendados indistintamente para grande número de culturas, sem considerar suas características e necessidades nutricionais na fase da formação de mudas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, onde foram avaliados três substratos (Plantmax, Esfagno e G-III para o desenvolvimento de mudas de alface cv. Regina. Foram realizadas as análises químicas e físicas de pH, macronutrientes, sódio e micronutrientes, sendo calculadas a capacidade de troca catiônica (CTC e a saturação por bases (V%, além das análises de condutividade elétrica (CE, capacidade máxima de retenção de água (CRA e granulometria dos substratos. A semeadura foi feita em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128 células cada. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram avaliadas massa fresca da parte aérea e das raízes, massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, número de folhas verdadeiras e altura média de plantas. Dentre os substratos avaliados, Plantmax demonstrou ser mais eficiente para produção de mudas de alface com melhor qualidade.Normally, the substrates available in the market are recommended indistinctly for a great number of crops, without taking into account its characteristics and nutritional requirements during the plantlet stage. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse, where three different substrates (Plantmax, Sphagnum and G-III were evaluated in the development of lettuce cv. Regina plantlets. Chemical and physical analysis such as pH, macro and micronutrients and sodium, cation exchange capacity (CEC and base saturation (V% were calculated as well as physical analysis such as electric conductivity, maximum water holding capacity and particle size of the substrates were carried out. The sowing was done in trays of expanded polystyrene with 128 cells each. We analyzed the fresh and dry mass of the aerial parts and of the roots

  18. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity ofEnicostema axillare (Lam.)Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume)Raynal:An important medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kousalya Loganathan; VNarmatha Bai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for high frequency plantlets regeneration protocol forEnicostema axillare(Lam.)Raynal ssp.littoralis(Blume)Raynal(E. axillare) without intermediate callus phase and to determine the content and correlation of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity of both the plants derived from nature and nodal culture byDPPH assay.Methods:The nodal explants were cultured onMS basal medium fortified with different concentration of various growth regulators such asBAP,KIN,TDZ and2iP(0.5-2 mg/L) individually and in combinations with or withoutGA3 for shoot bud induction and multiplication.Total phenol and flavonoid content was determined in both plants from nature and nodal culture and antioxidant activity was determined byDPPH assay.Results:The highest number of multiple shoot(108.00±3.55 shoots/explants) was obtained onMS medium supplemented withBAP(2 mg/L) in combination withKIN (0.5 mg/L) andGA3(2 mg/L).Rooting was optimized on half-strengthMS medium supplemented withIAA(0.5 mg/L).The rooted plantlets were transferred to paper cups containing vermiculite and hardening was successfully attained with75% survival.Among the four extract of methanol and water extract from both the plantlet from nature and nodal culture, the concentration of flavonoid was found to be higher in methanol extract of the plants from nature(146.57±1.68 mg rutin/g extract) and phenol content was higher in the water extract of plant from nature(52.53±1.67 mgGAE /g extract).The radical scavenging activity of four extracts.Methanol extract of plant grown in nature showed the highest radical scavenging activity(IC50 =87.10 μg/mL) was investigated byDPPH test.Conculsion:The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations usingex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets.A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major

  19. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.40�0.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.5�0.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.25�0.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative

  20. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent № 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50

  1. 巴西香蕉苗静置水培营养液配方的初步筛选%Screening of the Nutrient Solution Formulas for Static Hydroponics of Banana (Musa AAA Cavendish Subgroup 'Brazil') Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小娟; 杨腊英; 谢德啸; 周端咏; 魏巍; 郭利佳; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    采用静置水培法,使用4种不同的营养液配方,并以清水培养和椰糠基质栽培为对照,对巴西香蕉苗进行生长比较试验。结果表明:在香蕉苗增加的生物量方面,BXM配方(巴西木植物营养液)处理与椰糠栽培的差异不显著,但与日本园试配方、Hoagland植物营养液配方、1/2 MS培养基营养元素配方和清水培养的差异显著;在株高和叶面积方面,均以椰糠栽培的最大,BXM配方处理的居次,接下来依次是Hoagland植物营养液配方、日本园试配方、1/2 MS培养基配方和清水培养。综上所述,在这4种营养液配方中,BXM配方是巴西香蕉苗生长的最适营养液配方。%In order to study water culture techniques, growths of the banana (Musa AAA cavendish subgroup cv. Brazil) plantlets under the static culture and substrate culture were 'compared. Four nutrient solutions including Hoagland solution, Murashige and Skoog (1/2MS) solution, BXM solution and RSYY solution were used to culture banana plantlets, which grew in tap water or in substrate culture (pearlite as substrate). The data showed that banana plantlets grew well in the four tested nutrient solutions, and there was a significant increase in biomass of the banana plantlets grew in static nutrient solution over that in tap water. Among the four nutrient solutions, the biomass of the banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution was next to that in substrate (pearlite) culture, and was significantly more than that in Hoagland solution, 1/2MS solution and RSYY solution. The indexes such as plant height and leaf area of banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution were largest among the four nutrient solutions, and then that grew in Hoagland solution, RSYY solution and MS solution reduced in turn. In conclusion, the banana plantlets grew best in BXM solution among the four nutrient solutions. So BXM solution is suggested, when growing banana plantlets in water culture.

  2. Comparative studies about the influence of salicylic and acetylsalicilic acid on content of assimilatory pigments in the primary leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PURCAREA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA and some of its derivates are phenolic compounds recently recognized as plant growth regulators involved in many physiological processes including photosynthesis. One of the important derivates of Salicylic Acid is the Acetylsalicylic Acid. In the present investigation we studied the influence of exogenous Acetylsalicylic and Salicylic acid with different concentrations on the assimilatory pigments contents of the primary leaves of wheat seedlings in comparison with the same parameters of the control lots which were treated with water. The wheat seedlings were soaked for 6 hours in 0.01mM; 0.1mM; 0.5mM and 1 mM SA or ASA solutions and in water for the control lot, germinated for 7 days on filter paper moistened with water. After that, we planted the plantlets in sand and sprayed their coleoptiles and primary leaves, each day for an additional 7 days, with water. In the 14th days of germination we determined the content of assimilatory pigments extracted with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. The results showed that exogenous 0.01 mM, 0.1mM, 0.5 mM or 1.0 mM SA solution treatments cause more significant increases in the assimilatory pigments contents in leaves of wheat plantlets than treatments with ASA solutions of the same concentrations do.

  3. Improvement of in vitro embryo maturation, plantlet regeneration and transformation efficiency from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) somatic embryos using Cuscuta campestris extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Massoume; Deljou, Ali; Nabiabad, Haidar Saify

    2016-07-01

    Developmental deficiency of somatic embryos and regeneration to plantlets, especially in the case of transformation, are major problems of somatic embryo regeneration in alfalfa. One of the ways to overcome these problems is the use of natural plant regulators and nutrients in the culture medium of somatic embryos. For investigating the influence of Cuscuta campestris extract on the efficiency of plant regeneration and transformation, chimeric tissue type plasminogen activator was transferred to explants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and transgenic plants were recovered using medium supplemented with different concentration of the extract. Transgenic plants were analyzed by PCR and RT-PCR. Somatic embryos of Medicago sativa L. developed into plantlets at high frequency level (52 %) in the maturation medium supplemented with 50 mg 1(-1)C. campestris extract as compared to the medium without extract (26 %). Transformation efficiency was 29.3 and 15.2 % for medium supplemented with dodder extract and without the extract, respectively. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of the extract indicated high level of ABA and some compounds such as Phytol, which can affect the somatic embryo maturation. The antibacterial assay showed that the extract was effective against some strains of A. tumefaciens. These results have provided a scientific basis for using of C. campestris extract as a good natural source of antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulator as well, that can be used in tissue culture of transgenic plants.

  4. VIGOR OF PLANTLET FROM MICROPLANTLET TREATED BY FILTRATE AND CELL SUSPENSION OF SOME ISOLATES OF BACILLUS AND RESISTANCE TO BANANA WILT PATHOGEN AFTER ACCLIMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi wiyono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC is a couple wilt pathogen  of  banana.  These pathogens are the most important constraint in cultivation of banana in Indonesia.  In the integrated control strategy of the disease, the use of healthy seedlings produced from tissue culture technique is recommended.  The seedling produced by tissue culture technique however leads to lower vigor and susceptibility to the disease due to the aseptic work in vitro causing the beneficial bacterial endophytic to be eliminated. Therefore, the utility of the beneficial endophytic bacteria should be studied for recovering the vigor and resistance of the seedling.     Three isolates of endophytic Bacillus (B04, B05, B10 have been effective as growth promoter of microplantlet and antagonist of BDB and FOC in vitro.   Here then, this article reports the study results of the vigor of the plantlet (treated microplantlet by filtrate or cell suspension of the Bacillus after 3 months in acclimatization. The results were similar to the previous results on microplantlet in vitro, that Bacillus isolates B04, B05, and B10 were capable of promoting the growth and inducing the resistance to wilt pathogens on banana plantlets.  The treatments with bacterial cell inoculums were more effective than those bacterial filtrate. Isolate B10 was most potential followed by B05 and B04 respectively.

  5. In vitro growth and organogenesis of Prosopis farcta plantlets (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) in culture medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca++ and Na+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambouli, S; Bouzid, S; Dutuit, P; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to vary the mineral composition of the culture medium of Prosopis farcta seedlings per addition of Na+ and Ca++ ions with the aim to identify the culture media which support the growth and/or the expression of the in vitro plant organogenesis. The Na+ and Ca++ ions were added in the culture medium in various concentrations by taking the Gamborg medium, in which macroelements were diluted 10 times, as the basic one. After two months of culture, parameters relating to the vegetative development of plant seedlings and to the various expressions of organogenesis were measured. Weak concentrations in sodium and calcium ions as well as a weak concentration in Ca++ (0.1 mM) with 50 mM in Na+ support the best vegetative development of the plantlets. The most important percentage of plant seedlings presenting a bud initiation was obtained on a medium containing 0.1 mM of Na+ and 50 mM of Ca++. Our study defined several media likely to support in vitro development of Prosopis farcta plantlets allowing the selection of salt tolerant plants or cellular lines. Some other media were chosen for improving micropropagation of the species without adding growth substances.

  6. Somatic Embryogenesis Cocoa Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh man santoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not significant different with carbofuran treatment which could suppress nematoda population by 89.7%. The same result also occur on the treatment of P. diminuta at density level 2.108 cfu/seedling, which could suppress nematoda population by 64.2%. Seedling growth were treated with MHB also significantly increase compared with seedling without treatment and inoculation of nematodas, especially on the treatment of B.subtilis at density level 108 cfu and P.diminuta at density level of 108 cfu, with increasing level of 35.4% and 34.2 %, respectively.Keywords: MHB (Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria, Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.,  Pratylenchus coffeae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas diminuta.

  7. Produção de mudas de alface com biofertilizantes e substratos Production of lettuce plantlets using biofertilizer and substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de alface que foram desenvolvidas em diferentes substratos e sob efeito de adubação foliar usando biofertilizantes, foi realizado o experimento em casa de vegetação da UFERSA. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram resultados de um fatorial 4 x 5 envolvendo tipos de substrato (composto orgânico, Gold Mix 11, areia lavada e húmus + areia lavada 1:1 e fertilizante foliar (organo-mineral comercial Fertamin, testemunha e três tipos de biofertilizantes. Foram feitas adubações foliares nas mudas, aos oito e aos 15 dias após a semeadura. O fertilizante organo-mineral comercial Fertamin apresentou os melhores resultados para massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz e número de folhas. Dentre os biofertilizantes, aquele à base de esterco de curral fresco, cinzas, leite e caldo de cana apresentou os menores valores para essas mesmas características avaliadas. O composto orgânico foi o que apresentou os maiores valores para todas as características avaliadas, exceto para comprimento da raiz.The development of lettuce plantlets was evaluated, employing different substrate types and applying foliar biofertilization. The research was done in a green house in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments were composed of the interaction substract type (composed organic, Golden Mix 11, washed sand and humus + washed sand 1:1 and fertilizer (the commercial organo-mineral Fertamin, the witness and tree biofertilizer types. Plantlets were foliar fertilized 8 and 15 days after sowing date. Plantlets treated with Fertamim presented the best results in the dry matter of the aerial part, dry matter of roots and number of leaves. Among the biofertilizers, the one based on cattle manure, leached ash, milk and broth of sugar cane presented the lesser values for the

  8. Physiological responses in the banana plantlets treateds with strobilurinsRespostas fisiológicas em mudas de banananeira tratadas com estrobilurinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivia Helena Modenese-Gorla da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are reports that strobilurin besides having a fungicide effect can promote physiologic benefits to the plants. However, this effect on banana plants was not studied yet. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of strobirulins on the physiology of banana plantlets. For this purpose, cultivar Grand Naine banana plantlets were transferred to pots containing substrate and kept in a nursery with 50% shading. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments (water, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin and five replications. The treatments were applied at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting at a dose 100 g a. i. ha-1 with manual spray. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, shoot dry matter in strobilurin treated plants were higher than the untreated plants, however, the effect of fungicide treatment was different, being the most pronounced effect of pyraclostrobin compared to azoxystrobin. Plants treated with pyraclostrobin had higher leaf area, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content of leaf total nitrogen than the plants treated with azoxystrobin and water, which did not differ. Strobilurins affect the physiology of the banana plantlets differently, the effect being more pronounced by pyraclostrobin.Há relatos de que estrobilurinas, além de atuarem como fungicida, promovem benefícios fisiológicos às plantas. Assim sendo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de estrobirulinas na fisiologia de mudas de bananeira. Para tal, mudas micropropagadas da cultivar Grand Naine foram repicadas para vasos contendo substrato e mantidas em viveiro a 50% de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (água, azoxistrobina e piraclostrobina e cinco repetições. As estrobirulinas foram aplicadas com pulverizador manual aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a repicagem, na dose de 100 g i. a. ha-1. A altura da planta, di

  9. Medium Optimization for Potato Plantlet Culture%马铃薯试管苗快繁培养基的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海英

    2014-01-01

    The effect of mineral salt concentrationson potato plantlet growth were studied to solve the problems about the long reproductive cycle and low survival rate for the potato plantlet culture.Adopted multi-factor orthogonal experiment L9 (34) design was used to change the MS medium concentration of CaCl2,Ca(NO3)2,KH2PO4,KNO3 to screen the optimum concentration for potato tissue culture medium preparation.The results showed that CaCl2 0mmol/L,Ca(NO3) 2 20mmol/L,KH2PO4 6mmol/L,KNO3 18mmol/L was the best combination for the potato plantlet culture medium.%针对马铃薯试管苗快繁继代繁殖周期长和移栽后成活率低的实际问题,以马铃薯品种克新l号脱毒试管苗为试验材料,采用多因子正交试验L9(34)设计方法,以MS培养基中4种无机盐CaCl2 、Ca(NO3)2、KH2 PO4、KNO3为试验因素,研究不同无机盐浓度对马铃薯试管苗生长的影响.结果表明,在CaCl2浓度为0mmol/L、Ca(NO3)2浓度为20mmol/L、KH2PO4浓度为6mmol/L、KNO3浓度为18 mmol/L条件下,克新1号马铃薯试管苗的株高、茎粗、根系、茎叶鲜重生长达到最好.本研究结果可为马铃薯组培快繁过程中培养基制备提供依据.

  10. 转基因败育毛白杨雄株试管苗气孔行为观察%Observation of the Stomatal Behavior of Test-tube Plantlet of Transgenic Male Abortive Populus tomentosa Carr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金华; 朱美秋; 杜克久

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the causes of abnormal stomatal behavior of test-tube plantlet. [ Method ] The change of stomatal density, stomatal size, the daily variation of stomatal aperture and stomatal open percentage of the leaves' lower epidermis of test-tube plantlets and 10-year-old plants of transgenic male abortive Populus tomentosa Carr were observed and compared in this paper by using nail polish method. [Result] The stomatal density of test-tube plantlets was less than that of the 10-year-old plant; test-tube plantlets' stomata was obviously larger than that of the 10-year-old plant; the stomatal aperture of test-tube plantlets showed wave crest, and the two peaks appeared at 9:00 and 15 :00,10-year-old plant had steady curve without evident fluctuation,and the stomatal aperture in test-tube plantlets was greater than that in the 10-year-old plant; stomatal open percentage reached 100% in test-tube plantlets during a day,a bimodal curve change was observed in stomatal open percentage of the 10-year-old plant. [Conclusion] Stomatal behavior were different between the test-tube plantlets and the 10-year-old plant of transgenic male abortive Populus tomentosa Carr.%[目的]探寻试管苗叶片气孔行为异常的原因.[方法]利用指甲油涂抹撕取法将转基因败育毛白杨雄株试管苗与10年生植株叶片下表皮制成切片,并对其气孔密度、气孔大小、气孔开度日变化、气孔开张率日变化进行观察比较.[结果]试管苗气孔密度小于10年生植株;试管苗气孔明显比10年生植株气孔大;试管苗气孔开度日变化呈明显波峰状,2个高峰分别出现在9:00和15:00,10年生植株曲线平稳,无明显波动,且试管苗气孔开度大于10年生植株;试管苗气孔开张率在一昼夜均为100%,10年生植株气孔开张率在一昼夜呈双曲线变化.[结论]转基因败育毛白杨雄株试管苗与10年生植株气孔行为存在差异.

  11. Differential patterns of reactive oxygen species and antioxidative mechanisms during atrazine injury and sucrose-induced tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couée Ivan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides being essential for plant structure and metabolism, soluble carbohydrates play important roles in stress responses. Sucrose has been shown to confer to Arabidopsis seedlings a high level of tolerance to the herbicide atrazine, which causes reactive oxygen species (ROS production and oxidative stress. The effects of atrazine and of exogenous sucrose on ROS patterns and ROS-scavenging systems were studied. Simultaneous analysis of ROS contents, expression of ROS-related genes and activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes gave an integrative view of physiological state and detoxifying potential under conditions of sensitivity or tolerance. Results Toxicity of atrazine could be related to inefficient activation of singlet oxygen (1O2 quenching pathways leading to 1O2 accumulation. Atrazine treatment also increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, while reducing gene expressions and enzymatic activities related to two major H2O2-detoxification pathways. Conversely, sucrose-protected plantlets in the presence of atrazine exhibited efficient 1O2 quenching, low 1O2 accumulation and active H2O2-detoxifying systems. Conclusion In conclusion, sucrose protection was in part due to activation of specific ROS scavenging systems with consequent reduction of oxidative damages. Importance of ROS combination and potential interferences of sucrose, xenobiotic and ROS signalling pathways are discussed.

  12. 碱蓬下胚轴试管再生植株的研究%STUDIES ON HYPOCOTYL CULTURE IN VITRO AND PLANTLET REGENERATION OF SUAEDA GLAUCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴安; 马宗琪; 侯元同; 张举仁; 张慧; 赵彦修

    2001-01-01

    Hypocotyl of commo n seepweed [Suaeda glauca (Bunge) Bunge]seedling we re cultured on four MS agar media of different concentrations NAA、2, 4-D、6-BA and IAA. The calli were induced on the media. The induction frequency of calli a mounted to 94.64%~100.00%.The calli were transferred to medium that contained h igher concentration 6-BA. The induction frequency of adventitious buds were from 25.25% to 60%. Adventitious buds were transferred to the MS medium that conta ined higher concentrations IBA. After ten days, the calli grew roots and got plantlet regeneration in vitro.%碱蓬[Suaedaglanca(Bunge)Bunge]幼苗的下胚轴接种在MS加不同浓度NAA、2,4-D、6-BA和IAA的培养基上,愈伤组织诱导频率为94.64%~100%.愈伤组织转移到以6-BA为主的分化培养基上,不定芽分化频率为25.25%~60%.不定芽转入IBA生根培养基后,10d左右生根,得到再生植株.

  13. Comparative analysis of bioactive N-alkylamides produced by tissue culture raised versus field plantlets of Spilanthes ciliata using LC-Q-TOF (HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zubair Shanib; Jaladi, Neeharika; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Arumugam, Neelakantan

    2016-04-01

    Spilanthes ciliata (S. ciliata) is a perennial herb of global importance owing to its luscious source of bioactive fatty acid derived amides known as N-alkylamides. It finds application in skin creams, mouth gels and toothpastes. Despite multifaceted applications, a major limitation associated for its commercial application is the scarcity of contamination free plant source, fluctuations in active metabolites due to variation in extraction procedures, and lack of rapid qualitative method for alkylamide profiling. In the current work, attempts were made to 1) optimize conditions for mass propagation of contamination free plants of S. ciliata by tissue culture using leaf discs as explants, 2) establish an optimum extraction ratio of plant/solvent (w/v) for maximum elution of alkylamides and 3) develop a rapid method for qualitative estimation of alkylamide from in vitro raised plants in comparison with that of the field grown counterpart by using LC-Q-TOF (HRMS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first qualitative report on alkylamide profile of micropropagated whole plant of Spilanthes. The correlation pattern reported in this study may form the basis for using tissue culture raised plantlets of S. ciliata as potential source of bioactive alkylamides on industrial scale.

  14. FLORAL RECEPTACLE CULTURE IN VITRO AND PLANTLET REGENERATION IN GERBERA JAMESONII BOLUS%非洲菊花托培养和植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀芳; 李名扬

    2001-01-01

    The floral receptacles of 4 cultivars of Gerbera jamesonii Bolux were used as explants for rapid micropropagation. A satisfactory procedure was established with a multiplication rate of 5 times/20d~7d. The optimum medium was B5+10mg/L BA+0.1 mg/L IAA for sahoot induction,MS+1 mg/L BA+0.1 mg/L IAA for subculture and 1/2MS+0.01mg/L IAA for rooting. The regenerated plantlete proved to be genetically stable with no abnormality when examined cytogically and morphologically.%建立了以非洲菊幼小花托为外植体的离体快繁技术,繁殖系数可达5倍/20天~7倍/20天左右。诱导培养基以B5+l0 mg/L BA+0.1 mg/L IAA最佳,继代增殖以MS+1 mg/L BA+0.1mg/L LAA为宜,生根培养以1/2MS+0.01mg/L IBA效果最好。细胞学和形态学观察表明再生植株的形态和染色体无异常现象,遗传性稳定好。

  15. Alternation of light/dark period priming enhances clomazone tolerance by increasing the levels of ascorbate and phenolic compounds and ROS detoxification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Majd; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; El Maâtaoui, Mohamed; Sallanon, Huguette

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the alternation of light/dark periods (AL) (16/8 min light/dark cycles and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for three days) to clarify the mechanisms involved in the clomazone tolerance of tobacco plantlets primed with AL was studied. Clomazone decreased PSII activity, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and the ascorbate and total polyphenol contents and increased H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the number of the cells that underwent programmed cell death (PCD). The pretreatment with AL reduced the inhibitory effect of clomazone on the PSII activity and photosynthesis, as indicated by the decreases in the H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the PCD levels, and increased the content of ascorbate and certain phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The AL treatment could promote photorespiration via post-illumination burst (PIB) effects. This alternative photorespiratory electron pathway may reduce H2O2 generation via the consumption of photochemical energy, such as NADH+H(+). At 10 days (D10) of AL treatment, this process induced moderate stress which stimulates H2O2 detoxification systems by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the biosynthesis of antioxidant components. Therefore, the PCD levels provoked by clomazone were noticeably decreased.

  16. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in the genus Secale : 1. Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from cultured immature embryos of five wild species of rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczyński, J J; Zduńczyk, W

    1986-12-01

    A tissue culture of five wild species of the Secale genus, i.e., S. africanum (Stapf.), S. ancestrale (Zhuk.), S. kuprianovii (Grossh), S. segetale (Rosher.), and S. vavilovii (Grossh), from immature embryos of sizes (stages) varying between 1.0 mm to 3.0mm, cultured on MS (1962) mineral nutrient medium supplemented with 0.62 mg/1-5.0 mg/1 of 2,4-D, was established. Initially various types of callus were observed and a correlation between genotype, size of explant and 2,4-D concentration was found. The best embryogenic response was observed when explants were smaller than 1.0 mm. Induction of somatic embryogenesis of 2.0 mm-3.0 mm explants required a higher concentration of 2,4-D. Most embryoids were formed in the presence of 5.0 mg/l of 2,4-D. Secale africanum and S. kuprianovii appeared to have the highest embryogenic capacity among the five investigated species. For embryoids germination to plantlets the MS medium supplemented with GA3 and cytokinins was used. Ultimately, out of the 932 regenerants obtained 364 originated from somatic embryogenesis.

  18. Establishing Symbito ic Cultivation System of Tissue -cultured Cy mbidium hyrb idum Plantlets and Endophy tic Fungi%杂交兰组培苗与内生真菌共生培养体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋彦; 吴争; 宁惠娟; 方载浩; 梁立军; 崔永一

    2016-01-01

    为了筛选出对杂交兰组培苗生长有益的菌株,采用4种内生真菌(被孢霉属Mortierella sp.),通过固体菌剂和液体菌剂2种接种方式,建立杂交兰组培苗与真菌的共生培养体系。共生培养150 d后,运用石蜡切片法观察到菌丝、菌丝结等典型的菌根结构。结合重分离真菌形态观察和分子鉴定,确定重分离菌株均为原接种菌株。结果表明:液体菌剂接种方式相比固体菌剂,对杂交兰组培苗生长的促进作用显著;菌株FC5和FC9液体菌剂对杂交兰组培苗的生长促进作用显著;FC17液体菌剂对杂交兰组培苗根部生长促进效果显著。%To screen out beneficial fungi strains to Cymbidiumh ybridum (C.hybridum‘Princess Nobuko’×C.goeringii‘Huan-gshuixian’ ) plantlets growth, using solid inoculation and liquid inoculation, we established mycorrhizal symbiosis system between four kinds of endophytic fungi ( Morit erell a sp).and Cymbidium hybridum plantlets.After 150-day symbiotic cul-ture, typical mycorrhizal structures such as hyphae and pelotons were founded by permanent paraffin-cut section method. Considering morphological observation and molecular identification, it was confirmed that fungi isolated from C.hybridum plantlets roots were the same as origin fungi.The liquid inoculum treatment was better than solid inoculum treatment. Strains FC5 and FC9 liquid inoculum treatments had obvious promoting effect on the growth of C.hybird um plantlets.Strain FC17 liquid inoculum treatments significantly promoted the growth of C.hybridum plantlet roots.

  19. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from immature male inflorescence of adult dura and tenera palms of Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Madhavan; Susanthi, Bollarapu; Murali Mohan, Nandiganti; Mandal, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We report here a method for plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants collected from immature male inflorescence of adult oil palm cultivated in India. Callus induction was successful from tissues of immature male inflorescence collected from both dura and tenera varieties of oil palm. A modified Y3 (Eeuwens) media supplemented with several additives and activated charcoal (3%) were used for the experiments. Out of four different auxin treatments, 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) produced maximum callus induction (82%) and it was not significantly different from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a combination of 2,4-D + picloram. The callus induction obtained with auxin α-naphthalene acetic acid was only 54% and it was significantly low as compared to the other treatments. Highest embryogenesis was obtained with a combination of 2,4-D + picloram (4.9%) followed by picloram (3.4%). Genotypic variation in response to the same auxins was observed both for callus induction and embryogenesis. Callus induction and embryogenesis ranged from 42 to 72% and 6.8 to 9.35%, respectively in tenera. The formation of embryogenic calli was marked by the appearance of white to yellowish globular or nodular structures which subsequently formed clear somatic embryos. Somatic embryogenesis was asynchronous and at one time we could find different stages of embryogenesis like the globular, torpedo and the cotyledonary stages. The somatic embryos when exposed to light in the same basal media along with 6-benzyladenine (18 µM), abscisic acid (3.78 µM) and gibberellic acid (5.78 µM) regenerated into plantlets. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report o f callus induction and somatic embryogenesis from immature male inflorescence of oil palm.

  20. 昼夜温差对文心兰试管苗生长的影响%Effects of Day-night Temperature Difference on the Growth of Oncidium Plantlets in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卫杰; 郭子霞; 王政; 何松林

    2011-01-01

    The plantlets of Oncidium var.‘Ning Meng Huang' in vitro were used as experimental materials to study the effects of day-night temperature differences on its growth.The results showed that the index of plantlets in vitro under the treatment that the day-night temperature difference was 3℃, including plant height, leaf length, fresh weight and dry weight of the total and shoot part, were the best than other treatment, and there was significant difference among the other treatments.The root number, fresh weight and dry weight of the root part of plantlets in vitro were better than others under the treatment that the day-night temperature difference was 12℃, and the soluble sugar and root activity of plantlets in vitro were also the biggest one.It was an increasing tendency, as the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total leaf chlorophyll content and dry matter rate of plantlets in vitro, with the increasing of day-night temperature difference and then was highest one under the treatment that day-night temperature difference was 15℃.Overall, the morphological growth of Oncidium plantlets in vitro was best under the treatment that the day-night temperature difference was 3℃, the root grew better under the treatment that the day-night temperature difference was 12℃ than others, and when the day-nigh difference was 15℃, it was the best treatment for benefiting the dry material accumulation and the synthesis of chlorophyll.%以文心兰‘柠檬黄'试管苗为材料,探讨了不同昼夜温差对其生长的影响.结果表明:昼夜温差3℃处理下文心兰试管苗的株高、叶长、总鲜重、地上部鲜重、总干重、地上部干重均达到最大值,且与其他处理差异性显著.昼夜温差12℃时文心兰试管苗根数、最大根长、地下部鲜重及干重最大,且在此处理下可溶性糖含量和根系活力也达到最大值.叶绿素a、叶绿素b、总叶绿素含量和干物率均随着昼夜温差的不断增大呈现出增

  1. 不同水平腐胺对巴西蕉幼苗抗旱生理的影响%Effects of Putrescine at Different Levels on the Drought Resistance of Brazil Banana Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 李绍鹏; 李新国; 吴凡; 李茂富; 黄芳; 何娟

    2011-01-01

    Foliar spraying of Brazil banana plantlets with 0.00, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 ramol/L putrescine and then treated under drought stress, some relative physiological and biochemical indices were measured to study the changes. The results showed that the pretreatment with suitable concentrations of exogenous putrescine increased the relative water content of the Brazil banana plantlet leaves, reduced the relative conductivity, improved the contents of proline and soluble proteins, as well as the activity of SOD and POD, decreased the rate of O2-production and the content of MDA. The results proved that the suitable concentrations of exogenous putrescine could improve the drought resistance of Brazil banana plantlets. The optimal putrescine concentration was found to be 1.25 mmol/L.%用0.00、1.00、1.25、1.50、1.75 mmol/L腐胺(Put)喷施巴西蕉幼苗叶片,研究干旱胁迫后其相关生理生化指标的变化.结果表明,在干旱胁迫下,适宜浓度的外源Put预处理能显著增加巴西蕉幼苗叶片的相对含水量,降低相对电导率,提高脯氨酸、可溶性蛋白质的含量及S0D、POD的活性,.降低O2产生的速率,减少MDA的积累.由此说明适宜浓度的外源Put预处理能提高巴西蕉幼苗抗旱性,以1.25 mmol/L Put预处理效应最佳.

  2. 光照强度和水质对马铃薯脱毒试管苗生长的影响%Effects of Light Intensity and Water Quality on Growth of in vitro Plantlets of Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润; 刘绍文; 潘俊锋; 郭蓓蓓; 曾莉; 王燕; 肖勇; 杨丽

    2013-01-01

    研究光照强度、品种和水质对马铃薯试管苗生长的影响,为降低脱毒试管苗的扩繁成本及组培技术的优化提供参考。结果表明:14 h/d光照、强度为2000 lx,是马铃薯脱毒试管苗生长的最优光照条件,其次为自然光条件;在相同的生长条件下,品种‘黔芋1号’各农艺性状都优于‘青薯9号’;水质除叶片数和茎粗外,对其他农艺性状影响都不显著,即在生产过程中可用自来水代替蒸馏水,从而降低生产成本。%Light intensity, variety, and water quality were studied for their influence on the growth of plantlets invitroof potato in order to provide a reference for reducing cost and optimizing tissue culture technology. The results showed that the best light condition for growth of plantlets invitro was 14 h/d and light intensity 2 000 lx, and then was natural light;the agronomic traits of 'Qianyu 1' were better than 'Qingshu 9';water quality only had a significant impact on leaf number and stem diameter, but had no influence on other agronomic traits, and therefore, tap water instead of distil ed water should be used in plantlets in vitro production.

  3. 不同基质对香蕉组培苗生长及光合特性的影响%The Effects of the Different Substrates on Banana Plantlet Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王必尊; 唐粉玲; 何应对; 刘永霞; 曹红鑫; 臧小平; 周兆禧; 韩丽娜; 郑丽丽

    2013-01-01

    The paper was aimed to screen suitable culture medium from six culture media of different ratio between coconut coir and lateritic soil for banana plantlet .Brazil Banana plantlet was selected and lateritic soil was used as the reference. The Li-6400 photosynthesis instrument was used to measure the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate.The result showed that the change of photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance was similar under different culture medium. When the ratio between coconut coir and lateritic soil was 1:2, the growth of banana plantlet was the best, and the above measured values were the highest; when the ratio was 4:1, the result was the worst. The intracellular concentration of CO2 was in the opposite.The growth of banana plantlet was the best when the ratio between coconut coir and lateritic soil was 1 : 2.%用椰糠与砖红壤土配成的6种不同基质栽培巴西香蕉组培苗,进行生长效果的比较;采用Li-6400便携式光合测定仪测定组培苗的净光合速率(pn)、蒸腾速率Tr等的日变化,通过相关性分析不同光合参数对净光合速率(pn)日变化的影响.结果表明:以椰糠:壤土=1:2配方对组培苗的生长效果最好;组培苗在不同基质下的净光合速率(pn)、蒸腾速率、气孔导度等变化趋势相似,其中以椰糠:壤土=1:2处理的数值最高,椰糠:壤土=4:1最低,胞间CO2浓度的数值则相反.6种基质栽培的香蕉组培苗以T2,即椰糠:壤土=1:2配制最适合香蕉组培苗生长.

  4. 外源5-氨基乙酰丙酸对红香芋试管苗耐冷性的影响%Effect of Exogenous 5 -aminolevulinic Acid on Cold Tolerance of Taro Plantlets in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何继红; 蒋芳玲; 李洁英; 吴震

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of exogenous 5 - aminolevulinic acid ( ALA) on the cold tolerance and related physiological indexes of taro [ Colocasia esculenta ( L. ) Schott ] plantlets in vitro were studied under the low temperature stress simulated artificially. The results showed that: under short -term (16 h) low temperature stress, the 2 ~20 mg/L exogenous ALA treatment could reduce the damaged degree of taro plantlets in vitro, promote the activities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD) , peroxidase ( POD) , catalase ( CAT) and ascorbic acid peroxidase ( APX) , decrease the production speed of superoxide anion ( · O2 -) and the content of hydrogen peroxide ( H2 O2 ) , suppress the increase in malonaldehyde ( MDA) content and plasma membrane permeability, and strengthen the ability of cell osmoregulation. The above results indicated that the ALA with suitable concentration could enhance the cold tolerance of taro plantlets in vitro, and relieve the injury of low temperature stress to taro test -tube plantlets. The application of 10 mg/L ALA could obtain the best effect.%为探讨外源5 -氨基乙酰丙酸对芋试管苗耐冷性的影响,以红香芋为试材,通过人工模拟低温逆境,研究了不同浓度外源ALA处理下芋试管苗耐冷性相关生理指标的变化.结果表明:短期(16 h)低温胁迫下,添加2~20 mg/L外源ALA可减轻芋试管苗冷害程度,提高超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性,降低超氧阴离子(·O2-)产生速率和过氧化氢( H2O2)含量,抑制丙二醛(MDA)含量和质膜透性的上升,同时增强细胞渗透调节能力.以上结果说明,适宜浓度的ALA处理可缓解低温胁迫对芋试管苗的伤害,提高其耐冷性;ALA处理浓度以10 mg/L效果最好.

  5. 火龙果愈伤组织诱导与植株再生%Callus Induction and Plantlet Regeneration from Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红梅; 任希望; 刘清波

    2012-01-01

    为了建立火龙果愈伤组织诱导与植株再生体系,以火龙果茎段、幼苗和子叶为外植体进行离体培养试验.结果表明:茎段诱导愈伤组织的最优培养基为1/2MS+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-16-BA 0.5 mg·L-1,诱导子叶愈伤组织的最适培养基是1/2MS+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1,诱导愈伤组织分化的最优培养基为1/2MS+6-BA 4.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1,最佳生根培养基为1/2MS+6-BA 1 mg·L-1+NAA 0.3 mg·L-1.%To establish the system of callus induction and plantlet regeneration from pitaya,pitaya was in vitro cultured using stem segments,seedlings and cotyledons as explants. The results showed the optimum medium for the callus induction of stem segments was l/2MS+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 0.5 mg·L1. The most suitable medium to induce the callus from cotyledons was 1/2MS+2.4-D 2.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1. The optimal medium for inducing the callus differentiation was 1/2MS+6-BA 4.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1. The greatest medium of root regeneration was 1/2MS+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA0.3 mg·L-1.

  6. 3类观赏百合试管苗叶片结构及水分特性%Comparative Study on the Structural and Moisture Characteristics of Leaf from the Plantlets of Three Types of Ornamental Lilium brownii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐蓉; 龚维红; 史文秀; 韦梅芹

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to compare the structural and moisture characteristics of leaf from the plantlets of three types of ornamental lily(Lilium brownii). [Method] The paraffin sections of leaves of tested lily varieties were prepared and then observed under microscope, and the stomatal characteristics and moisture characteristics of tested lily varieties were measured. [Result] All the three ornamental lily varieties show isobilateral leaf, single layer of epicuticula and lower epidermis, and no obvious differentiation of palisade tissue and spongy tissue; their stomata distribute in lower epidermis, and the guard cells are dumbbell-shaped; all of these materials present high moisture. For the leaf sickness, midrib sickness and mesophyll tissue sickness, the order was determined to be oriental lily>Lilium longiflorum>Asian lily; of the three types of ornamental lily, Lilium longiflorum has the largest stomatal aperture and Asian lily has the smallest; focusing the water potential and moisture, the turn was Asian lily> oriental lily> Lilium longiflorum. [Conclusion] The study may facilitate the artificial regulation of the growth conditions of the plantlets of ornamental lily.

  7. A Control Technology for Plantlets Fast Growing of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.in Changbai Mountain%长白山牛皮杜鹃种苗速生调控技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾地周; 沈红梅; 闫中雪; 徐鹏佳; 袁浩; 杨丽娟; 王秋爽; 张学士

    2014-01-01

    We used the plantlets of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.to study the main factors with different levels by repeated experiments with multi factorial for establishing a control system of plantlets fast growing of R.chrysanthum.The the main factors with levels for plantlets fast growing of R.chrysanthum are under the light hours of 13 h· d-1 , the interval time of topdressing nutrient solution of 21-22 days, the light intensity of 700-800 lx and the temperature of 26℃.The longitudi-nal growth height and transverse diameter of plantlets of R.chrysanthum were 17.6 cm and 6.0 mm in 25 d, and 26.0 cm and 7.4 mm in 50 d, respectively.The growing height and stem diameter of contrast plant were only 8.8 cm和2.0 mm in 25 d, and 10.2 cm and 2.9 mm in 50 d, respectively.We got the optimization for plantlets fast growing of R.chrysanthum.%本研究以牛皮杜鹃组培苗为供试植物,通过多因子交叉重复试验对影响牛皮杜鹃组培苗快速生长的各主要因素及其水平的作用进行了探讨,旨在探索并建立一种牛皮杜鹃种苗快速生长的调控方法。结果表明:最适合牛皮杜鹃组培苗快速生长的主要因素及其水平是光照时间为13 h· d-1、营养液追施间隔时间为21~22 d、光照强度为700~800 lx和温度为26℃。经过25 d的调控处理,牛皮杜鹃组培苗纵向生长高度和横向直径分别达到17.6 cm和6.0 mm,对照组仅分别达到8.8 cm和2.0 mm;50 d后纵向生长高度和横向直径分别达到26.0 cm和7.4 mm,而对照组仅分别达到10.2 cm和2.9 mm。初步得到牛皮杜鹃种苗速生的优化组合,该组合将有利于牛皮杜鹃种苗的快速生长。

  8. Shading and periods of acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. Grande Naine Sombreamento e períodos de aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira cv. Grande Naine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Scaranari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana plantlets obtained by micropropagation need to be submitted to a period of acclimatization since they do not use light, water, and nutrients in an efficient way. The acclimatization must be carried out under greenhouse conditions where temperature, light, and air humidity are adequate for a gradual hardening of the plantlets. In this study, the development of banana plantlets was evaluated during acclimatization under a full light condition including covered surfaces with red shade cloth (70%, 50%, and 30% shade and black shade cloth (50% shade, both under a transparent plastic film of 100 µm. Temperature, relative air humidity, irrigation, and nutrition conditions were also controlled. Physical and physiological parameters were recorded at various stages in the greenhouses after three, six, and nine weeks and also after seven weeks of transplanting to field conditions. Treatments were hierarchically graded according to their statistic classification. Combined results indicated superior outcomes of plantlets maintained under black 50% shade cloth for nine weeks, both in the summer and winter seasons. Similar results, but in a shorter time, were obtained with plantlets cultivated under red 70% shade cloth, for six weeks in the summer.Após a sua obtenção em laboratório, mudas in vitro necessitam passar por um período de aclimatização, pois na fase em que se encontram não realizam eficientemente a absorção de luz, água e nutrientes, devendo ser feita em ambiente protegido, onde as condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade são favoráveis a um gradual endurecimento das plântulas. No presente trabalho estudou-se o desenvolvimento das mudas de bananeira (Musa sp. durante o segundo estágio da aclimatização (a partir de 10 cm de altura sob condições de luminosidade (plena, 70, 50 e 30% de superfície de cobertura com malha vermelha e 50% com malha preta, ambas sob filme plástico transparente de 100 µm associadas a

  9. Resposta de plantas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro à inoculação de bactérias diazotróficas em casa de vegetação Response of pineapple plantlets to inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmar Baller Weber

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e avaliar bactérias diazotróficas isoladas de abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus (L. Merril no desenvolvimento de cultivares micropropagadas da mesma espécie em casa de vegetação. Plantas da cultivar Perolera foram submetidas à inoculação com Asaia bogorensis (AB219 e cultivadas em tubetes, durante 145 dias, com as misturas: casca de arroz carbonizada, folha de carnaubeira triturada e vermicomposto; casca de arroz carbonizada, pó da casca do coco maduro e vermicomposto; casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita e vermicomposto. Plantas da cultivar Primavera receberam inóculos com o AB219 e bactérias relacionadas a Burkholderia cepacia (AB202 e AB213, enquanto plantas das cultivares Pérola e Smooth Cayenne receberam AB219 e AB213, sendo cultivadas, por 140 dias, em tubetes com a mistura de vermicomposto e vermiculita. A colonização dos abacaxizeiros pelas bactérias diazotróficas foi confirmada. As plantas da cultivar Perolera cresceram melhor em casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita e vermicomposto e responderam positivamente ao AB219. Já as plantas da cultivar Primavera não apresentaram resposta significativa à inoculação com AB219, AB202 e AB213. Houve incremento de 23,1% a 38,5% na matéria seca de raízes das plantas da cultivar Pérola na presença de AB213 e AB219, respectivamente. A presença de AB213 incrementou em 15,2% a matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas da cultivar Smooth Cayenne. Os resultados revelam a eficiência de bactérias diazotróficas na promoção do crescimento de abacaxizeiros.The objective of this work was to select and to evaluate isolates of diazotrophic bacteria associated to pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Merril plants in the development of micropropagated plantlets of cultivars pineapple in greenhouse. Plantlets from the Perolera cultivar have been submitted to inoculation with Asaia bogorensis (AB219 and were cultivated during 145 days on the following

  10. Micromation and Structural Characteristics of Plantlets In vitro%试管植物器官微型化及结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乐乐; 苏晴; 王玉海; 李友勇

    2011-01-01

    植物组织培养中的试管植物,其形态比自然形态要小得多,脱离试管后能恢复原形态大小,这种微型化和微型化解除是植物与环境相互作用的一个新命题.以试管马铃薯无性系微型薯为材料,在试管和花盆两种环境下发芽并长成植株,显微切片方法观察其组织结构特征,聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)方法分离不同处理植株的差异蛋白.研究发现,试管植株器官微型化的主要原因是细胞数量减少,其次是细胞体积减小,但试管植株的气孔则较大.在不同处理的植株中检测出单个和多个蛋白差异.结果说明,试管因子,包括营养和生长空间因子,能显著胁迫植物正常生长和形态建成,形态改变过程伴随有较大的生理变化.%It was frequently seen that plant morphogenesis in vitro was much smaller than that in the natural environment, and when they were moved out from the test tube, their organs could recover to natural size.This kind of micromation and unmicromation is a new proposition that could be used to research the interaction between plants and environment. The micropotatoes from the clones which was produced in vitro was act as the materials for observation of their morphological, structural, and physiologic characteristics as they were planted in both test-tube and flowerpot environment respectively. It was found that organs micromation under the stress in vitro was mainly because of the decrease of cell numbers, and also diminishing of cell size. But the stomata on test-tube plantlets were larger than on flowerpot plants. The results from SDS-PAGE were also found that a few differential proteins that were extracted from the plants stressed by nutrient and space factors were hanged on the gels. These results definitely indicated that the nutrition and space factors could significantly change plant growth and morphogenesis, and the process of morphogenesis was coupled with a variety of changes of

  11. Micropropagação de plântulas de erva-mate obtidas de embriões zigóticos Micropropagation of holly plantlets obtained from zygotic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angélica Horbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de micropropagação de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire a partir de plântulas assépticas oriundas de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Ápices caulinares foram inoculados em meio base, formado por ¼ da concentração dos sais do meio MS, com diferentes doses de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. Ápices caulinares foram enraizados em meio base com diferentes doses de ácido indolbutírico (AIB e avaliado o efeito do AIB do meio de enraizamento in vitro na aclimatização das plantas. O meio base com 8,88µM de BAP foi o mais efetivo para a multiplicação, promovendo o maior número e comprimento de brotações adventícias. Ápices caulinares enraizaram em 30 dias de cultivo em meio base, acrescido de 7,38µM de AIB. A dose de AIB utilizada no enraizamento in vitro interfere na aclimatização das plantas. A técnica de micropropagação descrita pode ser utilizada para a produção massal de plantas de erva-mate.The aim of this research was to evaluate the micropropagation potential of holly (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire aseptic plantlets derived from immature zygotic embryos. Shoot tip were inoculated in a quarter-strength MS basal medium with different doses of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP to induce multiple shoots. Shoot tips were inoculated in a basal medium with different doses of indol-butiric acid (IBA for in vitro rooting and to test their effects in plantlet acclimatization. The addition of 8.88µM BAP to the basal medium increased the number of adventitious shoots and shoot height. Shoot tip rooted in basal medium with 7.38µM IBA in 30 days of culture. The IBA doses of the rooting medium affect plantlet acclimatization. The described micropropagation protocol might be used to produce a high number of holly plants.

  12. Growth performance on regenerated plantlets of Pinus densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease%抗松材线虫病赤松组培再生植株田间生长表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莉; 吴小芹; 朱丽华; 叶建仁; 张红岩

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of regenerated plantlets of Pinus densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease,research has advanced to the field testing stage. The results showed that 0.5 year-old plantlets survival rate was apparently lower than that of 2.5,2,1.5,1 year-old. There were obvious growth difference among different clones. Mycorrhizal foresting test indicated that ectomycorrhizal fungi Rhizopogen luteous and Boletus edulis facilitated the growth of disease-resistant P. densiflora 1 # -A 5 and 8 generation. This research provided reference for breeding and afforestation of regenerated plantlets of P. densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease.%为了评价从日本引进的抗松材线虫病赤松通过无性快繁获得的再生植株在我国的生长状况.本研究对田间试种的抗病赤松6个家系12个无性系共688株再生植株进行跟踪监测.结果表明,抗病赤松0.5年生再生植株试种成活率明显低于2.5年、2年、1.5年及1年生再生植株;不同无性系间抗病赤松再生植株生长状况存在明显差异.其中,1#-A和5#-5无性系再生植株生长较好.菌根化造林试验表明,两种外生菌根菌美味牛肝菌(Be)和黄色须腹菌(R1)对抗病赤松1#-A5代、8代再生植株具有明显促生效果.此研究为今后抗病赤松再生植株造林育种提供了参考依据.

  13. Effects of Different Treatments on the Transplanting of Wine Grape 'Ecolly' Plantlets%不同处理对酿酒葡萄品种'爱格丽'组培苗移栽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 苏娟; 王华; 王艳妮

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了不同处理对'爱格丽'组培苗移栽成活率、生长形态及生理指标的影响.利用常规的方法,测定株高等生长指标,TTC等生理试验方法测定根系活力等生理指标.结果表明:腐殖土:珍珠岩1:1(体积比)的移栽成活率和抗逆性最高,腐殖土:珍珠岩:园土:牛粪1:1:1:0.3(体积比)的干重比和根系活力最好.移栽器皿的大小对植株的生长有着一定的影响,0.4 g·L-1的激素短时间对促发新根作用不太明显,对于移栽成活的组培苗,0.4 g·L-1的激素可以提高其根系活力和壮苗指数.就大范围的推广,腐殖土:珍珠岩:园土:牛粪1:1:1:0.3适宜作为'爱格丽'组培苗移栽的基质.%Effects of different substrates on the survival rate, growth and physiological characteristics of ‘ Ecolly’ were studied. Growth indices were determined by routine methods. Physiological indices were determined by TTC and other methods. The highest survival rate and stress-resistance of the transplanted plantlets were obtained in the mixed substrate of humus soil and perlite with a proportion of 1: 1 (v/v), and the dried weight ratio and root vigor were the highest in the mixed substrate of humus soil, perlite, soil, and dung with a proportion of 1 : 1 : 1 : 0. 3 (v/v). The size of transplanting container exhibited some influences on the growth of the plantlets. The effect of hormone with a concentration of 0. 4 g · L-1 on promoting new roots was not obvious in short time, but it can improve root vigor and healthy seedling index of the survived plantlets. For the large-scale transplanting, the mixed substrate of humus soil, perlite, soil, and dung with a proportion of 1: 1 : 1: 0.3 was more suitable than humus soil and perlite (1: 1).

  14. Effects of Coconut Milk on Plantlet Hyperhydricity of Cymbidium Hybrid%椰汁对大花蕙兰超含水态苗发生影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传贵; 刘景然; 刘雪梅; 高玉葆

    2011-01-01

    Chose 4 hybrid groups of Cymbidium, and explored the effects of coconut milk on hyperhydricity of Cymbidium plantlet in vitro. Reveals firstly that coconut milk is an important factor causing hyperhydricity of Cymbidium plantlet. It showed that different hybrid groups differed in hyperhydricity occurrence with the content variation of coconut milk. The highest rate reached 37. 0%, while the lowest one was zero. Coconut milk has great effects on the occurrence of hyperhydricity. When the quantity of 6-BA and IBA were fixed, the number of plantlets infected by hyperhydricity increased with the increasing of coconut milk within 3. 0%~6. 0%, in which the highest hyperhydricity index got 26. 0. We realize that the hormone , sugars, and amino acids contained in coconut milk raised the level of hormone,sugars, and NH concentrations in the culture media, and resulted high hyperhydricity occurrence. The paper created the idea of hyperhydricity index which evaluates the occurrence of hyperhydricity, and get accurate and better appraisement.%研究了椰汁对4个大花蕙兰杂交系无菌播种超含水态苗发生的影响,发现椰汁是引起大花蕙兰小植株超含水态发生的重要因素.椰汁用量不同,不同杂交组合超含水态发生情况差异较大,最高发生率达到37.0%,最低为零.椰汁对超含水态的发生具有重要影响.当激素6-BA和IBA用量一定时,在3.0%~6.0%范围内,随着椰汁用量的增加,超含水态苗数量升高,超含水态发生指数最高达到26.0.分析表明,椰汁中含有的激素、糖类和氨基酸,引起培养基中激素、糖类和铵离子浓度的增加,进而引起超含水态现象.

  15. Tratamentos físicos e químicos na emergência e no crescimento de plântulas de pinheira Physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito do armazenamento e a influência de tratamentos físicos e químicos sobre a emergência e o crescimento de plântulas de pinheira. Frutos de pinheiras foram coletados em um pomar comercial no município de Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. Os frutos colhidos maduros foram despolpados e suas sementes, lavadas em água corrente. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, imersão em vinagre, escarificação com lixa, escarificação em liquidificador e desponte com alicate e quatro épocas de armazenamento em geladeira (0, 2, 4 e 6 meses. Trinta dias após o plantio de cada época, foi avaliada a porcentagem de plântulas emergidas, tempo médio para emergência, número de folhas, diâmetro, altura das plantas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. Dentre os principais resultados pode-se destacar que não foram observados efeitos significativos dos tratamentos na quebra de dormência das sementes de pinheira e o armazenamento em geladeira por seis meses não prejudicou a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de pinheira.This study aimed verifying the effect of the storage and the influence of physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets. Sweetsop fruits were collected in a commercial orchard in Nova Porteirinha District, Minas Gerais. Fruits were picked when ripe, the pulp was extracted and the seeds washed. The design was in blocks at random, in a factorial system with five treatments (control, immersion in vinegar, sandpaper scarification, scarification in blender and cutting with pliers and four periods of storage at 4 ºC (0, 2, 4 e 6 months. Percentage of surfaced plantlets, average time to emergency, number of leaves, diameter, plant height, shoot root fresh and dry matter were evaluated thirty days after the planting of each period. Among

  16. 硝酸镧对霍霍巴多芽苗生长的促进作用及植株再生%STIMULATION OF SHOOT PROLIFERATION BY LANTHANUM NITRATE AND PLANT REGENERATION OF JOJOBA PLANTLET IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进; 王玉珍; 罗景兰

    2004-01-01

    The plantlets in vitro of Jojoba were treated by 1~3.5 mg/L of Lanthanum nitrate on subculture medi um( MS containing 2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L GA3), the result showed a significant promotion on shoot growth and proliferation. 2.5 mg/L had a very significant effect on shoot differentiation. Roots formation could be improved by using 1~2 mg/L of Lanthanum nitrate on the rooting medium(MS1/2 supplemented with 3 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L IBA), and 2 mg/L had a very significant effect. High concentration of Lanthanum nitrate inhibited the plantlets growth. The result indicated that different plant organs had different sensitivity on the concentration of Lanthanum nitrate. 2 cm high test-tube shoots were treated by 25 mg/L IBA or NAA for 30 min, then cultivated into sand substrate. Plantlets were elaborately reared under 20~ 30 ℃ in a greenhouse. Uncovered the plastic membrane after 50 d. Keep the light intensity at 3000 lx and relative hurnidity 85 % . The survival percent of the plantlets come up to 75 %.%在增殖培养基(改良MS+2 mg/L6-BA+0.5 mg/TGA3)中添加1~3.5 mg/L硝酸镧,对霍霍巴试管苗生长有显著促进作用,2.5 mg/L硝酸镧对多芽分化有极显著的促进;在生根培养基(改良1/2MS+3 mg/L IBA+1.5 mg/L NAA)中,1~2 mg/L的La(NO3)3对根的分化有显著的促进作用,生根率提高,最佳浓度为2.0 mg/L.过高的浓度对试管苗生长有一定抑制.试验表明,不同器官对硝酸镧的敏感程度不同.取2cm高以上的霍霍巴试管苗,用25 mg/L IBA或NAA处理30 min,扦插于沙基质中.保持室温20~30℃.50d后揭去覆膜,保持光强3000 lx,相对湿度85%以上.正常管理条件下成活率达75%.

  17. The formation of callus from papaya leaf and its generation induced and transplanting the plantlets with roots%番木瓜叶片愈伤组织形成、分化及再生植株移栽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱西儒; 张云开

    2001-01-01

    The formation of callus from papaya leaf and the generation induced the tube seedling plantlets were studied in thispaper. It was one useful way and method of the gene trans-formation to papaya ring-spot virus (PRV) and to screening lines with storing for long time and good quality.%研究了番木瓜的叶片愈伤组织的形成,并进一步诱导分化,离体培养成完整的试管植株,这对深入进行体细胞突变育种,以及抗病毒品系筛选和种质改良或耐贮藏等基因转化,提供了有用的技术和方法。

  18. Study on Optimization of Jiangxi Yanshan Red Bud Taro Plantlet Chromosome Preparation Technique%江西铅山红芽芋试管苗染色制片技术优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艾平; 柯维忠; 林国卫; 吴燕芳; 易雪梅; 叶志康; 黄丽; 余琪; 肖淮宾

    2014-01-01

    以江西铅山红芽芋试管苗为材料,探讨不同取材部位、不同预处理剂、不同酸解离时间和不同改良卡宝品红染色时间对江西铅山红芽芋试管苗染色体制片的影响,以期为江西铅山红芽芋的起源、演化及遗传育种提供一定理论依据。结果表明,切取江西铅山红芽芋试管苗根尖,在室温下用0.1%秋水仙素+0.002mol/L 8-羟基喹啉混合溶液预处理4h ,然后在60℃条件下用1 mol/L盐酸解离15 min ,最后用改良卡宝品红染色5 min ,此时染色体制片效果最佳。%In order to better understand the information about cytology of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro ( Colocasia esculenta L .Schott var .cormosus cv .Hongyayu) ,provide information support for genetic breeding of red bud taro .The protocol of different sampling places ,pretreatments solutions ,dissociating time and dying time on chromosome observation from red bud taro plantlets was studied . The results showed that the effect of chromosome preparation was best when the root tips of red bud taro plantlets was cut ,pretreated in a mixture of 0 .1% colchicines and 0 .002mol/L 8-hydroxyquinoline at 25 ℃ for 4h ,dissocated in 1 mol/L HCl at 60 ℃ for 15 min and dyed with modified carbol fuchsin for 5 min .

  19. 叶用芥菜游离小孢子的培养及其植株再生%Microspore Culture and Plantlet Regeneration in Leaf Mustard Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康云; 陶莲; 李正丽; 邓英; 孟平红; 赵大芹

    2011-01-01

    为了利用小孢子培养以加速基因型的纯合,提高育种的选择效率,加速育种进程,以叶用芥菜6个基因型为材料,研究了游离小孢子培养诱导的胚状体和植株再生.结果表明,不同基因型的胚产量差异很大.在接种的6个基因型中,有3个诱导出胚,诱导率为50%.其中,黔青2号×紫红青菜的胚产量最高,平均每个花蕾产生2.83个胚状体,最低的是黔青2号×普安青菜,平均每个花蕾产生0.21个胚状体.3个出胚的基因型都获得了再生植株.%The microspores from six leaf mustard genotypes were cultured to induce embryoids and plantlet generation for speeding up homozygous genotype, improving selection efficiency and accelerating breeding process. The results showed that there was significant difference in induced embryoid amount among six different genotypes, the embryoids could be induced from microspores of three genotypes and the induced rate was 50% , 2. 83 embryoids (maximum) and 0. 21 embryoid (minimum) were induced from Qianqing 2×Zihongqingcai and Qianqing 2×Pu' anqingcai respectively, and the plantlets could be generated from the embryoids induced from microspores of three genotypes.

  20. Influência do substrato e do tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' Influence of substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of 'Prata-Anã' banana plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar a influência do substrato e tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de micropropagação, foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os substratos utilizados foram: S1 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + substrato comercial Rendimax Floreira®; S2 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol®; S3 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol® 9% SiO; S4 - substrato comercial Technes Vivatto®; S5 - Areia grossa + casca de arroz carbonizada + Rendimax Floreira®, todos na proporção 1:1:1 (v/v/v. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: SF - sem fertilizante; FLL - fertilizante de liberação lenta, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 misturado ao substrato; e FLN - fertilizante de liberação normal, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 aplicado em cobertura, 30 dias após o plantio. As mudas foram plantadas em sacos de polietileno quando apresentavam quatro a cinco folhas, sendo mantidas em viveiro com 50% de sombreamento. Foram feitas medidas de altura, diâmetro do colo e número de folhas, e determinada a massa seca das mudas. As diferenças químicas das misturas utilizadas como substrato, juntamente com o tipo de fertilizante utilizado, proporcionaram crescimento diferenciado das mudas. O substrato S4 pode ser utilizado sem fertilização. Os substratos S2 e S3 devem ser utilizados com fertilizante de liberação normal ou lenta de nutrientes, e S1 e S5, sendo pobres em nutrientes, com fertilizante de liberação lenta.With the aim of evaluating the influence of the substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of plantlets of 'Prata-Anã' banana obtained from micropropagation, a complete randomized block design was installed, in a 5 x 3 factorial structure, with four replications. The substrates used were: S1 - subsoil dirt + carbonized rice hull

  1. 光质对火焰无核葡萄胚挽救及试管苗生长发育的影响%Effect of light quality on embryo rescue and test-tube plantlets growth and development of Flame Seedless

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 王勇; 郭平峰; 伍国红; 骆强伟

    2015-01-01

    以火焰无核自交胚珠为试材,研究了红光、蓝光、白光及暗处理对胚发育、胚萌发及试管苗生长发育的影响。结果表明:3种光质处理对胚发育均有一定促进作用,但与对照未达到显著性水平。在胚萌发阶段,红光对胚萌发有明显的促进作用。在试管苗发育成苗阶段,以蓝光处理的试管苗最为矮壮,红光下葡萄胚挽救苗试管苗节间最长,发育最高,叶绿素含量最低;各处理试管苗继代后移栽成活率均可达到90%以上。%The open pollination ovules from flame Seedless were used to investigate the effect of diffierent light quality on the proportion of embryo development and germination ,and test-tube plantlets growth and development in vitro, including red light, blue light, white light and dark condition. The results showed that three lights had positive effect on embryo during ovule development, but did not significantly; Red light could promote obsively embryo germination; the plantlets were the most stocky under blue light. Red light was favorable to the longitudinal growth of the test-tube Plantlets, Chlorophyll content were the lowest. Each treatment plantlets transplant survival rate could reach 90%.

  2. Effects of different culture conditions on Subculture of carnation plantlets cultured in vitro%不同培养条件对香石竹组培苗玻璃化现象的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉园; 杜清叶

    2015-01-01

    Vitrification is the main obstacle in subculture of carnation plantlets in vitro,which were induced from shoot tips. In order to study the influence of different culture conditions on the carnation somaclone vitrification, with robust carnation somaclone as material, taking MS as the basic culture medium, the effects of different concentrations of 6-BA, sugar and agar and active carbon added on prevention of carnation plantlets vitrification phenomenon were tested. The results showed that low concentration of 6-BA and properly increasing the concentration of sugar and agar, in which somaclone multiplication coefficient is higher and the vitrification rate is low. Therefore, medium with MS+sucrose 30.0 g+agar 8.0 g+6-BA 0.5mg/L+NAA 0.01mg/L+activated carbon 4 g/L can effectively prevent carnation vitrification in tissue culture.%香石竹茎尖试管苗继代培养玻璃化现象是香石竹脱毒试管苗生产的一个主要障碍.为探讨不同培养条件对香石竹组培苗玻璃化的影响,以香石竹健壮组培苗为材料,以MS为基本培养基,研究了不同浓度6-BA、蔗糖和琼脂以及添加活性炭对防止香石竹组培苗玻璃化现象的作用.结果表明,降低6-BA的浓度,适当提高蔗糖和琼脂的浓度,组培苗增殖系数较高,玻璃化率低.其中,MS+蔗糖30.0 g+琼脂8.0 g+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+ NAA 0.01 mg/L+活性炭4 g/L的培养基可以有效降低香石竹组织培养中的玻璃化现象.

  3. Gene Transfer into Young Embryos via Electroporation and Regeneration of Plantlets in Rice%水稻幼胚电激转化及转基因植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜华; 赵洁; 杨弘远

    2002-01-01

    幼胚的遗传转化对研究植物胚胎发育相关基因的表达与调控具有重要意义, 也为植物遗传改良提供新的技术.本研究借助一种自制的特殊装置,采用电激法将GFP基因转入2-3天水稻幼胚,得到瞬时表达, 4-6天水稻幼胚经电激后再生了植株,并在愈伤组织阶段及R0植株中检测到GFP荧光的转基因植株,从而建立了水稻幼胚的遗传转化实验系统.在电容为500 μF、电压为300 V/cm,浓度为100 μg/mL的条件下,幼胚GFP的电激转化频率可达35%. 在pH 5.8的电激缓冲液中,最高转化频率可达40%.在三种不同的启动子实验中,以Ubi启动子的转化频率最高.%Green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was expressed transiently in 2-3 d old rice embryos by electroporation with the aid of a specially designed loading net. Under suitable conditions (500 μF capacitance, 300 V/cm Voltage, 100 μg/mL plasmid DNA), the percentage of embryos expressing GFP was up to 35%. The highest electroporation efficiency (40%) was obtained at pH 5.8 of the electroporation buffer. The GFP gene driven by the Ubi promoter produced the highest efficiency. Thus, on the basis of optimizing electroporation conditions, a transformation system has been developed for young embryos in rice. The electroporated 4-6 d old embryos regenerated plantlets under the controlled cultural conditions. Fluorescence microscopic observations indicated that GFP gene expressed in their calli and R0 plantlets.

  4. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill sob cobertura vegetal = Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed germination and plantlet growth under vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do sistema de rotação de cultura requer, entre outrostratamentos, a escolha adequada das espécies a serem instaladas. Culturas vegetais podem apresentar compostos aleloquímicos, os quais são liberados por meio de pelos radiculares, sementes, raízes, colmos e folhas, em quantidades variáveis, capazes de interferir nas culturas subsequentes, comprometendo a produção. Assim, este estudoanalisou o potencial alelopático de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb (AP, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. (NF, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. (ER, azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (AZ e consórcio (CO - AP+ER+NF na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja. O experimento foi em laboratório, com substrato deareia, onde foram cultivadas plantas de cobertura, por 30 dias, mantendo os restos radiculares das plantas com e sem restos de parte aérea. Observou-se redução na emergência de plântulas de soja sob CO, AZ e AP. O índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a porcentagem de emergência em areia (EA e a massa fresca de hipocótilo (MFH foram afetados negativamente pelas plantas de cobertura.In order to be efficient, the crop rotation system requires, among other factors, an adequate choice of species to be installed. Vegetalcultures can feature allelochemical compounds, released by root hairs, roots, stems and leaves in variable amounts, which are able to interfere on subsequent cultures, as well as cause a delay in their production. Thus, this study analyzed the allelopathic potentialof black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT, vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (RG and consortium (CO - BO+V+FT on soybean seed germination and plantlet growth. This trial was carried out in a laboratory, with sand substrate, where coverage plants were grown, during 30 days. The remaining root portions of plants were kept with and without the remaining aerial part portions

  5. Influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro ao estresse salino Influence of rootstocks on the resistance of cashew plantlets to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Ferreira-Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. à salinidade. As mudas foram obtidas pela enxertia do clone BRS 226 sobre os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226. Foram expostas a meio hidropônico sem NaCl (controle ou com NaCl 200 mM (tratamento salino, sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade, durante 12 dias. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (três combinações de enxerto/porta-enxerto e duas concentrações de NaCl, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados a concentração de Na+, Cl-, K+ e solutos orgânicos e os sintomas visuais de toxicidade nas folhas. Os conteúdos de Na+ e Cl-, a relação K+/Na+ e as concentrações de aminoácidos e de prolina livres nas folhas tiveram relação direta com os sintomas visuais de toxicidade. Os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226 foram classificados como sensível, intermediário e resistente à salinidade elevada, respectivamente. Essa variação foi decorrente da influência do porta-enxerto na partição do Na+ e do Cl-.The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. rootstocks on salt resistance in grafted plantlets. The plantlets were obtained by grafting the BRS 226 scion on CAPI 4, CCP 09 and BRS 226 rootstocks, and were exposed to nutrient solution without NaCl (control or with 200 mM NaCl (salt treatment in hydroponics under controlled temperature, humidity, and luminosity conditions during 12 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized in factorial arrangement 3x2 (three scion/rootstock combinations, two NaCl concentrations with four replicates. Na+, Cl-, K+ and organic solute concentrations and toxicity symptoms on leaves were determined. Na+ and Cl- contents, the K+/Na+ ratio and the free amino acid and proline concentrations in leaves were directly related to the visual

  6. Growth response of maize plantlets inoculated with Enterobacter spp., as a model for alternative agriculture Respuesta de plántulas de maíz inoculadas con Enterobacter spp. como un modelo de agricultura alternativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda E Morales-García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A maize rhizosphere isolate was phenotypically and genotypically characterized and identifed as Enterobacter spp. bacterium. Germinated seeds were inoculated, the plantlets were sown in vermiculite and in soil and grown under laboratory and feld conditions, respectively. The adherence, colonization and plant growth promotion capability of Enterobacter sp. UAPS03001 was evaluated in "Rojo-Criollo" maize under laboratory conditions. Twenty days after inoculation, the treated plantlets showed larger biomass than non-inoculated ones. In feld grown plants, the kernel biomass was also greater in inoculated than in non-inoculated plants. The inoculation of maize sprouts with plant growth- promoting bacteria before their sowing in the feld would be an alternative practice for achieving successful yield in temporal agriculture.En este trabajo se aisló una bacteria de la rizósfera de maíz, que fue caracterizada mediante métodos fenotípicos y genotípicos e identifcada como Enterobacter sp. UAPS03001. La bacteria fue inoculada en semillas de maíz "Rojo-Criollo" germinadas en forma axénica. Las semillas germinadas e inoculadas se plantaron en vermiculita y posteriormente las plántulas fueron cultivadas en vermiculita o en suelo, para evaluar el efecto promotor del crecimiento vegetal de dicha bacteria, bajo condiciones de laboratorio y de campo. Bajo condiciones de laboratorio, también se evaluó la capacidad de esta cepa para adherirse a las plantas de maíz y colonizarlas. Veinte días después de la inoculación, las plántulas inoculadas mostraron una biomasa mayor con referencia a las no inoculadas. En campo, la biomasa de la mazorca fue también mayor en las plantas inoculadas respecto de las plantas no inoculadas. La inoculación de germinados de maíz con una bacteria promotora del crecimiento vegetal y su posterior transferencia a campo podría ser una práctica alternativa para llevar a cabo una producción exitosa en agricultura de

  7. Morpho-physiological changes in pineapple plantlets [Ananas comosus (L. merr.] during acclimatization Mudanças morfofisiológicas em plântulas de abacaxi [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] durante a aclimatização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Villalobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple producing countries lack good quality propagation material to expand cultivars into new areas. Previously, research protocols may increase the offer of high quality plantlets and speed the introduction of new pineapple cultivars. The present work is to evaluate the morpho-physiological changes in plantlets of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. 'MD-2'] during the acclimatization phase. Plantlets were acclimatized under 80% relative humidity, 25.5 °C temperature and photosynthetic photon flux of 400-500 µmol m-2 s-1 as average for 45 d under natural photoperiods. All measurements (plant length, number of leaves and roots, fresh weight, width and length of leaf 'D', net photosynthesis and total transpiration rate were carried out at the end of in vitro rooting phase coincident with 0 d of acclimatization and at 15, 30 and 45 d thereafter. Photosynthetic activity of in vitro plantlets did not increase during the first 30 d of the acclimatization phase. After 30 d, photosynthetic activity ranged from 5.72 to 9.36 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 while total transpiration ranged from 6.0 to 1.42 mmol H2O m-2 s-1. During the first 30 days there were no significant differences in number of leaves, length or width of the longest ('D' leaf (cm or plant length (cm. However, after 45 days plant fresh weight (g, length and width of the 'D' leaf (cm and root number all increased significantly, while transpiration (mmol H2O m-2 s-1 declined. There were small but significant decreases in chlorophyll a and b (µg g-1 mf.. Increased photosynthetic activity after 30 d shows that the increase in light intensity and the reduction of relative humidity during acclimatization did not constitute inhibitory factors.Os países produtores do abacaxi precisam de mudas de boa qualidade para a introdução de novas culturas nas áreas de cultivo. Os protocolos de pesquisa podem aumentar a oferta de mudas de alta qualidade e acelerar a introdução de novas culturas do abacaxi

  8. Effects of Agrobacterium tumefac iens on the Symptoms of Paulownia sp. Plantlet in Vitro Cultured%根癌农杆菌对感染植原体的泡桐组培苗症状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国忠; 朱水芳; 罗飞; 李怀方; 裘维蕃

    2001-01-01

    采用含有激素合成相关基因的根癌农杆菌,伤口接种已感染植原体的泡桐丛枝组培苗和健康组培苗,结果发现对丛枝苗的致瘤能力明显低于健康对照苗,且被接种病苗的丛枝症状缓解.从健苗获得的T-DNA转化泡桐瘤组织细胞能在无激素培养基上稳定生长和连续继代培养2年以上,说明瘤组织细胞自身已获得了细胞分裂素和生长素合成能力.根据已报道的根癌农杆菌株系pTil 5955 T-DNA的异戊烯基转移酶基因(ipt)的保守序列,设计了一对引物(CYT和CYT′),用多聚酶链式反应(PCR)扩增了我国杨树致瘤农杆菌ipt基因部分序列(427 bp片段),也从遗传转化的两个泡桐无性系瘤组织At-ZH和At-T35扩增出此特异片段,从而进一步肯定了T-DNA已被整合到泡桐的染色体上,表明泡桐易于通过Ti质粒载体途径进行基因转移操作,但用此引物未能从泡桐、甘薯健株和感染植原体的组培病苗扩增出相应的427 bp特异片段.当用此遗传转化瘤组织嫁接病苗时,可减轻丛枝症状的严重度,延长病苗的存活时间和诱导病株生根,这进一步证实了泡桐在与植原体相互作用过程中激素代谢发生了变化.%By using Agrobacterium tumefac iens isolated from poplar crown gall disease with the hormone-produ cing genes in the T-DNA to inoculate healthy and infected Paulownia plantlets with phytoplasma, it is showed that tumorigensis of dise ased plantlets dropped apparently and the symptoms of witches' broom suppressed to some extent. The T-DNA was transformed into Paulownia resulting in tumor formation independent of exogenous hormone addition and ke eping subculture of tumor tissues for more than 2 years, thus confirming that th e tumor tissues gained the ability to synthesize cytokinin and auxin by itself. Based on the conserved sequence of isopentenyl adenosine transferase gene (ipt) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Op ine pTil 5955 strain, a pair of DNA

  9. Indução de metabólitos secundários em plântulas de Hypericum brasiliense Choisy crescendo in vitro Induction of secondary metabolites in plantlets of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Araújo Luna Velloso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de rutina, quercetina, 1,5-diidroxixantona e ácido betulínico foi investigada em plântulas de H. brasiliense crescendo in vitro, sob a influência de ácido salicílico, polietilenoglicol, NaCl, 24-epibrassinolídeo, benzotiadiazole (BION, metiljasmonato e concentrações aumentadas de boro e nitrogênio no meio líquido de cultura. As avaliações foram feitas após 5 e 10 dias do início dos tratamentos. Os maiores aumentos de conteúdo foram observados com quercetina para boro e ácido salicílico aos 5 dias, e 24-epibrassinolídeo e BION aos 10 dias.The production of rutin, quercetin, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone and betulinic acid was investigated in plantlets of H. brasieliense in vitro, and exposed to salycilic acid, poliethylene glycol, NaCl, 24-epibrassinolide, benzothiadiazole (BION, methyljasmonate and increased concentrations of boron and nitrogen in the liquid culture medium. Evaluations of the contents were carried out after 5 and 10 days of treatments. The highest increase was observed in quercetin in the salycilic acid and B treatments after 5 days of exposure, and in 24-epibrassinolide and BION after 10 days.

  10. Micropropagación y estimativa de producción de mudas de bananos para la Amazonia Occidental Micropropagation and estimates of banana plantlets production for Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue de determinar tasas de multiplicación y estimar la producción in vitro de microplantas de las cultivares del banano Preciosa, Maravilha, Pacovan Ken y Japira, durante seis subcultivos y con diferentes concentraciones de BAP. Después de multiplicadas, las microplantas enraizadas fueron aclimatadas, y la sobrevivencia fue determinada después de 30 días. Las tasas de multiplicación fueron de 2,3 y 2,1 brotes por explante de 'Preciosa' y 'Maravilha', respectivamente, y 2,7 brotes por explante de 'Pacovan Ken' y 'Japira', en 4 mg L-1 de BAP. Las pérdidas por contaminación fueron de 22,4%, y la sobrevivencia por lo menos 96%.The objective of this work was to determine multiplication rates and to estimate the in vitro plantlets production of the banana cultivars Preciosa, Maravilha, Pacovan Ken and Japira, during six subcultures at different BAP concentrations. After the multiplication, the rooted microplants were acclimatized, and the survival was determined after 30 days. Multiplication rates reached 2.3 and 2.1 shoots per explant of 'Preciosa' and 'Maravilha', respectively, and 2.7 shoots per explant for 'Pacovan Ken' and 'Japira', in 4 mg L-1 of BAP. Losses due contamination were 22.4%, and seedlings survival was superior to 96%.

  11. Irradiation effect on in vitro organogenesis, callus growth and plantlet development of Gerbera jamesonii Efeito da irradiação na organogênese in vitro, crescimento de calos e desenvolvimento de plântulas de gerbera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor A Hasbullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to study the effects of gamma irradiation on in vitro growth of explants, callus and the formation of shoots and plantlets. Irradiation is known to exhibit or inhibit the differentiation of cells and growth of plants in vitro, which helps in producing new plant varieties. Gamma irradiation is one of the physical mutagens that are widely used for mutation breeding. A gradual decline was observed in the number of shoots regenerated from irradiated petiole explants compared to control. Numbers of shoots regenerated from irradiated petiole explant cultured on Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA was reduced to 6.6±0.9 from 7.5±0.4 (control when explants were exposed to 20 Gray of irradiation dose. Similar observation was reported on effects of gamma irradiation on in vitro propagated plantlets. Gradual decline was observed based on plant height as the dose of gamma irradiation increased. A significant decline was observed in the fresh weight of irradiated callus compared to control. In this case, growth responses of callus were strongly influenced by the radiation dose. The fresh weight of callus was reduced to 76.4±2.2% compared to 89.7±0.5% of control when callus tissues were exposed to 20 Gy.O presente trabalho foi realizado para estudar os efeitos da radiação gama no crescimento in vitro de explantes de calos, e a formação de brotos e mudas. A irradiação é conhecida por induzir ou inibir a diferenciação de células e o crescimento das plantas in vitro, o que ajuda na produção de novas variedades vegetais. Radiação gama é um dos agentes mutagenicos que são amplamente utilizados para o melhoramento através da mutação. Um declínio gradual foi observado no número de brotos regenerados a partir de explantes de pecíolos irradiados comparado com o controle. O número de brotações regeneradas de explantes de pecíolos irradiados, cultivados em meio

  12. Propagação de mudas de helicônia em biorreator de imersão temporária Propagation of heliconia plantlets in temporarily immersion bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas técnicas de micropropagação têm sido estudadas visando à otimização da produção e redução dos custos de produção. Dentre elas, a técnica de micropropagação em biorreator de imersão temporária destaca-se pela utilização do meio de cultivo líquido em um sistema automatizado. Neste experimento avaliou-se, em três repetições, um biorreator artesanal de imersão temporária, utilizando explantes de Heliconia champneiana Griggs cv. Splash, submetidos a três subcultivos com quinze minutos de imersão em intervalos de uma hora (T1, quatro horas (T4, seis horas (T6 e oito horas (T8, em que foram avaliados o volume final de meio de cultivo, pH final, número de brotações, massa da matéria fresca, massa unitária e a funcionalidade do sistema. Resultados das avaliações entre os tratamentos de imersão temporária demonstraram que o melhor desempenho ocorreu no tratamento T1, sendo inviável o tratamento T8 para esse tipo de cultura. Na comparação com o método convencional (C, os tratamentos T1 e T4 foram superiores, demonstrando melhor eficiência da imersão temporária na produção de brotos. O protótipo do biorreator de imersão temporária teve bom desempenho, sendo funcional, de fácil manuseio e podendo ser utilizado no estudo de outras culturas.Novel micropropagation techniques have been studied aiming the optimization of production and cost reduction. Among these micropropagation using temporarily immersion in a bioreactor is a technique that uses liquid medium in an automatzed system. This research evaluated the efficacy of a handcraft temporarily immersion system, using explants of Heliconia champneiana Griggs cv. Splash. These were submitted to three subcultures with fifteen minutes of immersion in intervals of one hour (T1, four hours (T4, six hours (T6 and eight hours (T8. Weight of the fresh mass, number of plantlets, individual weight, final volume of culture media, pH final and the overall

  13. Desenvolvimento de mudas de bromélia (Neoregelia cruenta (R. Graham L. B. Smith cultivadas em diferentes substartos e adubação foliar Development of plantlets of bromeliad (Neoregelia cruenta cultivated in different substrates and leaf fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Alves Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    extraction. This situation is also a consequence of the reduced technical information regarding its propagation and development. One of the limitations is the lack of knowledge regarding the type of substrate and adequate fertilizer for its cultivation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Neoregelia cultivated in different substrates and leaf fertilizers through the variables height, leaf number and fresh and dry matter of shoots and roots. The plantlets used were produced by tissue culture. After a period of pre-acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to a green house without nebulization. The substrates consisted of different proportions of soil, sand and carbonized rice husk and a commercial substrate composed of vermiculite. Leaf fertilizers were applied to the substrates combining urea and sucrose in intervals of fifteen days. The results showed that the interactions of the substrates and the sucrose and urea dosages had no effect on height and leaf number. The use of sucrose also showed no influence on plant development. The commercial substrate composed of vermiculite, independent of the leaf fertilizer application, showed the best results for plant height and leaf number. The use of urea presented a crescent linear effect during the evaluated period.

  14. 2株内生真菌对菊花抗旱特性的影响%Effect of PEG stress on plantlets of Chrysanthemum morifolium induced by endophytic Botrytis sp.(C1)and Chaetomium globosum(C4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文玲; 刘晓珍; 蔡信之; 孙迪; 戴传超

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the endophytic fungi Botrytis sp. ( C1 ) or Chaetomium globosum (C4) on the drought resistance of Chrysanthemum morifolium was studied. Ch. morifolium plantlets were inoculated with C1, C4 and cultured in the pots for 60 days, then the plantlets were stressed by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% PEG6000 respectively in order to simulate different drought conditions. Biomass, the activities of SOD, POD, PAL, the contents of MDA and soluble protein of each group were determined. The results showed that endophytic fungi groups grew better than the control ( without inoculation endophytic fungi). With the increasing of the concentration of PEG6000, the biomass of Ch. morifolium of each groups decreased, while the biomass of fungi groups was significantly higher than that of control, moreover C4 group higher than C1 group. With the concentration of PEG increasing, the content of MDA of each group increased too, while POD activity and soluble protein content of all treatments increased at first and then decreased. SOD activity and PAL activity of the control were increased with the increase of PEG concentration, but SOD activity of the two ftmgi groups were stable. After been stressed by different concentrations of PEG, MDA content of two fungi groups were always lower than the control, while SOD activity, POD activity, PAL activity and soluble protein content were higher. In conclusion, endophytic fungi can increase the drought resistance of Ch. morifolium.%目的:以PEG6000模拟干旱条件,研究接种内生真菌(葡萄孢属C1菌Botrytis sp.、球毛壳菌G4菌Chaetomium globosum对药用菊花Ch.morifolium抗旱性的影响.方法:分别用0%,10%,20%,30%,40%PEG6000胁迫菊花组培苗4 d,测定各处理组菊花生物量,叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性及叶片丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量.结果:模拟干旱胁迫后,接种内生真菌的菊花长势好于对照(未接菌),PEG6000

  15. 几种有机添加物对霍山石斛试管苗生理特性的影响%Effects of Several Organic Additives on the Physiological Characteristics of Plantlets of Dendrobium huoshanense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寅峰; 徐丽; 张志敏; 张春霞

    2011-01-01

    Effects of three organic additives (mashed potatoes, banana slurry, white turnip juice, with dosages of 100-300 g · L-1 respectively) to 1/2MS on physiological characteristics of plantlet of Dendrobium huoshanense were studied.The results showed that the three organic additives of with different dosages all improved biomass and the contents of chlorophyll and soluble sugars obviously.Mashed potatoes was the optimal organic additive.Effects of the different organic additives on protective enzyme were different.The activity of CAT was improved, while the activities of POD, SOD were inhibited obviously by mashed potatoes.The activities of POD, SOD and CAT were all improved significantly by banana slurry, the optimal dosages were 200 g·L-1 , 100 g·L-1 and 300 g·L-1 respectively.The activities of POD and CAT were improved significantly by white turnip juice, and the optimal dosages were 200 g · L-1 and 300 g·L-1 respectively, but the activity of SOD was inhibited significantly.These results suggested that appropriate dosages of the organic additives could not only promote growth and physiological function of plantlet of D.huoshanense, but also enhanced the stress resistance of seedling.Banana slurry was the optimal treatment according to the result of every indexs.%以霍山石斛试管苗为材料、1/2MS为基本培养基,研究了100~300 g·L-1的土豆泥、香蕉泥、白萝卜汁3种有机添加物对霍山石斛试管苗生理特性的影响.结果表明,不同浓度的3种添加物均显著提高了霍山石斛试管苗的生物量、叶绿素和可溶性糖含量,以土豆泥效果最佳.不同添加物对保护酶活性的影响存在一定的差异.土豆泥各浓度处理对过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性有一定的促进作用,但明显抑制过氧化物酶(POD)和超氧歧化酶(SOD)的活性;香蕉泥各浓度处理均显著提高POD、SOD、CAT活性,最佳浓度分别为200、100、300 g·L-1;白萝卜汁各浓度处理明显提高POD、CAT

  16. 培养基成分和培养时间对匍匐翦股颖植株再生的影响%Effects of medium components and subculture period on plantlet regeneration of creeping bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一飞; 张露娜; 吴宜成; 陈沁; 邓志瑞

    2013-01-01

    Mature seeds of creeping bentgrass were used as explants to study the effects of 2,4-D concentration,com-bination of 2,4-D and 6-BA,and sucrose concentration on callus induction and the effects of subculture time,6-BA concentration,sucrose concentration on plantlet regeneration.The results showed that combination of 2 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg·L-1 6-BA produced the best result with 94% callus induction rate,and 30 g·L-1 sucrose gave the best result,callus induction rate being 82%.During regeneration process,1 mg·L-1 6-BA could bring the best differentia-tion frequency (62%)and 40 g·L-1 sucrose resulted in the highest plantlet regeneration frequency (52%).The callus after the second time subculture (40 d after explants were laid on medium)gave the highest differentiation frequency (71%)which began to decline as subculture prolonged.After the fifth time subculture (100 d),only 18%differentia-tion frequency was obtained.%以匍匐翦股颖成熟种子为外植体,研究了培养基2,4-D浓度、2,4-D和6-BA组合配比、蔗糖浓度对匍匐翦股颖愈伤组织诱导的影响以及愈伤组织再生过程中继代时间、6-BA浓度、蔗糖浓度对愈伤组织分化的影响.结果表明:在MS培养基上,2 mg·L-12,4-D和0.1 mg·L-16-BA的组合最利于愈伤组织的诱导,诱导率高达94%.蔗糖浓度为30 g·L-1时愈伤组织诱导率最高,为82%;在再生过程中,当6-BA浓度为1 mg·L-1时分化率最高(62%),蔗糖浓度为40 g·L-1时,愈伤组织分化率最高(52%).经过2次继代培养的愈伤组织(外植体放到培养基后40天)的分化率为最高(71%),随着继代次数增多,分化率逐渐降低,在经过5次继代后(培养100 d)分化率仅有18%.

  17. Effect of environmental factors on pigment accumulation of in vitro amaranth plantlets%环境因子对苋菜试管苗色素累积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生财; 杨文文; 赖钟雄

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different environmental factors, such as light quality, photoperiod, pH and temperature, were studied on the pigment accumulation of in vitro amaranth plantlets. The results showed that both the chlorophyll synthesis and carotenoid synthesis were increased at (20±1)℃, with pH 5.4, white light under 24 h -d-1. The content of anthocyanin was no significant difference at 20-32 ℃, but higher between pH 5.4 and 5.8, and higher through white light treatments, and higher and not significant difference between 12 and 18 h ·d-1. The content of amaranth red pigment was higher at (20± 1)℃.%以苋菜试管苗为材料,研究了光质、光周期、温度和pH等条件对苋菜光合色素、苋菜红色素以及花色素苷含量变化的影响.结果表明,温度(20±1)℃、pH 5.4、白光照射以及光照24 h·d-1均可促进叶绿素和类胡萝卜素的合成;在20~32℃范围内,温度对苋菜花色素苷累积影响不大;pH 5.4和5.8时,花色苷含量均较高;白光及光照18和12 h·d-1均有利于花色素苷累积;(20±1)℃时苋菜红色素含量较高.

  18. Adição de torta de mamona em substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira Effect of addition of castor bean pie in substrates in acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Novais Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira que oferecem qualidade genética e fitossanitária, favorecendo o desenvolvimento, instalação e uniformidade do pomar, é importante para a exploração comercial da bananicultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição da torta de mamona nos substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira da cv. Willians. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, sendo 2 substratos e 5 dosagens de torta de mamona (0; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g vaso-1. O substrato Vivatto Slim Plus® possibilitou o melhor desenvolvimento das plantas na aclimatação. Não são recomendadas doses superiores a 12 g planta-1 de torta de mamona misturadas ao substrato na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira.The use of micropropagated banana tree seedlings offer genetic and phytosanitary qualities, favoring the development, installation and uniformity of the yield and it is very important for the commercial exploration of banana fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor oil plant pie added to the substrate in the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. 'Willians'. It was use the completely randomized, with 10 treatments, being 2 substrates and 5 dosages of castor oil plant pie (0; 6; 12; 18 and 24 g for each recipient. The substrate Vivatto Slim Plus® showed the best development of the plants in acclimatization processes. Dosages above 12 g of castor oil plant pie for each plant are not recommended mixed to the substrate in the acclimatization of banana tree seedlings

  19. Transcriptome analysis by Illumina high-throughout paired-end sequencing reveals the complexity of differential gene expression during in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Amaranthus tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcai Liu

    Full Text Available Amaranthus tricolor L. is a C4 plant, which is consumed as a major leafy vegetable in some tropical countries. Under conditions of high temperature and short daylight, Am. tricolor readily bolts and blooms, degrading leaf quality. A preliminary in vitro flowering study demonstrated that the flowering control pathway in Am. tricolor may differ from that of Arabidopsis. Nevertheless, no transcriptome analysis of the flowering process in Amaranthus has been conducted. To study Am. tricolor floral regulatory mechanisms, we conducted a large-scale transcriptome analysis--based on Illumina HiSeq sequencing of cDNA libraries generated from Am. tricolor at young seedling (YSS, adult seedling (ASS, flower bud (FBS, and flowering (FS stages. A total of 99,312 unigenes were obtained. Using BLASTX, 43,088 unigenes (43.39% were found to have significant similarity with accessions in Nr, Nt, and Swiss-Prot databases. Of these unigenes, 11,291 were mapped to 266 KEGG pathways. Further analysis of the four digital transcriptomes revealed that 735, 17,184, 274, and 206 unigenes were specifically expressed during YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS, respectively, with 59,517 unigenes expressed throughout the four stages. These unigenes were involved in many metabolic pathways related to in vitro flowering. Among these pathways, 259 unigenes were associated with ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, indicating its importance for in vitro flowering in Am. tricolor. Other pathways, such as circadian rhythm and cell cycle, also had important roles. Finally, 26 unigenes were validated by qRT-PCR in samples from Am. tricolor at YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS; their differential expressions at the various stages indicate their possible roles in Am. tricolor growth and development, but the results were somewhat similar to Arabidopsis. Because unigenes involved in many metabolic pathways or of unknown function were revealed to regulate in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Am. tricolor, the

  20. Utilização de paclobutrazol em vetiver na produção de mudas e seu efeito em plantas no campo Utilization of paclobutrazol in vetiver for plantlet production and its effect over plants in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie F Blank

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de paclobutrazol foi avaliado na produção de mudas de genótipos de vetiver (ensaio 1 e após transplantio em campo (ensaio 2 visando a redução da altura da planta e o aumento da produção de perfilhos. No ensaio 1 testaram-se dois genótipos de vetiver oriundos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, duas épocas de aplicação (7 e 14 dias após o plantio e sete doses de paclobutrazol. No ensaio 2 foram avaliados três genótipos de vetiver e três modos de aplicação de paclobutrazol, sendo duas em mudas e uma em plantas em campo. Em mudas, a aplicação aos 14 dias após o plantio em tubetes, reduziu a altura de planta e a massa seca de parte aérea e de raiz. A maior concentração de paclobutrazol (1.800 mg L-1 resultou em plantas mais baixas e menor massa seca de parte aérea. O paclobutrazol não influenciou o número de perfilhos por planta e não deve ser recomendado na produção de mudas de vetiver. Verificou-se que os genótipos UFS-VET001 e UFS-VET004 obtiveram maior perfilhamento por touceira a partir de 133 dias após transplantio para o campo; não houve diferenças significativas entre os genótipos para número de pendões florais por touceira, altura de planta, massa seca de parte aérea e de raiz e teor de óleo essencial. A aplicação de paclobutrazol proporcionou redução no número de pendões florais e altura de planta, mas não afetou a massa seca de parte aérea e de raízes. O paclobutrazol não deve ser recomendado para produção comercial de raízes de vetiver por não proporcionar redução de parte aérea e aumento do rendimento de raiz e de óleo essencial.The effect of paclobutrazol was evaluated on plantlet production of different vetiver genotypes (assay 1 and on plants under field conditions (assay 2. In the first assay, two vetiver genotypes from the Germplasm Repository of Sergipe Federal University, Brazil (UFS-VET001 and UFS-VET003, seven concentrations of

  1. 抗松材线虫病赤松组培苗的生根与移栽研究%Study on rooting and transplanting of the tissue-cultured plantlets from Pinus densiflora with good resistance to pine wilt disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莉; 吴小芹; 王张丽

    2011-01-01

    Factors influencing rooting and transplanting of tissue-cultured plantlets from Pinus densiflora with excellent resistance to pine wilt disease but poor ability of rooting were investigated. The results showed that the induction rate of the adventitious root reached 93% after treating the shoots at 17 ℃ for 5 days, and it was beneficial for adventitious root induction as adding 30-50 mg/L banana juice into the rooting medium with a controlled temperature of 25 ℃. To sterilize the transplant matrix at high temperature or with 0.2% KMnO4 for two times would be helpful for improving the survival ratio of the tissue-cultured plantlets. Spraying nutrition solution could stimulate the plantlets growth. This research contributed to improve the root induction and transplanting survival rate, which provided factory style breeding system and practice evidences.%以抗病性较好但不易生根的抗松材线虫病赤松无性系为试验材料,对影响组培苗生根移栽的因素进行了研究.结果表明:将待生根的丛生芽置于17 ℃条件下处理5 d后,不定根诱导率最高达93%;在生根培养基中添加30~50 mg/L香蕉汁有利于不定根诱导;对移栽基质进行高温灭菌或0.2%高锰酸钾消毒2次的处理均可有效提高组培苗移栽成活率;喷施营养液对组培苗的长势具有促进作用.

  2. Experiments of Tomato Plantlet Flowering and Fructification in Space and Simulated Microgravity Environments%空间环境和模拟微重力环境下番茄试管苗的开花结实实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜; 鹿金颖; 李华盛; 赵滢; 苏亮; 刘敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 实现番茄试管苗在空间环境下开花结实,并比较空间环境和模拟微重力环境对番茄开花结实的影响.方法 通过“神舟”8号飞船搭载和三维回转仪分别进行空间环境和模拟微重力环境的番茄开花结实实验,比较番茄结果率、果实大小、形状、颜色以及植株高度的差别.结果 空间环境和模拟微重力环境下番茄试管苗都完成了开花结实的发育过程,且结果率、果实大小、形状、颜色以及植株高度都与地面对照差异不显著.结论 高等植物可以在空间环境下完成开花结实的生殖生长过程.在特殊条件下,重力并非植物生殖生长的必要条件.%Objective To realize the flowering and fructification of tomato in space and compare the influences of space and simulated microgravity on it.Methods Experiments were completed on the spaceflight of Shenzhou 8 spacecraft and in microgravity environment simulated with rotation of three dimensional (3-D) clinostat.The differences of fruit bearing,fruit size,fruit shape,fruit color and the plant height were compared.Results Tomato plantlets flowered and born fruits in both space and simulated microgravity environments.Compared to the ground control,no significant differences on the percentage of fruit bearing,fruit size,fruit shape,fruit color and the plant height were found.Conclusion Higher plants can complete the development process of flowering and fructification in space.Gravity is not the necessary condition for the plant reproduction under some environmant.

  3. Effects of Different Growth Hormone Ratios on Tissue-cultured Plantlet Growth of Moringa oleifera%不同激素配比对辣木组培苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武新琴; 智顺

    2012-01-01

    Young stems of Moringa Oleifera were selected as explants, and were cultured on substrate using 25 kinds of ratios of growth hormone to study the effects of the hormone ratios on the tissue-cultured shoots growth of Moringa Oleifera. Besides, rooting tests were done on six kinds of substrates. The results showed that the regenerated plant-lets on the substrate of MS+6-BA 0. 02~0. 5 mg · L-1 + NAA 0. 02 mg · L-1 +3 % sucrose developed best with 5. 6 ~8. 1 times of proliferation. The rooting rate on the substrate of 1/2 MS+ NAA 0, 2 mg · L-1 + 2 % sucrose reached 79%. Both morphological top up and top down seeding ways can lead to morphological rooting at the lower end.%以辣木嫩梢茎段为外植体,在25种不同激素配比的培养基上进行培养,探讨不同激素配比对辣木组培苗生长的影响,并在6种不同生根培养基上进行生根试验.研究结果表明:在MS+6-BA0.02~0.5 mg· L-1+ NAA0.02mg·L-1+蔗糖3%的培养基上辣木组培苗生长良好,增殖倍数达5.6~8.1.在1/2MS+NAA0.2 mg·L-1+蔗糖2%的培养基上生根率最高达79%.用形态学上端朝上与朝下两种方式接种到生根培养基上均能在形态学下端生根.

  4. Estudo de adubos e substratos orgânicos no desenvolvimento de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia Effects of organic fertilizers and substrates on development of micropropagated heliconia plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício R A Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de combinações de substratos orgânicos (casca de arroz carbonizada, pó de casca de coco verde e seco e adubos (Vitasoloâ e húmus de minhoca, em esquema fatorial 3x2, na proporção de 3:1 (v/v, na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia bihai, provenientes de cultivo in vitro. Foram estabelecidos contrastes ortogonais, definidos "a priori": pó de casca de coco x casca de arroz carbonizada; pó de casca de coco seco x pó de casca de coco verde; e Vitasoloâ x húmus de minhoca. Após 75 dias, avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e a área da terceira folha. Em relação a todas as variáveis estudadas, a casca de arroz carbonizada foi mais eficiente do que o pó de casca de coco; o pó de casca de coco verde ou seco não diferiram significativamente entre si; entre os adubos testados, o húmus de minhoca foi o que resultou em maior desenvolvimento das plântulas.The efficiency of three different organic substrates (carbonised rice hull, dry and green coir dust and two fertilizers (Vitasolo® and humus of earthworm, were evaluated in factorial scheme (3x2 at the ratio of 3:1 (v/v in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia bihai, obtained from in vitro culture. The following pre-defined orthogonal contrasts were set up: coir dust (green or dry x carbonised rice hull; green coir dust x dry coir dust; Vitasolo® x humus of earthworm. After 75 days, height of the plants, diameter of pseudo-stem, number of leaves and area of the third leaf were evaluated. In relation to all the variables studied, the carbonised rice hull was more efficient than the coir dust (green or dry; there wasn't significant difference between dry or green coir dust; among the tested fertilizers, humus of earthworm was more efficient than Vitasolo®.

  5. Regeneration of begonia plantlets by direct organogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Rapid progress in plant molecular biology has great potentials to contribute to the breeding of novel ornamental ... The plant cell, tissue or organ culture of many ornamental ..... Factors affecting differentiation and growth in ...

  6. Regeneration of begonia plantlets by direct organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendi, Yalçın Y.; Mendi, Yalcin Y.; Curuk, P.; Kocaman, E.; Unek, C.; Eldoğan, S.; Eldogan, S.; Gencel, G.; Çetiner, Selim; Cetiner, Selim

    2009-01-01

    The economic importance of ornamentals worldwide suggests a bright future for ornamental breeding. Rapid progress in plant molecular biology has great potentials to contribute to the breeding of novel ornamental plants utilizing recombinant DNA technology. The plant cell, tissue or organ culture of many ornamental species and their regeneration are essential for providing the material and systems for their genetic manipulation, and this is therefore the first requirement of genetic engineerin...

  7. Aib e substrato na produção de mudas de mirtilo cv. "Climax" através de microestaquia Iba and substrate in the plantlets production of blueberry cv. 'Climax' through microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2007-10-01

    two types of microcuttings (middle and apex shoots, two substrate (sand and Plantmax® and three concentrations of indole-3butyric-acid (0, 1000, and 2000mg L-1. After 60th day, it was evaluated: surviving microcuttings percentage, percentage of rooted microcuttings, roots number, roots length, and length more developed root. We concluded that the microcuttings can be an efficient technique for blueberry plantlets production, by using micropropagated plants as explants donors. The use of microcuttings from middle section provided high percentage of survived and rooted microcuttings, independent of IBA concentration. On the other hand, for cuttings from the apex section, the AIB application was required for rooting improvement.

  8. Caracteres anatômicos de fibras foliares de brotações de curauá propagadas in vitro = Anatomical characters of curauá foliar fibers from plantlets in vitro propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Alves Lameira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O curauá [Ananas erectifolius (L.B.Sm - Bromeliaceae] é uma espécie com grande potencial de utilização na indústria automobilística, devido à sua resistência, maciez e peso reduzido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar fibras presentes em brotações de curauá cultivadas in vitro, advindas ou não do estiolamento, bem como contribuir para a descrição anatômica das folhas. Foram comparadas brotações de curauá produzidas in vitro, pelo método convencional (T1 e pelo método de estiolamento (T2. Nas seções transversais, os feixes de fibras associadas e não às nervuras foram contados e tiveram os diâmetros medidos. O número e o diâmetro dos feixes de fibras associadas ou não às nervuras foram superiores no (T1. Este tratamento produziu 23,7 fibras não associadas às nervuras, enquanto que o (T2 produziu 14,3, e nas fibras associadas às nervuras, o (T1produziu 14,6 e o (T2 produziu 11,3. No diâmetro das fibras associadas às nervuras em (T1 obteve-se 61,61 μm e em (T2, 53,17 μm. Para o diâmetro das fibras não associadas às nervuras, não houve diferença significativa. Quanto às características anatômicas, as maiores diferenças visuais foram constatadas no volume do clorênquima e do parênquima aqüífero, que foram maiores no (T2. Portanto, brotações de curauá cultivadas in vitro obtidas de brotos não estiolados possuem a tendência de produzir mais fibras.Curauá [Ananas erectifolius (L.B.Sm - Bromeliaceae] is a species with great utilization potential in the car manufacture, due to its resistance, softness and reduced weight. The objective of this study was to examine the presence of fibers in curauá plantlet cultured in vitro deriving or not from elongation as well as to contribute to anatomical leaf description. curauá shoots produced in vitro were compared, by the conventional method (T1 and by the elongation method (T2. In the transversal cuts, fibers bundle related or notto the nervure were

  9. Influência de extratos vegetais no desenvolvimento in vitro de plântulas de Rosa x hybrida Influence of plant extracts on the development in vitro of Rosa x hybrida plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de extratos vegetais no crescimento, in vitro, de plântulas de Rosa x hybrida, objetivando o desenvolvimento de novos reguladores vegetais para a propagação dessa planta ornamental. Extratos metanólicos de Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. (folhas, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (folhas e Bougainvillea spectabilis Wild. (folhas e flores foram obtidos nas concentrações de 150 e 300 mg.L-1. Na ocasião de preparo do extrato todas as plantas se encontravam no período de floração. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Dois desses tratamentos foram utilizados como controle: meio de cultura com e sem BAP (6-benzilaminopurina. As variáveis analisadas foram: número e comprimento de brotos, número e comprimento de raízes, e número de folhas por broto. Quanto à variável número de brotos, todos os extratos testados se comportaram como o controle sem o BAP. No que diz respeito ao número e comprimento de raízes, apenas o extrato das folhas de H. rosa-sinensis na concentração de 300 mg.L-1 se mostrou diferente do controle sem o BAP, com valores estatisticamente iguais ao do controle com BAP. Excetuando-se o extrato de H. rosa-sinensis, todos reduziram o número de folhas por broto. Embora os efeitos observados não tenham sido tão pronunciados quanto os causados pelo BAP, os resultados indicam a presença de fitormônios nos extratos estudados.This work aimed to study the influence of plant extracts on the in vitro growth of Rosa x hybrida plantlets, to contribute to the development of new plant growth regulators to propagate such ornamental plant. Methanolic extracts of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. (leaves, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (leaves and Bougainvillea spectabilis Wild. (leaves and flowers were employed at 150 and 300 mg.L-1. Flowering plants were used to obtain the extracts. The experiment was carried out in a randomized design, with ten

  10. Induction and regeneration of adventitious shoot from in vitro leaves of Zizyphus jujuba ' Kongfusucui' plantlet%'孔府酥脆'枣试管苗离体叶片不定梢诱导和再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清荣; 孙洪雁; 周广芳

    2011-01-01

    Using in vitro leaves of Zizyphus jujuba ‘ Kongfusucui’ plantlet as explants, effects of culture method,phytohormone proportion and culture time on induction rate of adventitious shoot from leaves and effects of sucrose concentrations in rooting media on rooting of adventitious shoot were studied. The results show that induction rate of adventitious shoot by two-step culture method ( firstly cultured on medium Ⅰ for four weeks then cultured on medium Ⅱ for three weeks) is significantly higher than that by one-step culture method (cultured continuously on medium Ⅰ for seven weeks). Phytohormone proportion in medium Ⅰ has an obviously influence on induction rate of adventitious shoot, which gradually increases with increasing of TDZ concentration in medium Ⅰ . And adding 1.0 mg · L-1 TDZ in medium Ⅰ leads to induction rate with above 80%. With culture time prolonging ( cultured for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks on medium Ⅰ ,respectively), induction rate increases gradually. Sucrose concentration has a significant effect on rooting of adventitious shoot, sucrose with higher concentration (30 g · L-1 ) is beneficial to rooting. According to induction rate and growth status of adventitious shoot, it is determined that optimal culture method of adventitious shoot induction from Z. jujuba ‘ Kongfusucui’ leaves is two-step culture method, that is, leaves firstly cultured on WPM medium containing 1.0 mg · L-1 TDZ and 0.5 mg · L-1 IAA for four weeks, and then cultured on WPM medium containing 0.5 mg · L-1 IAA and 1.0 mg · L-1 GA3 till adventitious shoot produced.%@@ 红枣营养丰富、富含维生素,深受广大消费者喜爱,但由于枣(Zizyphus jujuba Mill.)树在生长过程中经常受到细菌、真菌等病害的危害,制约了红枣的产量.通过品种改良可以获得优良的枣树品种,但由于枣胚败育率高及落花落果严重等因素,导致利用常规杂交育种方法很难达到品种改良的目的.基因工程的外源基

  11. Effect of Agricultural Organic Waste Combination Matrix on Economy Traits of Transplanted in vitro Potato Plantlets for Pre-elite Seed Production%农业有机废弃物组合基质对脱毒马铃薯原原种经济性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晖平; 秦嘉海; 肖占文; 闫治斌; 赵芸晨; 马宏国; 杨霞; 韩旭霞

    2011-01-01

    Using the substrate culture model, the relationship between combination matrix and economic traits of the transplanted in vitro potato plantlets was studied in the greenhouse. For single minituber weight, the influence of the factors was mushroom waste 〉 furfural residue 〉 cow dung 〉 vermiculite〉 sand, and the best volumetric ratio of sand: cow dung: vermiculite: furfural residue: mushroom waste was 0.40: 0.30: 0.09: 0.10: 0.10. Except for survival percentage of transplanted in vitro potato plantlets, all other traits, including plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, root length, minituber yield per plant, single minituber weight, minituber number per plant, reproductive efficiency, and economic benefit, were better when in vitro plantlets were transplanted into waste matrix than vermiculite.%在日光温室内,采用基质栽培模式,研究了废弃物组合基质与脱毒马铃薯原原种经济性状间的关系。结果表明:影响脱毒马铃薯原原种单粒重因素是菇渣〉糠醛渣〉牛粪〉蛭石〉沙子;因素间沙子:牛粪:蛭石:糠醛渣:菇渣最佳容积比为0.40:0.30:0.09:0.10:0.10。脱毒马铃薯原原种存活率:蛭石(CK)〉废弃物基质;而株高、茎粗、叶片数、根系长、单株粒重、单粒重、单株粒数、繁殖效率、经济效益变化顺序是:废弃物基质〉蛭石。

  12. Adubação foliar com macro e micronutrientes no crescimento de mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] em diferentes recipientes Foliar fertilization with macro and micronutrients in the growth of plantlets micropropagated of pineapple cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] in different containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaias dos Santos Bregonci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar com macro e micronutrientes no crescimento das mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill], em diferentes recipientes. O experimento foi em esquema fatorial 8x3, adubação foliar em 8 níveis e recipientes em 3 níveis, através de um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições. As mudas foram padronizadas com altura média de 7,12 cm. As adubações foliares foram feitas com uréia, cloreto de potássio, ácido bórico, um formulado comercial com macro e micronutrientes e testemunha (pulverização com água e os recipientes: bandeja de isopor com 200 células; tubete pequeno de 115 cm³; e tubete grande com 300 cm³. O substrato utilizado foi o plantmax hortaliças®. Avaliaram-se as características área foliar, altura de planta e massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz, aos 140 dias do transplantio. Os adubos foliares proporcionaram maior crescimento em área foliar, altura e massa seca da parte aérea às mudas do abacaxizeiro, embora com resultados diferentes. Os adubos foliares não aumentaram a massa seca do sistema radicular. A bandeja de isopor apresentou as menores médias, com todos os adubos foliares para área foliar, altura e massa seca da parte aérea das mudas do abacaxizeiro. O tubete pequeno e o tubete grande apresentaram resultados semelhantes com a maioria dos adubos foliares utilizados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the foliar fertilization with macro and micronutrients on the growth of the plantlets micropropagated of pineapple cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] in different containers. The experiment was mounted in factorial arrangement 8x3, with foliar fertilization in 8 levels and containers in 3 levels, through a completely randomized design with five repetitions. The plantlets were standardized with average height of 7,12 cm. The foliar fertilization was used in the urea

  13. Avaliação de substratos e adubos orgânicos na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum Evaluation of substrates and organic fertilizers in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três substratos orgânicos - casca de arroz carbonizada, pó de casca de coco seco e verde - e dois adubos -Vitasolo® e húmus de minhoca -, na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum L., provenientes da micropropagação. Aos 75 dias, avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e a área da terceira folha. A casca de arroz foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco, verde ou seco; o pó de casca de coco verde foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco seco; e o húmus foi mais eficiente que o Vitasolo®.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three organic substrates, carbonised rice hull, dry and green coir dust, and two fertilizers, Vitasolo® and earthworm humus, in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum L., obtained from micropropagation. After 75 days, the height of the plants, diameter of pseudo-stem, number of leaves and area of the third leaf were evaluated. The rice hull was more efficient than the coir dust (dry or green; the green coir dust was more efficient than dry coir dust; and the humus was more efficient than Vitasolo®.

  14. Crescimento de plântulas de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen cultivadas in vitro sob dois níveis de nitrogênio e sacarose, durante seis subculturas sucessivas e aclimatização Growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets on two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseila Maldaner

    2007-02-01

    úmero de folhas por planta.The present research was aimed at evaluating the growth of brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets under two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization. Two nutritional treatments were tested: nitrogen at 100% strength of the MS medium + 30g L-1 sucrose; and nitrogen at 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. During six successive subcultures, the explants of 30-day-old plantlets grown under both treatments were transferred, respectively to the next subculture on the same treatment conditions. At 6th subculture, plantlets were transferred to substrate Plantmax® Hortaliças and submitted to acclimatization in a growth chamber. Throughout the subcultures, fluctuations in growth response due to nutritional conditions tested were observed. The height of the higher sprout, the average height of sprouts, and the total number of nodal segments per plantlet, respectively for four, four and three subcultures were greater in 100% strength of the MS medium + 30g L-1 sucrose than in 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. On the other hand, dry matter of roots, of shoots and of the whole plant, respectively for two, two and three subcultures, were greater in 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. In conclusion, the increase of sucrose associated with reduction of N level in the culture medium enhanced the biomass production, while the MS at full strength enhanced the growth based in sprout length and number of nodal segments. These differences concerning the biomass production observed during in vitro culture did not persisted in the acclimatization process ex vitro, where MS at full strength give rise greater growth in sprout length and number of leaves per plant.

  15. Protoplast Culture and Plantlet Regeneration from Cell Line of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4-transformed Alhagi pseudalhagi Desv%骆驼刺发根农杆菌转化系的原生质体培养和植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张改娜; 贾敬芬

    2009-01-01

    The protoplasts were isolated from calli which were induced from hairy root segments of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4-transformed Alhagi pseudalhagi. After cultured in the DPD medium supplemented with 1.5 mg·L~(-1) 2,4-D, 0.2 mg·L~(-1) 6-BA, 0.3 mol·L~(-1) mannitol, 500 mg·L~(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH) and 2% (W/V) sucrose, the protoplasts underwent sustained divisions and formed calli. The protoplast density of 4×10~5 mL~(-1) and (450±3) mOsm·kg~(-1) osmotic pressure in culture medium were proved to be appropriate for obtaining higher division frequency of protoplasts. A lot of protoplasts could be obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of yellowish subcultured calli after cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg·L~(-1) NAA, 1.0 mg·L~(-1) 6-BA, 500 mg·L~(-1) CH and 2% (W/V) sucrose for 7-10 d. Lower temperature (4 ℃) pretreatment of subcultured calli enhanced ratios of protoplast isolation and subsequent divisions. The division frequency of protoplasts was about 50%. After transferred on the MS medium added with 1-2 mg·L~(-1) 6-BA (or KT) and 0.2 mg·L~(-1) NAA, the protoplast-derived calli differentiated and formed the regenerated plantlets. Paper electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protoplast-derived calli and regenerated plantlets still contained special product-opine in transgenic root hairs.%从发根农杆菌A4转化的荒漠植物-骆驼刺毛状根愈伤组织中分离的原生质体培养的结果表明,酶解新转代7~10 d的淡黄色松软愈伤组织,可获得大量有活力的原生质体.原生质体在附加有1.5 mg·L~(-1) 2,4-D、0.2 mg·L~(-1) 6-BA、0.3 mol·L~(-1)甘露醇、2%(W/V)蔗糖和500 mg·L~(-1)水解酪蛋白的DPD培养基中进行液体浅层培养可持续分裂.培养基的最适渗透压为(450±3)mOsm·kg~(-1),原生质体的最适植板密度为4×10~5个·mL~(-1).制备原生质体的愈伤组织以低温(4℃)预处理后,原生质体的产率和分裂频率均提高,分裂频率最高可达50%.

  16. 硼调控干旱胁迫下马铃薯生长发育及抗性的生理机制%The physiological mechanism of the regulation of boron on the growth and development and resistance of potato plantlets under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自龙; 张俊莲; 李宗国; 徐雪风; 李朝周

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to elucidate the growth and resistance of potato plants under drought stress and its physiological mechanism by spraying boron (Na2B4O7·10H2O solution),in a test of potato planting site of Tiaoshan Farm of Jingtai County in Gansu Province .Moderate drought and mild drought treatments were performed on two ridge land,every boron concentration per three meter sprayed 166 .7 mL Na2B4O7·10H2O,concentration is 0,10,20, 30,40 g·L-1 and 60 g·L-1 in turn .The results showed that boron spraying on the leaves of the plantlets increased the tuber yield and biomass of the plantlets under the drought stress significantly .Spraying boron on the leaves of potato plantlets under the drought stress also elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD)and catalase (CAT),inhibited the producing rate of ultra oxygen anion,and alleviated the decrease in leaf water content and chlorophyll content .De-florating decreased the biomass aboveground and underground .However,by spaying boron on the leaves,the yield of tuber and biomass of the underground part were improved significantly .The results also showed that boron could promote the growth and development of potato plants under drought stress,enhance drought resistance and the yield of tuber,and these effects may be due to the higher translocation of photosynthetic products to the under-ground part .%为了探讨叶面喷施硼(Na2B4O7·10H2O溶液)对马铃薯植株在干旱胁迫下生长发育及抗性的影响及其生理机制,在甘肃省景泰县条山集团马铃薯种植基地,对中度干旱和轻度干旱处理的两垄地,每隔3m进行一个硼浓度(Na2B4O7·10H2O)喷施处理,浓度依次为0、10、20、30、40、60 g·L-1,每个浓度(3 m长)的喷施量为166.7 ml。结果表明:叶面喷施硼相对增加了干旱胁迫下马铃薯的块茎产量及生物量,使干旱胁迫下叶片含水量和色素含量下降幅度减小;叶面

  17. Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of AP1 Gene from the Leaves of in vitro Plantlets in Tagetes patula L.%孔雀草试管苗叶片AP1基因的克隆及其生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, the full-length cDNA of API gene was successfully cloned from the leaves of in vitro plantlets and the bioinformatics analysis for API gene was also conducted in Tagetes patula L. The full-length of API gene was 919 bp (The accession number was JX31O277 in GenBank), containing 92 bp 5'-UTR, 149 bp 3'-UTR, and 3'-end involved 25 bp poly (A) tails, the open reading frame had 678 bp, encoding 225 amino acids. AP1-1 protein was likely located in the cell nuclei, which was hydrophilic, without signal peptide and with 4 coil helix structures; The secondary structure was mainly constituted by the ot-helix and random coil, and there existed a leucine zipper structure and a MADS-box domain. This protein had likely 7 phosphorylation sites. The phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that this protein was highly genetic relationship with chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.%以孔雀草试管苗叶片为材料,成功克隆了孔雀草AP1基因的cDNA全长,并对其进行了生物信息学分析.AP1基因全长919 bp(GenBank登录号为JX310277),其中5'-UTR 92bp、3'-UTR 149bp、3'端poly (A)尾巴25 bp,开放阅读框为678 bp,编码225个氨基酸.AP1-1可能存在于细胞核中,为亲水蛋白,不含信号肽,共形成4个卷曲螺旋结构;二级结构主要有α螺旋和无规则卷曲构成,存在亮氨酸拉链结构和1个MADS-box 区.此蛋白可能发生磷酸化位点的位置有7个.从系统进化树分析表明,该蛋白与甘菊具有较高的亲缘关系.

  18. Changes in Micro-structure and Elements of Protocorm Like Bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense During the Development and Plantlet Regeneration%霍山石斛拟原球茎生长及植株再生过程中微观结构与元素的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 何芳; 王纪; 方炎明; 戴斌

    2016-01-01

    In order to get better understanding of the growth and officinal components during the development of protocorm like bodies ( PLBs) from Dendrobium huoshanense and plantlet regeneration, changes in micro-struc-ture and micro-area elements were analyzed by means of SEM and EDS. Cells which have the ability to divide from the surface of explants formed embryogenic callus in tissue culture when conditions were suitable. Embryogenic cells grew into PLBs and secondary PLBs after constant division. PLBs showed bipolarity gradually and produced buds and roots to form complete plants. After 30 days, root hair or velamina were not found in roots. Stems were charac-terized by several features such as surface longitudinal depressions, round cross sections with wavy edges, scattered external ductile finite vascular bundle and mucinous cells contents. Quadrilateral stomata only distributed in the lower epidermis of isobilateral leaves and the guard cells were like kidneys. And more Na, S, K, Al, Si and Fe were in PLBs, then the contents of P, Cl, Mn and Ca increased in differentiated PLBs, and the contents of Na, S, K increased in the complete plants while other elements were less or not changed significantly.%采用SEM/EDS技术,研究霍山石斛拟原球茎生长及植株再生过程中结构和元素的变化,分析其发育过程及药效成分.结果表明:适当的组培条件会使外植体表层具有分生能力的细胞不断分裂和增殖形成拟原球茎和次拟原球茎.其中拟原球茎分化出芽和根,完成幼苗的形态发育.30d后幼苗的根无明显的根毛和根被组织;茎表皮多纵向皱褶,横切面边缘具波状棱角,细胞内含物黏液状,外韧有限维管束散生;等面叶,四列型气孔只分布于下表皮,保卫细胞肾形.拟原球茎形成期,含有较多的Na、S、K、Al、Si、Fe,分化期P、Cl、Mn、Ca增多,幼苗所含K、Ca增幅较大,其他元素减少或变化不明显.

  19. 富贵籽茎段诱导腋芽增殖与试管苗培育研究%The Experimental Studies on Induced Growth and Proliferation of Axillary Buds of Different Stem Segments and Plantlet Culture of Ardisia Ccrenata Sims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥海; 邱丰艳; 丁力; 陈小红

    2015-01-01

    Ardisia crenata is important ornamental and medicinal plants. The experimental effect research of the different combinations of plant hormones on induced growth and proliferation axillary buds of aseptic stems, yearly germinating shoots stems and one-year-old stem of perennial plants were carried out. The results were as follows:The medium formula of MS+NAA 0.1 mg· L-1( the same as below) + BA 0. 50 was suitable for induced growth and proliferation axillary buds of aseptic stems and yearly germinating shoots stems, while the medium formula of MS + NAA 0.10 + BA 1.50 was suitable for induced growth and proliferation axillary buds of 1-year old stems. The combination formula of 1/2 MS + NAA 0.50 +IBA 0.30 had best effect for adventitious bud rooting and the cultivation of test tube plantlets.%以不同植物激素组合和不同发育阶段的茎段为实验因子,开展富贵籽茎段诱导腋芽生长及其增殖和试管苗培育的实验研究。结果:(1) MS + NAA 0�1 mg·L-1+ BA 0�50 mg·L-1的培养基配方较适合于从富贵籽无菌苗和当年萌发的嫩枝茎段诱导腋芽生长与增殖;(2) MS+NAA 0�1 mg·L-1+BA 1�50 mg·L-1的组合配方能较好的诱导富贵籽1年生茎段腋芽生长与增殖。(3)1/2MS+ NAA 0�50 mg·L-1+IBA 0�30 mg·L-11的组合配方用于不定芽体诱导生根和培育试管苗的效果最好。

  20. 江西铅山红芽芋胚性愈伤组织的玻璃化法超低温保存及植株再生%Cryopreservation of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro (Colocasia esculenta var.cormosus cv.Hongyayu) embryogenic callus by vitrification and its plantlet regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪森荣; 尹明华; 王艾平

    2014-01-01

    以江西铅山红芽芋胚性愈伤组织为材料,研究各种因素对其玻璃化法超低温保存的影响.结果表明:江西铅山红芽芋胚性愈伤组织玻璃化法超低温保存较佳的预培养条件为0.3 molL-1蔗糖预培养3 d,较佳的60% PVS2装载时间为20 min,较佳的100% PVS2脱水条件为25℃脱水30 min,较佳的化冻温度为40℃,较佳的洗涤液蔗糖浓度为1.2 molL-1,较佳的冻后培养条件为暗培养7 d 再转到光周期中培养.红芽芋胚性愈伤组织包埋玻璃化超低温保存后的平均成活率约为70%.红芽芋胚性愈伤组织冻后再生苗没有发生形态学、生理学和细胞学的变异.%Using Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro (Colocasia esculenta var.cormosus cv.Hongyayu)embryogenic calli as materials,the effects of various factors on its cryopreservation by vitrification were studied.The results showed that better preculture condition of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro embryogenic calli vitrification cryopreservation was 0.3 molL-1 sucrose for 3 days.Better loading time was 60% PVS2 for 20 min.Better dehydration time of 100%PVS2 was 30 min at 25 ℃.Better thaw temperature was 40 ℃.Better sucrose concentration in washing media was 1.2 molL-1 .Better culture condition after cryopreservation was dark culture for 7 d and then transferred to the photoperiod.The average survival rate of embryogenic calli after cryopreservation by vitrification amounted to about 70%.No significant difference was observed in the morphological,physiological and cytological indexes of plantlets coming from control and cryopreserved embryogenic calli.

  1. 内生青霉菌对黄花蒿组培苗生长和青蒿素合成的影响%Effect of Endophytic Penicillium sp.Y2 on Growth and Artemisinin Biosynthesis of Plantlets in Tissue Cultures of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚菲; 董婷; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    17 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the stems of Artemisia annua L. Penicillium sp. Y2 could effectively promote the growth and artemisinin accumulation in the plantlets in tissue cultures of A. annua. After 5 days of broth culture,the fungal mycelium and culture medium were prepared for elicitors,including elicitor A(autoclaved conditioned homogenates of mycelia filtrates and medium) ,elicitor B(autoclaved conditioned medium) and elicitor C(filtrated conditioned medium). The results showed that all of the three fungal elicitors could promote the growth,induce activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase( SOD) , catalase( CAT) and peroxidase( POD) , and the accumulation of artemisinin. Elicitor C had the best effect on artemisinin induction among them. The dry weight and the content of soluble sugar of the tissue cultures of A. annua were increased by 44. 44 % and 38. 24% ,respectively. The content of artemisinin reached to 4. 701 mg·g-1 DW,a 58. 86 % increase over the control.%从黄花蒿茎中分离得到了17株内生真菌,其中内生青霉菌(Penicillium sp.Y2)能有效促进黄花蒿组培苗生长及青蒿素合成.内生青霉菌悬浮培养5d后,分别将培养液与菌丝匀浆后经过高压灭菌处理,或将培养液经过高压灭菌、过滤除菌处理获得3种内生菌诱导子(A、B和C).结果表明,3种内生菌诱导子对植株生长、抗氧化酶活性及青蒿素合成都有促进作用,诱导子C青蒿素合成诱导效果最好,可促进黄花蒿组培苗的干重增长44.44%、可溶性糖含量提高38.24%,诱导超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,从而提高青蒿素合成达58.86%,黄花蒿组培苗青蒿素含量达4.701 mg·g-1(干重).

  2. Ação do estresse térmico na sobrevivência de mudas e produção de camomila originadas de sementes importadas e nacionais Action of termic stress on the survival and yield of chamomile plantlets from imported and national seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto P de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de baixas temperaturas sobre a sobrevivência de mudas de camomila (originadas de sementes importadas e coletadas localmente e sobre a produtividade da matéria-prima vegetal. Quarenta mudas com 7 a 10 cm de altura foram transferidas para câmara de germinação, tipo BOD, de duas procedências, onde permaneceram por 24 h nas condições: 10 h, com luz e 15ºC; 8 h, sem luz e 10ºC; 3 h, sem luz e 5ºC; 3 h; sem luz e temperaturas de 0ºC (testemunha, -2ºC, -4ºC e -6ºC. As mudas de sementes local apresentaram maior número de plantas mortas quando aplicadas às temperaturas de -4 e -6ºC, do que as importadas. O número de flores por planta e o acúmulo de matéria seca de flores por planta foram 462% e 226% superior, respectivamente, nas plantas originadas de sementes local comparadas com as importadas. O tratamento térmico de -6ºC proporcionou retomada do crescimento e aumento da produção das plantas de camomila, contrastando com aquelas submetidas às temperaturas de -2ºC e -4ºC. Os extratos das flores das plantas originadas de sementes local e importada mostraram igual quantidade de quercetina (substância marcadora.In the present trial the effects of low temperatures on the surviving of chamomile seedlings originated from two different origins (local and imported seeds was evaluated on the development, yield and concentration of quercetin. Forty to 10 cm high seedlings from the two origins were transferred to a germination chamber (BOD during 24 hours and submitted to the conditions: 10 h with light and 15ºC; 8 h without light and 10ºC; 3 h without light and 5ºC; 3 h without light and temperatures ranging from 0 (check, -2, -4, and -6ºC. The seedlings from national seeds were more susceptible to the temperatures of -4 and -6ºC. There were 462% more flowers per plant and 226% more dry matter accumulation per plant in the plants originated from national seeds compared to the plantlets from imported seeds

  3. Plantlet regeneration for stem segments and determination of total flavonoids in separate flower callus of Abelmoschus manihot L.%黄蜀葵茎段植株再生体系的建立和花各部愈伤组织总黄酮含量的测定比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫明雅; 王晓萌; 白洁; 陈放

    2012-01-01

    以黄蜀葵种子获得无菌苗的茎段为外植体,研究了不同浓度激素配比对愈伤组织诱导及分化再生植株的影响.结果表明:以75%酒精30s+0.1%升汞10min灭菌黄蜀葵种子,可获得较高发芽率的无菌苗;愈伤组织最适诱导培养基为改良MS+KT0.8 mg/L+IAA0.6mg/L,经愈伤组织分化不定芽的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA3.0 mg/L+NAA0.05 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为:1/2 MS+NAA0.1 mg/L;且移栽后成活率可达95%.用紫外分光光度法测定花和各部愈伤组织总黄酮的含量,对比发现:花中总黄酮的含量高于各部愈伤组织,愈伤组织中子房愈伤组织的总黄酮含量高于其他部位.%The stem segments of Abelmoschus manihot were used as explants for the studing of callus induction and plantlets regeneration. The sterilized seedlings were obtained from the seeds sterilized thirty-seconds of 75% alcohol and ten minutes of 0. 1% corrosive sublimate. The result revealed that improved MS+KTO. 8mg · L-1+IAA0. 6 mg · L-1 was the best medium for its callus induction, MS+6-BA3. 0 mg · L-1 +NAA0. 05 mg · L-1 was the optimum medium for differentiation of adventitious bud via callus, and 1/2 MS+NAA0. 1 mg · L-1 was the optimum medium for adventitious bud. The survival rate of regrowth seedling in garden soil was up to 95%. The content of total flavonoids in flower and separate callus was compared by UV spectrophotometry, and the content of total flavonoids in ovary was higher than others.

  4. Responses of macropropagated Musa plantlets to transient moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... retarded growth, tissue desiccation, and severe yield drop to outright death. ... Watering was withdrawn on one set for 2 weeks, while the other set (watered ... volume) could be regulated to save labour, cut cost and optimize crop water use.

  5. High frequency callus induction and plantlet regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Picrorhiza kurroa is a medicinal herb prevalent in the North-Western Himalayan region at an altitude of ... medicinal metabolites such as picroside-iii, picroside-iv, apocynin, androsin, catechol, kutkoside, etc. ..... Planta Med.

  6. Caracteres anatômicos de fibras foliares de brotações de curauá propagadas in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.123 Anatomical characters of curauá foliar fibers from plantlets in vitro propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Beijo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O curauá [Ananas erectifolius (L.B.Sm - Bromeliaceae] é uma espécie com grande potencial de utilização na indústria automobilística, devido � sua resistência, maciez e peso reduzido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar fibras presentes em brotações de curauá cultivadas in vitro, advindas ou não do estiolamento, bem como contribuir para a descrição anatômica das folhas. Foram comparadas brotações de curauá produzidas in vitro, pelo método convencional (T1 e pelo método de estiolamento (T2. Nas seções transversais, os feixes de fibras associadas e não às nervuras foram contados e tiveram os diâmetros medidos. O número e o diâmetro dos feixes de fibras associadas ou não às nervuras foram superiores no (T1. Este tratamento produziu 23,7 fibras não associadas às nervuras, enquanto que o (T2 produziu 14,3, e nas fibras associadas às nervuras, o (T1 produziu 14,6 e o (T2 produziu 11,3. No diâmetro das fibras associadas às nervuras em (T1 obteve-se 61,61 μm e em (T2, 53,17 μm. Para o diâmetro das fibras não associadas às nervuras, não houve diferença significativa. Quanto às características anatômicas, as maiores diferenças visuais foram constatadas no volume do clorênquima e do parênquima aqüífero, que foram maiores no (T2. Portanto, brotações de curauá cultivadas in vitro obtidas de brotos não estiolados possuem a tendência de produzir mais fibras.Curauá [Ananas erectifolius (L.B.Sm - Bromeliaceae] is a species with great utilization potential in the car manufacture, due to its resistance, softness and reduced weight. The objective of this study was to examine the presence of fibers in curauá plantlet cultured in vitro deriving or not from elongation as well as to contribute to anatomical leaf description. curauá shoots produced in vitro were compared, by the conventional method (T1 and by the elongation method (T2. In the transversal cuts, fibers bundle related or not to the nervure were

  7. Concentrações de sais do meio Knudson C e de ácido giberélico no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de orquídea Salts concentrations of medium Knudson C and gibberellic acid in vitro growth orchid plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Dória Rodrigues Soares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se testar diferentes concentrações de sais do meio de cultura Knudson C e ácido giberélico no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de orquídeas Hadrolaelia lobatta x Hadrolaelia purpurata Aço e Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas, oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, com aproximadamente 1,0cm de comprimento, foram inoculadas em frascos com capacidade para 250cm³, contendo 60mL de meio de cultura Knudson C nas concentrações de 0; 50; 100 e 200% de sais minerais, acrescidos de GA3 (0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10mg L-1. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com irradiância em torno de 35µmolm-2s-1, temperatura de 25±1°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Ao final de 90 dias, observa-se que, para Cattleya loddigesii, o meio Knudson C a 200 %, promove maior crescimento in vitro, sendo que a adição de 2,5mg L-1 de GA3 é eficiente no incremento do número de folhas. Maior multiplicação é registrada em meio Knudson C na concentração original de seus sais (100%. Para Hadrolaelia lobatta x Hadrolaelia purpurata Aço, a concentração do meio Knudson C influencia o número de folhas (200% de sais e brotos (50% de sais, mas não tem efeito no crescimento e biomassa. Não se verifica efeito do GA3 no número de brotos, comprimento de parte aérea e matéria fresca para os dois genótipos.The aim of this research was to test different concentrations of culture medium Knudson C and gibberellic acid in the in vitro growth of Hadrolaelia lobatta x Hadrolaelia purpurata Aço and Cattleya loddigesii plantlets. Seedlings deriving from in vitro germinated seeds with approximately 1,0cm length, were inoculated in bottles of 250cm³ containing 60mL of Knudson C culture medium at salts concentrations of 0; 50; 100 e 200%, and supplemented with 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10mg L-1 of GA3. The cultures were maintained in growth room with a 35µmolm-2s-1 irradiance, 16 hours photoperiod and 25±1°C of temperature. After 90 days, it is observed that the culture

  8. Sterile Germination of the Hybrid Seeds of [ Den. Burana Green Star × Den. Rainbow-compactum ] and Rapid Propagation of F1 Plantlets via Tissue Culture%石斛兰"绿色星辰×出水芙蓉"杂交种子无菌萌发与组培快繁研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符岸军; 李娟玲; 李劲松; 张勇; 刘国民

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] This study was to germinate the hybrid seeds of [ Den. Burana Green Star × Den. Rainbow-compactum ] under aseptic condition and to explore the parameters for rapid propagation of F1 plantlets via tissue culture. [ Method ] Hybridization between Den. Burana Green Star(female parent) and Den. Rainbow-compactum(male parent) was performed and the in vitro culture and proliferation of F1 hybrids were studied using eight different basic media including MS, 1/2MS, 1/3MS, 1/4MS, B5, N6, modified Knudson and H. [ Result] Improved Knudson medium appended with 1.00 mg/L 6-BA, 1.00 mg/L NAA and 10% mature banana puree performed best in F1 seed germination un der aseptic condition, as well as the rapid propagation of protocorm-like body. Of all the eight media tested, 1/2MS is the medium most suit able for the in vitro rapid propagation of the F1 seedlings. Efficiency of eight media in the in vitro rapid propagation was in order 1/2MS > MS > 1/3MS > 1/4MS ≈N6 > improved Knudson ≈B5 > H. NAA presented better roofing and growth-promoting effect in the in vitro rapid propagation of the F1 seedlings than IBA. And the optimal NAA concentration to recommend from our experiment results was 2.00 mg/L. [ Conclusion ] Our experimental results provided mature method and important technological information for hybrid breeding of dendrobium.%[目的]研究石斛兰"绿色星展×出水芙蓉"杂交种子无菌萌发与组培快繁.[方法]以"绿色星晨"为母本、"出水芙蓉"为父本进行杂交,并对其杂交种子进行了离体培养和组培快繁.[结果]石斛兰杂交种"绿色星辰×出水芙蓉"的F1代种子在改良Knudson培养基上(附加1.00 mg/L6-BA、1.00 mg/L NAA和10.0%熟香蕉泥)可获得理想的无菌萌发效果,且原球茎在谊培养基上也能较快增殖.以1/2MS最适合于该杂种石斛兰F1代无菌实生苗的组培快繁;8种供试培养基用于增殖培养的效果为:1/2MS>MS>1/3MS>1/4MS≈N6>改良Knudson≈B5>H

  9. Crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira aclimatizadas nas condições da Amazônia Sul Ocidental sob a influência de diferentes substratos e recipientes Growth of micropropagated banana plantlets acclimatized on conditions of South West Amazon under the influence of different substrates and recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    . The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth of micropropagated banana plantlets during the acclimatization under the influence of different substrates and recipients on conditions of South West Amazon. Shoots of banana, cv. Grand Naine, were rooted in MS medium, being the rooting plants transferred to a nursery, in two types of plastic dibble tubes (115 cm³ and 180 cm³ and six different substrates formulated from different portions of soil, carbonized rice hulls and bovine manure. Evaluations of plant survival, height of the aerial part and pseudostem diameter were carried out each fifteen days, and at the end of 75 days, fresh and dry mass for the roots and aerial parts of the plants were also determined. It was verified that the plant survival was not influenced by the use of the 115 cm³ or 180 cm³ plastic dibble tubes. However, acclimatization accomplished in the 180 cm³ plastic dibble tubes provided larger growth in height and pseudostem diameter of the plants and, consequently, larger accumulation of fresh and dry mass of roots and aerial parts, when compared to the 115 cm³ plastic dibble tubes. Among the substrates, it was observed that bovine manure was fundamental as substrate component to obtain the best results.

  10. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  11. Effects of Neodymium on Nitrogen Metabolism of Plantlet Loquat in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志刚; 宋卫平; 俞明亮; 洪法水; 顾福根; 苏国兴; 赵密珍

    2004-01-01

    The effect of NdCl3 on the rooting and nitrogen metabolism of loquat in vitro was studied when NdCl3 was added to the rooted medium. The results show that 0.4 μmol*L-1 NdCl3 in the rooted medium can obviously increase the rooting rate, length of root and fresh weight of roots, and enhance the activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase in the root system and in the leaves. The transformation of NO3- to NH4+ in root system and leaves are promoted and the nitrogen metabolism is accelerated with 0.4 μmol*L-1 NdCl3 treatment.

  12. Production of podophyllotoxin from roots and plantlets of Hyptis suaveolens cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Velóz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyptis suaveolens was an important source of food and medicines in pre-hispanic Mιxico and is actually used popularly to treat respiratory and skin diseases, fever, pain, and cramps, between other ailments. In 2008 the presence of podophyllotoxin (PTOX was reported in this plant. Objective: To establish in vitro cultures of H. suaveolens able to produce PTOX. Materials and Methods: Explants of H. suaveolens were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the phytohormones 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and kinetin (Kin, in order to induce the production of podophyllotoxin. Root cultures without hormones were also established and the quantification of PTOX was performed by HPLC analysis. Results: The presence of growth regulators during in vitro cultivation of H. suaveolens, provoked morphological variations in explants, and induced the accumulation of different levels of PTOX. Roots grown without phytohormones accumulated PTOX at 0.013% dry weight (DW, while in three of the callus cultures cell lines growing together with roots, PTOX accumulated at concentrations of 0.003, 0.005 and 0.006% DW when NAA was combined with either Kin or BAP. In wild plant material PTOX was present in trace amounts in the aerial parts, while in the roots it was found at 0.005% DW. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that although it is possible to obtain PTOX in a variety of in vitro cultures of H. suaveolens, in vitro roots grown without the addition of growth regulators were better producers of PTOX.

  13. Parameters necessary for in vitro hydroponic pea plantlet flowering and fruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, the development of culture systems to stimulate the reproductive and fruiting processes in vitro has not been earnestly exploited. Nonetheless, the ability to promote sterile flowering and fruiting would have commercial applications in the agricultural, food and medical industries. Non-ir...

  14. Multiple shoot-bud formation and plantlet regeneration on Castanea sativa Mill. seeds in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, R

    1982-06-01

    Primordial initiation and development of shoot-buds has been accomplished by using shoots derived from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) seedlings cultured with added 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Germination of chestnut seeds in the presence of BAP (4 - 40 μM) stimulated varying numbers of shoot-buds in those areas of the main axis that were favorably altered. When excised single shoots from these treated seeds were subcultured on a fresh medium containing BAP (4 - 40 μM) continual shoot production was observed. Bud growth and shoot elongation were stimulated by transferring cultures to a reduced concentration of BAP (2 μM) plus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 0.4 μM). Plant regeneration occurred in the presence of IBA (0.8 μM) after a preconditioning treatment in which naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 50 μM) and kinetin (k 2 μM) were applied to the tissue culture shoots for 7 days in light.

  15. Callus induction from leaves of different paulownia species and its plantlet regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on five different species of Paulownia for callus induction from leaves. MS medium was adopted as basic medium, and from different combinations of NAA and BA the suitable media were determined for callus induction, bud differentiation, and root differentiation of five different species. MS+0.5NAA+4BA, MS+0.3NAA+2BA, MS+0.5NAA+4BA, MS+0.3NAA+6BA, and MS+0.3NAA+8BA were suitable media of callus inductions of leaves, respectively, for Paulownia tomentosa, Paulownia australis, Paulownia fortunei, Paulownia elongata and P. tmentosa x P. fortunei, and MS+0.3NAA+12BA, MS+0.3NAA+12BA, MS+0.5NAA+12BA, MS+0.5NAA+12BA, and MS+0.7NAA+12BA were suitable media for bud differentiation from leaf callus respectively for above five species. The rooting media was determined as 2MS+0.1NAA, 1/2MS+0.1NAA, 1/2MS, 1/2MS+0.3NAA, and 1/2MS+0.5NAA. These results provide reference data for breeding new fine varieties with different kinds of Paulownia protoplasts fusions.

  16. Amending Storage Vessel and Media Improves Subculture Interval of Musa sp. Tissue Culture Plantlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are some of the most important food crops in the world. The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa spp. collection consists of 140 accessions maintained as clonally propagated plants in field plots as well as in tissue culture. Accessions maintained i...

  17. Manipulating the physiological quality of in vitro plantlets and transplants of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Mehari,

    2000-01-01

    In vitro techniques have been introduced in potato seed production systems in recent years. This research project aimed at studying the morphological and physiological changes in plants and crops in the last three phases of a seed production system that included an in vitro multiplication, an in vit

  18. Influences of antibiotics on plantlet regeneration via organogenesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; Latoya Harris; Ronald J. Newton

    2003-01-01

    Three antibiotics ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cefotaxime were evaluated for their effects on induction, growth, and differentiation of organogenic calli, as well as rooting of regenerated shoots of three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes. Of the antibiotics administered, cefotaxime maximally increased the frequency of callus formation and growth rate of organogenic calli, carbenicillin maximally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration and the average number of adventitious shoots per piece of organogenic callus, ampicillin maximally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots and mean number of roots per regenerated shoot, in comparison with antibiotic-free media. Compared with the control, ampicillin minimally increased the frequency of callus formation, cefotaxime minimally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration, and carbenicillin minimally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots in three loblolly pine genotypes tested. All three antibiotics increased the frequencies of callus formation and shoot regeneration, and reduced the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots suggested that the establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into loblolly pine need to select a suitable antibiotic. This investigation could be useful for optimizing genetic transformation of conifers.

  19. In vitro organogenesis optimization and plantlet regeneration in Citrus sinensis and C. limonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous genes can be introduced in plants by genetic transformation techniques. However, an efficient tissue culture system with high rates of plant recovery is necessary for gene introduction. This work aimed to define organogenesis and plant regeneration protocols for sweet orange varieties Natal, Valencia and Hamlin (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck which can be used in plant transformation experiments. Seeds of which teguments were removed, were germinated in vitro and maintained in the dark for three weeks, followed by one week at 16-h photoperiod (40 µmol m-2 s-1 and 27 ± 2°C. Organogenesis induction was done by introducing epicotyl segments in MT medium with 25 g L-1 sucrose and different BAP concentrations. After adventitious bud growth, the shoots were transferred to MT medium with either NAA or IBA (1 mg L-1, or absence of auxin, for rooting. The best results were obtained with 1 mg L-1 BAP for bud induction and 1 mg L-1 IBA for rooting for all three sweet orange cultivars. The use of 0.5-2.5 mg L-1 BAP, followed by 1 mg L-1 IBA were the best growth regulator combinations for bud induction and rooting, respectively, for 'Rangpur' lime. The protocols presented in this work are suitable for associations with genetic transformation experiments for these cultivars.

  20. High–frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration from apical bud as a novel explant of Carum copticum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Salehi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: In this study, a simple and reliable regeneration and acclimatization protocol for Carum copticum has been presented. This protocol can be found very advantageous for a variety of purposes, including mass multiplication of Carum species, medicinal plant breeding studies and transgenic plant production.

  1. Influence of salt stress on growth and antioxidant responses of two malus species at callus and plantlet stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil salinization has become a significant factor limiting apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some areas of China. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of salt stress i.e. 150 mmol/L NaCl in Murashige and Skoog medium on growth and antioxidant responses of 15-d old callus and ...

  2. Influence of growth regulators in biomass production and volatile profile of in vitro plantlets of Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Vanessa Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro; Sato, Alice

    2009-07-22

    In vitro shoots of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were established, and the effects of the auxin indole-3-acetic (IAA) acid and the cytokinins benzyladenine (BA), zeatin (ZEA), and kinetin (KIN) at 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 microM on rooting, biomass production, and volatile compounds production by these plants were investigated. The volatiles were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography. The highest biomass shoot growth was obtained with BA at 5.0 microM, while IAA at all concentrations tested achieved 100% rooting frequency. The three major compounds were gamma-terpinene (22.8-38.8%), p-cymene (13.8-27.9%), and thymol (6.5-29.0%). Quantitative changes of these compounds were observed in response to the effect of varying growth regulators concentrations in the culture medium. Growing Thymus vulgaris L. plants in media supplemented with IAA at 1.0 microM increased volatile compounds such as thymol by 315%. Nevertheless, the same major compounds were produced in all treatments and no qualitative changes were observed in the volatile profile of thyme plants.

  3. Douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii) plantlets responses to as, PB, and sb-contaminated soils from former mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Pascaud, Grégoire; Faugeron, Céline; Soubrand, Marilyne; Joussein, Emmanuel; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation of metalloids by conifers is not widely studied although they may be relevant for several contaminated sites, especially those located in cold areas and sometimes under dry climates. Here, seeds of Douglas fir were sown in greenhouse on three soils collected in two French former mines: a gold mine (soils L1 and L2) and a lead and silver mine (soil P). These soils are highly contaminated by Pb, As, and Sb at different concentrations. Plants were harvested after ten weeks. Growth parameters, primary metabolite content, and shoot and root ionomes were determined. Douglas firs grown on the soils L1 and P had a lower biomass than controls and a higher oxidation status whereas those grown on the soil L2 exhibited a more developed root system and only slight modifications of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Based on trace element (TE) concentrations in shoots and roots and their translocation factor (TF), Douglas fir could be a relevant candidate for As phytoextraction (0.8 g. kg(-1) dry weight in shoots and a TF of 1.1) and may be used to phytostabilize Pb and Sb (8.8 g and 127 mg. kg(-1) in roots for Pb and Sb, respectively, and TF lower than 0.1).

  4. Evaluation of the effect of efficient microorganisms and Trichoderma harzianum application on the production of onion plantlets (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the intensive-farming areas of the Cooperative of Credits and Services “Ramón Ruiz del Sol”, in Los Arabos, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the application effects of effective microorganism (EM and Trichoderma harzianum on the main growth indexes of onion seedlings (Allium cepa L. during nursery stage. Six treatments were studied ( control, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2, T. harzianum at 30 g.m-2, Effective Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at the moment of sowing and 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination of the seeds, and T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. 55 days after seed germination, the height of the seedlings, number of leaves per seedlings, diameter of the false stem, root length, as well as the fresh and dry weight of the radical system and the foliate area were evaluated. The results proved that the Effective Microorganisms (EM and T. harzianum application improved the production of quality onion seedlings. The treatment 5 (organic matter 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination had better results in the evaluated variables.

  5. Determination of genetic stability in long-term somatic embryogenic cultures and derived plantlets of cork oak using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Tina; Pinto, Glória; Loureiro, João; Costa, Armando; Santos, Conceição

    2006-09-01

    Microsatellites were used to test genetic stability in somatic embryos (SE) of Quercus suber L. The SE were obtained by a simple somatic embryogenesis protocol: leaf explants from two adult plants (QsG0, QsG5) and from two juvenile plants (QsGM1, QsGM2) were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. Calluses with primary embryogenic structures were transferred to MSWH (MS medium without growth regulators) and SE proliferated by secondary somatic embryogenesis. High morphological heterogeneity was found among cotyledonary SE. However, converted plants looked morphologically normal with well-developed rooting systems and shoots. The genetic stability of the plant material during the somatic embryogenesis process was evaluated by using six to eight nuclear microsatellites transferred from Q. myrsinifolia Blume, Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. Five of eight microsatellites distinguished among the genotypes analyzed, and for QsG0, QsGM1 and QsGM2, uniform microsatellite patterns were generally observed within and between SE and the respective donor genotypes. For genotype QsG5, the same pattern was observed in all samples analyzed except one, where the mutation percentage was 2.5%. We conclude that microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic stability of clonal materials and to determine genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis. The simple somatic embryogenesis protocol described has potential for the commercial propagation of Q. suber because it results in a low percentage of mutations.

  6. In Vitro Micropropagation of Allium giganteum R : 2. Embryoid and Plantlet Regeneration through the Anther Culture of Allium giganteum R

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Noboru; Matsunaga, Hiroshi; Kanechi, Michio; Maekawa, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    直径4∿5cmの花球(散形花序)の苞が裂け出した頃の小花蕾を葯培養の材料に用い,葯からの不定胚および幼植物の再生について試みた。1. 胚様体形成は,小胞子母細胞期から小胞子4分子期にわたる時期の葯で最も良好で,BA 0.1∿1mg/1およびNAA 10mg/1添加区で20∿23%の形成率を示した。小胞子1核期の葯においては,胚様体形成は殆ど認められなかった。胚様体は,明所条件下に移すことにより幼植物に成育した。2. 培地中の窒素源として,各種のアミノ酸を添加しその効果を検討したが,グリシン添加区で1個体の胚様体が得られたのみであった。3. 葯置床前に,花蕾の5℃における低温前処理を試みた。低温処理が1日では,胚様体形成は認められなかったが,5および10日では8.3および5.1%と低率ながら低温前処理の効果が認められた。4. 得られた胚様体の中で,5mm以下の胚様体を0.1mg/1 IBA添加培地へ移植した場合には正常な幼植物に成育したが,5mm以上では生長したシュートが肥大し,水浸状化する傾向を示した。5. 得られた幼植物は殆ど2倍体で,一部4倍体が認めら...

  7. Effect of antibiotic cefotaxime and kanamycin on callus formation and plantlet regeneration from leaves and callus of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugpheug, R.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to get rid of contamination from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the bacterium employed in gene transformation, various kinds and concentrations of antibiotics were added singly or in combinations. In this investigation, concentrations of cefotaxime and kanamycin were examined for callus formation and regenerability from leaves and callus. The results showed that cefotaxime at the concentration of up to 300 mg/l gave a non-significant difference in callus formation. In the case of direct shoot bud formation, concentration over 100 mg/l drastically reduced percentage of leaf-forming shoot buds. The calli which were cultured continuously in 300 mg/l cefotaxime-containing medium for 6 passages gave callus forming shoot buds of 35%. Higher concentration of cefotaxime drastically decreased bud formation. In the case of kanamycin, callus could be induced and maintained in the medium supplemented with a lower concentration than cefotaxime. However, the callus could not be maintained after 3 subculturings.

  8. Plantlet regeneration from mature zygotic embryos and embryonic explants of masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGJIANQIU; ZHIMINGWEI; 等

    1994-01-01

    Excised zygotic embryos,cotyledons and hypocotyls of juvenile seedlings of masson pine were grown on DCR medium supplemented with several concentrations of various plant phytohormones.BA(1.0mg/L) in combination with NAA(0.05mg/L) in DCR medium was found to increase the formation of adventitious buds from mature zygotic embryos,but most of them were formed at the tips of embryonic cotyledons.Adventitious buds were obtained from cotyledons and hypocotyls from juvenile seedlings when they were cultured on DCR medium containing BA 3-5 mg/L and NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L.Elongation of buds were observed on hormone-free DCR medium with or without activated charcoal(0.5%).Root initiation was achieved with full or half strength DCR medium supplemented with IBA 1.0 mg/L and NAA 0.25-0.5 mg/L.Approximately 11-20 axillary buds formed on each explant when juvenile seedling explants were treated(3-20h) with BA 50-100 mg/L,followed by transfer to hormone-free DCR medium.The maximum number of shoots obtained per explant within six months was 33.

  9. Plantlet Regeneration from the Embryo of Punica granatum cv.Nana in vitro%大花石榴胚培养再生植株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵炜; 陈志萍

    2010-01-01

    以大花石榴的胚为外植体在MS+BA1+NAA0.2培养基中诱导愈伤并产生不定芽,在MS+BA0.5+NAA0.2培养基中进行芽苗的增殖培养,在1/2MS+ NAA0.5+IBA0.5培养基中诱导芽苗生根.试管苗在珍珠岩基质中罩塑料杯保湿炼苗后即可移栽入土中.

  10. 厚皮甜瓜的离体培养植株再生%In vitro Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Cucumis melo ssp. Pang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新霞; 乐锦华

    2001-01-01

    @@1 植物名称厚皮甜瓜(Cucumis melo ssp.Pang)主栽品种“皇后”。 2 材料类别种子。 3 培养条件诱导胚性愈伤组织培养基:(1)MS大量及微量元素(下同)+6-BA 1.5 mg·L-1(单位下同);(2)MS+B5有机+6-BA 1;(3)MS+NAA1+6-BA 1;(4)MS+NAA 1+6-BA 0.5;(5)MS+NAA 1+6-BA 0.1;(6)MS+IAA 0.1+6-BA 1。芽分化培养基:(7)MS+6-BA 0.2;(8)MS+6-BA0.5;(9)MS+6-BA 1.0;(10)改良MS+6-BA 0.2;(11)改良MS+6-BA 0.5;(12)改良MS+6-BA1.0。生根培养基:(13)MS+IAA 0.2;(14)MS+IAA 0.5;(15)MS+NAA 1。上述培养基均加入0.65%琼脂粉、2%蔗糖,pH为5.8。

  11. Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Cucumis melo%甜瓜的组织培养与植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海涛; 王慧; 杨玉锁; 赵长生

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称甜瓜(Cucumis melo)品种"伽师瓜”. 2 材料类别成熟甜瓜种子无菌苗的子叶. 3 培养条件种子萌发培养基:(1)1/2MS(大量元素减半)+2%蔗糖.愈伤组织诱导培养基:(2)Miller+6-BA 5.0 mg@L-1(单位下同)+ZT0.01+3%蔗糖.丛生芽诱导培养基:(3)Miller+6-BA 2.0+3%蔗糖;(4)Miller+6-BA 0.5+3%蔗糖.芽伸长培养基:(5)Miller+6-BA 0.1+3%蔗糖;(6)Miller+6-BA 0.01+3%蔗糖.生根培养基:(7)1/2MS(大)+NAA 0.01+2%蔗糖.上述培养基均含0.8%琼脂,pH 5.8.培养温度(27±2)℃,光照16 h@d-1,光照度3 000 lx.

  12. Transplanting Technology for Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm Plantlets from Tissue Culture%剑麻组培苗移栽管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭进; 李愿平; 刘伟清

    2010-01-01

    研究了剑麻组培苗的移栽及袋装苗培育技术,探讨改革传统的珠芽苗或钻心苗经密植到疏植再到大田种植的育苗技术,改为培育重1-2 kg或苗高达40-50 cm的组培袋苗直接上大田种植的模式.

  13. Relative examination of antioxidative enzymatic activities in plantlets of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. differentiated from hypocotyls in in vivo and ex vitro environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushi A. Jahan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol was devised for Cardiospermum halicacabum by means of aseptically extracted 7 days old hypocotyls forming adventitious shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium harmonized with 0.7 μM thidiazuron (TDZ producing a maximum of 18.20 ± 0.98 number of shoots in 94% cultures following 4 weeks. Subsequent subculturing for five passages, on a medium without plant growth regulators, tempted the highest shoot number (40.00 ± 1.15 with an average shoot length of 6.53 ± 0.49 cm after the fourth subculture. Histological sections confirmed the formation of multiple buds from hypocotyl explants. The expression of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase was found to be higher in acclimatized plants than in the in vitro cultured ones suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in shoot differentiation and in growth under external environment partly due to their ability to cope up with oxidative stress.

  14. 卡德丽亚兰根尖离体培养获得再生植株%In vitro conversion of Cattleya root tip into plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兰; 刘国安; 杨红

    2003-01-01

    对卡德丽亚兰根尖进行离体培养,诱导形成了愈伤组织、原球茎并获得再生植株.2,4-D对愈伤组织的形成起着主导作用;高浓度BA与低浓度NAA配合使用可诱导根尖形成原球茎并分化形成再生植株.愈伤组织最佳诱导培养基为VW+0.5 mg/L2,4-D或VW+0.1 mg/L 2,4-D+0.5 mg/L NAA+0.1 mg/L BA;原球茎最佳诱导培养基为VW+0.5 mg/LNAA+3~8 mg/L BA;增殖培养基用KC+2.0 mg/L BA+5%香蕉提取汁+1%活性炭.

  15. 通肯酸浆的组织培养与植株再生%Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Physalis tungkenensis Kuan et Gao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗宪春; 许向阳; 王傲雪; 李景富

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1植物名称 通肯酸浆(Physalis tungkenensis Kuan et Gao). 2材料类别 无菌苗的子叶. 3培养条件 种子萌发培养基:MS基本培养基.愈伤组织诱导和分化培养基:(1)MS+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1(单位下同)+IAA0.1;(2)MS+6-BA 1.0+IAA 0.2;(3)MS+6-BA 2.0+IAA0.1;(4)MS+6-BA 2.0+IAA 0.2;(5)MS+6-BA 3.0+IAA 0.2.

  16. 药用植物红落藜组织培养研究%Studies on Plantlet Regeneration and Propagation of Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧珠; 吴少华; 邱万翔

    2009-01-01

    以红落藜为试验材料,进行茎段组织培养及植株再生的研究.试验结果表明75%酒精5s+0.1%升汞8 min既可进行彻底消毒,又保证具有较高的成活率;通过初代培养筛选出NAA为最适的生长激素,最适培养基为MS+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2mg/L+琼脂0.8%+蔗糖2%+活性炭0.2%;通过继代培养筛选出最适培养基为MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.2mg/L+琼脂0.8%+蔗糖2%+活性炭0.2%;最适的生根培养基为1/2MS+IBA1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.1 mg/L+琼脂0.8%+蔗糖2%+活性炭0.2%,生根率为80%.当试管苗叶片数3~5片,苗高2~3 cm,生根数3~4条时,移栽至蛭石和腐殖土(1:2)混合的基质中,保湿遮阴,成活率可达90%以上.

  17. 草本咖啡的组织培养和植株再生%Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Cassia sopneraiinn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱勤; 何龙飞; 林鉴钊

    1999-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称 草本咖啡(Cassia sopneraiinn). 2 材料类别 子叶和胚轴.取草本咖啡当年生成熟种子,经表面常规消毒后,接种到固体MS培养基中,1周后种子萌发成幼苗,切取其子叶和胚轴进行培养.

  18. In vitro plantlet regeneration from seedling explants of Pinus densiflora%赤松离体培养植株再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽华; 吴小芹; 戴培培; 张红岩

    2010-01-01

    以无菌条件下萌发21~28 d的赤松(Pinus densiflora)幼苗子叶-胚轴材料为起始外植体建立了植株再生体系.结果表明:在添加4 mg/L 6-BA和0.05 mg/L NAA的GD培养基上培养5周可诱导丛生芽形成,无6-BA但添加0.1 mg/L NAA的DCR培养基促进了芽的进一步生长,DCR培养基中添加0.5~1.0 g/L活性炭促进了芽的伸长,在添加2 mg/L 6-BA和0.1~0.2 mg/L NAA的GD培养基上丛生芽大量增殖.伸长的丛生芽接种在附加0.2 mg/L NAA的1/2 GD培养基中培养4周后,不定根发生率达68.4%,转移至无激素但添加0.5 g/L活性炭的1/2 GD中不定根迅速伸长.将完整的再生植株移栽于蛭石-珍珠岩-河沙等比混合的基质中,12周后成活率约为60%.

  19. Light-emitting diodes and their potential in callus growth, plantlet development and saponin accumulation during somatic embryogenesis of Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv.

    OpenAIRE

    Nhut, Duong Tan; Huy, Nguyen Phuc; Tai, Ngo Thanh; Nam, Nguyen Ba; Luan, Vu Quoc; Hien, Vu Thi; Tung, Hoang Thanh; Vinh, Bui The; Luan, Tran Cong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, LED (light-emitting diode) has been the subject of research within the field of plant growth and development. However, there has been little discussion about using LED in vitro cultures of Panax vietnamensis, one of the important medicinal plants belonging to the Panax genus. This study examines the influence of various LED lamps on callus growth and plant formation of P. vietnamensis. Results show significant differences in growth and development, as various light conditions...

  20. Fluorescence Imaging in the Red and Far-Red Region during Growth of Sunflower Plantlets. Diagnosis of the Early Infection by the Parasite Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bustos, Carmen M; Pérez-Bueno, María L; Barón, Matilde; Molinero-Ruiz, Leire

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape, caused by the root holoparasite Orobanche cumana, is the main biotic constraint to sunflower oil production worldwide. By the time broomrape emerges, most of the metabolic imbalance has been produced by O. cumana to sunflower plants. UV-induced multicolor fluorescence imaging (MCFI) provides information on the fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll (Chl) a of plants in the spectral bands with peaks near 680 nm (red, F680) and 740 nm (far-red, F740). In this work MCFI was extensively applied to sunflowers, either healthy or parasitized plants, for the first time. The distribution of red and far-red fluorescence was analyzed in healthy sunflower grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. Fluorescence patterns were analyzed across the leaf surface and throughout the plant by comparing the first four leaf pairs (LPs) between the second and fifth week of growth. Similar fluorescence patterns, with a delay of 3 or 4 days between them, were obtained for LPs of healthy sunflower, showing that red and far-red fluorescence varied with the developmental stage of the leaf. The use of F680 and F740 as indicators of sunflower infection by O. cumana during underground development stages of the parasite was also evaluated under similar experimental conditions. Early increases in F680 and F740 as well as decreases in F680/F740 were detected upon infection by O. cumana. Significant differences between inoculated and control plants depended on the LP that was considered at any time. Measurements of Chl contents and final total Chl content supported the results of MCFI, but they were less sensitive in differentiating healthy from inoculated plants. Sunflower infection was confirmed by the presence of broomrape nodules in the roots at the end of the experiment. The potential of MCFI in the red and far-red region for an early detection of O. cumana infection in sunflower was revealed. This technique might have a particular interest for early phenotyping in sunflower breeding programs. To our knowledge, this is the first work where the effect of a parasitic plant in its host is analyzed by means of fluorescence imaging in the red and far-red spectral regions.

  1. 叶面喷施冠菌素对香蕉幼苗耐寒性的影响%Effects of Coronatine on Cold Tolerance of Banana Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯斗; 榻维言; 黄政树; 黄昌艳

    2009-01-01

    Banana plants of 'Williams hybrid' with 6 unfolded leaves and uniform growth were foliar sprayed with 4 levels (0,1,5 and 10 μmol/L) of concentrations of Coronatine,and their cold resistance was observed under low temperature. The results showed that the foliar spray of Coronatine to the banana plants at the concentrations from 1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L did not improve their cold resistance obviously and that their cold resistance tended to be lower with the increase of the concentration. Only 1 μmol/L treatment showed some effect on the banana plants in improving total SOD total activity,soluble sugar content (the highest) and chlorophylls content,and lowering relative electricity conductivity and MDA content,and this treatment failed to enhance the POD activity of the banana plants.%以生长一致、有6片展开叶的威廉斯香蕉幼苗为试验材料,研究0(CK)、1、5、10μmol/L 4个浓度的冠菌素喷洒香蕉幼苗后对香蕉幼苗耐寒性的影响.结果表明,1~10μmol/L浓度范围的冠笛素对提高香蕉幼苗抗寒性的效果不明显,并且呈浓度越高反而效果越差的趋势.只有1μmol/L的冠菌素对提高香蕉幼苗的SOD总活性、可溶性糖含量和叶绿素含量,以及降低相对电导率和丙二醛含量具有一定的作用.其中对提高可溶性糖含量的效果最明显,但是没有提高POD活性的效应.

  2. In vitro Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Pelargonium odoratissmum%蚊净香草的离体培养和植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪志霞; 王和乐; 蒋福稳; 陈尚风

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称蚊净香草(Pelargonium odoratissmum). 2 材料类别一年生幼苗的叶片. 3 培养条件诱导芽培养基:(1)MS+6-BA 0.3~0.6 mg*L-1(单位下同)+NAA 0.3~0.6; (2)MS+6-BA 0.2+NAA 0.2; (3)MS+6-BA 0.5+NAA 0.2.芽增殖培养基:(4)1/2MS+6-BA 0.3~0.6+NAA 0.3~0.6.生根培养基:(5)1/2MS; (6)1/2MS+NAA 0.5; (7)1/4MS; (8)1/4MS+AC 0.5%.以上培养基琼脂含量皆为0.75%,芽诱导培养基中蔗糖均为2.5%,生根培养基中蔗糖均为2.0%, pH 5.0~5.8.培养时温度为(25+2)℃,光照12~14 h*d-1,光照度2 000 lx.

  3. Resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var Eolo) apical and axillary shoot tips excised from different aged in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, J; Fabre, J; Bassaglia, C

    1988-05-01

    The ability of shoot tips from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., var. Eolo) cultured in vitro to develop resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen depends on the physiological state of the cell material and the pretreatment conditions. Regrowth rates close to 100% have been obtained with apical shoot tips isolated from 2 month-old stems, precultured on medium supplemented with sucrose (0.75M) and treated with dimethylsulfoxide (5% or more). Resistance of axillary shoot tips decreased progressively as a funtion of their distance from the apical shoot tip. During the development of the stem from axillary buds (obtained by cutting), progressive increases in the regrowth rate of frozen apices were noted, from 30% before cutting (axillary buds) to 98% after 3 weeks of culture.

  4. 迷迭香离体培养快繁技术的研究%Plantlet Clone of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀玉; 李小川; 陈建新; 王振师

    2006-01-01

    以茎段为起始外植体,进行迷迭香离体培养快繁技术的研究.结果表明:茎段在MS+BA 0.2 mg/L+IBA 0.01 mg/L培养基上腋芽诱导分化效果最好,诱导率可达75%;诱导出的腋芽转入1/2 MS+BA 0.3 mg/L+IBA 0.1 mg/L+AC 1 g/L培养基中增殖与伸长效果最佳,每个腋芽的平均诱导芽数为3.5个,平均芽长为3.0 cm;在1/4 MS+IBA 0.1 mg/L+AC 1 g/L培养基中诱导生根,生根率达87%.

  5. 三叶香茶菜的组织培养及植株再生%Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Rabdosia ternifolia (D. Don) Hara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志刚; 胡东南; 吴庆华; 李晓娟

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1植物名称三叶香茶菜[Rabdosia ternifolia(D.Don)Hara]. 2材料类别带腋芽茎段. 3培养条件(1)诱导愈伤组织的培养基:MS+6-BA 2 mg·L-1(单位下同)+NAA 0.5;(2)芽分化及继代培养基:MS+6-BA 2+IBA 0.5;(3)诱导生根培养基:1/2MS+IBA 0.5+NAA 0.1.上述各培养基均加3%蔗糖、0.7%琼脂,pH 5.8,培养温度为(25±1)℃,光照时间12~14 h·d-1,光强40μmol·m2·s-1.

  6. Development of molecular method for sex identification in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plantlets using novel sex-linked microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Awan, Faisal Saeed; Ahmad, Saeed; Khan, Iqrar A

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). A total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of alleles. A total of 124 alleles were characterized in 12 SSR loci. On average, there are 9.08 alleles per locus, with a range from 5 to 16 alleles, for primers mpdCIR15 and mpdCIR57, respectively. These primers produced 15 polymorphic loci specifically in male date palm samples and the seedlings harboring the unique fragments were further characterized as male plants. Increasingly, 38.46 % of these loci were scored as homozygous alleles while 61.53 % heterozygous allelic loci were determined. Primer mpdCIR48 produced a specific locus (250/250) in all male samples whereas the same locus was absent in female samples. Similarly, a locus of 300/310 bp reoccurred in 5 date palm male samples using marker DP-168 which indicated that these are the promising candidate marker to detect the sex in date palm seedlings at early stage. The data resulted from combination of 12 primers enabled the 16 seedling samples progeny (developed from parents breeding) of date palm cultivars to divide into two groups i.e., male and female regarding their sex expression comparative to the parents (male + female) using the principle coordinate analysis.

  7. 秘鲁番茄和多毛番茄的组织培养及植株再生%Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Wild Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明方; 蒋有条

    1997-01-01

    @@ 1植物名称秘鲁番茄(Lycopersicon peru-vianum)、多毛番茄(L. hirsutum). 2材料类别真叶. 3培养条件种子播种于珍珠岩和菜园土(1:1)的混合培养土中.子叶展开后每隔1周浇0.1%尿素.取第3片完全展开的真叶作外植体.基本培养基为MS,添加3%蔗糖、0.7%琼脂,pH 5.8.(1)愈伤组织诱导培养基:MS+6-BA 2 mg·L-1(单位下同)+IAA0.4(秘鲁番茄);MS+6-BA 2+NAA 0.2(多毛番茄).(2)芽分化培养基:秘鲁番茄和多毛番茄均为MS+6-BA 2.(3)生根培养基:MS+NAA 0.1.培养温度25士1℃,照光16h·d-1,光照度2 000 lx.

  8. Isolated-Microspore Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜游离小孢子的培养及植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英; 陶莲; 李正丽; 郭惊涛; 吴康云; 孟平红; 赵大芹

    2012-01-01

    为快速创新蔬菜种质材料,缩短大白菜杂交育种工作中自交系的选育过程,对10个优良大白菜杂交种进行游离小孢子培养.结果表明,采用游离小孢子培养方法1~2年内可获得双单倍体(DH)纯合植株,在供试的10个基因型中,有6个得到胚状体,胚诱导成功率为60%,不同基因型之间最高和最低的小孢子产胚数相差极大,春秋霸王平均每花蕾产胚10.92个,天绿58平均每花蕾产胚0.17个;出胚基因型中有5个基因型得到植株,植株诱导率为83%;经田间观察得到20个以上的株系,2012年春季试配杂交组合.%In order to bring new germ plasm resource quickly and shorten the breeding process of inbred line during the cross breeding of Chinese cabbage, the isolated-microspore culture was carried among 10 excellent Chinese cabbage hybrids. The results showed that by isolated-microspore culture, the double haploid(DH) homozygous plants could be obtained in 1~2 years. Among the 10 genotype, six got the embryoid and embryogenesis success rate was 60%. The differences of embryiod quantities between the highest and the lowest microspore from different genotype were great. The average embryoid quantity per bud of Chunqiubawang was 10. 92, while the average embryoid quantity per bud of Tianlv 58 was only 0. 17. Among the embryo genotype, five got the strains and the strain inductivity was 83%. More than 20 strains were obtained by investigating in the field and hybrid combinations were trialed in spring 2012.

  9. Studies on Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes between Normal Plantlet and Tissue-Cultured Plantlet of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg.%中华芦荟组培苗与正常苗某些理化特性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由继红

    2001-01-01

    对中华芦荟(Aloe vera L. var. chinensis)组培苗与正常苗的干重、含水量、可溶性糖含量、叶绿素及类胡萝卜素含量、蛋白质含量及蛋白质电泳、光合速率、呼吸速率、超氧化物歧化酶活性等理化指标进行了比较研究.结果表明,中华芦荟组培苗与正常苗的上述各项指标均差异不显著.证明植物组织培养方法是中华芦荟快繁的一条有效途径,可用组培苗来代替正常的扦插苗.

  10. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Florets were excised from panicles after six days of artificial crossing, and cultured in. Murashige ... were regenerated into plantlets in half MS medium without plant growth regulators. Plantlets of .... 13 cm diameter, containing light soils in the.

  11. Adventitious Bud Induction and Plantlet Regeneration in vitro from Mature Zygotic Embryos of Ponderosa Pine%离体条件下西黄松成熟合子胚不定芽的诱导及植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科友; 唐德瑞; 李林; 朱海兰; 赵忠; 侯琳

    2008-01-01

    Adventitious buds were induced from the excised mature zygotic embryos of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa). Thehighest induction rate (65.8%) of adventitious buds was obtained with 10-fold multiplication at the highest and 7-foldformation of adventitious buds. Buds proliferation and elongation were achieved on 1/2GD and 1/2SH without growth regulators.A proper amount of activated charcoal promoted adventitious buds elongation and root' growth. The adventitious shoots ofPonderosa Pine were used to induce adventitious roots on 1/2GD and 1/2SH media supplemented with different concentrations ofNAA and GA . The results showed that NAA played a determinative role in initiating the adventitious roots. Sixteen point sevenpaper, the experimental results showed that roots were successfully induced from cultured mature zygotic embryos of PonderosaPine.%以西黄松成熟胚为外植体诱导不定芽,在GD+9.85~19.70 μmol·L'-1 6-BA+0.0~14.42 μmol·L-1 NAA上不定芽诱导率最高达65.8%,平均增殖率为7,最大增殖率达10;不定芽形成有2种途径,即子叶直接形成不定芽和子叶组织再分化形成不定芽;NAA不利于外植体不定芽的诱导;不定芽的生长和扩繁采用不加生长调节剂的1/2 GD和1/2 SH培养基;培养基中加入适量的活性炭有利于不定芽和根的生长.不定嫩梢在1/2 GD和1/2 SH附加不同浓度NAA和GA,3的培养基上进行生根诱导,试验结果表明:NAA对不定根的形成起主要作用,在1/2 GD+28.84 μmol·L'-1 NAA+4.17 μmol·L'-1 GA,3培养基中不定梢的生根率为16.7%.在离体培养条件下,以西黄松成熟胚为外植体获得了再生植株.

  12. Induction of Embryoids,Embryogenic Callus and Plantlet Regeneration from Bingtangcheng(Citrus sinensis)%冰糖橙胚状体、胚性愈伤组织的诱导及植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡小东; 廖伟

    2010-01-01

    以冰糖橙(Citrus sinensis)成熟果实中未发育胚珠为外植体,以MT为基本培养基,通过添加不同种类植物生长调节剂(ZT、GA3、BA、IAA以及2,4-D)、麦芽浸出物(ME)或AgNO3,诱导胚状体、胚性愈伤组织,并进行了植株再生研究.结果表明:不同培养基不仅影响胚状体的诱导率,而且影响诱导胚状体的类型;MT培养基有利于诱导出球型胚状体,MT+1.0 mg/L GA3 + 500 mg/L ME培养基有利于诱导子叶形胚状体;不同类型的胚状体在不同培养基中胚性愈伤组织发生的频率不同,球形胚状体和MT+0.5 mg/L IAA+0.1 mg/L ZT培养基最有利于胚性愈伤组织的诱导,球形胚状体接种于此培养基上胚性愈伤组织的发生率高达40%.这些胚状体经过生芽和生根培养,再生了大量完整植株.

  13. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes avaliaram-se as características: estatura da planta, a forma e coloração das folhas e pseudocaule. Consideraram-se como variantes as plantas cujos perfilhos também mostravam o mesmo tipo de variação. Constatou-se a ocorrência de três tipos de variantes somaclonais, VCF (Variação da Clorofila na Folha, VPB (Variante de Porte Baixo e VCPP (Variante da Coloração do Pseudocaule e Pecíolo, este último com potencial ornamental. A taxa de variação somaclonal para Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, nas condições propostas, foi de 61,40 %.

  14. 北高丛越桔芽器官离体培养与快繁体系的建立%Rapid Propagation of Plantlets from Sprout of Vaccinium corymbosum in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建萍; 柏新富; 蒋小满; 张萍; Bi Kehua

    2007-01-01

    越桔为杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)越桔属(Vaccinium)灌木类小浆果果树。其果实为蓝色或红色,酸甜适中,具有极高的营养价值和医疗保健作用,特别是抗氧化能力为所有果品蔬菜之首,对防止人体细胞衰老,预防老年性疾病(心脏病、白内障、癌症、记忆力衰退等)具有特殊功效,因而被国际粮农组织列为五大健康食品之一(顾姻等,2001),被美国最有影响的健康杂志《Prevention》誉为”神奇果”(於虹等,2003),是近年来发展最为迅速的集营养、保健于一身的第3代果树新品。北高丛越桔(Vaccinium corymbosum)是越桔属中经济价值最高的1个种(顾姻等,2001),因其果实大、品质佳、口感好,深受人们青睐,已成为国际鲜果市场销售的主要品种。近年来鲁东大学生命科学学院将部分优质北高丛越桔引进国内,但常规繁殖方法不能满足快速发展的需要。

  15. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares na formação de mudas de cafeeiro, em substratos orgânicos comerciais Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the development of coffee plantlets using different organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Sales Massafera Tristão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento, em casa de vegetação, em arranjo fatorial 9 x 4, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de substratos orgânicos comerciais e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs no desenvolvimento de mudas de cafeeiro, cultivar 'Catuaí Amarelo', IAC 62. Utilizaram-se substratos à base de fibra de coco (Golden Mix 11, Golden Mix 47 e Golden Mix 80, casca de pinus (Rendmax, Vida Verde com adubação, Vida Verde sem adubação e Terra do Paraíso, solo puro e solo + esterco (70% e 30%,v/v, inoculando-se os FMAs Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum e Gigaspora margarita. Manteve-se um tratamento sem inoculação. Aos 200 dias após transplante avaliaram-se: altura, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria fresca da raiz, teor de fósforo na parte aérea, colonização radicular, comprimento do micélio externo, atividade da fosfatase ácida e teores de pigmentos fotossintetizantes nas folhas do cafeeiro. Independentemente da micorrização, o melhor crescimento das mudas foi obtido no substrato Vida Verde sem adubação. Os melhores efeitos da micorrização foram constatados nas plantas colonizadas por G. margarita e crescidas nos substratos convencional (solo + esterco e Vida Verde com adubação, nas quais se verificaram mais eficácia na utilização de P, o que reverteu em maior crescimento e produção de biomassa, resultando em maior eficiência simbiótica. No substrato solo + esterco, a micorrização favoreceu a concentração de pigmentos fotossintetizantes e diminuiu a atividade da fosfatase ácida nas folhas do cafeeiro.A greenhouse experiment with an alleatory factorial 9 x 4 scheme was carried out to evaluate the effects of different substrates and species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the development of coffee plants, cultivar Catuaí Amarelo, IAC 62. Nine substrates were used: seven commercial organic substrates - four substrates containing composted pinus peel (Rendmax, fertilized Vida Verde, non- fertilized Vida Verde and Terra do Paraíso, three containing coconut fiber (Golden Mix-11, Golden Mix- 47 and Golden Mix 80 and two using soil - a mixture of 70% soil and 30% cattle manure, usually used by the producer, and soil alone. The AMF were Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita, and a control without AMF inoculation. The plants were harvested 200 days after transplanting and the following variables were analyzed - height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization, total extraradical mycelium, acid phosphatase activity and photosynthetic pigments. Better plant growth conditions were obtained in the substrate Vida Verde without fertilization, regardless of mycorrhiza. Plants colonized by G. margarita and cultivated in the conventional substrate (soil + manure and Vida Verde with fertilization showed higher P amounts and index of P utilization efficiency, which reverted in better growth and biomass production, resulting in higher symbiotic efficiency. Mycorrhizal plants, cultivated in soil + manure, showed higher chlorophyll values and lower acid phosphatase activity in coffee leaves.

  16. Effect of Light Intensity and Nitrogen Ratios on Metabolism of Nitrogen of Grape Plantlets in vitro%光照强度和氮素配比对葡萄试管苗氮素代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范秀艳

    2011-01-01

    以红地球葡萄试管苗为试材,探讨了光照强度和NH4(+)-N、NO3(-)-N不同配比对葡萄试管苗氮代谢的影响.结果表明:随培养基中NH4(-)-N所占比例和光照强度的升高,GS活力增加.光强为5000 lx并且NH4(-)-N:NO3(-)-N为5:5时,GS活力最高.硝酸还原酶活性(NR)随着光强和培养基中NO3(-)-N比例的增加而升高,且随着培养基中NO3(-)-N比例的增加,试管苗体内的NO3(-)-N含量增加.随NR活性升高,体内NO3(-)-N含量降低,NO3(-)-N含量与NR活性之间呈显著的负相关关系.

  17. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Micropropagation of Virus-free Tube Potato Plantlets%植物生长调节剂对马铃薯脱毒试管苗微繁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤云

    2006-01-01

    试验研究了含3种植物生长调节剂(GA3、NAA、BAP)的5种培养基对5种马铃薯脱毒试管苗微繁的影响.结果表明:③号培养基(MS+1mg/LGA3+0.1mg/LNAA)适合于克新4号、克新13号和尤金脱毒试管苗的微繁;④号培养基(MS+0.01mg/LBAP+0.05mg/LNAA)适合于早大白脱毒试管苗的微繁;而不含任何植物生长调节剂的①号培养基(MS培养基)适合于克新16号脱毒试管苗的微繁,以期为快速、低成本培养健壮试管苗打下基础.

  18. 用蛭石做马铃薯快繁培养基支持体的初步研究%Use of Vermiculite in Medium for Micropropagation of Plantlets in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞淑敏; 方贯娜; 周建华

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 目前,马铃薯脱毒快繁技术已广泛应用于科研与生产中,快繁过程中脱毒苗培养基支持体通常采用琼脂或直接采用液体培养.然而这两种培养基存在着诸多问题,例如琼脂培养基中的琼脂价格昂贵、成本高,而且胶体不利于营养物质的扩散、透气性差,导致瓶苗生长不良.

  19. Medium Choice of Sugar-free Micropropagation with Liquid Culture in Open-space of Chrysanthemum morifolium Plantlets%开放空间下无糖菊花组培苗栽培介质的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋越冬; 马明建

    2010-01-01

    在自行研制的开放空间植物组织培养苗栽培系统内,研究了不同栽培介质对液体培养的无糖菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)组培苗生长的影响.结果表明,陶瓷球介质适合菊花组培苗的生长,而传统无土栽培介质岩棉和海绵不适合菊花组培苗的生产.

  20. THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS HORMONES ON MICROPROPAGATION OF IN VITRO VIRUS-FREE POTATO PLANTLETS%外源激素对马铃薯脱毒试管苗微繁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤云; 韩丽颖

    2002-01-01

    本试验研究了含GA3、NAA和BAP3种外源激素的6种培养基对早大白和尤金两种脱毒试管苗生长状况(株高、茎粗、叶片数、生根数)的影响,选出适合早大白切段繁殖的培养基为MS+0.01 mg/L BAP+0.05 mg/L NAA,适合尤金切段繁殖的培养基为MS+1 mg/L GA3 +0.1 mg/L NAA,为快速、低成本培养健壮试管苗打下基础.

  1. Screening conditions of adventitious bud induction and plantlet regeneration for Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉木茎段不定芽诱导及植株再生条件筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫雅芳; 戴勤; 谭玲; 苏治南; 卢亮; 杨梅

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探索广西杉木快繁技术,为杉木组织培养和种苗供应提供参考依据.[方法]以杉木优良树种基部枝条为试验材料,进行茎段外植体消毒、不定芽诱导及植株再生研究.[结果]以75%酒精处理30 s+0.1%升汞消毒6min的效果较理想,污染率为30%;初代培养基为1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg/L+6-BA 0.6 mg/L,第8d即有芽萌动,诱导率可达47%;继代培养基1/2MS +IBA 0.3 mg/L+6-BA 0.4 mg/L中加入蔗糖30 g/L,25 d腋芽增殖倍数可达3.4倍;1/4MS+IBA 0.15mg/L+NAA 0.075 mg/L对杉木生根诱导效果较好,生根率为52%.[结论],杉木外植体用75%酒精和0.1%升汞消毒6min效果较理想,适当减少培养基中矿质元素有利于杉木外殖体芽的诱导和试管苗的增殖生长,NAA可促进试管苗生根.%[Objective]Conditions of the adventitious bud induction and plant regeneration for Cunninghamia lanceolata were screened and rapid propagation techniques for Chinese fir in Guangxi was explored to provide references for supply and tissue culture of Chinese fir seedlings.[Method]Using base branches of superior Chinese fir species as testing materials,stem explant disinfection,adventitious bud induction and plant regeneration were the focal points in the current research.[Result] (1)The best disinfection method was treating stem explants with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% mercuric chloride for 6 min,which showed 30% contamination rate; (2)In the initial medium (1/2MS + NAA 0.2 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L),the buds germinated on the 8th day with the induction rate of 47%; (3)In the optimum subculture medium (1/2MS + IBA 0.3 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L + white sugar 30 g/L),axillary buds were multiplied by 3.4 times on the 25th day; (4)The induction effect was the best with the rooting rate of 52% in the rooting medium (1/4MS + IBA 0.15 mg/L + NAA 0.075 mg/L).[Conclusion]It was beneficial to the adventitious bud induction for Chinese fir with the initial medium (1/2MS + NAA 0.2 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L) and the optimum subculture medium (1/2MS + IBA 0.3 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L + white sugar 30 g/L).NAA was conducive to rooting in vitro,and rooting induction effect was the best in the rooting medium of 1/4MS + IBA 0.15 mg/L + NAA 0.075 mg/L.

  2. 奉化大芋艿脱毒苗的组培快繁研究%Study on Virus-free Plantlets Rapid Propagation of Colocasia esculenta cv. Fenghuayunaitou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹忠根; 徐程

    2006-01-01

    组织培养试验表明,培养在MS+6-BA 2 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L上的奉化大芋艿茎尖,不定芽诱导率可达75%,月增殖系数为4倍.若在上述培养基中添加芋头汁、椰子汁等有机物则可实现不定芽继代繁殖和诱导生根一步完成,0.5~1 mg/L的三十烷醇在壮苗过程中的应用进一步提高了芋苗的根数、根长、苗高和鲜重.

  3. Effect of choline chloride on the growth of gloxinia plantlets in vitro%氯化胆碱对大岩桐组培苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何若天; 林新全; 邱景锋

    2002-01-01

    合适浓度(50和100 mg/L)的氯化胆碱(CC)有利于大岩桐组培苗不定芽的分化,但株高和鲜重较低.在所试验浓度(10~700 mg/L)的CC作用下,不定根生长较粗短,而鲜重增高,移栽时有较高的成活率.

  4. Study on the accumulation of dry matter and NPK in Pineapple(Ananas comosus cv.Comte de Paris)plantlet%巴厘菠萝干物质和NPK养分累积规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菁; 孙光明; 臧小平; 陆新华; 刘胜辉

    2010-01-01

    在8月中旬种植大小基本一致的巴厘菠萝小苗,然后在其生长发育的11个时间段测定各器官生物量和NPK养分含量.结果表明:植株干物质和NPK养分累积可分为4个阶段.第一阶段为缓慢累积阶段;第二阶段为快速累积阶段,此阶段干物质和NPK养分累积量分别占收获时累积量的39.6%、50.8%、45.8%、54.6%:第三阶段为累积最快阶段,此阶段干物质和NPK养分累积量分别占收获时累积量的19.5%、20.2%、17.8%、12_3%;第四阶段为缓慢累积阶段.此阶段干物质、P素还有一个显著累积,但N、K累积量已很少.2、叶片、茎、根、果柄干物质和NPK养分累积量在见红期以前是随着菠萝果实生长而逐步增加,在果实发育中后期逐步下降,而果实和芽十物质和NPK养分累积量从果实发育至收获是逐步增加的.

  5. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM PAULOWNIA PLANT LEAVES AND THEIR PLANTLET REGENERATIONS%不同种泡桐叶片愈伤组织诱导及其植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范国强; 翟晓巧; 刘心诚; 蒋建平

    2002-01-01

    在确定5种泡桐叶片诱导愈伤组织基本培养基为MS的基础上,筛选出了毛泡桐(Paulownia tomentosa)、南方泡桐(Paulownia australis)、白花泡桐(Paulownia fortunei)、兰考泡桐(Paulownia elongata)和豫杂一号泡桐(P.tomentosa×P. fortunei)叶片愈伤组织诱导的最适培养基(分别为MS+0.5NAA+4BA、MS+0.3NAA+2BA、MS+0.5NAA+4BA、MS+0.3NAA+6BA和MS+0.3NAA+8BA),然后,从18个不同浓度NAA和BA组合的MS培养基中,找出了它们叶片愈伤组织诱导芽分化最适培养基(分别为MS+0.3NAA+12 BA、MS+0.3NAA+12 BA、MS+0.5NAA+12 BA、MS+0.5NAA+12 BA和MS+0.7NAA+12 BA),最后,找出了5种泡桐芽诱导根的最适培养基(分别为1/2MS+0.1NAA、1/2MS+0.1NAA、1/2MS、1/2MS+0.3NAA和1/2MS+0.5NAA).这些结果为开展泡桐基因工程研究和利用不同种泡桐叶片原生质体融合培育泡桐新品种提供了参考.

  6. A Rapid Method for Trace Genomic DNA Extraction from the Tube Plantlets in Citrus microcarpa Bonge%四季桔试管苗基因组DNA微量提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩牙琴; 林琳; 赖钟雄

    2007-01-01

    本试验以四季桔试管苗为试材,进行基因组DNA微量、快速提取方法的研究.结果表明:采用改良CTAB法,仅需20mg样品、2.5h就能获得高纯度、高质量的DNA,这是目前木本植物样品量最小的DNA提取方法;提取的DNA能直接被限制性内切酶BamH Ⅰ酶切,也能进行PCR扩增,可用于进一步的分子生物学研究.

  7. Callus Induction and Plantlet Regeneration of Stem Segments of Dianthus caryophyllus%康乃馨茎段愈伤组织诱导及植株再生(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小维; 黄海泉; 刘飞虎

    2005-01-01

    以康乃馨无菌苗茎段为外植体,在MS+6-BA0.5mg/L+NAA0.2mg/L培养基上诱导产生愈伤组织,愈伤组织在MS+6-BA0.5mg/L+NAA0.2mg/L培养基上诱导芽效果较好,芽苗在1/2MS+NAA0.1mg/L培养基上可诱导生根.

  8. 散斑肖万寿竹的组织培养与植株再生%Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Disporopsis aspera(Hua)Engl.ex Krause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋天仪; 石大兴; 王米力; 王春婷

    2007-01-01

    1植物名称散斑肖万寿竹[Disporopsisaspera(Hua)Engl.ex Krause],又名散斑竹根七。2材料类别带节茎段3培养条件诱导培养基:(1)MS+6-BA1.5mg.L-1(单位下同)+2,4-D0.5+NAA0.05;增殖培养基:(2)MS+6-BA2+NAA0.1;

  9. Study on Cutting Technology of Melaleuca alternifolia plantlet Shoot via Tissue Culture%互叶白千层组培苗嫩梢扦插育苗技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡乙东; 曾巧如; 林晓萍; 何旭君; 张华通

    2006-01-01

    文章以经筛选的互叶白千层组培苗8~13 cm的嫩梢作为插穗,研究了基质、季节、木质化程度、材料来源和生根促进剂浓度等对穗条生根率的影响.结果表明:采用组培苗半木质化嫩梢作插穗,用含1 000 mg/kg IBA的生根粉处理插穗基部,于春季(4月初)扦插于珍珠岩:黄心土:泥炭土(1:1:1)的基质上,插穗生根快,平均生根率达92.3%,操作简单,繁殖速度快.

  10. Crescimento in vitro de plântulas de batata em diferentes doses de cádmio In vitro growth of potato plantlets in different doses of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Fabbrin Gonçalves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido, principalmente, às ações antropogênicas, tais como industrialização e uso de insumos na agricultura, os níveis de cádmio têm aumentado em muitos solos agrícolas. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito desse metal no crescimento in vitro de duas cultivares de batata, 'Asterix' e 'Macaca'. Segmentos nodais de plantas previamente estabelecidas in vitro foram submetidos a doses de cádmio de 0 (controle, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500µM em meio de cultivo MS. Avaliou-se o número de raízes aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI dos explantes, o comprimento das raízes e da parte aérea, o número de segmentos nodais e de folhas e a matéria fresca e seca das raízes e da parte aérea aos 22DAI. O cádmio afetou negativamente o crescimento das duas cultivares de batata, demonstrando que ambas são sensíveis a esse metal.Levels of cadmium have been increasing in many agricultural soils mainly due to the anthropogenic actions, such as industrialization and use of inputs in the agriculture. The present research aimed at characterizing the effect of this metal on in vitro growth of two potato cultivars, 'Asterix' and 'Macaca'. Nodal segments of plants previously in vitro established were submitted to cadmium concentration of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500µM in MS. Number of roots was evaluated at 15 days after inoculation (DAI of the explants, and root and shoot length, number of nodal segments and leaves, and fresh and dry mass of roots and shoot were evaluated at 22DAI. Cadmium negatively affected the growth of the two potato cultivars, demonstrating that both are sensible to this metal.

  11. 马铃薯脱毒小薯雾培结薯特点及增产效果%Features of Potato Tuberization and Effect of Minituber Yield Increase from in Vitro Virus-Free Plantlets by Aeroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元军; 孙慧生; 王培伦; 马伟青; 李广存; 董道峰; 王毅

    2002-01-01

    采用草炭+蛭石双层基质无土栽培和自动控制槽式喷雾栽培两种模式进行马铃薯脱毒小薯结薯数量及小薯质量分布比较,同期定植,结果表明70 d生长期内前者每株匍匐茎数量为15条,膨大成薯5.7个,后者匍匐茎数量为97条,膨大成薯76个,分别是前者的6.5倍和13.3倍.槽式雾培较基质无土栽培可显著提高脱毒小薯的繁殖系数.

  12. Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Paris polyphylla Smith var.yunnanensis(Franch.)Hand.-Mazz.%云南重楼的组织培养与植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽云; 陈翠; 吕丽芬; 袁理春

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1植物名称云南重楼[Paris polyphylla Smith vaY.yunnanensis(Franch.)Hand.-Mazz.]. 2材料类别芽. 3培养条件愈伤组织诱导培养基:(1)MS+6-BA 2 mg·L-1(单位下同)+NAA 0.1;愈伤组织增殖和分化培养基:(2)MS+6-BA 2+NAA 0.5+KT 0.5;生根培养基:(3)I/2MS+NAA 0.5+IAA 0.5.上述培养基中均附加3%蔗糖和0.7%琼脂,pH 5.8,在121℃下高压灭菌20 min.培养温度控制在(20±2)℃,光照时间8 h·d-1,光照强度20~30μmol·m-2·s-1.

  13. 芦荟芽苗快繁及试管苗栽培驯化研究%A Study on the Rapid Regeneration and Plantlet Cultivation Under in Vitro Culture of Aloe (Aloe vera L.var, Chinensis (haw) Berger)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜勇军; 李惠芝; 祁云枝

    2003-01-01

    以中华斑纹芦荟(Aloe vera L. var.chinensis(Haw.)Berger)为试验材料,研究了芦荟的组织培养、快速繁殖和试管苗驯化及栽培技术.结果表明,短缩茎诱导愈伤组织效果较好.芽苗快速繁殖阶段以MS+6-BA2.0十NAA1.0+Su50g/L为最佳;试管苗栽培驯化中基质以珍珠岩:感石:砂子为1:1:2最佳;活性炭对防止根变态有重要作用.

  14. Effects of Lingfasu on Embryoid and Plantlet Formation of Panax notoginseng in Vitro%灵发素对三七胚状体发生及其成苗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鸿源; 蒙爱东; 李春霞; 邓锡青; 周歧伟; 杨美纯

    2004-01-01

    以MS为基本培养基,加入适量的2,4-D和灵发素(LFS),于暗处培养,三七茎段愈伤组织可诱导出胚状体,2~3个月内发生机率可达90%左右.MS+2,4-D 1.5 mg/L+LFS 2mg/L于光下培养,约有30%以上的胚状体能发育成健壮的全苗.

  15. Study on a rooting inducing culture system for plantlets of two hybrid Rhododendron%两种杜鹃杂交种不定芽生根的培养基配方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴影倩; 耿兴敏; 罗凤霞

    2013-01-01

    以杜鹃杂交种R.simsii×R.mucronatum和R.pulchrum×R.mucronatum组培苗的不定芽为外植体,对基本培养基和蔗糖浓度采用单因子设计,对生长素种类和活性炭采用正交试验,对适宜的生根培养基配方进行了探讨.结果表明:不同的杂交组合适宜不定芽生根的培养基类型、蔗糖浓度及激素组合都有所不同.R.simsii×R.mucronatum的适宜生根培养基为1/2 WPM+ 20 g/L蔗糖+3g/L AC,R.pulchrum×R.mucronatum的合适生根培养基为WPM+ 10 g/L蔗糖+2 mg/L IBA.适宜的移栽基质均为V泥炭∶V蛭石∶V珍珠岩=1∶1∶1.%To optimize a micro propagation of hybrid Rhododendron and improve the efficiency of Rhododendron breeding,In vitro shoots were used as the explants to establish a rooting system for two hybrid Rhododendron(R.simsii × R.mucronatum and R.pulchrum × R.mucronatum).Single factor experiments were used in basic medium and sucrose concentration,orthogonal test was applied to the type of auxin and activated carbon,select the appropriate culture conditions.The results showed that the optimal rooting medium was 1/2 WPM +20 g/L sucrose +3 g/L AC for R.simsii ×R.mucronatum and the optimal rooting medium was WPM + 10 g/L sucrose + 2 mg/L IBA for R.pulchrum × R.mucronatum.Optimal transplanting medium were peat∶ vermiculite∶ perlite =1 ∶ 1 ∶ 1.

  16. EFFECTS OF HORMONES ADDITION FOR IN VITRO PLANT DEVELOPMENT OF CALENDULLA OFFICINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA-CLAUDIA ALEXA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presented in vitro plant development of Calendula officinalis on MS (Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different formula of hormones. The morphogenetic response was evaluated by recording the number of plantlets, the plant height and weight. The results showed that small amounts of hormones can improve the plantlets growth in the case of Calendula officinalis.

  17. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later transplan

  18. [Asepsis sowing and tissue culture of Bletilla striata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Xiangli; Chen, Zhilin; Chen, Jiantong; Duan, Jun

    2004-09-01

    The asepsis sowing and tissue culture of Bletilla striata were studied. The results indicated that the embyro culture had highest sprouting percent and plantlets percent when their embryos were mature. The optimal medium for the embryo culture was 1/2 MS. Adding 10% coconut juice can promote embyros sprouting and plantlets formation, 1% active carbon can improve plantlets growing. The best medium for the top of plantlet on culture and multiplication was 1/2 MS + 6-BA 0.5 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L. The best medium of rooting was 1/2 MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L, and 10% banana juice can improve rooting of plantlets.

  19. In vitro organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Leucosceptrum canum sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A; Banerjee, A; Dhar, K

    1985-10-01

    Plantlets were obtained from leaf explants of a Labiatae tree - Leucosceptrum canum Sm. using plant tissue culture techniques. Two types of calli proliferated from the leaf explants when grown on different media, one of which was amenable to somatic embryogenesis. Differentiation of the embryoids started from the fourth passage of culture and continued up to the seventh passage. The number of embryoids decreased with the age of the callus. The capacity of such embryoids to form entire plantlets was studied using different nutrient mileux. Embryoids formed plantlets on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with benzylaminopurine plus indolebutyric acid. Organogenesis was observed in shoot-buds derived from explants of in vitro regenerated plantlets on MS basal medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine. Culture regenerated plantlets were transferred to MS medium without sucrose and growth hormones; finally transferred to pots containing sterile vermiculite where they are growing.

  20. Effects of PEG-induced Water Stress on Growth and Morphology of Grape (Vitis vinifera) Plantlet in vitro%聚乙二醇引起的水分胁迫下葡萄试管苗的生长和形态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李予霞; 崔百明; 刘升学; 刘彤; 董新平

    2004-01-01

    在PEG引起的水分胁迫下,葡萄试管苗生长发育迟滞,植株节间变短,株高变矮,但根数增加,根变长;新生叶片小而皱缩,气孔指数降低,高浓度PEG(6%)处理的植株叶片上皮细胞排列更紧凑.

  1. BAP e substratos na aclimatização de plântulas de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. provenientes de cultura de tecidos BAP and substrates on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. plantlets from tissue culture acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A gloxínia é uma planta ornamental cultivada pela exoticidade e variação de coloração de suas flores. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência residual da citocinina 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP usada durante a cultura in vitro sobre o processo de aclimatização de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern.. As concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em cultivo in vitro, foram combinadas com os substratos: vermiculita, plantmax® e vermiculita + plantmax®, durante o processo de aclimatização. Após o processo de inoculação in vitro, o material foi transferido para sala de crescimento com temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 35 m mol m² s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, permanecendo nessas condições por 60 dias. Após esse período, as plantas obtidas foram plantadas nos diferentes substratos. As avaliações foram efetuadas após 120 dias, em casa-de-vegetação, registrando-se o número de brotos, peso da matéria fresca do sistema radicular, peso da matéria seca da planta e número de flores. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o cultivo em substrato plantmax® ou plantmax�� + vermiculita advinda de meio de cultura in vitro isento de BAP.The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP used in acclimatization of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. Concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in vitro and substrates (vermiculite, plantmax®, and vermiculite+plantmax® were tested for acclimatization in every possible combination. After in vitro inoculation, the material was transferred to a growth chamber with temperature of 26±1ºC and light intensity of 35 m mol m-2 s-1 for 16 hours, remaining under these conditions for 60 days. After that period, the plants obtained were transferred to pots containing substrates in a greenhouse. The evaluations were performed 120 days after cultivation. It were measured number of shoots, roots dry weight, above-ground dry weight, and number of flowers. On acclimatization, the best results for the variables were obtained with the use of the substrate Plantmax® or Plantmax®+vermiculite for plants originated from culture tissue.

  2. Studies of Illuminace on Growth Characteristics of Sugar-free Micropropagation with Liquid Culture in Open-space of Chrysanthemum Plantlets%光照强度对大空间液体培养无糖菊花组培苗生长特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋越冬; 马明建

    2009-01-01

    在自行研制的大空间组培苗栽培系统内测定了光照强度对液体培养的无糖菊花组培苗生长的影响.结果表明:增加光照对无糖菊花组培苗的生长有促进作用,当光照强度为5 500~6 500 lx时,对菊花组培苗的生长最为适宜.

  3. Plant Regeneration from Corm Segments and Evaluations on Physiological and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Plantlets of Red Bud Taro%红芽芋球茎片两步法离体快繁及其再生苗生理和光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹明华; 洪森荣; 王艾平; 林国卫; 柯维忠; 易雪梅; 叶志康; 黄丽; 余琪

    2015-01-01

    以江西铅山红芽芋(Colocasia esculenta L.Schott var.cormosus‘ Hongyayu’)试管苗为材料,建立了芋球茎片两步法离体快繁体系,并对其再生苗的形态指标、染色体数目、生理和光合特性以及叶绿素荧光特性进行了检测.结果表明:(1)红芽芋球茎片单芽诱导的最佳培养基为MS+KT 2 mg/L+6-BA 1 mg/L+NAA0.1 mg/L,诱导培养30 d后将单芽从球茎片上分离,再接种到生根培养基(MS +KT2 mg/L +NAA0.1 mg/L)上培养30 d即可形成完整植株,移栽成活率高达98%;(2)由球茎片单芽、丛生芽、不定芽离体快繁获得的红芽芋再生苗在形态指标、叶下表皮气孔参数、染色体数目、生理生化指标以及叶片光合特性参数和叶绿素荧光特性方面均无显著差异.说明红芽芋球茎片两步法离体培养的再生苗繁殖系数高、染色体数目稳定,该离体快繁体系可应用于江西铅山红芽芋的工厂化生产.

  4. The Effect of Plantlet Quality on the Productivity and Agronomic Characteristics of Edible Cactus Opuntia milpa alta Haw (Cactaceae)%米邦塔食用仙人掌种片质量对其菜片产量及农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永强; 向青云; 陈家龙; 王祖泽

    2004-01-01

    对米邦塔食用仙人掌不同规格种片进行标记,定植到田间后,定期进行生长动态观测.结果表明,菜片产量与种片纵横径、厚度呈极显著正相关(相关系数分别为0.6702、0.651、0.6281),菜片产量变化幅度较大.根据贵州食用仙人掌生产实际,初步提出贵州省米邦塔食用仙人掌种苗(种片)质量标准为:种片纵径≥24 cm,横径≥15 cm,厚度≥1.5 cm.该项指标可作为贵州食用仙人掌种片质量参考标准.

  5. 不同继代时间调控棉花愈伤组织褐化死亡和植株再生效率的研究%Different Subculture Time Affects Two Cell Death Peaks in Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓丽; 王志安; 肖娟丽; 张安红; 吴家和

    2013-01-01

      The browning and death of calli would reduce the efficiency of cotton plant regeneration and genetic transformation,and it was pivotal to inhibit the two peaks of browning and death of calli during cotton tissue culture to improve plant regeneration and genetic transformation efficiency. In this study, we analyzed subculture time, browning death degree, regeneration time and regeneration efficiency of calli of " Jihe 713" and " Coker 312" cultivars. The results showed that subculture time was able to regulate two peaks of browning and death of calli. To take an extended subculture time during the first PCD peak, subculture time interval 50 d can significantly reduce callus browning and death, increase the rate of callus embryogenesis and shorten the time of embryogenesis. To Take a shortened time of subculture during the second PCD peak, subculture interval 15d can significantly reduce the degree of browning and death, thereby increasing the plant regeneration rate and reducing the regeneration time of the plants. Regulation browning and death by callus subculture time will significantly improve the efficiency of genetic transformation in two cotton varieties, so as to help the gene function and genomics research in cotton.%  棉花组织培养中愈伤组织褐化常常严重影响植株再生的效率,如何解决棉花组织培养过程中愈伤组织和胚性愈伤组织首次继代的两次褐化死亡高峰,是关系到是否能够大幅度提高棉花植株再生和遗传转化效率的关键因素之一。本研究分析了冀合713和珂字312两品种愈伤组织的继代时间与褐化死亡程度、植株再生时间和再生率,结果表明继代时间对棉花愈伤组织两次褐化死亡高峰存在着显著调控作用。在第一次高峰发生时延长继代时间间隔到50 d,可以显著降低愈伤组织继续褐化死亡,提高胚性愈伤组织的发生率和缩短胚胎发生时间。在第二次高峰发生时缩短继代时间间隔为15 d,可以显著降低愈伤组织褐化死亡程度,从而增加植株再生率和缩短植株再生时间。通过继代时间间隔的调控,有助于提高两个棉花品种的转化效率,为棉花基因功能验证和功能基因组研究提供了保证。

  6. Acclimatization of in Vitro-derived Dendrobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful ex vitro establishment of Dendrobium plantlets raised in vitro determines the quality of the end product (cut flowers or potted plants in commercial production for economic gain. When in vitro Dendrobium plantlets are transplanted from the culture room to greenhouse conditions, they may desiccate or wilt rapidly and can die as a result of changes in the environment, unless substantial precautions are taken to adapt plantlets to a new environment. The acclimatization of in vitro-grown Dendrobium plantlets to an ex vitro environment by gradually weaning them towards ambient relative humidity and light levels facilitates better survival of young and physiologically sensitive plantlets. Dendrobium plantlets raised in vitro must thus undergo a period of acclimatization or transitional development to correct anatomical abnormalities and to enhance their physiological performance to ensure survival under ex vitro conditions. The most common approach to improve the survival of Dendrobium plantlets upon transfer to an ex vitro environment is their gradual adaptation to that environment. Under such conditions, plants convert rapidly from a heterotrophic or photomixotrophic state to an autotrophic growth, develop a fully functional root system, and better control their stomatal and cuticular transpiration. Gradual adaptation is carried out in a greenhouse by decreasing relative humidity using fog or mist chambers and by increasing light intensity using shading techniques. This review details the acclimatization and ex vitro survival of Dendrobium plants produced in vitro. This advice is also useful for other orchids.

  7. PATTERN OF ROOTING AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF SOME SPECIES OF INSECTICIDAL AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE AS AFFECTED BY GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi, E.A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of promoting substances on bud retention, rooting and plantlets survival of rooted cuttings on selected tree species using growth promoting substances. Stem cuttings were treated with rooting-promoting substances, planted in plastic pots filled with top soil and arranged using a completely randomized design (CRD in a screen house. Stem cuttings of pepper fruit, guava, bush mango and cashew were obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The experiments were conducted in 2010. The effects of growth promoting substances namely indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA applied 50 µM concentration and coconut water (50% dilution were evaluated on adventitious root formation, shoot growth (bud retention and survival of plantlets of hard- to semi-hardwood cuttings of tested tree species. The effects of growth promoting substances were significant on emergence of plantlets (rooting, growth and survival of plantlets. Number of sprouts (plantlets produced were highest in guava and pepper fruit followed by bush mango and cashew. The cuttings from guava and pepper fruit treated with coconut water and NAA promoted the survival of plantlets. Coconut water and NAA were found better than IBA and IAA in terms of bud retention and rooting, leaf development and survival of plantlets. In most of the tested species, wilting of leaves commenced 6 weeks after planting (WAP and attained 100% mortality thereafter except for pepper fruit cuttings dipped in coconut water. The treatments modified the rooting response among species by promoting percentages of rooting, reduction in bud abscission and plantlet survival. The results affirmed the possibility of propagating plantlets from stem cuttings of the tested species using growth promoting substances.

  8. Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

    1993-02-01

    Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks).

  9. Tissue Culture Responses from Different Explants of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-hong; SHI Xiang-yuan; WU Xian-jun

    2005-01-01

    Different culture explants, including anther, young panicle, young embryo, and mature embryo, from 19 rice varieties were used for callus induction and green plantlet differentiation. The culture efficiency differed significantly among the four types of explants, and varied from genotype to genotype. Callus induction frequency presented significantly positive correlation each between anther and young panicle, anther and mature embryo, and young panicle and young embryo. Green plantlet differentiation showed no relationship between different types of explants. In addition, no relationship was found between callus induction frequency and green plantlet differentiation frequency.

  10. 78 FR 37481 - Consolidation of Permit Procedures; Denial and Revocation of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... materials, and coffee. The regulations in 7 CFR part 322 prohibit or restrict the importation of honeybees..., including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen, a shrub, a vine, a cutting, a graft, a scion...

  11. Title: Effect of abiotic stress on reduction of microbial contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERI

    Banana is an important group of plants that provides millions of ... inoculated media with explants were incubated in the growth room at 25±2°C ... penetration of natural light. Irrigation .... during multiplication of plantlets under artificial medium.

  12. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... The rooted plants were transplanted to pots for hardening. Key words: .... Plant regeneration in neem was reported ..... induce shoot differentiation and complete plantlet development ... Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 34: 13-18.

  13. Physiological responses by Billbergia zebrina (Bromeliaceae) when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... Reduced photosynthetic ability (Shin et al., 2013), and plant survival and ... induced anatomical plantlet leaf disorders and that these disorders had a ..... metabolism and photosynthetic pigments during in vitro growth and.

  14. Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... software (Lynnon Biosoft). Construction of expression ... Green plantlets that differentiated on selection media were rapid propagated ... were determined by normative method (ISO 5509-1978, ISO 5508-. 1990, ISO 659-1988) ...

  15. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-24

    Mar 24, 2014 ... production of doubled haploids with the ultimate objective of introducing ... roles in cassava breeding: (1) rescue plantlets from the younger fruits ..... embryo development in reciprocal crosses of wheat and barley. Euphytica ...

  16. Propagation of Gladiolus corms and cormels: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... of Gladiolus plantlets using different media by using various explants sources of the plant. However, ... Poland, Bulgaria, Brazil, India, Australia and Israel. In the ... an estimated annual sale of more than 370 million corms.

  17. MICRO PROPAGATION OF WORMWOOD ( Artemisia annua L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapies (ACT) for treating malaria fever. Ferreira et al., ... morphological and physiological processes, including cell division ... resistance is artemisinin based combination therapy. (ACT). .... B=Sub cultured plantlet with stem emerging. . B.

  18. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    multiplication of tissue culture potato plantlets. F. Nuwagira1,3, S.B. ... are genotype dependant. The use of higher .... hormonal combinations and the interaction showed no ..... PhD Thesis, ... Environment and Industrial Innovation. Volume 12.

  19. Obtention of in vitro Haploid Plants From in situ Induced Haploid Embryos in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In this study the obtention of in vitro haploid plants from haploid embryos induced by pollination with irradiated pollen was investigated. The haploid embryos of four cucumber genotypes obtained in different season of the year were cultured on the E20A medium under aseptic condition in 1992-1994. The percentage of embryos that turned into plantlets, duration needed for plant formation, and in situ plantlet development were investigated. Also, the micropropagation possibility with clonning an...

  20. In vitro germination and propagation of a threatened medicinal orchid, Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. through artificial seed

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeti Pradhan; Babulal Tiruwa; Bijay Raj Subedee; Bijaya Pant

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro germination and plantlet regeneration from artificial seeds of Cymbidium aloifolium (C. aloifolium), a highly threatened medicinal orchid of Nepal. Methods: Artificial seeds were produced in vitro by encapsulation of protocorms with 4% sodium alginate and 0.2 mol/L calcium chloride solution. In vitro germination and plantlet regeneration of the artificial seeds were tested by culturing them on different strength of Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid media (0.2...

  1. In vitro cultivation of grape culture under solid-state lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Kurilčik, Anželika; Miklušytė-Čanova, Renata; Žilinskaitė, Silva; Dapkūnienė, Stasė; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Kurilčik, Genadij; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2007-01-01

    We report on the influence of illumination spectrum on grape morphogenesis. The plantlets were cultivated in vitro using an illumination system based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Four groups of LEDs emitting in red (at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm), blue (450 nm), and far-red (735 nm) were exploited and the ratios of the photon flux densities (PFDs) of these spectral components were maintained at selected values. The plantlets were simultaneously cultivated in five growth modules,...

  2. Propagation of Sedum spectabile Boreau in Leaf Culture in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiqin YANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient protocol was established for Sedum spectabile Boreau propagation. Various leaf parts were used as explants to regenerate plantlets, the stem segments of which were cultured for shoot proliferation and plantlet multiplication. The results showed that the leaf base was the optimal explant, as compared to both the middle and the top of leaves, for shoot formation. The highest shoot induction of 88.9% was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.6 mg/l TDZ and 0.1 mg/l NAA. Hyperhydric leaves obtained in primary culture developed first into abnormal somatic embryos 10 days after subculture, and then into hyperhydric plantlets after an additional 10 days. The hyperhydric plantlets reversed to normal plantlets when plant growth regulators were removed from culture medium. Further, stem segments from reversed plantlets were used for shoot regeneration and root induction. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in MS medium containing 0.6 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Root induction and root mean number were all higher on auxin-free medium than on medium containing auxins.

  3. Evolution of asexual reproduction in leaves of the genus Kalanchoë.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcês, Helena M P; Champagne, Connie E M; Townsley, Brad T; Park, Soomin; Malhó, Rui; Pedroso, Maria C; Harada, John J; Sinha, Neelima R

    2007-09-25

    Plant somatic cells have the remarkable ability to regenerate an entire organism. Many species in the genus Kalanchoë, known as "mother of thousands," develop plantlets on the leaf margins. Using key regulators of organogenesis (STM) and embryogenesis (LEC1 and FUS3) processes, we analyzed asexual reproduction in Kalanchoë leaves. Suppression of STM abolished the ability to make plantlets. Here, we report that constitutive plantlet-forming species, like Kalanchoë daigremontiana, form plantlets by coopting both organogenesis and embryogenesis programs into leaves. These species have a defective LEC1 gene and produce nonviable seed, whereas species that produce plantlets only upon stress induction have an intact LEC1 gene and produce viable seed. The latter species are basal in the genus, suggesting that induced-plantlet formation and seed viability are ancestral traits. We provide evidence that asexual reproduction likely initiated as a process of organogenesis and then recruited an embryogenesis program into the leaves in response to loss of sexual reproduction within this genus.

  4. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  5. Colchicine effect on the DNA content and stomata size of Glycyrrhiza glabra var.glandulifera and Carthamus tinctorius L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Moghbel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro induction of polyploids using colchicine causes an increase in DNA content in plants. This is of high importance especially for plants that have medicinal and commercial values. Seeds of two medicinal plants, licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var.glandulifera and safflower Carthamus tinctorius were treated with different concentrations of colchicine, 0%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.08%, 0.1% (W/V in vitro for 24 and 48 h. Treated seeds then were cultured on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS media under controlled conditions. After a month, the length of the stomata was measured to study the effect of colchicine on stomata size. Cellular DNA content of the regenerated plants was measured by spectrophotometry. Flow cytometry was used for confirming the results obtained from stomata size measurement and spectrophotometry. Results suggested that treated plants have a fair amount of larger stomata, significantly in licorice plantlets that were treated with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and safflower plantlets that were treated with 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.1% colchicine. Safflower DNA content in all treatments enhanced significantly, but in licorice only DNA content of plantlets that were treated with 0.05% colchicine for 24 h and 0.1%, 0.03% colchicine for 48 h found to be increased significantly. The morphological features of treated plantlets such as shoot and leaf thickness were found to be increased. Flow cytometry confirmed the previously mentioned results and suggested tetraploids in all treated safflower plantlets and licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.08% of colchicine and mixoploids in licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.1% of colchicine.

  6. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  7. Truncation of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 protein is required for asexual reproduction in Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcês, Helena M P; Koenig, Daniel; Townsley, Brad T; Kim, Minsung; Sinha, Neelima R

    2014-05-01

    Kalanchoë daigremontiana reproduces asexually by generating numerous plantlets on its leaf margins. The formation of plantlets requires the somatic initiation of organogenic and embryogenic developmental programs in the leaves. However, unlike normal embryogenesis in seeds, leaf somatic embryogenesis bypasses seed dormancy to form viable plantlets. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), seed dormancy and embryogenesis are initiated by the transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1). The K. daigremontiana ortholog of LEC1 is expressed during leaf somatic embryo development. However, KdLEC1 encodes for a LEC1-type protein that has a unique B domain, with 11 unique amino acids and a premature stop codon. Moreover, the truncated KdLEC1 protein is not functional in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that K. daigremontiana transgenic plants expressing a functional, chimeric KdLEC1 gene under the control of Arabidopsis LEC1 promoter caused several developmental defects to leaf somatic embryos, including seed dormancy characteristics. The dormant plantlets also behaved as typical dormant seeds. Transgenic plantlets accumulated oil bodies and responded to the abscisic acid biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, which broke somatic-embryo dormancy and promoted their normal development. Our results indicate that having a mutated form of LEC1 gene in K. daigremontiana is essential to bypass dormancy in the leaf embryos and generate viable plantlets, suggesting that the loss of a functional LEC1 promotes viviparous leaf somatic embryos and thus enhances vegetative propagation in K. daigremontiana. Mutations resulting in truncated LEC1 proteins may have been of a selective advantage in creating somatic propagules, because such mutations occurred independently in several Kalanchoë species, which form plantlets constitutively.

  8. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  9. Comparison between grafting and cutting as vegetative propagation methods for conilon coffee plants - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.16917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul de Andrade Júnior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the growth of conilon coffee tree plantlets that were propagated by grafting and cutting. The experiment was conducted at the plantlet production site of Incaper’s Experimental Farm in the city of Marilândia, Espírito Santo State. For grafting, plantlets derived from the seed propagation of Coffea canephora cv. Robusta Tropical (ENCAPER 8151 were used as rootstocks, and six clones of cv. Conilon Vitória (INCAPER 8142 were used as the grafts. The cutting was performed with six clones that were used for grafting. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks of twelve treatments with five repetitions composed of twelve plantlets. On the hundred and fifth day, the averages of the variables were assessed and compared by the Scheffé test at a probability of 5%. The grafted plantlets were superior for almost all of the characteristics assessed, which suggests that it is possible to propagate conilon coffee trees.

  10. Vitis vinifera secondary metabolism as affected by sulfate depletion: diagnosis through phenylpropanoid pathway genes and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Vesentini, Damiano; Fernandes, João Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Laureano, Olga; Ricardo-Da-Silva, Jorge M; Amâncio, Sara

    2013-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is rich in phenylpropanoid compounds, namely flavonoids and stilbenes which, present in most tissues, are described as antioxidants and known to accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Grapevine is then a choice model for studying the interplay between the phenylpropanoid pathway and nutrient deficiency. Here we report the response to sulfur deficiency (-S) of flavonoids and stilbenes biosynthetic pathways in chlorophyll tissues (plantlets) and cell culture. Anthocyanins and trans-resveratrol accumulated in plantlets and trans-resveratrol glucoside in cell cultures in response to sulfur deficiency, while a significant decrease in chlorophyll was observed in -S plantlets. The up-regulation of chalcone synthase gene and the downstream flavonoid biosynthesis genes dihydroflavonol reductase and anthocyanidin synthase matched the accumulation of anthocyanins in -S V. vinifera plantlets. The mRNA level of stilbene synthase gene(s) was correlated tightly with the increase in trans-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol glucoside levels, respectively in -S plantlets and cell cultures. As a whole, the present study unveil that V. vinifera under sulfur deficiency allocates resources to the phenylpropanoid pathway, probably consecutive to inhibition of protein synthesis, which can be advantageous to resist against oxidative stress symptoms evoked by -S conditions.

  11. PEMBENTUKAN UMBI LAPIS MIKRO DUA KULTIVAR BAWANG MERAH (ALLIUM CEPA VAR. AGGREGATUM GROUP PADA BEBERAPA KONSENTRASI SUCCUNIC ACID DAMINOZIDE HYDRAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Dinarti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study shallot bulb formation on few concentrations of growth retardant succinic acid daminozid hydrazide (SAOH. Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors were used in this experiment. The first factor was four concentrations of SAOH (0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm and second was two cultivars of shallot (Bima Juna and Kuning Tablet. The cultivars did not give significant effect to total number of leaf, shoot, root, number and weight of bulb, diameter of bulb, and height of plantlets. While SADH concentrations gave very significant effect to number of leaf, but not significant to number of root, number and weight of bulb, diameter of bulb and height of plantlets. Combinations of the two factors only gave significant effect to number of leaf and shoot but not significant to number of root, number and weight of bulb and height of plantlets

  12. RESEARCH INTO THE INFLUENCE OF PHYTOHORMONES UPON THE GROWTH "IN VITRO" AT SEVERAL VARIETIES OF GREENHOUSE CARNATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRISTEAN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After using treatments with seven phytohormones on four varieties of greenhouse carnations (Caribe, Red Corso, Nelson, Francesca it was discovered that AIA and GA3 hormones stimulated the growth in height of the plantlets; GA3, AIA and NAA promoted the growth of the internodes, but the highest medium number of internodes per plantlet was registered after using treatments with NAA and AIA hormones. The concentration level of phytohormones used in the experiment also influenced the stimulating effects of these hormones over the characteristics that we watched closely. Treatments with BAP and KIN had the weakest influence, determining only a slight growth in height of the Caribe plantlets and almost not at all at other varieties.

  13. Pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. pérola ex vitro growth and mycorrhizal colonization affected by in vitro sucrose concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sucrose concentration in the culture medium on growth and on the establishment of mycorrhizas during the acclimatization of pineapple cv. Pérola. The plantlets were micropropagated in MS culture medium with 0, 10, 20 and 30 g L-1 of sucrose and then they were acclimatized during 12 weeks under greenhouse conditions, in a sandy soil - compost mixture, uninoculated or inoculated with a Rhizophagus clarus isolate. Plantlets from the culture medium with 20 g and 30 g of sucrose L-1 showed higher shoot and root biomass than those from sugar-free medium. Mycorrhizal colonization was lower in plantlets micropropagated in sucrose-free medium, but the intensity of arbuscules did not differ among treatments. In the 12-week period of acclimatization, mycorrhizal colonization had no effect on plant biomass.

  14. Study on Young Panicle Culture in vitro From Wild Rice of Different Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Researches have been made on young panicle culture in vitro from wild rice of different genomes.Main results are as follows: 1. The induction frequencies of young panicle cultured in vitro from wild rice varied largely a relation to its genome. The optimal induction period of callus is the stamen and pistil differentiation stage of young panicle development. 2. Plantlets were regenerated through two ways: first, culture method, the induced calli were transferred onto differentiation medium; second, regenerate plantlets directly from young panicles of wild rice that were cultured on the differentiation medium. 3. The regeneration rate of green plantlets that obtained through cryopreservated calli in O. meyeriana was 10 times higher than that of control.

  15. In-Vitro Seed Germination and Effect of Growth Regulators on Subsequent Development of Protocorms of Eulophia Nuda Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dawande

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymbiotic seed germination of Eulophia nuda Lindl. was observed on Knudson C medium. About 90% seeds germinated within 8-10 weeks and formed green protocorms in 11-12 weeks. Effect of BA and IBA was studied on plantlet development from protocorms. BA shows the best results with respect to number and length of shoots. Maximum number (6.45±1.36 and length (3.90±0.99 was observed on MS medium supplemented with 4.44μM.BA. Maximum root growth was also observed on same medium (4.8±0.99 number of roots and 1.43±0.13cm length. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to earthen pots. The results presented here show that in vitro seed germination and plantlet development in Eulophia nuda Lindl., an endangered orchid, can be achieved at a higher rate by this method.

  16. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  17. Micropropagation of Malaxis acuminata D. Don: A Rare Orchid of High Therapeutic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration potential of pseudobulb segments of Malaxis acuminata, procured from in vitro grown cultures, was analysed in Mitra et al., 1976 medium and its combinations with growth adjuncts. Juvenility of the tissues and chemical stimulus emerged as important factors in eliciting response in the explants. The explants from relatively older pseudobulbs (greater than 0.5cm in length remained recalcitrant to regeneration whereas those representing younger ones (less than 0.5cm in length responded positively. The response frequency, pathway of regeneration, and time taken for their development into complete plantlets was directly related to the growth stimulus in the nutrient regime. Shoot buds were induced in an individual treatment with growth regulators (BAP/NAA; 1mg L-1 each whereas their combination [BAP (1.0 mg L-1 + NAA (1.0 mg L-1] promoted protocorm-like body formation in the explants. Additional activated charcoal invariably proved beneficial in accelerating the morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet development. NAA (1 mg L-1 impaired the response frequency and delayed subsequent morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet development. BAP+NAA (1.0 mg L-leach+AC (2 g L-1 was used best for early initiation, highest regeneration frequency, proliferation of protocorm-like bodies (PLB, and plantlet development. Plantlets were transferred to clay pots containing potting mixture (sand, soil, leaf compost in the ratio of 1:1:1. Nearly 70-80% of plantlets survival was recorded. Histological investigation confirmed that neoformations were dermal and multicellular in origin.

  18. GAMMA RADIATION EFFECT ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITY IN HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. AND ECHINACEA PURPUREA L., MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Artenie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we were focused on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in Hypericum perforatum L and Echinacea purpurea L., Moench plantlets, obtained from seeds irradiated with gamma rays before germination.Total activity as well as specific activity of SOD in Hypericum perforatum L. plantlets shows an inhibition, which becames higher at higher irradiation doses. For Echinacea purpurea L. species, gamma radiation shows a slowly stimulative effect of total activity of SOD for some of the higher doses, but the specific enzyme activity is inhibated for all irradiation doses applyed on non-germinated irradiated seeds.

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated GUS gene transfer to Sophora japonica L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-ying; Wang Hua-fang; Yin Wei-lun; Zhu Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Sophorajaponica was standardized using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 that harbored the binary vector pBI121 containing genes for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransterase (npt Ⅱ). S. japonica transformants were selected by the ability of the leaf explants to produce kanamycin-resistant calli that regenerated into kanamycin-resistant plantlets. Successful transformation was confirmed by histochemical assay for GUS activity, PCR analysis and Southern blot. The period of nearly two months was required for the regeneration of transgenic plantlets from the explants. The transformed plants resembled their parents in morphology.

  20. Leaf and root volatiles produced by tissue cultures of Alpinia zerumbet (pers. Burtt & Smith under the influence of different plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles produced by plantlets of Alpinia zerumbet were obtained by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE. The effects of indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, thidiazuron and 6-benzylaminopurine on leaf and root volatile composition obtained by tissue cultures were investigated. A higher content of b-pinene and a lower content of sabinene were observed in leaf volatile of plantlets cultured in control, IAA and IAA+ TDZ media, as compared with those of donor plants. In vitro conditions were favorable to increase caryophyllene content. Volatile compounds from the root were characterized mainly by camphene, fenchyl-acetate and bornyl acetate; which constitute about 60% of total volatile.

  1. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryo explant of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. washington and honey dew).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, J; Khuspe, S S; Renukdas, N N; Rawal, S K

    2002-05-01

    Immature zygotic embryo explants of Carica papaya were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2.0 mg/l) and formed globular embryos on explants without callus formation in 4-6 weeks. Maturation and conversion of somatic embryos was also achieved on the same medium. Cotyledonary stage embryos germinated to 63.66 and 68.33% in cv. honey dew and washington respectively in MS basal medium supplemented ABA (0.5 microm/l). Robust development and proliferation of plantlet roots in vitro was obtained on MS basal medium. Hardened plantlets have 60% survival rate.

  3. A transgenic wheat with a stilbene synthase gene resistant to powdery mildew obtained by biolistic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Stilbene, a kind of phytoalexin, plays an important role in resistance to fungal and bacterial infection in plants. It strongly inhibits the growth of fungi and sprout of spore. Stilbene synthase gene (Vst1) obtained from grapevine has been transferred into common spring wheat Jinghong 5 by using the biolistic transformation method. Five transgenic plants (T0) were obtained from the bombarded 2014 immature embryos. One immune plantlet and 3 plantlets with mid-resistance to powdery mildew were identified from the transgenic plants of T3 generation which came from 2 T0 transgenic plants.

  4. Improved genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernández, Rubén; Ordás, Ricardo-Javier

    2012-01-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees has been established. Leaf-derived somatic embryos in an early stage of development are inoculated with an AGL1 strain harboring a kanamycin-selectable plasmid carrying the gene of interest. The transformed embryos are induced to germinate and the plantlets transferred to soil. This protocol, from adult cork oak to transformed plantlet, can be completed in about one and a half years. Transformation efficiencies (i.e., percentage of inoculated explants that yield independent transgenic embryogenic lines) vary depending on the cork oak genotype, reaching up to 43%.

  5. Somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plants in the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, I U; Ramanuja Rao, I V; Narang, V

    1985-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis leading to plant regeneration has been achieved in the bamboo, Dendrocalamus strictus, by culturing seeds (caryopses) on B5 basal medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Callus cultures obtained from the embryonal end of the seeds differentiated chlorophyllous embryoids. On transfer to a germination medium (B5 liquid, sucrose, indolebutyric acid, and ∝ -naphthaleneacetic acid) 40% of the embryoids developed into plantlets. Further development of the plantlets occured on B5 liquid medium (half strength) + sucrose (1%) + IBA (5 × 10(-7)M) + NAA (10(-7)M).

  6. Plant regeneration of Sapindus trifoliatus L. (soapnut) through somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, H V; Bhatt, P N; Mehta, A R

    1986-06-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and subsequent formation of plantlets was obtained from callus cultures derived from leaves of mature (over 60years old) Soapnut (Sapindus trifoliatus L.) tree. Callus was induced from leaf explants and grown on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin. Reduction of 2,4-D concentration during subsequent subcultures resulted in formation of embryoids. These embryoids developed further when transferred to a medium containing benzylaminopurine and kinetin and then to a hormone-free medium. Unless 5-methyl tryptophan was added and the level of sucrose raised, the embryoids began to recallus and failed to form plantlets.

  7. In vitro production of M. × piperita not containing pulegone and menthofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Leonardi, Michele; Krzyzanowska, Justyna; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pistelli, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) and static headspaces (HSs) of in vitro plantlets and callus of Mentha x piperita were characterized by GC-MS analysis. Leaves were used as explants to induce in vitro plant material. The EO yields of the in vitro biomass were much lower (0.1% v/w) than those of the parent plants (2% v/w). Many typical mint volatiles were emitted by the in vitro production, but the callus and in vitro plantelet EOs were characterized by the lack of both pulegone and menthofuran. This was an important difference between in vitro and in vivo plant material as huge amounts of pulegone and menthofuran may jeopardise the safety of mint essential oil. Regarding the other characteristic volatiles, menthone was present in reduced amounts (2%) in the in vitro plantlets and was not detected in the callus, even if it represented the main constituent of the stem and leaf EOs obtained from the cultivated mint (26% leaves; 33% stems). The M. piperita callus was characterized by menthol (9%) and menthone (2%), while the in vitro plantlet EO showed lower amounts of both these compounds in favour of piperitenone oxide (45%). Therefore, the established callus and in vitro plantlets showed peculiar aromatic profiles characterized by the lack of pulegone and menthofuran which have to be monitored in the mint oil for their toxicity.

  8. In vitro regeneration of solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), an african vegetable crop with potential ornamental value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful in vitro regeneration of plantlets was obtained from shoot tips of five Solanum aethiopicum (African eggplants) accessions evaluated in two media, M1 and M2. The M1 medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt mixture supplemented with 20 g/L sucrose, 0.75 g/L MgCl2, and 2 g/L ...

  9. The effect of in vitro mycorrhization on growth characteristics, changes in endogenous hormones and performance of microplants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro PARVIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets were inoculated in vitro with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices and their growth response, performance and endogenous hormonal status evaluated. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design consisting of two potato cultivars (Agria and Sante and four culture media was conducted with four replications. The culture media included non-inoculated Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (control, inoculated MS medium, inoculated half-strength MS medium and inoculated MS medium without vitamins and sugar. To do inoculation, germinated spores of fungus were transferred to the root zone of plantlets. Colonization percentage, total chlorophyll content, internodes and stolon length, shoot diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the level of three endogenous hormones (total auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins were determined. In addition, mini-tuber production was assayed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrated that the effect of two factors on all characteristics including mini-tuber production was different significantly. Interaction between cultivar and inoculation systems was significantly associated with endogen auxins as well as all range of mini-tuber production. The inoculated MS medium showed the better results, but it did not have significant difference to half-strength MS in terms of plantlet performance and growing parameters. Responses of both cultivars to inoculation were very conspicuous in the production of endogen hormones. Higher endogen hormone levels were associated with elevated growth parameters, greater biomass production and better plantlet performance.

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    exposing plantlets to daily temperature regime of 32 oC for 8 hr of darkness and 36 oC for ... sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), caused by .... their optimum levels; and 0.1 mg l-1 gibberellic ..... than 32 oC may have created an altered balance.

  11. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  12. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the s

  13. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  14. Micropropagation technology in early phases of commercial seed potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.

    2001-01-01

    Key words:Solanum tuberosum L., in vitro plantlet, in vitro tuberization, microtubers, minitubers, tuber bulking, photoperiod, in vitro storage, jasmonates, micropropagation, seed production. Micropropagation ( in vitro propagation) has been introduced to seed potato productio

  15. Tropic responses of potato single-node explant cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinterhalter D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A special in-vitro protocol was elaborated enabling the production of potato single-node explant plantlets that can be used as objects for tropic studies. In light-grown plantlets, achievement of a full (90° phototropic (PT curvature required 75 to 120 min of continuous unilateral blue light irradiation or 120-135 min of gravitropic stimulation (GT. Time-lapse photography revealed that the curves describing PT and GT bending have a sigmoid shape. Continuous BL irradiation was necessary for the induction of continuous PT bending. If the BL was turned off after 30-50 min of PT stimulation, the bending gradually decreased and stopped in darkness after 25.0 ± 2.0 min. Within this period, curvature increased by 15.5 ± 1.5°. When the BL was turned off upon completion of PT bending (when the plantlets reached an angle of 90°, the plantlets entered the phase of fast straightening. The 90° PT curvature was significantly exaggerated in darkness by turning the jars from a vertical to horizontal position providing 120.74 ± 2.5° as the final curvature angle after two more hours in darkness.

  16. M8-An effective medium for anther culture of indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEIChuansheng; ZHANGJinyu; WuGuangnan

    1992-01-01

    A new dedifferentiation medium (MS) was developed, which greatly improved the efficiency of anther culture of indica rive. The percentage of green plantlets for anthers inoculated on M8 medium was 40% higher than that on N6 medium in 6 cultivars and it was 2.6%, on average, on M8 medium in more than 20 cultivars and lines,

  17. Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... the genetic stability of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets of the cultivars Agria ... detect if there were probably any changes in the level of polyploidy. .... Phor-All buffer (10 mM Tris-HAc pH 7.5, 10 mM MgAc, 50 mM KAc,.

  18. Genetical studies of resistance to Phytophthora porri in Allium porrum, using a new early screening method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, W.D.; Nes, van M.; Reinink, K.; Kik, C.

    1997-01-01

    A new screening method was developed to evaluate resistance of leek (Allium porrum) to Phytophthora porri, based on inoculation by 24 h-immersion of leek plantlets in the 3–6 leaf stage in a suspension of ca. 100 zoospores.ml-1. The immersion test was used for identifying new sources of resistance a

  19. Moss is a key nurse plant for reintroduction of the endangered herb, Primulina tabacum Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Guohua Ma; Qianmei Zhang; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Zhengfeng Wang

    2010-01-01

    The rare and endangered plant Primulina tabacum is a calciphilous perennial herb found only at the entrances of a small number of karst cave drainages in southern China. In a conservation effort, we identified potentially suitable habitats and reintroduced P. tabacum plantlets (propagated in vitro) to one historical and two new cave entrances. The transplanted...

  20. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  1. Effect of yeast extract and chitosan on shoot proliferation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... inhibition of leaf-development in the in vitro plantlets of C. mangga (Figure 1). .... yeast 2.0 yeast 3.5 yeast 5.0. Incubation time (minutes). D. P. P. H fre e rad ic al scave n g in g a .... example of rapid development. Pharmazie.

  2. Optimization of a biolistic transformation system for transfer of antifreeze gene KN2 and the bar herbicide resistance gene in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Sun, D F; Sun, G L

    2014-04-30

    We studied the effects of different media for callus induction and differentiation, and pre-culture period of immature wheat embryo culture on biolistic transformation efficiency for including antifreeze gene KN2 and bar conferring resistance to the herbicide bialaphos. The percentage of plantlets generated from induction and differentiation media without Cu2+ was lower than those cultured on differentiation media with Cu2+ (71.15%) or induction media with Cu2+ (68.45%) and both induction and differentiation media with Cu2+ (52.17%). The combinations of Nor medium for callus induction and Cu2+ medium for regeneration, and Cu2+ medium for induction and R medium for regeneration were superior for biolistic transformation. The calli induced on Cu2+ medium and pre-cultured for 4 d before biolistic transformation, and cultured on R medium after biolistic transformation produced the highest percentage (65%) of transgenic plantlets with the KN2 gene. Overall, about 50% plantlets regenerated from calli pre-cultured 4d before bombardment carried the KN2 gene; 44.7% of the plantlets carried the bar gene, which was higher than for any other treatment, followed by pre-culture 1d with 31.43% transformation rate for the KN2 gene and 20% transformation rate for the bar gene.

  3. Micropropagation technology in early phases of commercial seed potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.

    2001-01-01

    Key words:Solanum tuberosum L., in vitro plantlet, in vitro tuberization, microtubers, minitubers, tuber bulking, photoperiod, in vitro storage, jasmonates,

  4. Reference: 318 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sly described to show developmental defects, changes in lignin composition, and lack of soluble sinapoyl esters...ve to the control, mutant plantlets produce very low amounts of sinapoyl esters, but accumulate flavonol gly...in content (40% reduction) and structure (prominent frequency of p-hydroxyphenyl units), but content in foliar sinapoyl esters

  5. Enhanced regeneration in explants of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... improvement of stress tolerance of crops are primary targets for plant molecular and genetic breeding (Yuasa et al., 2007) ... Abbreviations: CW, Coconut water; IAA, indole acetic acid; .... Rooting of shoots and transfer of plantlets to soil ..... vitro regeneration system in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

  6. Respon Pertumbuhan Planlet Anggrek Dendrobium sp. Melalui Aplikasi Ekstrak Tauge dan Air Kelapa pada Media Organik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HESTIN YUSWANTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Growth Response of Orchid Plantlets of Dendrobium sp. by Aplicación of Bean Sprouts Extract and Coconut Water in Organic Medium The aim of this researh is to obtain the effect of coconut water and bean sprouts extract and the best combination added to organic medium on growth of orchid planlets in vitro. The experiment was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, Udayana University, Pegok Denpasar from Mei until Oktober 2012. The research design was Completely Randomized Design (RAL with ten treatments and six replications. The results of this ezperiment showed that addition of coconut water at concentration of 150 ml/l and bean sprouts extract of 50 ml/l resulted in the best growth of orchid planlet which includes the height of plantlets (4,10 cm, the number of leaf (3,33 leaves, length of root (1,07 cm. The total fresh weight of plantlet was 0,20 g and total oven dry-weight of plantlet was 0,021 g.

  7. Influence of various carbohydrates on the in vitro micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHARD

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... homogenous groups according to Newman and Keuls's range test. (α = 0.05) using .... low rhizogenic plantlets (0.50b ± 0.89 root/plant) with null virtually growth ..... In : Debergh PC and Zimmerman RH, (eds) Micropropagation.

  8. Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

  9. The antioxidant melatonin boosts recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantee safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wor...

  10. A Genetic Approach to the Identification of Plant Genes Involved in Viral Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-30

    fluorouracil ( 5FU ) (CD) when infected with RCNMV. A library of EMS mutants will be generated for Luc- and CD-expressing plant lines. Plantlets from the...lines will be infected with RCNMV and selected for resistance to 5FU . Surviving mutants will be examined for the presence of RCNMV in the inoculated

  11. In Vitro Selection of Abaca for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RULLY DYAH PURWATI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abaca (Musa textilis Nee is an important industrial crop. However, the cultivation of this crop in Indonesia is hampered by Fusarium wilt (Panama disease as a result of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc infection. The objectives of this study were to (i evaluate inhibitory effects of culture filtrates (CF of three Foc isolates (Banyuwangi, Malang, and Bojonegoro isolates on shoot growth of abaca cv. Tangongon and Sangihe-1, (ii determine sublethal concentration of Foc CF, (iii isolate variant cells/tissues which are insensitive against Foc CF and regenerate plantlets from the variants, and (iv evaluate responses of the plantlets against Foc infection. The results of the experiment showed that even though CF of all Foc isolates inhibited abaca’s shoot growth, CF of Foc Banyuwangi isolate showed the most inhibitory effect. Sublethal concentration of CF of Foc Banyuwangi isolate was 40%. From abaca cv. Tangongon, 326 shoots were regenerated from CF insensitive embryogenic calli while from Sangihe-1 - 176 shoots were regenerated. Following acclimatization and Foc inoculation using detached-leaf dual culture test, a total of four immune, two resistant, and two moderately resistant plantlets were identified out of 45 tested variants of Tangongon. On the other hand, only two resistant and one moderately resistant plantlets were identified out of 10 tested variants of Sangihe-1.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF RICE VARIETY BY GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako V. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High growth-rate of plantlet is the integral index of intensity of physiological processes at rice and other cultures. 20 typical plantlets from each of two variants were studded (in the distilled water in thermostat at a temperature 29° C by: length of embryonic root and coleoptile. Comparative analysis of trait characterizing the growth rates of rice varieties showed reliable advantage of Russian ones above the Italian and Chinese. Local varieties, regionalized until the year 2000, exceed new ones on this trait. Highest growth rates were characterized by medium grain samples. The white grain and red grain varieties are excelled other groups on the height of plantlet. Analysis rates of height of plantlets in the distinguished groups showed the necessity of prosecution of improvement of the above enumerated signs at the varieties of late term of ripening, long grain, with Waxy gene, colored grain. We recommend to sow this type of varieties on fields with good leveling, because of low speed of growth

  13. D3.1 Deliverable. GDAR activity on Evaluation of biological active Formulates and strains for the biological control of replant disease

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAK, Suat

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the GDAR activity on evaluation of biological active Formulates and strains for the biological control of apple replant disease. Eleven products were evaluated with a plant growth assay in pot using plantlets of MM104 rootstock to evaluate their effectivenes in controlling Phythophtora cactorum. The trial was perfotrmed with soil artificially inoculated with the pathogen.

  14. Production of Transgenic Anliucheng Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) with Xa21 Gene for Potential Canker Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ding-li; XIAO Xuan; and GUO Wen-wu

    2014-01-01

    Citrus canker, an epidemic quarantine disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, has brought a great damage in citrus production worldwide. Herein, a rice PRR (pattern recognition receptor) gene Xa21 together with GUS reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HPT) was introduced into Anliucheng sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic callus. The transgenic calluses were screened on MT basal medium containing hygromycin (HYG) and detected by histochemical GUS staining. The transgenic plantlets were recovered through somatic embryogenesis pathway. The regenerated plantlets were accustomed to and maintained in the greenhouse. The transgene integration of recovered plantlets was identiifed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. It showed that all the transgenic plantlets tested had undergone single copy integration, the expression of Xa21 in eight different transgenic lines detected by qRT-PCR can be divided into three grades, high for T5 and T6, middle for T4 and low for the rest. The tolerance to citrus canker disease of the three recovered transgenic lines T2, T4 and T6 was assessed by in vitro pin-puncture inoculation. The results showed that all the three transgenic lines conferred improved resistance to citrus canker bacterium infection and the T4 transgenic line displayed the highest resistance. The mechanism and feasibility of rice Xa21 in triggering innate immunity in citrus was brielfy discussed.

  15. Effect of Hg, As and Pb on biomass production, photosynthetic rate, nutrients uptake and phytochelatin induction in Pfaffia glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Huang, H G; Nicoloso, F T; Schetinger, M R; Farias, J G; Li, T Q; Razafindrabe, B H N; Aryal, N; Inouhe, M

    2013-11-01

    Plantlets of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) were exposed for 28 days to three different metal/metalloid (Hg, Pb and As) with different levels (Hg 1; As 25, 50, 100 and Pb 100 and 400 μM) to analyze the possible phytochelatin initiation and affects on growth and photosynthetic pigments vis-à-vis metal accumulation potential of plants. The plantlets showed significant Hg, As and Pb accumulation in roots (150, 1267.67 and 2129 μg g(-1) DW respectively); however, a low root to shoot metal translocation was observed. It was interesting to note that all tested macronutrient (Mg, K, Ca) was higher in shoots and just opposite in case of micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Zn), was recorded highest in roots. The growth of plantlets (analyzed in terms of length and dry weight) was negatively affected by various metal treatments. In addition, the level of photosynthetic pigments alters significantly in response to all metal/metalloid treatment. In response to all tested metal/metalloids in plants only As induced phytochelatins (PC2, PC3 and PC4) in roots, and in shoots, GSH was observed in all tested metal/metalloids. In conclusion, P. glomerata plantlets could not cooperatively induce phytochelatins under any of Hg and Pb levels.

  16. Detection and classification of SPLCV isolates in the U.S. sweetpotato germplasm collection via a real-time PCR assay and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA/ARS sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] germplasm collection contains accessions that were initially collected from various countries worldwide. These materials have been maintained and distributed as in vitro plantlets since the 1980s. The status of viral infection by the emerging Swe...

  17. 7 CFR 301.89-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., inducing or causing to be moved. Person. Any association, company, corporation, firm, individual, joint stock company, partnership, society, or any other legal entity. Plant. Any plant (including any plant part) for or capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen,...

  18. An overview of the potentials of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... Rubber grows well in deciduous rain-forest regions of lowland tropics with temperature ranges of between 21. - 35°C and a well distributed .... In the bark of the rubber tree is a complex network of laticifers, or latex vessels, ... develop into embryo-like structures that go on to form plantlets. MULTIPLYING ...

  19. Protocol for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in Moso Bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Ling; Yue, Jin-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Li; Gu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo [Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel ex J. Houz.) Ohwi] is one of the most important forest crops in China and the rest of Asia. Although many sympodial bamboo tissue culture protocols have been established, there is no protocol available for plantlet regeneration as indicated by callus induction for monopodial bamboos, such as Moso bamboo. In the present report, embryogenic callus induction, embryoid development, and germination were established for Moso bamboo from zygotic seed embryos. Callus was initiated from zygotic embryos after 10-20 d culture on MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L zeatin (ZT). About 50% of the explants produced calli, and nearly 15% of the calli were found to be embryogenic in nature. These embryogenic calli can be subcultured for proliferation in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D. These calli were found to have maintained their capacity for regeneration even after one year of subculture. The viable somatic embryoids regenerated in medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Nearly 5% of the calli were found capable of regenerating into plantlets directly in MS medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Root growth was more pronounced when the plantlets were transferred to medium containing 2.0 mg/L NAA. After 30 days of subculture, the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse.

  20. Protocol for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in Moso Bamboo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo [Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel ex J. Houz. Ohwi] is one of the most important forest crops in China and the rest of Asia. Although many sympodial bamboo tissue culture protocols have been established, there is no protocol available for plantlet regeneration as indicated by callus induction for monopodial bamboos, such as Moso bamboo. In the present report, embryogenic callus induction, embryoid development, and germination were established for Moso bamboo from zygotic seed embryos. Callus was initiated from zygotic embryos after 10-20 d culture on MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L zeatin (ZT. About 50% of the explants produced calli, and nearly 15% of the calli were found to be embryogenic in nature. These embryogenic calli can be subcultured for proliferation in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D. These calli were found to have maintained their capacity for regeneration even after one year of subculture. The viable somatic embryoids regenerated in medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Nearly 5% of the calli were found capable of regenerating into plantlets directly in MS medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Root growth was more pronounced when the plantlets were transferred to medium containing 2.0 mg/L NAA. After 30 days of subculture, the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse.

  1. The 'mother of thousands' (Kalanchoë daigremontiana): a plant model for asexual reproduction and CAM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcês, Helena; Sinha, Neelima

    2009-10-01

    The genus Kalanchoë plays an important role in the investigation of biochemical, physiological and phylogenetic aspects of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in plants, which is an important evolutionary adaptation of the photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway to arid environments. In addition, natural compounds extracted from tissues of Kalanchoë have potential applicability in treating tumors and inflammatory and allergic diseases, and have been shown to have insecticidal properties. Kalanchoë daigremontiana (Hamet & Perrier) originated in Madagascar and reproduces asexually by spontaneously forming whole plantlets on leaves. Plantlets develop symmetrically along the leaf margins on leaf notches, closely resembling zygotic embryos in development, and once the root system is formed, they detach from the mother-leaf, fall to the ground, and grow into new plants. This phenomenon is also found in other species from this same genus; however, the formation of leaf-plantlets is variable among species. Nevertheless, all species illustrate the remarkable ability of plant somatic cells to regenerate an entire organism, which has fascinated the scientific community for many years. It was only recently that the morphogenic process involved in the origin of K. daigremontiana plantlets was determined using molecular and genetic tools: K. daigremontiana forms plantlets by co-opting both organogenesis and embryogenesis programs into leaves. The ability of K. daigremontiana species to form somatic embryos outside of a seed environment provides an attractive model system to study somatic embryogenesis in nature, particularly the molecular mechanism involved in the acquisition of competence by vegetative cells to make embryos without fertilization.

  2. The effects of ancymidol, abscisic acid, uniconazole and paclobutrazol on somatic embryogenesis of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Wolyn, D J

    1995-05-01

    The effects of ancymidol, abscisic acid (ABA), uniconazole, and paclobutrazol on asparagus somatic embryogenesis were evaluated. Calli induced from seedlings of genotype G447 were transferred to embryo induction medium (MS plus 3% sucrose, 0.1 mg L(-1) NAA, 0.5 mg L(-1) kinetin and 3% gelrite), with different concentrations of these compounds. After 8 weeks, the recovered bipolar or globular embryos were placed on germination medium (MS plus 6% sucrose, 0.1 mg L(-1) NAA, 0.1 mg L(-1) kinetin, 0.75 mg L(-1) ancymidol, 40 mg L(-1) adenine sulphate dihydrate, 0.17 mg L(-1) sodium phosphate monobasic and 3% gelrite) for conversion to plantlets. Inclusion of ancymidol, ABA, uniconazole and paclobutrazol in the embryo induction medium did not affect the total number of somatic embryos produced relative to the control without these compounds. However, ancymidol, ABA and uniconazole significantly improved embryo development by increasing the production of bipolar embryos 250-750% and decreasing that of globular embryos 8-35% relative to the control. The bipolar embryos produced with any of the four compounds in the embryo induction medium converted to plantlets at rates 700-1100% greater than the control. None of the globular embryos converted to plantlets. Ancymidol (0.75 mg L(-1)) and ABA (0.05 mg L(-1)) were the most effective treatments; 61 and 46 bipolar embryos g(-1) callus were produced, and 38% and 37% of the bipolar embryos converted to plantlets, respectively. These results indicated that ancymidol, ABA, uniconazole and paclobutrazol significantly enhanced the production of asparagus somatic embryos and their conversion to plantlets, and ancymidol and ABA were more effective than uniconazole and paclobutrazol.

  3. Morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa L. (cultivar MR219) to ion beam irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Ying Chian UNG; Sobri HUSSEIN; Abdul Rahim HARUN; Atsushi TANAKA; Hase YOSHIHIRO

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. Methods: In this study, the dry seeds of O. sativa were irradiated at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gy, fol owed by in-vitro germination under control ed conditions. Morphological and biochemical studies were conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of O. sativa towards ion beam irradiation. Results: The study demonstrated that low doses (10 Gy) of ion beam have a stimulating effect on the height, root length, and fresh weight of the plantlets but not on the number of leaves. Meanwhile, doses higher than 10 Gy caused reductions in all the morphological parameters studied as compared to the control samples. The highest total soluble protein content [(2.11±0.47) mg/g FW] was observed in plantlets irradiated at 20 Gy. All irradiated plantlets were found to have 0.85%to 58.32%higher specific activity of peroxidase as compared to the control samples. The present study also revealed that low doses of ion beam (10 and 20 Gy) had negligible effect on the total chlorophyl content of O. sativa plantlets while 40 Gy had a stimulating effect on the chlorophyll content. Plantlets irradiated between 40 to 120 Gy were shown to be 0.38%to 9.98%higher in total soluble nitrogen content which, however, was not significantly different from the control samples. Conclusions:Carbon ion beam irradiation administered at low to moderate doses of 10 to 40 Gy may induce O. sativa mutants with superior characteristics.

  4. Morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa L. (cultivar MR219) to ion beam irradiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Ung, Ying Chian; Hussein, Sobri; Harun, Abdul Rahim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshihiro, Hase

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. Methods: In this study, the dry seeds of O. sativa were irradiated at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gy, followed by in-vitro germination under controlled conditions. Morphological and biochemical studies were conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of O. sativa towards ion beam irradiation. Results: The study demonstrated that low doses (10 Gy) of ion beam have a stimulating effect on the height, root length, and fresh weight of the plantlets but not on the number of leaves. Meanwhile, doses higher than 10 Gy caused reductions in all the morphological parameters studied as compared to the control samples. The highest total soluble protein content [(2.11±0.47) mg/g FW] was observed in plantlets irradiated at 20 Gy. All irradiated plantlets were found to have 0.85% to 58.32% higher specific activity of peroxidase as compared to the control samples. The present study also revealed that low doses of ion beam (10 and 20 Gy) had negligible effect on the total chlorophyll content of O. sativa plantlets while 40 Gy had a stimulating effect on the chlorophyll content. Plantlets irradiated between 40 to 120 Gy were shown to be 0.38% to 9.98% higher in total soluble nitrogen content which, however, was not significantly different from the control samples. Conclusions: Carbon ion beam irradiation administered at low to moderate doses of 10 to 40 Gy may induce O. sativa mutants with superior characteristics. PMID:24302713

  5. Research on the Virus-free Culture Technique of Sweet Potato Stem Apical Meristem%甘薯茎尖脱毒培养技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉霞; 邱建辉; 张朝臣; 刘作斌

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨利用甘薯茎尖分生组织获得脱毒苗以及脱毒苗鉴定的方法。[方法]以甘薯茎尖分生组织为培养对象,通过蔗糖及外源激素单因素试验研究甘薯茎尖脱毒培养技术。[结果]甘薯茎尖分生组织生长培养基为MS+6-BA 0.50 mg/L+ NAA 0.10 mg/L+蔗糖40 g/L+琼脂6.5 g/L,试管苗生根培养基为1/2MS+NAA 0.20 mg/L+蔗糖20 g/L+琼脂6.5 g/L。在茎尖生长培养基上对25个甘薯品种的茎尖分生组织进行培养,结果表明,8个品种的出苗率为50.0%~79.3%,16个品种的出苗率达80.0%以上,其中,5个品种的出苗率为100.0%。在生根培养基上,试管苗生根率达100%,根多而粗壮,茎叶生长旺盛。试管苗不用炼苗,可直接从培养瓶中移栽至细河沙中,成活率达100%。以巴西牵牛作为指示植物,采用靠接法对试管苗进行脱毒鉴定,脱毒率为79.1%。[结论]该研究为甘薯茎尖脱毒苗生产提供适宜的培养基配方和简便易行的脱毒苗鉴定技术。%[ Objective] The production of virus-free sweet potato plantlets by means of stem apical meristem-culturing and its identification method were researched. [ Method] To explore the technique of sweet potato stem apical meristem culturing, the single factor experiment in the sucrose and exogenous hormone added in MS medium was conducted. [ Result] The medium for plantlet regeneration was MS + BA 0. 5 mg/L + NAA 0. 10 mg/L + sucrose 40 g/L + agar 6. 5 g/L and the medium of plantlet rooting in vitro was 1/2MS+NAA 0. 20 mg/L su-crose 20 g/L+ agar 6. 5 g/L. 25 sweet potato varieties were cultured in the growth medium and the results showed that the rate of plantlet of 8 varieties was 50% -79. 3%;16 varieties, more than 80. 0% and 5 varieties, up to 100%. In the rooting medium, the rooting rate of plant-lets was 100% and the root system was strong and with more roots. The stem and leaf of plantlets vigorously grew. The plantlets could be di-rectly transplanted into fine sand and

  6. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  7. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the “lethal yellowing”. Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera, a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p≤0.05. Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival

  8. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Paula Cristina da Silva; Moraes, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso; Lopes, Ricardo; Sousa, Nelcimar Reis; da Cunha, Raimundo Nonato Vieira; Quisen, Regina Caetano

    2011-09-01

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the "lethal yellowing". Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera), a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p < or = 0.05). Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM) of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival percentage was 55

  9. Utilization of zygotic embryos of an economic rattan palm Calamus thwaitesii Becc. (Arecaceae) for somaplant regeneration and cryobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanthakumar, A S; Preetha, T S; Krishnan, P N; Seeni, S

    2013-06-01

    Zygotic embryos excised from immature green fruits of the rattan palm, Calamus thwaitesii and cultured for 16 weeks under optimum culture conditions in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 31.67 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 35.23 μM 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) produced mixed (compact and friable) calli at 70 and 92 % rates. The semi-friable part of the callus (~500 mg) separated and subcultured in medium containing 2.22 μM 6-benzyladenine and 1.07 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid produced groups of 10.37 ± 0.60-21.52 ± 0.48 discrete globular embryoids of varied size in 6-8 weeks. Calli raised in presence of 2,4,5-T were relatively more prolific, friable and embryogenic than those induced by 2,4-D. Embryoids (2.0-3.0 mm) isolated and cultured in basal medium germinated into plantlets at 65 % efficiency while the immature (0.5-2.0 mm) ones produced calloid structures. Approximately 15 % of the in vitro plantlets raised from the 2,4-D-induced embryogenic calli produced secondary immature embryoids on the sheath and lamina parts of leaves which were isolated and cultured in basal medium developed into rooted plantlets at 62 % rate in 12-16 weeks. The continued growth of the embryo-derived callus through successive subcultures together with differentiation of embryoids into plantlets, and the formation of immature embryoids on in vitro plantlets in MS basal nutrient medium reports for the first time a reliable method of producing at least 116 plants from a single embryo in a year. Rooted plantlets treated with 50 % glycerin survived at 78 % rate after hardening and 82.7 % of the hardened plants reintroduced into forest segments showed uniform growth free of morphological abnormalities after 3 years of observation. In addition to embryogenesis, cryopreservation of the zygotic embryos through simple drying and encapsulation-dehydration methods resulting 60-70 % recovery rates also offers another

  10. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  11. Variation in the accumulation levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in micropropagated trees and in in vitro cultures of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicasio, María Del Pilar; Villarreal, María Luisa; Gillet, Françoise; Bensaddek, Lamine; Fliniaux, Marc-André

    2005-01-01

    The present article reports the accumulation of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and its metabolic precursors (tryptophan, tryptamine) in different organs of micropropagated Mimosa tenuiflora trees (leaves, flowers and bark) subjected to seasonal variations (January and June), as well as in in vitro cultures (plantlets and calluses) of this plant species. The accumulation of all the tested compounds varied according to the organ, the month of collection, and age of the plant material. In all cases, the neurotoxic compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) was detected with the lowest concentration 0.01% dry weight (DW) in flowers, and the highest 0.33% DW in bark. For the in vitro cultures, DMT was present in high yields in plantlets (0.1-0.2% DW), while in calluses this compound was initially detected but its concentration decreased significantly in the subsequent subcultures.

  12. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised.

  13. Effect of vermicompost and its extract on emergence and the growth parameters of Plantago psyllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mardani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of vermicompost extract (20, 40, 60, 80, 100% on seed germination and seedling growth of Plantago psyllium. In second experiment, the effect of solid vermicompost with 4 levels (0, 25, 50, 75 on the emergence and subsequent growth of plantlets was investigated. The 20 and 40% increased germination capacity, germination index, and length of root, shoot, vigor index and decreased mean germination time and T50. In second experiment 25% increased emergence energy, emergence rate, emergence index and emergence cofficiennt  and decreased mean emergence time. 25% and 50% treatments increased the diameter, length, dry and fresh weight of root and aerial parts and length and width of leaves, and a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid in 3 old months's plant. But high concentrations were decreased these parameters. Thus, the effect of vermicompost on seed germination and subsequent growth of plantlets is dependent on concentration.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  15. In vitro propagation of Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew.--an endangered ethnoreligious medicinal herb of Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M; Dhar, U

    2003-06-01

    This is the first report of a micropropagation protocol for Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew. (Asteraceae), a rare, threatened and near-endemic medicinal herb of the Indian Himalayan region. Multiple shoots were formed from epicotyle explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 microM kinetin and 0.25 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. A maximum of five shoots were obtained from one explant in a 75-day culture period. The effect of subsequent subcultures on shoot formation was also studied. After 100% in vitro rooting was obtained in half-strength MS supplemented with 2.5 microM indole-3-butyric acid, the plantlets were transferred to ex vitro conditions. Following a 15-day in vitro rooting period and 12 days of ex vitro acclimatization, 66.7% of the plantlets had established in the field. Application of this protocol has the potential to substantially reduce the pressure on natural populations.

  16. Effect of leaf harvesting on reproduction and natural populations of Indian Wild Banana Ensete superbum (Roxb. Cheesman (Zingiberales: Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra R. Bhise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensete superbum (Roxb. Cheesman an important taxon in India is threatened in Maharashtra. It is sporadically distributed on high altitude slopes and rocky cliffs in the Western Ghats. It is an important medicinal and economic plant utilized by people living in rural areas, while the leaves are also utilized in urban areas. The leaves are harvested for commercial purposes. The effect of leaf harvest on natural population with respect to regeneration of new plantlets was evaluated. The results revealed that, non-scientific leaf harvesting resulted in significantly reduced flowering and fruiting, less number of new plantlets in the population, and population degradation. Therefore, leaf harvesting should be practiced in a controlled manner to maintain the population health of this highly potential species. 

  17. Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Plant Regeneration in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is achieved in four cultivars of carnation (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse. Embryogenic calli were induced on petal explants only, all the calli established on leaf, sepal, receptacle and style explants were not embryogenic. Embryogenic calli were obtained on Morashige and Skoog basal medium (1962 containing sucrose 9%, 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.2 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA. After transfer of embryogenic calli to growth regulator free MS medium or medium containing low amount of 2, 4-D (0.2-0.4 mm L-1 resulted in successful somatic embryogenesis. A high frequency (80-85% of Somatic embryo germination and development into normal plantlets was observed on half-strength MS medium supplement with 3% sucrose without growth regulator. About 95% of somatic embryo-derived plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse conditions.

  18. The elimination of viruses from garlic (Allium sativum L. plants by thermotherapy and meristem tip culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek S. Szyndel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of virus free garlic plants from totally cvs Jana, Mera and ecotype Zamojski was attempted by means of thermotherapy and meristem tip culture. The cloves and the aerial bulbils after hot air treatment in a growth chamber at 36ºC for 30-35 days or at 26-28ºC for 3-4 months in greenhouse were used to meristem tip culture on M. S. medium. In the 26-28ºC treatment 19.5 % of meristerns produced plants and 22.5 % of these were virus free. In the 36ºC treatment 14.5 % of the meristems developed into plantlets and 34.6 % of them were virus free. The plantlets were indexed by "sap-dip" electron microscopy methods.

  19. Occurrence of iridoid glycosides in in vitro cultures and intact plants of Scrophularia nodosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesterhenn, Katja; Distl, Melanie; Wink, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Shoot, root, and callus cultures of Scrophularia nodosa L. (Scrophulariaceae) were established and cultivated in vitro. Iridoid glycosides, such as harpagoside, aucubin, and catalpol were identified by LC-ESI-MS and their contents determined by HPLC. For comparison intact plants of S. nodosa were analysed. In shoot cultures slightly lower amounts of detectable iridoid glycosides (4.36% dry weight) were determined than in the field grown plants (4.88%). Concentration of harpagoside was highest in leaves of field plants (1.05%) and in flowers of in vitro plantlets (1.10%). For aucubin the highest amount was found in the leaves of in vitro plantlets (1.67%) whereas the levels of aucubin in the leaves of field plants were remarkably lower. Catalpol was produced as a trace compound in intact plants and shoot cultures. Callus and root cultures were apparently not able to synthesise iridoid glycosides.

  20. Efficient micropropagation and chlorocholine chloride induced stevioside production of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Avishek; Kundu, Sayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Bhattacharjee, Aloke

    2013-01-01

    A promising method of micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has been developed with an aim to increase the biomass, survivability of the plantlets and stevioside production, using chlorocholine chloride (CCC). Microshoots transferred to the MS medium containing different combinations CCC and IBA were found to be most effective in terms of growth pattern, hardening ability of the plantlets and stevioside content, compared to MS medium containing either IBA or CCC. Among other combinations tested, MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l CCC and 3 mg/l IBA was found most effective in inducing significant changes like reduced shoot length, increased number of roots, higher leaf size, increased biomass and chlorophyll retaining capacity, higher survival percentage and most importantly the elevated stevioside content. Collectively, the major observations of this research indicate that application of CCC in micropropagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni is a promising approach and has commercial prospects.

  1. Rapid in vitro propagation of medicinally important Aquilaria agallocha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Meng-ling; QI Shu-yuan; HU Lan-juan

    2005-01-01

    Aquilaria agallocha can produce fragrant agarwood used for incense, traditional medicine and other products. An efficient plant regeneration system was established via organogenesis from shoots developed from seedlings ofAquilaria agallocha. Shoots generated many buds on MS medium supplemented with 1.3 μmol/L BA (6-benzylaminopurine) in the first 7 weeks,and the buds elongated on MS medium with 1.3 μmol/L BA+0.5 μmol/L NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in another 7 weeks, 2.3shoots 2 cm in length per explant were obtained within 14 weeks. Plantlets were rooted on 1/2 MS medium after being immersed in5 μmol/L NAA for 48 h, 96.7% of the roots grew up two weeks later. All plantlets that survived acclimatization grew well in the pots.

  2. Micro-propagation of Lepedium meyenii Walp. (Maca) by shoot culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengHua; YuLongjiang; HuQiongyue; SunYouping; JinWenwen; ChenShancai; LiMaoteng

    2004-01-01

    The callus induction and plant regeneration system for an important plant, Lepedium meyenii Walp., has been established. Calli were induced from cotyledons petioles of Lepedium meyenii Walp within 4 weeks in a modified MS medium supplemented with BA plus NAA. The highest percentage of callus formation (57. 1% ) was found on MS medium supplemented with 0. 5 mg l-1 BA and 0. 5 mg l-1 NAA. During subculture on the shoot formation medium, most of calli proliferated and 50% -60% formed shoots. About 66.7% of shoots formed into roots on 1/2 strength MS containing 0.5mg l-1 IBA after 4 weeks in culture. Chromosome count confirmed the number of the regeneration Maca plantlet was the same as that of the native plant(8x=64) .For regeneration of plantlets, from seedling via primary callus production, a four-step process of organogenes is required about 16 weeks.

  3. A multiplex PCR method for detection of Clavibacter michi(g)anensis subsp. michlganensls with co-amplification of its host DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHANG; Wenxiang YANG; Yaning LI; Daqun LIU; Ting ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay system was developed for the detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis (Cmm), which combined two tests in one reaction mixture. Cmm-specific primers PSA-4/PSA-R and Solanum lycopersicum-specific primers NS-7-F/NS-8-R (internal PCR control primer) were combined in one PCR reaction mixture with Cmm and plant DNA as template. The primer sets could amplify the target product successfully. Different combinations and concentrations of primers and annealing temperatures were tested, respec tively. The detection level of the optimized multiplex PCR assay was up to 5×l02cfu-mL-1. To verify the applicability of this system, it was employed to detect Cmm in tomato seeds and plantlet samples. Seeds mixed with Cmm and diseased plantlets were detected successfully. The multiplex PCR system will avoid false-negative results and provide a reliable method for the detection of Cmm.

  4. [Establishment and optimization of the regeneration system for common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Yin-Xin

    2005-03-01

    A protocol is presented for direct and indirect regeneration of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber) from leaf and petiole explants. Multiple shoots were obtained on MS medium containing 0.2 mg/L IAA and 1 mg/L TDZ. For indirect regeneration, fragile calli were obtained from leaf and petiole explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2.0 mg/L 6-BA. Regenerated plantlets were obtained when these calli were cultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L 6-BA. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of nine regenerated plantlets revealed 61 scorable bands from 10 primers, including three specific bands.

  5. Micropropagation of six Paulownia genotypes through tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Shtereva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of genotype and culture medium on the in vitro germination and development of plantlets from seeds of 6 different Paulownia genotypes (P. tomentosa, hybrid lines P. tomentosa P. fortunei (Mega, Ganter and Caroline, P. elongata and hybrid line P. elongata P. fortunei. Nodal and shoot tip explants were used for micropropagation of Paulownia genotypes by manipulating plant growth regulators. The highest germination percentage for all genotypes was obtained for seeds inoculated on medium supplemented with 50 mg*L GA3 (MSG2. On Thidiazuron containing media, the explants of hybrid line P. elongata P. fortunei exhibited the highest frequency of axillary shoot proliferation following by P. tomentosa P. fortunei. The results are discussed with the perspective of applying an improved protocol for in vitro seed germination and plantlet formation in several economically valuable Paulownia genotypes.

  6. Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb. - an endangered tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, S D; Dave, A

    1996-05-01

    An in vitro procedure for large scale multiplication of Sterculia urens Roxb. (Gum Kadaya Tree) has been developed using cotyledonary node segments. An average of 4.0 shoots per node were obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 2.0 mgl(-1) 6-benzyl amino-purine (BAP) within 21 days of initial culture. Upon subsequent subculture 16 shoots/node could be harvested every three weeks and upto three times. Sixty per cent of the shoots were successfully rooted. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic pots containing soil under mist house conditions before they were finally exposed to an external environment. Fifty seven per cent of the plantlets survived in nursery sheds.

  7. Primary studies on tissue culture from mature embryos in diploid and tetraploid wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiming BI; Honggang WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using mature embryos (MEs) as the explants,the callus induction,embryogenic callus differentiation,plantlet regeneration and culture efficiency in diploid and tetraploid wheat of four genotypes were studied.The tested four genotypes wheat included cultivable emmer wheat ( Triticum dicoccum Schuble),durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.) and the common wheat progenitors Triticum dicoccoides and Triticum aegilopides.Results indicated that there were significant differences in the efficiency of callus induction,callus differentiation and plant regeneration among the tested genotypes.The efficiency of differentiation and regeneration shows strong genotype dependence.The rates of callus induction,embryogenic callus differentiation,plantlet regeneration and culture efficiency respectively were 95.00%,90.00%,32.40%,and 27.70% in cultivable emmer wheat,which were significantly higher than other tested genotypes.Therefore,this study has provided a basis for genetic transformation,gene cloning and molecular plant breeding in wheat and other related species.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, T; Kurita, M; Itahana, N; Kondo, T

    2004-08-01

    We established a plant regeneration system for Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) via somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic tissues were successfully induced on three kinds of Smith media from megagametophyte explants containing pre-cotyledonary embryos of C. obtusa plus-trees. Factors affecting somatic embryo maturation were examined. The concentration of polyethylene glycol 4000 in the medium was a critical factor for embryo maturation and its effective concentration was 150 g/l. The addition of 30 g/l maltose to the medium had a positive effect on embryo maturation, but sucrose was ineffective. The mature somatic embryos germinated at a germination frequency of approximately 60%, and the presence of activated charcoal was effective in stimulating plantlet growth. The plantlets acclimatized successfully in a greenhouse. To our knowledge, this is first report describing details of a plant regeneration method for C. obtusa via somatic embryogenesis.

  9. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic tissue and transgenic plant regeneration in Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, T; Kurita, M; Ohmiya, Y; Kondo, T

    2005-03-01

    A genetic transformation procedure for Chamaecyparis obtusa was developed after co-cultivation of embryogenic tissues with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58/pMP90, which harbours the sgfp (synthetic green fluorescent protein) visual reporter and nptII (neomycin phoshotransferase II) selectable marker genes. The highest transformation frequency was 22.5 independent transformed lines per dish (250 mg embryogenic tissue) following selection on kanamycin medium. Transgenic plantlets were regenerated through the maturation and germination of somatic embryos. The intensity of GFP fluorescence, observed under a fluorescence microscope, varied from very faint to relatively strong, depending on the transgenic line or part of the transgenic plant. The integration of the genes into the genome of regenerated plantlets was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.

  10. Compatible fungi, suitable medium, and appropriate developmental stage essential for stable association of Dendrobium chrysanthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajong, Subarna; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2013-12-01

    Establishment of symbiotic association at the appropriate developmental stage helped maintain continued growth which is vital for the long-term ex vitro survival of the orchid. In the present study, symbiotic association was carried out using different developmental stages of Dendrobium chrysanthum and pathogenic Rhizoctonia isolates (obtained from orchids and non-orchid hosts) in different culture media. Isolate 2162 supported highest symbiotic germination on OMA-S (oat meal agar medium without nutrients + sucrose), whereas, stable symbiotic association with plantlets was obtained with isolate 4634 on OMA-NC (oat meal agar medium + cellulose). Isolate Dc-2S2 obtained from the host plant did not promote seed germination nor did it form association with protocorms or plantlets. This study, for the first time identifies a combination of compatible fungal isolate, suitable culture medium, and appropriate developmental stage at which symbiotic association in vitro can be deemed successful for the medicinally important orchid, D. chrysanthum.

  11. 细辛组织培养研究%Tissue Culture of Asarum siboldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南桂仙; 金光德

    2009-01-01

    以细辛叶片为外植体,研究了其组织培养技术.结果表明:愈伤组织继代1次,可增殖10~15倍,每块愈伤组织经过再分化能长出5~8株试管苗,反复继代3~4次,每个叶片可产出约500株试管苗.%Used the leaf of Asarum siboldii as explants,the tissue culture technique was studied.The results showed that the the callus could proliferate 10-15 times after subculturing for one time.5-8 plantlets grew out when the callus dedifferentiated.When the callus was subcultured for 3-4 times,about 500 plantlets could be obtained.

  12. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  13. Wide crossing in lentil through embryo rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Richard; Ruiz, Maria L

    2011-01-01

    Lentil seeds have provided an appreciated source of protein, carbohydrates and fibre to the diet of humans since the dawn of agriculture. Low amounts of variation have been detected in the cultivated lentil germplasm collections. Interspecific crosses allow for the introgression of important alleles of agricultural interest from wild species, such as the resistance or tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Interspecific crosses within the genus Lens generally abort and embryo rescue techniques are necessary to recover hybrids. The in vitro culture procedure to rescue interspecific hybrids of Lens consists of at least four different stages: (1) in ovulo embryo culture (2), embryo culture, (3) plantlet development and finally, (4) the gradual habituation to ex vitro conditions of the recovered interspecific hybrid plantlets. In this chapter, the approach to rescue interspecific hybrids in the genus Lens is outlined.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Gloriosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S Y; Hegde, B A

    2001-09-01

    Friable callus was initiated from shoot apices of Gloriosa superba L. on basal MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (4mg L(-1)) + Kn(5 mg L(-1)) + CH(10 mg L(-1)) + CW(20%). Subculture of callus on the same medium after 4-5 weeks showed induction of large number of somatic embryos, which was confirmed with histological studies. Development of embryoids in plantlet took place when the embryogenic callus was transferred to basal MS medium supplemented with BAP (5 mg L(-1)), CH(50 mg L(-1)) +CW(20%). Roots were developed by subculturing them on to the medium containing Kn or BAP (5 mg L(-1)) and IBA (4 mg L(-1)). Plantlets were successfully transferred to pots containing mixture of soil, sand and farmyard manure (2:1:1).

  15. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cell suspension and tissue cultures of mature himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, G S

    1989-02-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation were obtained from callus and cell suspension cultures of 40-year- old Himalayan Poplar (Populus ciliata Wall ex Royle). Callus and cell suspensions were obtained by transfer of inoculum of semiorganized leaf cultures, which were maintained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP), to MS with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Reduction of 2,4-D concentration during subsequent subculture of cell suspensions resulted in the formation of embryoids. These embryoids developed further only after being transferred to agar-based MS medium supplemented with BAP and naphthalene acetic acid. Loss of embryogenic potential was observed in cell suspensions after 6 subcultures. However, callus cultures retained the embryogenic potential even after repeated subcultures for more than a year. Plantlets could be successfully hardened and grown in natural outdoor conditions.

  16. Leaf-specific pathogenesis-related 10 homolog, PgPR-10.3, shows in silico binding affinity with several biologically important molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haeng Han

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Although ginseng PR-10.3 gene is expressed in all organs of 3-wk-old plantlets, its expression is restricted to leaves in mature 2-yr-old ginseng plants. The putative binding property of PgPR-10.3 with Re is intriguing. Further verification of binding affinity with other biologically important molecules in the large hydrophobic cavity of PgPR-10.3 may provide an insight into the biological features of PR-10 proteins.

  17. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L.) Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    OpenAIRE

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-01-01

    The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L.) during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment...

  18. Effect of vermicompost extracts on the in vitro micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To study the effect of vermicompost (VC extracts on micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri (Linn Pennell. Aims: The aim was to develop low cost and economical tissue culture media for micropropagation using VC extracts. Settings and Design: VC and its extracts act as a plant growth promoting organic substitute containing humic substances. VC extracts were used as a low cost plant tissue culture media. Subjects and Methods : Aqueous extracts of VC (30% supplemented with 8 g/L agar as the experimental media and Murashige and Skoog media was used as control to support the micropropagation of B. monnieri. Hardening of tissue cultured plantlets was carried out using VC and its spray in the medium of cocopeat. The well-developed plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse and then into the field. Statistical Analysis Used: Student′s t-test and Tukey′s studentized range (honest significant difference test was considered for analyses of significance for various growth parameters such as development of roots, shoots, leaves, nodes, weight (in milligrams and percentage survival of plantlets from nodal explants of B.monnieri to detect differences observed between the two media. Results: The results have indicated that the aqueous extract of VC is most suitable as a component of tissue culture media for well establishment of explants. And the VC extract with the chemical supplements in the form of hormones, micronutrients or vitamins along with VC have a negative effect on the overall survival of plantlets. Conclusions: This study has indicated that by standardizing the technique, it is possible to develop the plants that respond to micropropagation in an economical way. Thus, the economical and the innovative technique implemented in this study significantly enhanced the production of the medicinal plant.

  19. Effects of Different Preservation Methods on Pathogenicity of Bacterial Wilt Strains in Tobacco%烟草青枯病菌种保存方法及其对致病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆铮铮; 彭丽娟; 丁海霞; 蒋选利; 彭杰

    2011-01-01

    Three strain preservation methods of tissue culture tobacco plantlets, sterilized distilled water under normal temperature and slant culture in a refrigerator were compared to study the effect of different preservation methods on pathogenicity of tobacco bacterial wilt bacteria and to select higher pathogenicity stains for control and resistance identification of tobacco bacterial wilt. The results showed that the tissue culture tobacco plantlets preservation and sterilized distilled water preservation under normal temperature both could keep the pathogenicity activity of bacterial wilt bacteria, and the tissue culture tobacco plantlets preservation was better than the sterilized distilled water preservation under normal temperature. When preservation of tobacco bacterial wilt strains is used to extract crude toxin, the sterilized distilled water preservation under normal temperature is better than the tissue culture tobacco plantlets preservation.%为在烟草青枯病的防治和烟草抗病性鉴定研究中获得致病力较强的菌株,分别采用烟草组培苗活体保存、灭菌蒸馏水常温保存以及料面冰箱保存3种不同方法保存烟草青枯病菌,并比较了3种保存方法对烟草青枯病菌致病力的影响.结果表明:烟草组培苗活体保存法和灭菌蒸馏水常温保存法均具有较好的保持青枯病菌致病力活性的能力,前者比后者稍强,如需提取粗毒素,则建议使用后者,斜面冰箱保存法的致病力下降最快.

  20. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolem,Ciro Antonio; Leite, Vagner Maximino [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  1. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency Anatomia de ramos e folhas de cafeeiro sob feficiência de boro

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem; Vagner Maximino Leite

    2007-01-01

    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  2. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem; Vagner Maximino Leite

    2007-01-01

    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  3. High embryogenic ability and regeneration from floral axis of Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Lin; Liu Erxi; Yang Chaozhu; Jin Surong; Diao Ying; Hu Zhongli

    2017-01-01

    Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae) a perennial herb, it has high medicinal and industrial value. In this study, a simple and efficient system for direct somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of Amorphophallus konjac was developed. The floral axis was used as the experimental material. The primary callus, developed from the floral axis grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different hormone combination at different concentrations. The highest rate of embryogenic cal...

  4. La maturation des embryons gamétiques et somatiques de chêne est affectée par le charbon et le mélange d'aminoacides spécifiques

    OpenAIRE

    Pintos, Beatriz; Jose A. Manzanera; Angeles Bueno, M.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Development of both somatic and gametic embryogenesis has many applications in clonal forestry and genetic improvement, for instance as mass-propagation of genetically improved plants and production of pure lines through doubled-haploid plant regeneration from gametic embryos.* The goal of this work was to improve growth, maturation and plantlet regeneration of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos from both somatic and gametic origin.* Activated charcoal promoted a sign...

  5. Evaluation of Genetic and Epigenetic Modification in Rapeseed(Brassica napus) Induced by Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Salinity is an important limiting environmental factor for rapeseed production worldwide.In this study,we assessed the extent and pattern of DNA damages caused by salt stress in rapeseed plants.Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)analysis revealed dose-related increases in sequence alterations in plantlets exposed to 10-1 000 mmol/L sodium chloride.In addition.Individual plantlets exposed to the same salt concentration showed different AFLP and selected region amplified polymorphism banding patterns.These observations suggested that DNA mutation in response to salt stress was random In the genome and the effect was dose-dependant.DNA methylation changes in response to salt stress were also evaluated by methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP).Three types of MSAP bands were recovered.Type Ⅰ bands were observed with both isoschizomers Hpa Ⅱ and Msp Ⅰ, while type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ bands were observed only with Hpa Ⅱ and Msp Ⅰ,respectively.Extensive changes in types of MSAP bands after NaCl treatments were observed,including appearance and disappearance of type Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ bands,as well as exchanges between either type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ or type Ⅰand type Ⅲ bands.An Increase of 0.2-17.6% cytosine methylated CCGG sites were detected in plantlets exposed to 10-200 mmol/L salt compared to the control,and these changes included both de novo methylation and demethylation events Nine methylation related fragments were also recovered and sequenced,and one sharing a high sequence homology with the ethylene responsive element binding factor was identified.These results demonstrated clear DNA genetic and epigenetic alterations in plantlets as a response to salt stress,and these changes may suggest a mechanism for plants adaptation under salt stress.

  6. Regeneration of plants from mesophyll protoplasts of the wild crucifer Eruca sativa Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, S R; Chatterjee, G; Das, S; Sen, S K

    1987-12-01

    Protoplasts isolated from mesophyll cells of Eruca sativa Lam., cultured on suitable medium, underwent sustained cell divisions to form calli. The plating efficiency was found to be 0.4%. The protoplast-derived calli subsequently produced plantlets through organogenesis (15.71%) and somatic embryogenesis (11.25%). Regenerated plants exhibited normal appearance. These results indicate potential to introgress desirable traits from this wild crucifer into important oilseed and cole Brassicas by protoplast fusion and hybrid recovery.

  7. Early fruit setting from tissue culture-derived mangosteen tree

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Te-chato; Mongkol Lim

    2004-01-01

    Vitro-plantlets of mangosteen derived from culturing young leaves were acclimatized in 1993. Small and large polybag seedlings were carefully raised under controlled environmental conditions until 1994 when they were ready to be transferred to the field. During this stage, morphological abnormalities of the seedlings were recorded. After transferring to the field for 5-6 years (1994-1999) at Yi Ngo District, Narathiwat Province and Klong Hoi Khong District, Songkhla Province, morphological ch...

  8. Endophytic colonization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the diazotrophic bacterium Burkholderia kururiensis and its ability to enhance plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos, Katherine A; Vania L.M. Pádua; Alexandre Romeiro; Hallack,Leticia F.; Bianca C. Neves; Tecia M.U. Ulisses; Claudia F. Barros; Adriane R Todeschini; Previato, José O.; Lucia Mendonça-Previato

    2008-01-01

    Burkholderia kururiensis is a diazotrophic bacterium originally isolated from a polluted aquifer environment and presents a high level of similarity with the rice endophyte "B. brasilensis" species. This work assessed the ability of B. kururiensis to endophytically colonize rice plantlets by monitoring different tissues of root-inoculated plants for the presence of bacterial growth in different media, electron microscopy and by 16S rDNA analysis. Observations of roots, stems and leaves of ino...

  9. Malate Synthesis by Dark Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Carolyn; Perchorowicz, John T.; Gibbs, Martin

    1978-01-01

    The rates of dark CO2 fixation and the label distribution in malate following dark 14CO2 fixation in a C-4 plant (maize), a C-3 plant (sunflower), and two Crassulacean acid metabolism plants (Bryophyllum calycinum and Kalanchoë diagremontianum leaves and plantlets) are compared. Within the first 30 minutes of dark 14CO2 fixation, leaves of maize, B. calycinum, and sunflower, and K. diagremontianum plantlets fix CO2 at rates of 1.4, 3.4, 0.23, and 1.0 μmoles of CO2/mg of chlorophyll· hour, respectively. Net CO2 fixation stops within 3 hours in maize and sunflower, but Crassulaceans continue fixing CO2 for the duration of the 23-hour experiment. A bacterial procedure using Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC No. 8014 and one using malic enzyme to remove the β-carboxyl (C4) from malate are compared. It is reported that highly purified malic enzyme and the bacterial method provide equivalent results. Less purified malic enzyme may overestimate the label in C4 as much as 15 to 20%. The contribution of carbon atom 1 of malate is between 18 and 21% of the total carboxyl label after 1 minute of dark CO2 fixation. Isotopic labeling in the two carboxyls approached unity with time. The rate of increase is greatest in sunflower leaves and Kalanchoë plantlets. In addition, Kalanchoë leaves fix 14CO2 more rapidly than Kalanchoë plantlets and the equilibration of the malate carboxyls occurs more slowly. The rates of fixation and the randomization are tissue-specific. The rate of fixation does not correlate with the rate of randomization of isotope in the malate carboxyls. PMID:16660319

  10. Malate synthesis by dark carbon dioxide fixation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, C; Perchorowicz, J T; Gibbs, M

    1978-04-01

    The rates of dark CO(2) fixation and the label distribution in malate following dark (14)CO(2) fixation in a C-4 plant (maize), a C-3 plant (sunflower), and two Crassulacean acid metabolism plants (Bryophyllum calycinum and Kalanchoë diagremontianum leaves and plantlets) are compared. Within the first 30 minutes of dark (14)CO(2) fixation, leaves of maize, B. calycinum, and sunflower, and K. diagremontianum plantlets fix CO(2) at rates of 1.4, 3.4, 0.23, and 1.0 mumoles of CO(2)/mg of chlorophyll. hour, respectively. Net CO(2) fixation stops within 3 hours in maize and sunflower, but Crassulaceans continue fixing CO(2) for the duration of the 23-hour experiment.A bacterial procedure using Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC No. 8014 and one using malic enzyme to remove the beta-carboxyl (C(4)) from malate are compared. It is reported that highly purified malic enzyme and the bacterial method provide equivalent results. Less purified malic enzyme may overestimate the label in C(4) as much as 15 to 20%.The contribution of carbon atom 1 of malate is between 18 and 21% of the total carboxyl label after 1 minute of dark CO(2) fixation. Isotopic labeling in the two carboxyls approached unity with time. The rate of increase is greatest in sunflower leaves and Kalanchoë plantlets. In addition, Kalanchoë leaves fix (14)CO(2) more rapidly than Kalanchoë plantlets and the equilibration of the malate carboxyls occurs more slowly. The rates of fixation and the randomization are tissue-specific. The rate of fixation does not correlate with the rate of randomization of isotope in the malate carboxyls.

  11. Embryoid Formation by High Temperature Treatment from Multiple Shoots of Panax ginseng1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, I; Li, I; Yoshikawa, T; Hirotani, M; Furuya, T

    1993-08-01

    We developed a new technology to induce embryoids by a moderate high temperature treatment from multiple shoots of PANAX GINSENG (Araliaceae). The number of formed embryoids was 10 times higher than that of untreated tissue. Normal plantlets were regenerated from the embryoids by transplanting them on a hormone-free medium. They contained ginsenosides Rb (1), Rg (1) and the other saponins as well as those of natural ginseng.

  12. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of root and shoot, these embryoids can grow out into complete plantlets.In Chapter 2 we describe an optimized method to produce completely desiccation tolerant carrot ( Daucus carota ) embryoids. Usi...

  13. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  14. DISPONIBILIDADE DE LUZ, TIPO DE VEDAÇÃO E DE FRASCO NA GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL IN VITRO DE PLÂNTULAS DE CUBIU (Solanum sessiliflorum DUNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ricken Schuelter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the different types of sealing and flask size in relation to the rates of germination and biomass partitioning in seedlings of two varieties of Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal. Seeds of varieties Santa Luzia and Thais were inoculated into flasks of varying sizes, containing culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 with 50% of the concentration and sealed with different materials. It was found shriveling leaf in plantlets of both varieties grown in sealed flasks with polyvinyl chloride (PVC. The varieties Santa Luzia and Thais showed high germination percentage in flasks sealed with PVC and aluminum foil. Furthermore, the type of flask and sealing influenced the accumulation of assimilates in both varieties. It was found yet, the highest average of fresh matter in large flasks and sealed with aluminum for the Thais variety, while the Santa Luzia variety, the flask size does not interfere with weight, but those sealed with aluminum have a higher average weight. The dry matter accumulation for Thais variety were higher for plantlets cultivated in large flasks sealed with PVC, and for Santa Luzia variety were large flasks or sealed with PVC. Both varieties, when grown with aluminum foil have the highest average length of the aerial part. Plantlets cultivated in small flasks and sealed with PVC presented higher rootlength. It was concluded that the leaf shriveling was remarkable in flasks sealed with PVC and the accumulation of assimilates is influenced by the type of flask and seal for both varieties in the presence of light.

  15. Potential of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash) for phytoremediation of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Melo, J S; Eapen, Susan; D'Souza, S F

    2008-11-01

    Aseptically grown Vetiveria zizanoides were evaluated for their potential for phytoremediation of phenol from Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium. Phenol was found to be completely removed from incubation medium at the end of 4 days by V. zizanoides plantlets, when medium was supplemented with 50 and 100 mg L(-1) phenol, while with 200, 500, and 1000 mg L(-1) of phenol, 89%, 76% and 70%, respectively, were removed. Phenol removal was found to be associated with inherent production of peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. Coupled with H(2)O(2) formation, the levels of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and peroxidase showed an enhancement when plants were exposed to phenol, whereas catalase levels initially showed a decline due to the utilization of H(2)O(2) by peroxidase for phenol oxidation. However, when peroxidase levels declined, there was an enhancement in catalase levels to minimize the presence of H(2)O(2) in the medium. Having confirmed that the removal of phenol was by V. zizanoides plantlets, in the next phase, micropropagated plantlets and well-developed plants grown in hydroponics were used under in vivo conditions to study the effect of phenol (200 mg L(-1)) on plant growth and reuse. Although plant growth was reduced in presence of phenol, the results of the reuse study indicated the possibility of plants getting adapted to phenol without any decline in potential for phenol remediation.

  16. Study on Effect of Iron in Anther Media of Early Japonica Rice in Cold Region%寒地早粳花培培养基中铁的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰民; 黄晓群; 王瑞英; 刘传雪; 关世武

    2008-01-01

    In this study, through vitro culturing anthers of 7 F1 progenies of early Japonica rice in cold region on medium with different Fe2+ contents, it was found that Fe2+ content generated greater impacts on the induction rate and green plantlet differentiation. The result demonstrated that if Fe2+ increased from 32 to 40 mg/kg, the induction rate of early Japonica rice anther culture in N6 culture media was more then 1.4 times higher than that in N6 culture media containing 5.6 mg/kg Fe2+. In this concentration range, the induction rate increased with the increase of Fe2+ content, while if the concentration was over this concentration range, the induction rate decreased with the increase of Fe2+, showing single peak distribution. When the Fe2+ was 40 mg/kg in differentiation medium, the differentiation rate decreased dramatically. The green plantlet differentiations of callus which were induced on culture media containing 32-40 mg/kg Fe2+ were different, when they were cultured on MS culture media, and 85.7% materials could increase green plantlet productivity to about 7.8%. Therefore, increasing Fe2+in induction media properly could increase anther culture efficiency of early Japonica rice in cold region.

  17. Multiplikasi, Induksi Planlet dan Seleksi Tembakau Hasil Transformasi Gen Coat Protein SMV Secara Kultur in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. FITRIYAH

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to screen and multiply calluses and buds oftobacco transformed with the Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV coat protein gene and to induce them to plantlet formation by using MS medium with phytohormon treatments. The multiplication of calluses and buds was carried out by sub-culturing on MS medium using 0.3 mg/L NAA+1 mg/L BAP, followed by induction of plantlet formation on MS medium supplemented with NAA and BAP at varied concentration. The results showed that tobacco calluses transformed with SMV coat protein gene was multipliable on MS medium supplemented with NAA at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL and BAP at 1 mg/L concentration. In this experiment kanamycin was used at a concentration of 100 μg/mL which resulted in the viability level of 84%. On MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/L NAA, 0.1 mg/L BAP, and 100 μg/mL kanamycin, induction of calluses to plantlet formation reached 20% level.

  18. INFLUENCIA DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS E FERTILIZANTES NA ACLIMATIZAÇÃO DE PLANTAS DE FIGUEIRA (FICUS CARICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Alice Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a great amount of environmental differences between in vitro and ex vitro conditions, the acclimatization phase of plantlets is one of the essential points to guarantee the success in obtaining micropropagated plants. Using a substrate with chemical and organic composition is important on this phase, because it will influence in the nutritional state of the seedlings. The present paper aimed to evaluate the effects of different substrate on acclimatization of fig plants 'Roxo de Valinhos'. It were selected uniform plantlets within a 5 cm of height which were transferred to the greenhouse, with an intermittent mist system, with 50% mesh of shadow by sombrite® planted in stereo foam trays where were submitted to the following treatments: Plantmax®; carbonized rice husk; soil in combination with Osmocote®; manure (3:1:1; NPKMg. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in factorial scheme and the evaluation was done one hundred and twenty days after the acclimatization by the following characteristics: plant high (cm, number of leaves/plant, dry weight of aerial part and roots and total weight (g/plant. As results, it was verified that on the acclimatization of fig plantlets 'Roxo de Valinhos' using of substrate soil + carbonized rice husk+ manure promotted highest number of leaves and largest weight of aerial dry matter were obtained Plantmax® substrate without any addition of fertilizers.

  19. THE EFFECT OF SPRUCE BARK POLYPHENOLS EXTRACT IN COMBINATION WITH DEUTERIUM DEPLETED WATER (DDW ON GLYCINE MAX L. AND HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Tanase

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spruce bark aqueous extract and deuterium depleted water (DDW as bioregulators on the plant growth Glycine max L. and Helianthus annuus. The following specific parameteres were closely monitorised: germination energy and germination capacity, plants vegetative organelles growth and development and photoassimilatory pigments concentrations. The results have shown that DDW presents different effects depending on tested plant species. In the case of soybean, DDW presented stimulatory effects on both germination energy and capacity, radicles elongation, primary leaves growth and development but inhibitory effects on photoassimilatory pigments. Spruce bark extract reduced the germination capacity of soybean seeds, but accelerated the germination process of sunflower seeds and present stimulatory effects on plantlets biomass accumulation. The combination of DDW with Picea abies polyphenolic extract promoted soybean plantlet elongation, especially the rootlets ones and stimulated green biomass accumulation for both soybean and sunflower plantlets. Analyzing the photoassimilatory pigments concentration for sunflower, it can be observed an increasing trend (almost 100% comparing with control when introduce into the growth medium DDW and P. abies polyphenolic extract. DDW and P. abies bark extract have shown an important role in plant growth and development, improving photoassimiliation process.

  20. ELIMINATION OF Cucumber Mozaic Virus (CMV FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM CULTIVARS THROUGH MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Budiarto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV is one of pathogenic viruses that commonly found and has caused significant losses in many chrysanthemum growers in Indonesia.  Efforts have been made to get healthy plant source through eliminating virus from infected plants and one of the promising methods was the combination of thermotherapy and meristem culture. The research was conducted to find out the effect of meristem culture following heat treatments on the existence of CMV in infected chrysanthemum plantlets. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of tissue culture and virology at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute (IOCRI from August 2007 until June 2008. A complete factorial with ten replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors.  The first factor was three chrysanthemum cultivars, namely Stroika, Dewi Sartika and White Fiji, while the second dealt with the durations of heat treatment i.e. one, two and three weeks.  The results showed that plantlet survival decreased, yet improved plantlet performance by faster bud initiation with lengthened heat duration.  The percentage of virus-free planlets also increased along with the duration of treatment and three weeks heat treatment followed by meristem culture effectively eliminated CMV from infected planlets.

  1. In vitro micropropagation of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast: An important indoor ornamental plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Junaid; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A protocol has been developed for in vitro plant regeneration from a nodal explant of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast. Nodal explant showed high callus induction potentiality on MS medium supplemented with 6.78 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) followed by 46.5 μM chlorophenoxy acetic acid (CPA). The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (85%) and number of shoots per explant (5.6) were obtained on medium supplemented with 7.84 μM N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA). Rooting was high on MS solid compared to liquid medium when added with 7.38 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Fifty percent of the roots were also directly rooted as microcuttings on soil rite, sand and peat mixture (1:1:1). In vitro and ex vitro raised plantlets were used for acclimatization. More than 90% of the plantlets was successfully acclimatized and established in plastic pots. Ex vitro transferred plantlets were normal without any phenotypic aberrations.

  2. Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of the rare and threatened plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Bekim; Abdullai, Kasamedin; Sota, Valbona; Kongjika, Efigjeni

    2015-01-01

    Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae are rare and endemo relict plant species from Balkan Peninsula. An efficient micro propagation and in vitro conservation method via direct and indirect organogenesis from seed and leaf explants, respectively, was established in this study. The seed of both Ramonda species were collected from different populations in Kosovo, and were germinated in nutrient media JG-B without any phytohormone. The highest number of shoots and multiplication rate was observed on JG-B medium supplemented with BAP and IAA (0.5 mg l(-1) each), whereas the highest number of leaves per plantlets was found on WPM and RA medium supplemented with BAP and IAA (0.1 mg l(-1) each). During this stage of micro propagation some significant differences were observed in plantlets from different populations. The indirect organogenesis from parts of leaves of natural plants was not successful due to unavailability of established protocol for disinfections of the plant material. On other hand, parts of leaves from micro propagated plantlets, cultured on MS medium supplemented with different ratio of BAP and NAA, resulted in the highest efficiency for shoot regeneration. In vitro conservation of micro propagated plants at the lower temperature (4 °C) had a significantly positive effect for storage of more than 12 months.

  3. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  4. Characterization of the Second Generation Cryopreserved Dendrobium Bobby Messina Using Histological and RAPD Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jeyanthi James Antony

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the morphological, histological and molecular diff erences in the second generation of the PVS2 cryopreserved Dendrobium Bobby Messina [DBM] (18 months old culture plantlets. Morphological analyses indicated that similarities and diff erences in cryopreserved DBM plantlets comparing to control stock culture based on selected morphological criteria. Morphological criteria, such as root length, number of shoot per explant and shoot length displayed diff erences, while the other three criteria, leaf diameter, leaf length and PLBs size were similar in cryopreserved compared to the control stock culture plant. Higher amount of homogenous cell population and denser cytoplasm were observed in cryopreserved PLBs compared to control stock culture PLBs based on histological analysis. This suggests the existance of somatic embryogenesis development mechanism taking place during the recovery and regeneration of the cryopreserved PLBs. However, RAPD analyses based on 10 primers indicated that cryopreserved DBM regenerated from vitrifi cation method generated a total of 20 to 39.9% polymorphic bands as compared to stock culture indicating potential somaclonal variation. Hence, an increase percentage of polymorphics bands in cryopreserved plantlets 18 months post cryopreservation as compared to previous report of 10% polymorphic bands in cryopreserved DBM 3 months post cryopreservation.

  5. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

    2011-01-01

    For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets.

  6. Identification of Genes Related to Paulownia Witches’ Broom by AFLP and MSAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L−1 MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB.

  7. In vitro propagation of threatened terrestrial orchid, Malaxis khasiana Soland ex. Swartz through immature seed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Chitta Ranjan; Temjensangba

    2006-09-01

    Rapid in vitro propagation of the terrestrial orchid, M. khasiana through immature seed culture was achieved. Immature seeds of 8-9 week after pollination (WAP) cultured on MS medium (2% sucrose) supplemented with 500 mgl(-1) casein-hydrolysate and 1 microM N6-benzyladenine (BA) exhibited germination of 75% seeds after 107 days of culture and subsequently supported the development of PLBs. Subsequent culture on MS medium enriched with 6 microM of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 18 microM each of BA and kinetin induced multiple shoots and plantlets. Transfer of PLBs to MS medium with 0.1% activated charcoal (AC) facilitated rapid proliferation of PLBs, while AC at 0.2% favored shoot bud induction and rhizome enlargement. The plantlets, developed on medium with IAA, BA and kinetin, after hardening in vitro for 8-10 weeks were planted in community pots and transferred to poly-house. The plantlets showed 65% survival under field conditions.

  8. Identification of genes related to Paulownia witches' broom by AFLP and MSAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-08-21

    DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L(-1) MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB.

  9. Biology and Yield of Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. under Field Conditions of the Czech Republic (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana DOLEŽALOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five rocket (Eruca sativa (L. Mill. varieties and accessions were cultivated under field conditions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe and subsequently studied for variation in morphology and yield. Two cultivation techniques (treatments were tested during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011: directly sown seeds in the field and plantlets cultivated in a glasshouse and later transplanted to the field. There were analysed four morphological parameters of the leaf rosette (leaf shape in outline, leaf margin, leaf apex and leaf colour, marketable yield, nonmarketable parts, and rosette radius. Plants from plantlets transplanted to the field in spring terms (April yielded a substantially higher marketable yield and had a higher rosette radius in contrast to plants from directly sown seeds. Conversely, for the summer terms (late August, September the direct sowing technique produced higher marketable yield in comparison with plantlets treatment. Plants cultivated from directly sowed seeds reached a marketable yield on average from 15 to 60 g per plant while transplanted plants produced on average from 10 to 49 g per plant. It is evident that cultivation of rocket under field conditions of the Czech Republic is possible and provides, when using the appropriate sowing term, more or less stable yields of marketable parts. Details on variation in yield parameters of individual varieties and accessions are presented.

  10. Pretreatment with alternation of light/dark periods improves the tolerance of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to clomazone herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Majd; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; El Maataoui, Mohamed; Urban, Laurent; Sallanon, Huguette

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the effects of alternation of light/dark periods pretreatment (AL) in tobacco plantlets (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.Virginie vk51) growing in solution with low concentration of the clomazone herbicide. The experimentation has been carried out by exposing the plantlets to successive and regulated periods of light (16min light/8min dark cycles, PAR 50μmolm(-2)s(-1)) for three days. The photosynthesis efficiency was determined by mean of the chlorophyll fluorescence and JIP-test. The AL pretreatment improved the clomazone tolerance; this has been observed by the increase in the leaf area of the plant, the maximal photochemical quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the actual PSII efficiency (ФPSII), the performance index (PIabs), the electron flux beyond Quinone A (1-VJ), and also by the diminution of the energy dissipating into heat (DI0/RC). Furthermore, AL pretreatment led to low accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which proves that the scavenging enzymatic system have been activated before clomazone treatment. In the plantlets pretreated with AL, with regard to the ascorbate content, some of antioxidant enzyme whose function is associated with it have continued to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by clomazone, such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR). So, the observed photooxidative damages induced by clomazone herbicide were noticeably reduced.

  11. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  12. Fitness analysis of seed and vegetative reproduction of clonal tree Symplocos laurina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yunchun; Du Xiaojun; Zhang Qiaoying; Gao Xianming; Su Zhixian

    2006-01-01

    There are two ways for Symplocos laurina to propagate: clonal reproduction and sexual reproduction.S.laurina adopted different ways to propagate and occupy space in different environments: under conditions with abundant water,nutrient resources,and lower light such as in an evergreen broad-leaved or a bamboo forest;survival rates and the ability of both clonal and sexual seedlings to occupy space,were relatively high.But clonal ramets took advantage both in terms of number and space.Therefore,clonal propagation predominated in such an environment.However,in habitats lacking sufficient nutrition and with higher light intensity,survival rates and space-occupying ability of two kinds of seedlings (sexual and asexual produced) were low and the space would be preempted by grown-up plantlets.A bottleneck in sexual "propagation appeared at the stage from seed to seedling,while in clonal propagation it appeared during the period from an asexual plantlet to a ramet.The way S.laurina invaded space was like that of a plantlet settled in a place and then occupied the space rapidly by clonal growth under conditions of abundant water and nutrient resources and lower light such as in an evergreen broad-leaved forest or a bamboo forest.Clonal seedlings showed a great advantage in the initial stages,but this advantage disappeared after 15 years.

  13. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  14. Study on Plant Regeneration of Wheat Mature Embryos Under Endosperm-Supported Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-ying; YUE Run-qing; XU Hai-xian; CHEN Xin-jian

    2006-01-01

    To reveal the suitability of using mature embryos as an explant source in wheat tissue culture, mature embryos from eight common wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. cv.) were cultured with or without endosperm to test their efficiency of callus induction and plant regeneration. When embryos were cultured together with endosperm (endosperm-supported culture, ES), the percentage of callus induction was significantly lower than that when embryos were cultured in the absence of endosperm (non-endosperm-supported culture, NES). This pattern was evident in most genotypes, regardless of whether 2 or 8 mg L-1 2,4-D was added in the NES culture. However, in ES culture, more induced calli were differentiated into distinct green spots and they further developed into plantlets. Thus, more plants were regenerated in ES culture than in the NES treatment. Most of the eight tested genotypes showed a significant difference in callus induction rate and plantlet regeneration in both ES and NES cultures. In addition, the enzymatic activity of oxalate oxidase in the callus of ES culture condition was obviously higher than that in the callus of NES culture condition, suggesting that the activity of oxalate oxidase may be a parameter for selection of calli with potential for plantlet regeneration. These results indicate that wheat mature embryos are valuable explants for highly efficient callus induction and plant regeneration, if proper treatment and medium are used.

  15. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOG(R)1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOG(R)1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOG(R)1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l(-1) 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOG(R)1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOG(R)1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  16. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  17. Evaluation on the Effectiveness of 2-Deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1 Gene as a Selectable Marker for Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Embryogenic Calli Transformation Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abang Masli eDayang Izawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOGR1, which encodes for 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed embryogenic calli were exposed to 400 mg l–1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  18. In vitro propagation and reintroduction of the endangered Renanthera imschootiana Rolfe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunlin; Zeng, Songjun; Lin, Danni; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Bu, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Jianxia; Duan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Renanthera imschootiana Rolfe is an endangered tropical epiphytic orchid that is threatened with extinction due to over-collection and the loss of suitable habitats. In vitro propagation is a useful way to mass produce plants for re-establishment in the wild and for commercial propagation. Seeds collected 150 days after pollination (DAP) were the optimum stage for in vitro culture. Seed germination reached 93.1% on quarter-strength MS (i.e., MS containing a quarter of macro- and micronutrients) medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 20% coconut water (CW), 1.0 g l(-1) peptone, 10 g l(-1) sucrose and 1.0 g l(-1) activated charcoal (AC). Quarter-strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) BA, 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA, 1.0 g l(-1) peptone, 10 g l(-1) sucrose and 20% CW was suitable for the sub-culture of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) in which the PLB proliferation ratio was 2.88. Quarter-strength MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA, 1.0 g l(-1) peptone, 100 g l(-1) banana homogenate (BH), and 1.0 g l(-1) AC was suitable for plantlet formation and 95.67% of plantlets developed from PLBs within 60 days of culture. Hyponex N016 medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA, 1.0 g l(-1) peptone, 20 g l(-1) sucrose, 150 g l(-1) BH, and 1.0 g l(-1) AC was suitable for the in vitro growth of plantlets about 2-cm in height. Plantlets 3-cm in height or taller were transplanted to Chilean sphagnum moss, and 95% of plantlets survived after 60 days in a greenhouse. Three hundred transplanted of seedlings 360-days old were reintroduced into three natural habitats. Highest percentage survival (79.67%) was observed in Yuanjiang Nature Reserve two years after reintroduction, followed by Huolu Mountain forest park (71.33%). This protocol is an efficient means for the large-scale propagation and in vitro and in vivo germplasm conservation of R. imschootiana.

  19. In vitro propagation and reintroduction of the endangered Renanthera imschootiana Rolfe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Wu

    Full Text Available Renanthera imschootiana Rolfe is an endangered tropical epiphytic orchid that is threatened with extinction due to over-collection and the loss of suitable habitats. In vitro propagation is a useful way to mass produce plants for re-establishment in the wild and for commercial propagation. Seeds collected 150 days after pollination (DAP were the optimum stage for in vitro culture. Seed germination reached 93.1% on quarter-strength MS (i.e., MS containing a quarter of macro- and micronutrients medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20% coconut water (CW, 1.0 g l(-1 peptone, 10 g l(-1 sucrose and 1.0 g l(-1 activated charcoal (AC. Quarter-strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1 BA, 0.5 mg l(-1 NAA, 1.0 g l(-1 peptone, 10 g l(-1 sucrose and 20% CW was suitable for the sub-culture of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs in which the PLB proliferation ratio was 2.88. Quarter-strength MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1 NAA, 1.0 g l(-1 peptone, 100 g l(-1 banana homogenate (BH, and 1.0 g l(-1 AC was suitable for plantlet formation and 95.67% of plantlets developed from PLBs within 60 days of culture. Hyponex N016 medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1 NAA, 1.0 g l(-1 peptone, 20 g l(-1 sucrose, 150 g l(-1 BH, and 1.0 g l(-1 AC was suitable for the in vitro growth of plantlets about 2-cm in height. Plantlets 3-cm in height or taller were transplanted to Chilean sphagnum moss, and 95% of plantlets survived after 60 days in a greenhouse. Three hundred transplanted of seedlings 360-days old were reintroduced into three natural habitats. Highest percentage survival (79.67% was observed in Yuanjiang Nature Reserve two years after reintroduction, followed by Huolu Mountain forest park (71.33%. This protocol is an efficient means for the large-scale propagation and in vitro and in vivo germplasm conservation of R. imschootiana.

  20. Microbiological Horticultural Internship Final Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shane R.; Spencer, Lashelle (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    GMO dwarf plum (Prunus domestica) is being evaluated as a candidate food crop for long duration space flight missions. A project was undertaken to develop a protocol for transferring selected genetic lines of GMO plum (previously maintained in pots and propagated by cuttings at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida) into in vitro tissue culture. In vitro culture may reduce the space, materials, and labor required to maintain the current lines of GMO plum and better preserve them for future study. Fresh plant material from three selected GMO plum lines (NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11) and a non-modified control line (Control-5) were processed aseptically into in vitro culture on four separate occasions. The impact of multiple treatments on the successful growth of GMO plum tissue in vitro were tested: Parent explant tissue type (leaf petioles, stem nodes containing buds and internodes without buds), tissue sterilization method [soaking in 10 bleach only (5 min for petioles or 10 min for nodesinternodes), or soaking in 70 EtOH (30 sec) followed by 10 bleach (5 min for petioles and 10 min for nodesinternodes)], and media type [three Murashige and Skoog-based medias (SGM, SRM, and SRM+2,4-D) and one recipe containing woody plant media (WPM)]. 22.2 of the plates containing tissue sterilized with bleach alone developed microbial contamination after two weeks, while only 11.8 of plates containing tissue sterilized sequentially with EtOH and bleach developed contamination. Node bud tissue from all four genetic lines of plum produced leafy plantlets on SGM and SRM media after 4-6 weeks. The most numerous and well-developed plantlets were present on SGM. Upon reaching suitable size, plantlets were transferred to larger media containers for further growth. Some node bud growth occurred on SRM+2,4-D and WPM 2.5 weeks after plating, however as of yet no pieces on SRM+2,4-D have adequate development for transferring. Tissue pieces from NASA-5 plated on WPM are developing leaves

  1. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  2. Efeito das xiloglucanas de sementes e derivados no crescimento de Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tourinho Salamoni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on xyloglucan (XG extracted from Hymenaea courbaril L. (jatoba seeds showed that this biopolymer has biological activity that enhanced wheat coleoptiles growth. In apple tree micropropagation, the culture medium containing XG combined with agar induced a higher multiplication rate, rooting rate and root length than medium solidified with agar only. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of XG from jatobá seeds extracted from jatoba seeds collected in Sinope/MT (XGS and Cuiabá/MT (XGC, and from XGC hydrolysed with a cellulase (XGCH, as well from Tamarindus indica seeds (XGT collected in Bahia/BA, on the growth of in vitro cultured Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets. In the first experiment, XGCH (0.25, 25 and 250 nM or XGC (0.5, 50 and 500 nM were added to a liquid half-strength MS medium. In the second experiment, XGs from several origins were compared: XGC (500 nM, XGS (1200 nM and XGT (800 nM, using culture medium solidified with 6 g.L-1agar. Arabidopsis thaliana L. seeds germinated in Petri plates for 4 to 5 days were transferred to culture media containing the different concentrations of XGs and cultured in a growing room. When the plantlets were cultured in a liquid medium, their growth was very slow in the presence of XGC and XGCH at the highest concentration tested, and it was faster at the lowest concentration. In the semi-solid culture medium, XGs also reduced growth. It was concluded that XGs can play a biological role in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. plantlets, stimulating or inhibiting the root system growth and the lateral root formation. These opposite effects varied according to the plant specie that furnished the seeds containing XG, as well as the place where the seeds were collected, to the XG form used (hydrolyzed or not and to its concentration in the culture media.

  3. In vitro germination and propagation of a threatened medicinal orchid,Cymbidium aloifolium(L.) Sw.through artificial seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shreeti; Pradhan; Babulal; Tiruwa; Bijay; Raj; Subedee; Bijaya; Pant

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the in vitro germination and plantlet regeneration from artificial seeds of Cymbidium aloifolium(C.aloifolium),a highly threatened medicinal orchid of Nepal.Methods:Artificial seeds were produced in vitro by encapsulation of protocorms with 4%sodium alginate and 0.2 mol/L calcium chloride solution.In vitro germination and plantlet regeneration of the artificial seeds were tested by culturing them on different strength of Murashige and Skoog(MS) liquid media(0.25,0.5 and 1.0) and MS liquid medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzyl amino purine and 0.5 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid.Freshly produced artificial seeds were stored up to 28 d at 4 ℃.In order to check the viability,storage artificial seeds were treated with five different sterilization techniques(T1 T2,T3 T4,T5) and inoculated on full strength(1.0) of MS liquid medium after each 7 d of interval upto28 th days.Results:The highest percentage of germination(100%) of artificial seed was obtained on quarter(0.25),half(0.5) and full(1.0) strength of MS liquid medium.Experimentally,full strength of MS liquid medium was more effective for earlier seedling development of C.aloifolium.Artificial seeds were successfully stored at 4 ℃ till 28 th days.Treatments T1 and T2showed 97.5%viability of storage artificial seeds and hence considered as the most effective sterilization techniques to recover the plant from storage artificial seeds.Plantlets developed from artificial seeds were successfully acclimatized in potting mixture containing cocopeat,litter and sphagnum moss with 85%survival rate.Conclusions:The present study revealed that artificial seeds are the good alternative explants for in vitro mass propagation and short term conservation of C.aloifolium.

  4. In vitro germination and propagation of a threatened medicinal orchid, Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. through artificial seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shreeti Pradhan; Babulal Tiruwa; Bijay Raj Subedee; Bijaya Pant

    2014-01-01

    To study the in vitro germination and plantlet regeneration from artificial seeds of Cymbidium aloifolium (C. aloifolium), a highly threatened medicinal orchid of Nepal. Methods: Artificial seeds were produced in vitro by encapsulation of protocorms with 4%sodium alginate and 0.2 mol/L calcium chloride solution. In vitro germination and plantlet regeneration of the artificial seeds were tested by culturing them on different strength of Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid media (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) and MS liquid medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzyl amino purine and 0.5 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Freshly produced artificial seeds were stored up to 28 d at 4 ºC. In order to check the viability, storage artificial seeds were treated with five different sterilization techniques (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5) and inoculated on full strength (1.0) of MS liquid medium after each 7 d of interval upto 28th days. Results: The highest percentage of germination (100%) of artificial seed was obtained on quarter (0.25), half (0.5) and full (1.0) strength of MS liquid medium. Experimentally, full strength of MS liquid medium was more effective for earlier seedling development of C. aloifolium. Artificial seeds were successfully stored at 4 ºC till 28th days. Treatments T1 and T2 showed 97.5% viability of storage artificial seeds and hence considered as the most effective sterilization techniques to recover the plant from storage artificial seeds. Plantlets developed from artificial seeds were successfully acclimatized in potting mixture containing cocopeat, litter and sphagnum moss with 85% survival rate. Conclusions: The present study revealed that artificial seeds are the good alternative explants for in vitro mass propagation and short term conservation of C. aloifolium.

  5. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans A. Krens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic

  6. Efecto de Dicamba y de ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético sobre la embriogénesis somática en caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve sugarcane germplasm, produce microbial disease-free material, detect resistance to diseases and pests, etc., in vitro propagation of sugarcane has been established in many commercial varieties. In this sense, the aim of this work was to analyze the efficiency of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D and 3,6-dichloro -2- methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba to induce somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plantlets from sugarcane varieties C26670, RB855546, V99245, V756, V781, V0050, CC8592, CC8475. For induction of embryogenic callus, leaf discs in tillering stage of 1 cm diameter and 2 mm thick, were inoculated on Murashige-Skoog, 1962 medium (MS, supplemented with 50 ml.l-1 coconut water, 30 g.l-1sucrose and two different treatments: 3 mg.l-1 2,4D or 6.63 mg.l-1 Dicamba, both of them in total darkness at 25 °C, during 1 month. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to ½ MS salts supplemented with coconut water 200 ml.l-1 and sucrose 60 g.l-1 and incubated under continuous light, 25 °C, for 2 months. The highest percent of embryogenic callus induction was obtained in media supplemented with Dicamba, an average of 70.83 % of embryogenic callus by variety, while in media with 2,4-D, 62.08 % of embryogenic callus was obtained by variety. An average of 89,00 % of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media with Dicamba and an average of 66.12% of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media supplemented with 2,4D. Using Dicamba it was possible to establish an efficient somatic embryogenesis protocol for these sugarcane varieties.

  7. EFFECT OF PERMEABLE VESSEL CLOSURE AND GELLING AGENT ON REDUCTION OF HYPERHYDRICITY IN IN VITRO CULTURE OF CARNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Winarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydricity, an abnormal morphological appearance and physiologicalfunction, is an important problem in carnation tissue culture. The problem causes premature flowering, high occurrence of abnormal shoots, difficulty in transferring hyperhydric plantlets to soil, and low survival rate of plantlets. High relative humidity and the water potential are considered as the key factors involved in the abnormality. Furthermore, permeable culture vessel and gelling agent were assured to be high potential treatment to eliminate it. Objective of this research was to reduce  hyperhydricity in regenerants of carnation using different permeable vessel closures and gelling agents and to assess the multiplication and  acclimatization abilities of recovered shoots. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. First factor was different types of closure, i.e. cotton wool, plastic wrap, parafilm and aluminium foil, while second one was gelling agents, i.e. bacto agar, phytagel, swallow agar, and Type 900 agar. The recovered shoots were then multiplied, rooted, and acclimatized. The results showed that hyperhydricity was successfully reduced by applying permeable closure (cotton wool and plastic wrap in combination with Type 900 agar. The combination of plastic wrap and Type 900 agar was the most appropriate treatment in reducing hyperhydricity and producing good quality shoots. The treatment reduced the problem down to 23% of total condition of hyperhydricity (100% and increased leaf chlorophyll content from 0.0883 to 0.1288 mg mg-1. The plastic wrap was easily applied and cheaper material compared to cotton wool. The recovered shoots were able to produce 1-3 healthy axillary shoots and easily rooted on half-strength MS. The recovered plantlets were simply acclimatized with survival rate up to 100% on kossas peat + soil (1:1, v/v and flowered 4-5 months after acclimatization with decreasing in number and size of flower.

  8. An effective nutrient medium for asymbiotic seed germination and large-scale in vitro regeneration of Dendrobium hookerianum, a threatened orchid of northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sumi; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dendrobium hookerianum is a rare and threatened epiphytic orchid of northeast India. Prospects for conservation would be strengthened by developing an in vitro method for mass propagation. Seeds are minute and difficult to use directly in the field for this purpose, being non-endospermous with a low nutrient content and dependent on a specific fungus for germination and early seedling development. Although produced in large numbers (2–3 million per capsule), develop a rapid and successful method for in vitro propagation based on an initial in vitro asymbiotic seed germination step that achieved high percentages. Methodology Effects of four different media, i.e. (i) Murashige and Skoog (MS), (ii) Mitra et al., (iii) Knudson (KC) and (iv) Gamborg et al. (B5), were evaluated for large-scale multiplication by asymbiotic seed germination. Seedling leaf number, shoot number, shoot length, root number and root length were scored. After 7–8 months, large numbers of well-rooted plantlets were transferred to a glasshouse in thermocol pots containing compost. Six different composts based on broken brick and charcoal were compared for their ability to support further development over 90 days of hardening. Principal results The fastest and highest percentage seed germination was achieved using MS medium. Seeds on MS medium germinated in 3–4 weeks compared with 7–8 weeks on B5 medium. Seedling development was also superior on MS medium. The inclusion of plant growth regulators was unnecessary. Compost comprising broken brick and charcoal with an upper layer of moss was found to be the most suitable for the survival of transferred plantlets. Ninety per cent survival of plantlets was achieved 90 days after transfer to a glasshouse. Conclusions The use of MS culture medium is well suited for the mass multiplication of D. hookerianum plants intended for re-introducing this threatened orchid into the wild.

  9. Efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration of Solanum lycopersicum and assessment genetic uniformity using flow cytometry and SPAR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A. Alatar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we develop an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system for two cultivars viz., Jamila and Tomaland of Solanum lycopersicum L., an economically important vegetable crop throughout the world. Sterilization of seeds with 2.5% (v/v NaOCl was found to be most effective, about 97% of seeds germinated on cotton in magenta box moistened with sterile half strength (½Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. Regeneration efficiency of cotyledonary leaf (CL and cotyledonary node (CN explants derived from 08 days old aseptic seedling were assessed on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinin. CL explants were found more responsive in comparison to CN in both the cultivars. Types of basal media were also assessed and found to have a significant effect on shoot regeneration. Highest regeneration frequency and maximum number of shoots were standardized from CL explants on MS medium supplied with 6-benzyl adenine (BA; 5.0 µM, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 2.5 µM and Kinetin (Kin; 10.0 µM. In vitro regenerated microshoots were rooted on ½MS medium containing 0.5 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. Regenerated plantlets with well-developed roots and shoot system were successfully acclimated to ex vitro condition. Genetic uniformity of tissue culture raised plantlets was first time evaluated using flow cytometry and single primer amplification reaction (SPAR methods viz., DAMD and ISSR. No significant changes in ploidy level and nuclear DNA content profile were observed between in vitro propagated plants and normal plants of both the cultivars. Similarly, the SPAR analysis also revealed monomorphic banding patterns in regenerated plantlets of S. lycopersicum verifying their genetic uniformity and clonal fidelity. This efficient regeneration system can be used as a fast and reproducible method for genetic transformation of this important vegetable crop.

  10. Bioprospecting in potato fields in the Central Andean Highlands: screening of rhizobacteria for plant growth-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyselinck, Jonas; Velivelli, Siva L S; Heylen, Kim; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Franco, Javier; Rojas, Mercy; De Vos, Paul; Prestwich, Barbara Doyle

    2013-03-01

    The Central Andean Highlands are the center of origin of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Ages of mutualism between potato plants and soil bacteria in this region support the hypothesis that Andean soils harbor interesting plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate rhizobacteria from Andean ecosystems, and to identify those with PGP properties. A total of 585 bacterial isolates were obtained from eight potato fields in the Andes and they were screened for suppression of Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani. Antagonistic mechanisms were determined and antagonistic isolates were further tested for phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, and production of NH3- and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). PGP was studied in healthy and R. solani diseased plantlets under growth room conditions. Performance was compared to the commercial strain B. subtilis FZB24(®) WG. Isolates were dereplicated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA). A total of 10% of the isolates were effective antagonists, of which many were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce IAA, ACC deaminase, NH3 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). During growth room experiments, 23 antagonistic isolates were associated with plant growth-promotion and/or disease suppression. Ten isolates had a statistically significant impact on test parameters compared to the uninoculated control. Three isolates significantly promoted plant growth in healthy plantlets compared to the commercial strain, and seven isolates outperformed the commercial strain in in vitro R. solani diseased plantlets.

  11. Application of bioreactor system for large-scale production of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus somatic embryos in an air-lift bioreactor and production of eleutherosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohael, A M; Chakrabarty, D; Yu, K W; Hahn, E J; Paek, K Y

    2005-11-04

    Embryogenic callus was induced from leaf explants of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), while no plant growth regulators were needed for embryo maturation. The addition of 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-D was needed to maintain the embryogenic culture by preventing embryo maturation. Optimal embryo germination and plantlet development was achieved on MS medium with 4 mg l(-1) gibberellic acid (GA(3)). Low-strength MS medium (1/2 and 1/3 strength) was more effective than full-strength MS for the production of normal plantlets with well-developed shoots and roots. The plants were successfully transferred to soil. Embryogenic callus was used to establish a suspension culture for subsequent production of somatic embryos in bioreactor. By inoculating 10 g of embryogenic cells (fresh weight) into a 3l balloon type bubble bioreactor (BTBB) containing 2l MS medium without plant growth regulators, 121.8 g mature somatic embryos at different developmental stages were harvested and could be separated by filtration. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were germinated, and these converted into plantlets following transfer to a 3l BTBB containing 2l MS medium with 4 mg l(-1) GA3. HPLC analysis revealed that the total eleutherosides were significantly higher in leaves of field grown plants as compared to different stages of somatic embryo. However, the content of eleutheroside B was highest in germinated embryos. Germinated embryos also had higher contents of eleutheroside E and eleutheroside E1 as compared to other developmental stages. This result indicates that an efficient protocol for the mass production of E. sessiliflorus biomass can be achieved by bioreactor culture of somatic embryos and can be used as a source of medicinal raw materials.

  12. Assessment of genetic stability in micropropagules of Jatropha curcas genotypes by RAPD and AFLP analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a drought resistant non edible oil yielding plant, has acquired significant importance as an alternative renewable energy source. Low and inconsistent yields found in field plantations prompted for identification of high yielding clones and their large scale multiplication by vegetative propagation to obtain true to type plants. In the current investigation plantlets of J. curcas generated by axillary bud proliferation (micropropagation) using nodal segments obtained from selected high yielding genotypes were assessed for their genetic stability using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analyses. For RAPD analysis, 21 out of 52 arbitrary decamer primers screened gave clear reproducible bands. In the micropropagated plantlets obtained from the 2nd sub-culture, 4 out of a total of 177 bands scored were polymorphic, but in the 8th and 16th sub-cultures (culture cycle) no polymorphisms were detected. AFLP analysis revealed 0.63%, 0% and 0% polymorphism in the 2nd, 8th and 16th generations, respectively. When different genotypes, viz. IC 56557 16, IC 56557 34 and IC 56557 13, were assessed by AFLP, 0%, 0.31% and 0.47% polymorphisms were found, respectively, indicating a difference in genetic stability among the different genotypes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on assessment of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets in J. curcas and suggests that axillary shoot proliferation can safely be used as an efficient micropropagation method for mass propagation of J. curcas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. In vitro co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: a biotechnological approach to study pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Sena, Inês; Vieira da Silva, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Barbosa, Pedro; Ascensão, Lia; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were established as a biotechnological tool to evaluate the effect of nematotoxics addition in a host/parasite culture system. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), was detected for the first time in Europe in 1999 spreading throughout the pine forests in Portugal and recently in Spain. Plant in vitro cultures may be a useful experimental system to investigate the plant/nematode relationships in loco, thus avoiding the difficulties of field assays. In this study, Pinus pinaster in vitro cultures were established and compared to in vivo 1 year-old plantlets by analyzing shoot structure and volatiles production. In vitro co-cultures were established with the PWN and the effect of the phytoparasite on in vitro shoot structure, water content and volatiles production was evaluated. In vitro shoots showed similar structure and volatiles production to in vivo maritime pine plantlets. The first macroscopic symptoms of PWD were observed about 4 weeks after in vitro co-culture establishment. Nematode population in the culture medium increased and PWNs were detected in gaps of the callus tissue and in cavities developed from the degradation of cambial cells. In terms of volatiles main components, plantlets, P. pinaster cultures, and P. pinaster with B. xylophilus co-cultures were all β- and α-pinene rich. Co-cultures may be an easy-to-handle biotechnological approach to study this pathology, envisioning the understanding of and finding ways to restrain this highly devastating nematode.

  14. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  15. Genetic Diversity in Haploid Nicotiana alata Induced by Gamma Irradiation, Salt Tolerance and Detection of These Differences by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Haploid plants of Nicotiana alata were cultured in vitro on MS medium with IAA + KIN. The resulting plantlets were irradiated using gamma radiation doses of 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. Single node pieces were cut and transferred onto fresh MS medium. Gamma radiation doses caused the death of 9% and up to 28% of explants. NaCl concentrations caused the death of 8% up to 36% of explants, while the combined effect between gamma radiation doses and salinity had an impact suffused on the percentage of survival. The combined effect of gamma radiation doses 20 Gy and 25 Gy on NaCl concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 mM were deadly. Even more, the combined effect of gamma radiation doses and salinity had a severe negative impact on both the proline content and total soluble protein. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to determine the degree of genetic variation in treated haploid Nicotiana alata plants. Total genomic DNAs from different haploid plantlets treated were amplified using five arbitrary primers. Two hundred and seventy bands were detected from plantlets irradiated with doses of 15, 20 and 25 Gy, with polymorphic band number 226 (83.7%. The total number of bands resulted from plant grew on 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl were 260 bands with polymorphic bands 185 (85.6%. However, the total number of bands produced from combined effects between gamma rays and salinity (20 Gy X 50 mM NaCl, 20 Gy X 100 mM NaCl and 25 Gy X 50 mM NaCl were 270, with polymorphic band number 231 (85.5%. High similarity between treatments was revealed. Treatments relationships were estimated through cluster analysis (UPGMA based on RAPD data.

  16. [Changes in the growth and photosynthesis of cotton seedlings under progressive drought after saltwater irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-jie; Bai, Xin-fu; Qi, Lin; Zhu, Jian-jun; Zhang, Zhen-hua

    2014-12-01

    Pot grown cotton plants were watered with saltwater (NaCl solutions of different concentrations), followed by a duration of progressive drought stress. The changes in plantlet growth, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence were measured, and the water status of the plantlets, such as relative water content, water potential, osmotic potential, the Na+ and K+ contents in leaves during drought were measured and analyzed, in order to get an insight into the role of Na+ played in the adaptation of cotton to drought stress. The results showed that the growth of the plantlets was significantly inhibited, the net photosynthetic rates were remarkably lowered by the drought stress, but the plant height, biomass, net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm values in the cotton plants watered with 25-100 mmol x L(-1) x NaCl solution under drought stress were significantly higher than those watered with water under the same intensity of drought stress. Meanwhile, the soil and leaf relative water content, cell turgor, Na+ concentration in plants watered with 25-100 mmol x L(-1) NaCl solution were all significantly higher compared with that of plants watered with water, but the plant water potential and tissue osmotic potential were significantly lower with the decrease in tissue osmotic potential significantly correlated with the Na+ content. These results indicated that the presence of a moderate amount of Na+ in the soil could improve the water status of both the soil and the cotton plants, accelerate the absorption and accumulation of Na+ in the roots, lower the tissue osmotic potential, thereby enhancing the suction force of water in plant for maintaining a high cell turgor to maintain a relatively higher photosynthetic rate and growth rate. In this sense, it was suggested that the existence of a certain amount of NaCl in soil could effectively alleviate the adverse effects of drought on cotton.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudostellaria heterophylla in response to the infection of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianjin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Wu, Linkun; Lin, Sheng; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Boorboori, Mohammad Reza; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-09-18

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla (P. heterophylla), a herbaceous perennial, belongs to Caryophyllaceae family and is one of the Chinese herbal medicine with high pharmacodynamic value. It can be used to treat the spleen deficiency, anorexia, weakness after illness and spontaneous perspiration symptoms. Our previous study found that consecutive monoculture of Pseudostellaria heterophylla could lead to the deterioration of the rhizosphere microenvironment. The specialized forms of pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.Sp. heterophylla (F. oxysporum) in rhizosphere soils of P. heterophylla plays an important role in the consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. In this study, F. oxysporum was used to infect the tissue culture plantlets of P. heterophylla to study the responding process at three different infection stages by using RNA-sequencing. We obtained 127,725 transcripts and 47,655 distinct unigenes by de novo assembly and obtained annotated information in details for 25,882 unigenes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and the real-time quantitative PCR results suggest that the calcium signal system and WRKY transcription factor in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway may play an important role in the response process, and all of the WRKY transcription factor genes were divided into three different types. Moreover, we also found that the stimulation of F. oxysporum may result in the accumulation of some phenolics in the plantlets and the programmed cell death of the plantlets. This study has partly revealed the possible molecular mechanism of the population explosion of F. oxysporum in rhizosphere soils and signal response process, which can be helpful in unraveling the role of F. oxysporum in consecutive monoculture problems of P. heterophylla.

  18. Plant regeneration from callus culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Prasertsongskun

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to establish cell suspension culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash from Surat Thani germplasm source and efficient plant regeneration from callus derived from such cultures. Cell suspension cultures were established from calli derived from inflorescence of vetiver. Optimum cell proliferation occurred in liquid N6 medium supplemented with 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 10 mM proline. The cell suspension formed the highest small colonies when plated on solid MS medium containing 0.45 μM 2,4-D. After subsequent transfer to regeneration medium (MS free medium 65% of plantlets were obtained.

  19. Crescimento de plântulas do milho 'Saracura' e atividade de alfa-amilase e invertases associados ao aumento da tolerância ao alagamento exercido pelo cálcio exógeno Growth of maize 'Saracura' (BRS-4154 and alpha-amylase and invertases activity associated with the increase of flooding tolerance caused by exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Deitos Fries

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento da plântula e o metabolismo de carboidratos associados ao aumento da tolerância à hipoxia exercido pela presença do cálcio no período de germinação e/ou alagamento de plântulas de milho com diferentes idades. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, em 2002. Cariopses de milho da variedade 'Saracura' (BRS-4154 foram germinadas em água ou solução de CaCl2. Após dois e quatro dias, as plântulas foram submetidas ao alagamento em tubos de PVC com tampão (com ou sem CaCl2 por três dias, sendo então avaliadas a sobrevivência, massa seca e as características bioquímicas. O cálcio aumentou a sobrevivência ao alagamento de plântulas com quatro dias, entretanto, não influenciou naquelas com dois dias. O alagamento reduziu a massa seca das plântulas sem prejudicar sua recuperação pós-estresse, entretanto, o cálcio influenciou no acúmulo de massa seca pós-hipoxia somente em plântulas com quatro dias, mostrando uma recuperação mais rápida dos danos causados no período de alagamento, o que ocorre em plântulas de dois dias de germinação, independentemente desse elemento. Em plântulas mais jovens também houve maior mobilização das reservas de amido, assim como, maior translocação e utilização dessas reservas. O alagamento reduziu drasticamente a atividade da invertase ácida do vacúolo, independentemente da presença do cálcio, comprovando sua não participação nos processos comandados por essa enzima. A redução na atividade das invertases favorece menor concentração de hexoses, diminuindo a respiração anaeróbica e, conseqüentemente, a produção de substâncias tóxicas, aumentando a sobrevida das plântulas em condições de hipoxia.This research evaluated the plantlet growth and carbohydrate metabolism associated with the increase in hypoxia tolerance caused by calcium presence during germination and/or flooding of maize plantlets with

  20. Micropropagation of Elaeagnus angustifolia from mature trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, J M; De La Iglesia, M; Pérez, C

    1995-10-01

    Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal segments of mature trees of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. cultured on MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962) supplemented with 0, 0.88 or 2.22 micro M N(6)-benzyladenine. When nodal segments taken from the in vitro proliferated shoots were cultured under the same conditions, additional multiple shoots were obtained. Rooting of the in vitro propagated shoots was achieved on full strength MS medium or on MS supplemented with 2.46 micro M indole-3-butyric acid. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil.

  1. In Vitro Propagation of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAĞ, Bengi BABA

    1999-01-01

    In vitro propagation of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. (Lamiaceae), an endemic from western Anatolia was investigated. Sterilized seeds of the plant were germinated on modified Murashige-Skoog medium (mMS) and Heller's nutrient media. Then, seedlings were transferred to Murashige-Skoog basal medium containing 0.4 mg/l Naphtaleneacetic acid, (NAA) and 3 mg/l Benzyladenin (BA) and then they formed callus where they were in contact with the medium. Plantlets which regenerated on the same medium...

  2. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  3. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  4. Micropropagation of Lavandula spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Lavandula species are some of the most popular ornamental and medicinal plants with great economic values. These species are vegetative propagated by stem cuttings. However, the poor rooting ability and vulnerability of plantlets to contamination are major limiting factors for propagation. In vitro culture methods are suitable to overcome these limitations. This chapter describes protocols for in vitro propagation of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and Lavandula vera DC. Nodal shoot proliferation of L. viridis and plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of L. vera by an "open culture system" are highlighted.

  5. Reference: 495 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 495 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17169919i Goyer Aymeric et al. 2007 Fe...wth on L-methionine as sole nitrogen source and conferred a high rate of methanethiol emission. The purified...ion, indicating that AtMGL carries a significant flux in vivo. In Arabidopsis plantlets fed L-[(35)S]methion...ive to the reverse trans-sulfuration pathway. 2 232-42 17169919 2007 Feb Plant & cell physiology Collakova Eva|Goyer Aymeric|Hanson Andrew D|Shachar-Hill Yair

  6. Associação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e cultivares micropropagadas de antúrio Mycorrhizal fungi and micropropagated cultivars of Anthurium associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cesare Stancato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para a formação de mudas, plântulas micropropagadas de antúrio (Anthurium andraeanum são submetidas a uma das etapas mais críticas na cultura de tecidos de plantas que é a da aclimatização. Uma forma de se estimular a autotrofia pode ser o estabelecimento da associação de fungos micorrízicos e as raízes das plântulas de antúrio. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da associação micorrízica em plântulas de antúrio, foi realizado um experimento, em casa de vegetação, empregando-se as cultivares IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno e IAC Ômega e os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum e Acaulospora sp., em substrato orgânico, na fase de aclimatização das plântulas micropropagadas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que houve resposta das cultivares de antúrio à micorrização, em termos de produção de matéria seca, e que a eficiência simbiótica variou com a cultivar e o fungo micorrízico associado.One of the most important steps on micropropagated Anthurium plantlets is the acclimatization. Mycorrhization could be a process that helps the plantlets to change to the autotrophic state. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the mycorrhizal association on the growth of Anthurium cultivars. A experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using the cultivars IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno and IAC Ômega and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Acaulospora sp., in organic substrate, at the plantlets acclimatization stage. The results showed that there was increase in shoot dry matter in mycorrhizal plantlets and that the symbiotic efficiency varied according to the cultivar and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  7. Callus induction and plant regeneration from mature zygotic embryos of a tetraploid Alstroemeria (A. pelegrina × A. psittacina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M J; Tsujita, J M; Saxena, P K

    1994-12-01

    A simple procedure was developed to induce callus growth and whole plant regeneration for a tetraploid cultivar of Alstroemeria. The callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos cultured on a medium supplemented with 20 μM kinetin with 10 or 20 μM NAA, could be maintained for one year without any loss of regeneration potential. Maximum frequency of regeneration (40%) was obtained with calli maintained on the medium containing 20 μM kinetin and 20 μM NAA. Whole plant regeneration occurred via somatic embryogenesis in the absence of growth regulators and the plantlets grew to maturity and flowered in the greenhouse conditions.

  8. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2010-01-01

    culture ability in immature embryo culture i.e. Femina, Salome and Corniche. Barley spikes were emasculated and hand pollinated 3 days after emasculation. In barley, fertilization takes place one hour after pollination and ovules with fertilized egg cells could therefore be isolated one hour after...... pollination. Ovules were grown for 3 weeks on a culture medium where after embryos could be isolated and transferred to regeneration medium. An average of 1.2 green plantlets per ovule could be regenerated from 50 % of the isolated ovules. No genotypic differences were found on embryo induction...

  9. In Vitro Propagation of Desmodium gangeticum (L. DC. from Cotyledonary Nodal Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U R Vishwakarma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro procedure for rapid multiplication of medicinally important plant Desmodium gangeticum (L. DC. (Fabaceae, has been developed using cotyledonary nodal explant. An average of 9.2 shoots per explant were obtained by culturing cotyledonary nodal explaint on Murashige and Skoog′s medium containing 8.8 μM BAP and 21.2 μM NAA, in combination, within 28 days. These shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with IAA 17.1 μM. Rooted plantlets were hardened using 1:1:1 mixture of soil, river sand and vermiculite under green house conditions.

  10. Biosynthesis of tetrahydrofuran lignans in Virola surinamensis Biossíntese de lignanas tetraidrofurânicas em Virola surinamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Peporine Lopes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The labelled substrates phenylalanine and phenylpropanoid E-isoeugenol were incorporated to 5-methoxy-4-O-methyl-E-isoeugenol (E-isoelemicin and to the tetrahydrofuran lignan verrucosin in plantlets of Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae.Através de experimentos de administração in vivo em plântulas de Virola surinamensis, observaram-se as incorporações de fenilalanina e do fenilpropanóide E-isoeugenol no 4-O-metil-5-metoxi-E-isoeugenol (E-isoelemicina e na lignana tetraidrofurânica verrucosina.

  11. Plant regeneration from excised bulb scale segments of Zephyranthes robusta Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Furmanowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zephyranthes robusta Baker excised bulb scale segments with the basal plate were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in four modifications. The cultures were kept at 25°C in darkness. The best results (bulbing, leaf development and rooting were obtained on MS medium with 1 mg/l IBA, 2-6 bulblets being developed from one explant. After 6 weeks the plantlets (4-6 cm high were transferred to pots filled with sterilized soil mixes. After two months the leaves of the plants reached a length of 20 cm.

  12. Effect of Silver Nitrate DuringEx vitro Acclimatization of Micropropagated Ginger Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate (AgNO3 was used under in vitro conditions to study the response of ginger cultivars ‘Nadia’ and ‘Baishey’ under ex vitro. Micropropagated plants treated with AgNO3 showed significant difference (p<0.05 compared to those plantlets without AgNO3 and control type in almost all the different quantitative traits analyzed. Significant difference in number of finger per plant and minirhizome yield indicated the repercussion of AgNO3 during acclimatization.

  13. Synergistic effect of BAP and GA3 on in vitro flowering of Guizotia abyssinica Cass.-A multipurpose oil crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, S; Bansal, Y K

    2014-04-01

    Apical and axillary buds of Guizotia abyssinica Cass., isolated from seedlings raised in vitro, were cultured. High frequency of shoot regeneration was achieved on MS medium with BAP (1 mgl(-1)). Effect of BAP, Kn and GA3 applied successively in culture on shoot regeneration and flower bud formation has been studied. The shoots differentiated in cultures elongated on this medium. These rooted subsequently on half strength MS medium. The shoots flowered in vitro on MS medium with a combination of BAP (0.1mgl(-1)) + GA3 (0.1 mgl(-1)). The plantlets thus formed were successfully hardened with 90 % survival.

  14. RESEARCH REGARDING THE POTENTIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS ON PLANTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-IRINA PATRICIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that growth and morphogenesis of plant tissue cultures can be improved by small amounts of some organic compounds. Heterocyclic compounds such as chromanones and thiazoles derivatives, valuable because of their potential biological activities, have also been reported as pesticides, herbicides and plant-growth regulators. In the present study, different concentrations of chromanones and thiazoles derivatives were employed to evaluate their effects on plantlets growth of Ocimum basilicum L. and Echinacea purpurea L. The studied compounds were proved to be growth inhibitors at high concentrations. A growth stimulation effect was registered at low concentration.

  15. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Cotae, Vlad

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 mul/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 mul/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  16. Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Musella lasiocarpa, a Rare Chinese Medicinal and Ornamental Herb%珍稀药用和观赏植物地涌金莲的组织培养和快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宋君; 吴坤林; 陈之林; 段俊

    2007-01-01

    An efficient and rapid micropropagation system by using auxiliary buds as explants has been established for Musella lasiocarpa. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine, 0.2 mg L-1 1-napthaleneacetic acid, 150 mg L-1 vitamin C, 10% coconut milk and 3% sucrose was suitable for shoot induction and proliferation from divided buds. Each explant produced an average of 4.10 shoots after 60-day culture. After the sixth subculture, the shoot proliferation rate of plantlets was 4.23-fold. The half-strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid and 150 mg L-1 activated charcoal was suitable for rooting. When micropropagated plantlets with well-developed root systems were transferred to planting bed containing a mixture of sand, sieved peat and perlite (1∶1∶1; v/v) in a greenhouse, 93.5% of the plantlets survived. About 10 000 plantlets were produced successfully for field transfer after 12 months of culture initiation. This production system is useful for ex situ conservation and large-scale multiplication of M. lasiocarpa.%以地涌金莲(Musella lasiocarpa)吸芽为外植体建立了有效的快繁体系.外植体经灭菌处理后在MS+6-BA 4.0 mg L-1+NAA 0.2 mg L-1+维生素C 150 mg L-1+10%椰子乳+3%蔗糖培养基上能进行不定芽的诱导和增殖,培养60 d后每个芽平均能产生4.10个不定芽.第6代增殖后,丛生芽的增殖系数可达4.23.生根培养基以1/2MS+NAA 1.0 mg L-1+AC 50 mg L-1的效果较好.以沙:泥炭土:珍珠岩=1:1:1为基质移栽试管苗,成活率达到93.5%以上.经过12个月的组织培养已生产10 000多株试管苗.

  17. Use of an in vitro adventitious bud technique for mutation breeding of Begonia x hiemalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roest, S.; van Berkel, M.A.E.; Bokelmann, G.S.; Broertjes, C. (Instituut voor Toepassing van Atoomenergie in de Landbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands))

    1981-06-01

    An in vitro propagation of two genotypes of Begonia x hiemalis was achieved through adventitious shoot formation on (sub) cultured leaf-disc explants and subsequent transplantation to soil of explant-parts with adventitious shoots. After irradiation of detached leaves with different doses of X-rays and two cycles of adventitious shoot formation on in vitro (sub) cultured leaf-disc explants, plantlets were produced. About 30% of these plants was mutated with respect to e.g. the colour, size and form of the leaves and flowers. The great majority of the mutants (98.5%) proved to be solid (non-chimeric).

  18. Efficient shoot organogenesis of begonia (Begonia rex Putz.) induced by thidiazuron

    OpenAIRE

    Jelaska, Sibila; Bauer, Nataša; Kosor, Ela; Leljak, Dunja

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot bud formation from leaf and petiole explants excised from in-vitro-grown plantlets of a begonia were tested by a two-step procedure: a short exposure (5 to 120 min) to 40 pM TDZ in liquid MS medium followed by culture on agar-solidified MS medium without growth regulators. Exposure of explains for five min to TDZ induced bud formation, but the number of buds was increased with prolonged exposure. Sixty min exposure to TDZ resulted in the ...

  19. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  20. Effects of LEDs on chlorophyll fluorescence and secondary metabolites in Phalaenopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, T.; Fretté, X.; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are solid-state semiconductor devices that have been integrated in current greenhouse systems the last decades as they provide the opportunity to control light spectrum. Commercial production of potted orchids under LEDs has increased throughout the world the past...... decades with Phalaenopsis being one of the most valuable potted crops. The experiment took place from January to April 2013 using plantlets of Phalaenopsis 'Vivien' and 'Purple star'. Plants were grown under a purpose-built LED array from Philips yielding approximately 200 μmol/m2s at plant height for 16...

  1. [Initial growth processes in seeds in magnetic fields, strengthened or weakened in relation to the geomagnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'kov, E K; Rodionov, Iu A

    2010-01-01

    The effects of modifications of magnetic fields, simulating anomalies of natural magnetism of the Earth, were studied in the seeds of peas and winter wheat. It has been shown that strengthening or weakening of the geomagnetic field inhibits water absorption and initial growth processes. The influence of magnetic fields on the orientation of rootlets and development of plantlets is determined. The connection between the magnetic susceptibility of seeds and content of heavy metals in them is established, which obviously concerns the magnetic susceptibility and magnetotropism in plants.

  2. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method.

  3. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    of Mal d 1 mRNA were produced by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Ten genetically modified (GM) apple lines were selected. In vitro plantlets were first transferred to a greenhouse, then grafted onto wild-type M.9 rootstock to promote the development of fruit-producing trees. Levels of Mal d 7 gene......Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  4. A Modified Method for Minituber Production in Aeroponics%马铃薯脱毒原原种雾培生产栽培法探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华超; 邹曾硕; 严欣; 刘国凤; 田敏

    2012-01-01

    采用试管苗在蛭石(基质)中假植8周后剪尖苗上雾培与试管苗直接上雾培2种不同的栽培方法,对马铃薯脱毒苗的根、茎、叶生长情况及后期产量,定期进行观察、记录。结果表明:试管苗直接上雾培的叶、株高生长势方面和剪尖苗上雾培相比无明显差异;但试管苗直接上雾培比剪尖苗上雾培提前4~5 d生根,提早7~8 d左右产生匍匐茎,结薯数量较剪尖苗高27.17%,产量相对较高。试验的成功减少了原雾培生产中一个生产环节(假植),降低了生产成本。在一定程度上完善了雾培(无基质)栽培技术,可推进雾培工厂化生产的普及。%Performances in root volume,plant height,leaf number,and tuber yield were compared in aeroponics system using two different initiation materials.One method used in vitro plantlets as the initiation materials,while the other used the transplants of in vitro plantlets grown in vermiculite for eight weeks.No obvious differences were found for leaf number and plant height between these two methods,however 4-5 days and 7-8 days were advanced for root initiation and stolon initiation,respectively,in plants derived from in vitro plantlets compared with transplants.More importanly,tube number per plant was also increased by 27.17%.These results indicated that transplantation could be omitted from aeroponics system,and in this way the production coat could be reduced accordingly.Therefore,using in vitro plantlets as initiation material in aroponics should be recommended for minituber production.

  5. Direct somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y; Tabata, M

    1986-08-01

    Protoplasts prepared from an embryogenic cell suspension culture of fennel gave rise to somatic embryoids directly through unequal cell divisions of enlarged, ellipsoidal cells, when embedded in hormone-free LS agarose medium. On the other hand, protoplasts embedded in LS agarose medium containing 2,4-D and kinetin proliferated through unpolarized cell divisions to form calli, which gave somatic embryoids on the surface upon transfer onto the same medium. In either case, somatic embryoids germinated to develop into normal plantlets when cultured on hormone-free LS agar medium under illumination.

  6. High Frequency Production of Doubled Haploid Rapeseed Plants by Direct Colchicine Treatment of Isolated Microspores%油菜小孢子秋水仙素直接处理增加纯合两倍体植株频率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟军; Per,H

    2000-01-01

    @@ Techniques for microspore culture of Brassica napus have been improved rapidly, and embryogenesis has been achieved in a wide range of genotypes. Plants regenerated from microspore-derived embryoids can be haploid, diploid or polyploid. From rapeseed microspore culture it is reported that 70%-90% of regenerated plants are haploid. The usual methods of chromosome doubling involve soaking roots (most common) or whole plants in a colchicine solution, or culturing plantlets in colchicine-containing medium in the greenhouse. Other alternatives are injecting colchicine into the secondary buds or applying colchicine-soaked cotton plugs to axillary buds.

  7. Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J R; Cantliffe, D J

    1984-06-01

    Leaf, shoot-tip, stem, and root explants of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.) gave rise to two kinds of callus on nutrient agar medium containing 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. One callus, bright- to pale-yellow, was compact and organized, while the other was dull-yellow and friable. The former callus gave rise to numerous globular and heart-shaped embryoids. When transferred onto hormone-free medium, the embryoids readily developed into a torpedo-shape before germination. The plantlets were transplanted to soil where they flowered and formed storage roots at maturity.

  9. Stimulation of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from anther culture of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cl Mauro, M; Nef, C; Fallot, J

    1986-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and subsequent diploid plants have been obtained from anthers of Vitis vinifera Cabernet-Sauvignon, a cultivar so far considered as recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration. Anthers enclosing microspores near the first pollen mitosis were found to be the most responsive. However, from a practical point of view anther length proved to be an easier criterium for determining the optimal physiological anther stage. Calli derived from the anther somatic tissues produced embryoids only when cultured on a medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate. Glutamine and adenine were found to stimulate this embryoid production. Evidence is presented that early removal of cotyledons increases the frequency of normal development of embryoids into plantlets.

  10. Identification of a homolog of Arabidopsis DSP4 (SEX4) in chestnut: its induction and accumulation in stem amyloplasts during winter or in response to the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Ibañez, Cristian; Acebo, Paloma; Ramos, Alberto; Perez-Solis, Estefania; Collada, Carmen; Casado, Rosa; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Allona, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Oligosaccharide synthesis is an important cryoprotection strategy used by woody plants during winter dormancy. At the onset of autumn, starch stored in the stem and buds is broken down in response to the shorter days and lower temperatures resulting in the buildup of oligosaccharides. Given that the enzyme DSP4 is necessary for diurnal starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves, this study was designed to address the role of DSP4 in this seasonal process in Castanea sativa Mill. The expression pattern of the CsDSP4 gene in cells of the chestnut stem was found to parallel starch catabolism. In this organ, DSP4 protein levels started to rise at the start of autumn and elevated levels persisted until the onset of spring. In addition, exposure of chestnut plantlets to 4 °C induced the expression of the CsDSP4 gene. In dormant trees or cold-stressed plantlets, the CsDSP4 protein was immunolocalized both in the amyloplast stroma and nucleus of stem cells, whereas in the conditions of vegetative growth, immunofluorescence was only detected in the nucleus. The studies indicate a potential role for DSP4 in starch degradation and cold acclimation following low temperature exposure during activity-dormancy transition.

  11. Efficient Genome Editing in Apple Using a CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Chikako; Hirai, Narumi; Komori, Sadao; Wada, Masato; Okada, Kazuma; Osakabe, Keishi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Osakabe, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is a powerful technique for genome modification in molecular research and crop breeding, and has the great advantage of imparting novel desired traits to genetic resources. However, the genome editing of fruit tree plantlets remains to be established. In this study, we describe induction of a targeted gene mutation in the endogenous apple phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Four guide RNAs (gRNAs) were designed and stably transformed with Cas9 separately in apple. Clear and partial albino phenotypes were observed in 31.8% of regenerated plantlets for one gRNA, and bi-allelic mutations in apple PDS were confirmed by DNA sequencing. In addition, an 18-bp gRNA also induced a targeted mutation. These CRIPSR/Cas9 induced-mutations in the apple genome suggest activation of the NHEJ pathway, but with some involvement also of the HR pathway. Our results demonstrate that genome editing can be practically applied to modify the apple genome. PMID:27530958

  12. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  13. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits.

  14. Isolation of retro-transcribed RNA from in vitro Mycosphaerella fijiensis-infected banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, C M; Peraza-Echeverría, L; Islas-Flores, I R; Canto-Canché, B B; Grijalva-Arango, R

    2010-07-27

    High polyphenol and polysaccharide levels in plant tissues such as banana fruit and leaves constitute a significant challenge to the extraction of sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA required for cDNA library synthesis and molecular analysis. To determine their comparative effectiveness at eliminating polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins, three protocols for RNA extraction from in vitro banana plantlet leaves were tested: Concert(TM) Plant RNA isolation kit, a small-scale protocol based on Valderrama-Cháirez, and a modified version of the Valderrama-Cháirez protocol. RNA quantity and purity were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry using DEPC-treated water and Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Purity was greater using Tris-HCl. The Concert(TM) Plant protocol produced the poorest quality RNA. Reverse transcription into cDNAs from RNA isolated from in vitro banana plantlet leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis using the modified Valderrama-Cháirez protocol, followed by PCR using primers designed against gamma-actin from banana and M. fijiensis, yielded products of the anticipated size. In addition, this protocol reduced the processing time, lowered costs, used less expensive equipment, and could be used for other plants that have the same problems with high polyphenol and polysaccharide levels.

  15. In vitro Selection for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Gladiolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idrees Ahmad Nasir; Sheikh Riazuddin

    2008-01-01

    Cormels pieces of four Fusarium susceptible Gladiolus cultivara (Friendship, Peter Pears, Victor Borge and Novalux) formed friable calli when cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. The friable calli established cell suspensions. Plantlet regeneration was obtained from the control callus, control cell suspension derived callus and in vitro selected Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. resistant cell-lines of Friendship. The in vitro cormlets showed 85-95% germination after breaking dormancy of 8weeks at 4℃. Cell suspensions of all four Gladiolus cultivara were found to be highly sensitive to fusaric acid. Gradual Increase in fusaric acid concentrations to the cell-suspension cultures decreased cell growth considerably. One albino plant was found from the second generation of the In vitro selected cell line of Friendship. The albino plant was found to be highly susceptible to F. oxysporum. The cormlets of all in vitro selected call lines of Friendship were inoculated with a conidial suspension of the F. oxysporum before planting and were also sprayed with the same spore suspension for further characterization when the height of plants was about 6cm. The four selected cell lines showed the same response whether or not they were Inoculated with conidia of the F. oxysporum. Plantlets of all of the selected call lines exhibited significant growth as compared with the control after application of conidia of the F.oxysporum.

  16. In vitro micropropagation of Sasa argenteastriatus%铺地竹试管快速繁殖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有珍; 刘倩倩; 何冬冬; 樊琳; 宋李玲; 林新春

    2012-01-01

    以铺地竹Sasa argenteastriatus侧芽为材料,研究其试管繁殖技术.结果表明:铺地竹最佳增殖培养基为MS(Murashige and Skoog)+3.0 mg· L-1BA (6-苄基腺嘌呤),增殖系数为5.26;最佳生根培养基为MS+5.0 mg· L-1IBA(吲哚丁酸);试管苗移栽到泥炭、蛭石、珍珠岩体积配制比例为1∶1∶1的基质中,成活效果高达95%.%An efficient and reproducible protocol for large-scale micropropagation of Sasa argenteastriatus was developed with lateral buds as explants. A multiplication rate of 5.26 fold was obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 3.0 mg·L-1 benzyladenine (BA). MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg·l-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was most suitable for plantlet rooting. Rooted plantlets were hardened, acclimatized and transferred to artificial mixture (peat:vermiculite : perlite = 1:1:1) with over 95% survival.

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis of Lilium from Microbulb Transverse Thin Cell Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A reliable somatic embryogenesis protocol is a prerequisite for application of other plant biotechniques. Several protocols were reported for genus Lilium, with variable success. Between them, transverse Thin Cell Layers (tTCL) were used efficiently to induce indirect somatic embryogenesis of Lilium. Somatic embryogenesis potential is dependent on the genotype, explant, and culture medium composition, especially as for plant growth regulators and environmental conditions. Usually, the process comprises three phases: embryogenic callus induction, embryogenic callus proliferation and somatic embryo germination. Somatic embryo germination can be achieved in light or dark. In the first case, complete plantlets are formed, with green leaves and pseudobulb in the base. In darkness, microbulbs are formed from single somatic embryos or clusters. A last phase of microbulb enlargement allows plantlets or microbulbs to increase their biomass. These enlarged microbulbs do not need special acclimatization conditions when transferred to soil and quickly produce sturdy plants. This chapter describes a protocol for somatic embryogenesis of Lilium using tTCL from microbulbs.

  18. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed.

  19. Regeneration of Dioscorea floribunda plants from cryopreserved encapsulated shoot tips: effect of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, B B; Ahuja-Ghosh, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    The encapsulation-dehydration protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro shoot tips of Dioscorea floribunda was optimized. Maximum survival of 87% was obtained when overnight pretreatment with 0.3 M sucrose was followed by encapsulation, preculture in 0.75 M sucrose for 4 d, dehydration in a laminar air flow for 5.5 h, quenching in liquid nitrogen and thawing at 40 degrees C. During recovery growth, 29% shoot formation was obtained when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 25 d on a medium with 1.5 mg per liter (-1) BAP, 0.2 mg per liter(-1) NAA and 0.2 mg per liter(-1) GA3 followed by culturing for 15 d on a medium with reduced BAP (1 mg per liter(-1)) but increased NAA (0.5 mg per liter(-1)) and GA3 (0.3 mg per liter(-1)). Finally, transfer on to a medium with further reduced doses of BAP (0.05 mg per liter(-1)) and NAA (0.15 mg per liter(-1)) but without GA3 stimulated production of fully grown plantlets. All plants regenerated without callus formation. Modification of post-thaw culture media with plant growth regulators was essential for regrowth of shoot tips to plantlets.

  20. A Novel In Vitro Protocol for Inducing Direct Somatic Embryogenesis in Phalaenopsis aphrodite without Taking Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hua Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative in vitro protocol for embryo induction directly from intact living seedlings of Phalaenopsis aphrodite subspecies formosana was established in this study. Without the supplementation of plant growth regulators (PGRs, no embryos were obtained from all the seedlings when cultured on the solid medium. In contrast, embryos formed from the seedlings on the 2-layer medium and the 2-step culture system without the use of PGRs. It was found that the age of the seedlings affected embryo induction. The 2-month-old seedlings typically had higher embryogenic responses when compared with the 4-month-old seedlings in the 2-layer medium or 2-step system. For the 2-month-old seedlings, 1 mg/L TDZ resulted in the highest number of embryos at the distal site of the shoot. However, on the leaves’ surface, 0.5 mg/L TDZ induced the highest number of embryos. When the 2-month-old seedlings were cultured using the 2-step method at 1 mg/L of TDZ, the highest embryogenic response was obtained, with an average of 44 embryos formed on each seedling. These adventitious embryos were able to convert into plantlets in a PGR-free 1/2 MS medium, and the plantlets had normal morphology and growth.